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Let‟s start by being literal

 Three words:
 Digital  Logic  Design

What does each of these words mean?

ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES  Analog quantities have continuous values  Digital quantities have a discrete set of values .


ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES  Types of electronic devices or instruments:  Analog  Digital .

.ANALOG AND DIGITAL QUANTITIES  Combination of analog and digital: Give 5 examples of digital and analog devices each from around you.

What is the engineering design process? Why is design important? One Two Three Four Five PROBLEM IDENTIFICTION GENERATING POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS SELECTING A SOLUTION CREATING A PROTOTYPE REFINING THE DESIGN .DESIGN  A Design is a creative plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system.

LOGIC AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA      What is Logic? What Boolean Algebra? What is Logic Design? What is Digital Design? What is Circuit Design Digital Logic Design? LOGIC BOOLEAN ALGEBRA or LOGIC DESIGN .

Goerge Boole (18151864).C).  Computer hardware works with binary numbers.LOGIC AND BOOLEAN ALGEBRA  English mathematician. Ancient Greek (2000B. Boolean Algebra (1850)] . but binary arithmetic is much more old than the computers. [Ancient Chinese (3000B. developed in 1854 by George Boole in his book „An Investigation of the Laws of Thought‟.C).  Boolean Algebra. Philosopher and Logician.

OR and NOT. called propositional logic.PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC  The ancient Greek philosophers created a system to formulize arguments.  A proposition is a statement that could be TRUE or FALSE. .  Propositions could be compounded by means of the operators AND.

 I will take an umbrella = it is raining OR the weather forecast is bad . for example:  I will take an umbrella if and only if it is raining OR the weather forecast is bad  The proposition “I will take an umbrella” is the result of the Boolean combination (OR) between raining and weather forecast being bad.PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS EXAMPLE  We can assign values to propositions.

Rain Bad Weather Forecast OR Take Umbrella .DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION  We can think of the umbrella proposition as a result that we calculate from the weather forecast and the fact that it is raining by means of a logical OR.

we can express all possible outcomes of the umbrella proposition by a table: .DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION  Since propositions can only take two values.

for example: (Take Umbrella ) = ( NOT (Take Car ) ) AND ( (Bad Forecast ) OR (Raining ) ) and as before represent this diagrammatically.MORE COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS  We can make our propositions more complex. .

MORE COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS Raining Bad Forecast OR AND Take Umbrella Car NOT .

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA  To perform calculations quickly and efficiently we can use an equivalent.  The system we will employ is called Boolean Algebra and satisfies the criteria above. .  We also need a to have a well-defined semantics for all the “operators”. but more succinct notation. or connectives that we intend to use.

FUNDAMENTALS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA  The truth values are replaced by 1 and 0:  1 = TRUE  0 = FALSE  Propositions are replaced by variables:  R = it is raining  W = The weather forecast is bad  Operators are replaced by symbols  ¬ or ' = NOT  ∨ or + = OR  ∧ or • = AND .

FUNDAMENTALS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA  Our previous complex proposition:  (Take Umbrella ) = ( NOT (Take Car ) ) AND ( (Bad Forecast ) OR (Raining ) )  Is formalized by the simpler equation:  U = (C')•(W+R) .

.LOGIC = BOOLEAN ALGEBRA  Boolean algebra (or Boolean logic) is a logical calculus of truth values. disjunction x∨y complement ¬x More on Boolean Algebra later on during the semester.  It resembles the algebra of real numbers as taught in high school. but with the numeric operations of  multiplication xy  addition x + y  negation −x conjunction x∧y.


𝑎4 𝑎3 𝑎2 𝑎1 𝑎0 . 𝑎−1 𝑎−2 .DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM  Any decimal number such as „2610‟ can be represented as: Two Thousands Plus Six Hundreds Plus One Tens Plus Zero Units Or. the power of „10‟ is deduced. 2 x 𝟏𝟎𝟑 + 6 x 𝟏𝟎𝟐 + 1 x 𝟏𝟎𝟏 + 0 x 𝟏𝟎𝟎  However the convention is to only write the coefficients and from their position.

6. 7. 4. 8. How many digits does the Binary number system use? What are they? TWO : 1 and 0 . 5. 3.DECIMAL AND BINARY NUMBER BASES How many digits does the conventional number system use? What are they? TEN: 0. 9 The decimal number system is known as „base 10‟ or „radix 10‟. 1. 2.

25 .01 1x𝟐𝟓 + 0x𝟐𝟒 + 1x𝟐𝟑 + 1x𝟐𝟐 + 0x𝟐𝟏 + 1x𝟐𝟎 .BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM  The binary number system uses only two digits: 1 and 0  It‟s a „base 2‟ or „radix 2‟ system. 0x𝟐−𝟏 + 1x𝟐−𝟐 = 45. What does this number stand for in decimal system : 101101.

F . C.2.3. D. A. 5.7 HEXADECIMAL(16) : 0. 2. 6.6. B. 7. 4.4.5. and what digits do Octal and Hexadecimal systems have? OCTAL(8) : 0. How many. while hexadecimal system is the base 16 system. 8. 9. 1.OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL SYSTEMS  Octal number system is the base 8 system. E.1. 3.

 One must take care not to use any digit other than the ones allowed for that particular base. addition and subtraction can be done the same way like for the decimal (base10) system. Perform the following operations .ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS  Arithmetic operations like multiplication. division.

NUMBER BASE CONVERSIONS  How to write: Decimal Octal Hexade -cimal  (100)10 Binary  (100)8  (100)2 .


COMPLEMENT OF A NUMBER  Complements are used in digital numbers to simplify the multiplication and subtraction process.  There are two types of complements for each base-r system:  (r-1)’s complement  r’s complement  For a number „N‟:  (r-1)’s complement = (𝒓𝒏 −𝟏) − 𝑵 = ((𝒓𝒏 −𝟏) − 𝑵) + 𝟏  r’s complement = 𝒓𝒏 − 𝑵 for N>0. 0 for N=0  Complement of the complement of a number. is the number itself! .

ANY QUESTIONS? Anyone willing to present?  Time allowed : 5 mins  Topic : Any  Bonus Points : +3 .

REFERENCES  Chapter no 1: Binary Systems  Digital Logic Design by Morris Mano  Chapter no 1: Digital Concepts  Digital Fundamentals by Floyd .