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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS UNIT-I INTRODUCTION: An Electric circuit is an interconnection of various elements in which there is at least one closed path in which current can flow. An Electric circuit is used as a component for any engineering system. The performance of any electrical device or machine is always studied by drawing its electrical equivalent circuit. By simulating an electric circuit, any type of system can be studied for e.g., mechanical, hydraulic thermal, nuclear, traffic flow, weather prediction etc. All control systems are studied by representing them in the form of electric circuits. The analysis, of any system can be learnt by mastering the techniques of circuit theory. The analysis of any system can be learnt by mastering the techniques of circuit theory. 1.1.1. Elements of an Electric circuit: An Electric circuit consists of two types of elements a) Active elements or sources b) Passive elements or sinks Active elements are the elements of a circuit which possess energy of their own and can impart it to other element of the circuit. Active elements are of two types a) Voltage source b) Current source

A Voltage source has a specified voltage across its terminals, independent of current flowing through it. A current source has a specified current through it independent of the voltage appearing across it. 1.2 Independent & Dependent sources

If the voltage of the voltage source is completely independent source of current and the current of the current source is completely independent of the voltage, then the sources are called as independent sources. The special kind of sources in which the source voltage or current depends on some other quantity in the circuit which may be either a voltage or a current anywhere in the circuit are called Dependent sources or Controlled sources. There are four possible dependent sources.

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a) b) c) d) Voltage Current Voltage Current dependent dependent dependent dependent Voltage source Current source Current source Current source

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The constants of proportionalities are written as B, g, a, r in which B & a has no units, r has units of ohm & g units of mhos. Independent sources actually exist as physical entities such as battery, a dc generator & an alternator. But dependent sources are used to represent electrical properties of electronic devices such as OPAMPS & Transistors. 1.3 Ideal & Practical sources

An ideal voltage source is one which delivers energy to the load at a constant terminal voltage, irrespective of the current drawn by the load. An ideal current source is one, which delivers energy with a constant current to the load, irrespective of the terminal voltage across the load. A Practical source always possesses a very small value of internal resistance r. The internal resistance of a voltage source is always connected in series with it & for a current source, it is always connected in parallel with it. As the value of the internal resistance of a practical voltage source is very small, its terminal voltage is assumed to be almost constant within a certain limit of current flowing through the load.

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ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

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A practical current source is also assumed to deliver a constant current, irrespective of the terminal voltage across the load connected to it.

Ideal and practical sources An ideal voltage source is one which delivers energy to the load at a constant terminal voltage, irrespective of the current drawn by the load. An ideal current source is one, which delivers energy with a constant current to the load, irrespective of the terminal voltage across the load. A practical source always possess a very small value of internal resistance `r` The internal resistance of a voltage source is always connected in series with it & for a current source, it is always connected in parallel with it.

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Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.com As the value of the internal resistance of a practical voltage source is very small. Ideal voltage source connected in series The equivalent single ideal voltage some is given by V= V1 + V2 Any number of ideal voltage sources connected in series can be represented by a single ideal voltage some taking in to account the polarities connected together in to consideration. A practical current source is also assumed to deliver a constant current. its terminal voltage is assumed to be almost constant within a certain limit of current flowing through the load. Practical voltage source connected in series Ideal voltage source connected in parallel 4 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . irrespective of the terminal voltage across the load connected to it.jntuworld.

com When two ideal voltage source of emf’s V1 & V2 are connected in parallel . However if V1 = V2= V. Practical voltage sources connected in parallel Equivalent Circuit Single Equivalent Voltage Source Ideal current sources connected in series 5 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . In that case also. such a connection is unnecessary as only one voltage source serves the purpose. then the equivalent voltage some is represented by V.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. what voltage appears across its terminals is ambiguous.jntuworld. Hence such connections should not be made.

jntuworld. it I1 = I2 = I.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. Practical current sources connected in series: Ideal current sources connected in parallel 6 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com When ideal current sources are connected in series. what current flows through the line is ambiguous. such a connection is not necessary as only one current source serves the purpose. But. Hence such a connection is not permissible. However. then the current in the line is I.

A current source or a voltage source drives current through its load resistance and the magnitude of the current depends on the value of the load resistance. Consider a practical voltage source and a practical current source connected to the same load resistance RL as shown in the figure 7 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .4 Source transformation. Practical current sources connected in parallel 1.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld.com Two ideal current sources in parallel can be replaced by a single equivalent ideal current source.

The terminal voltage VL and load current IL across their terminals are same.jntuworld. From fig (a) IL = IL = From fig (b) I = I VS = IR or I = 8 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . Hence the practical voltage source & practical current source shown in the dotted box of figure are equal.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. Two sources are said to be identical. with load connected to both the sources. The circuits in figure represents a practical voltage source & a practical current source respectively. when they produce identical terminal voltage VL and load current IL.com R1’s in figure represents the internal resistance of the voltage source VS and current source IS. The two equivalent sources should also provide the same open circuit voltage & short circuit current.

2 Bilateral and Unilateral Elements: An element is said to be bilateral.5. 1.. Linear elements show the linear characteristics of voltage & current. The passive elements are the resistance. Examples are the semiconductor devices such as diode. They receive energy from the sources. with its internal resistance R connected in parallel with it. the inductance and the capacitance. inductors and capacitors are the examples of the linear elements and their properties do not change with a change in the applied voltage and the circuit current. then the circuit element is a pure resistor.com Hence a voltage source Vs in series with its internal resistance R can be converted into a current source I = . Resistors. If the energy is stored in a magnetic field. the current passing through it does not change linearly with the linear change in the voltage across it. If the energy is consumed.5. And if the energy is stored in an electric field.5 Passive Elements: The passive elements of an electric circuit do not possess energy of their own.e. 1. the element is a pure inductor. the principle of homogeneity and additivity. Non linear element’s V-I characteristics do not follow the linear pattern i.jntuworld. For example. when the same relation exists between voltage and current for the current flowing in both directions. A linear element or network is one which satisfies the principle of superposition. the element is a pure capacitor. Similarly a current source I in parallel with its internal resistance R can be converted into a voltage source V = IR in series with its internal resistance R. 9 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . Current source. resistance.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. That is its voltagecurrent characteristics are at all-times a straight-line through the origin. it will respond in one and more of the following ways. transistor . i. the current passing through a resistor is proportional to the voltage applied through its and the relation is expressed as V I or V = IR. 1.e.1 Linear and Non-Linear Elements. Ex: Voltage source. When electrical energy is supplied to a circuit element. inductance & capacitance.

10 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . The unit of resistance is ohm and the unit of conductance is mho or Siemens. 1. Distributed elements are those which are not electrically separable for analytical purposes.5. v œi V=Ri i= = GV where the reciprocal of resistance is called conductance G.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS The circuits containing them are called bilateral circuits. Selenium Rectifiers etc. Typical lumped elements are capacitors. www.3.com An element is said to be unilateral.jntuworld. Ohm’s law states that the voltage drop across a conductor of given length and area of cross section is directly proportional to the current flowing through it. For example a transmission line has distributed parameters along its length and may extend for hundreds of miles. Ex: Vacuum diodes. 1. resistors. It is the proportionality factor in ohm’s law relating voltage and current . when the same relation does not exist between voltage and current when current flowing in both directions. Silicon Diodes. heat is generated by the collision of electrons with other atomic particles. The circuits containing them are called unilateral circuits. inductors. When current flows through any resistive material.6 Voltage Current Relationship for passive elements Resistance Resistance is that property of a circuit element which opposes the flow of electric current and in doing so converts electrical energy into heat energy. The power absorbed by the resistor is converted to heat and is given by the expression P= vi= i2R where i is the resistor in amps. and v is the voltage across the resistor in volts. The circuits containing them are called unilateral circuits. Lumped and Distributed Elements Lumped elements are those elements which are very small in size & in which simultaneous actions takes place.

com Resistance in series: Resistance in parallel: Inductance 11 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Energy lost in a resistance in time t is given by W =∫ t www.

2) For minute change in current within zero time (dt = 0) gives an infinite voltage across the inductor which is physically not at all feasible.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.com Inductance is the property of a material by virtue of which it opposes any change of magnitude and direction of electric current passing through conductor. Increase in current expands the field & decrease in current reduces it. Induced Voltage V = L V = Voltage across inductor in volts I = Current through inductor in amps di = v dt Integrating both sides. An inductor behaves as open circuit 12 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . That means an inductor acts as short circuit to dc. the current cannot change abruptly. A change in the magnitude of the current changes the electromagnetic field. A change in current produces change in the electromagnetic field. In an inductor. A wire of certain length. when twisted into a coil becomes a basic conductor. ∫ ∫ Power absorbed by the inductor Energy stored by the inductor P = Vi = Li W=∫ W =∫ dt = = Conclusions 1) V = L The induced voltage across an inductor is zero if the current through it is constant.jntuworld. This induces a voltage across the coil according to Faradays laws of Electromagnetic Induction.

However. it only stores it. even if the voltage across the inductor is zero. www. Hence it is also called as a non–dissipative passive element. 4) A pure inductor never dissipates energy. physical inductor dissipate power due to internal resistance. # The current in a 2H inductor raises at a rate of 2A/s .com 3) The inductor can store finite amount of energy.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS just after switching across dc voltage. V=L = 2X2 = 4V W = Li2 = X 2 X (4)2 = 16 J Inductance in series: V(t) = V1 (t) + V2 (t) 13 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.Find the voltage across the inductor & the energy stored in the magnetic field at after 2sec.

.com = (L1 + L2 ) Leq = L1 + L2 In `n` inductances are in series.+Ln Inductances in parallel i(t) = i1(t) + i2(t) = = ∫ ∫ ( )∫ ∫ ( ) In `n` Inductances are connected in parallel. then the equivalent inductance Leq = L1 + L2 + ………. then Capacitance parameter 14 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS = L1 + L2 = Leq www.

com A capacitor consists of two metallic surfaces or conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric medium. The current flowing in the circuit is rate of flow of charge i= =C The capacitance of a capacitor depends on the dielectric medium & the physical dimensions. Charge on the capacitor q V q = CV Where `C` is the capacitance in farads. if q is charge in coulombs and V is the potential difference across the capacitor in volts. Capacitance is the proportionality constant relating the charge on the conducting plates to the potential. Capacitance is its capacity to store electrical energy.jntuworld. the capacitance C= A is the surface area of plates € is the absolute permeability of medium = €0 €r D is the separation between plates €0 is the absolute permeability of free space €r is the relative permeability of medium i= = = C V= ∫ P = vi = vc 15 The power absorbed by the capacitor Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. For a parallel plate capacitor. It is a circuit element which is capable of storing electrical energy in its electric field.

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Energy stored in the capacitor W = www.com ∫ = ∫ dt Joules = C∫ = This energy is stored in the electric field set up by the voltage across capacitor. Let V be the applied voltage across the combination and C.jntuworld. the combined or equivalent capacitance.d across each is different. Capacitance in series: Let C1 C2 C3 be the three capacitances connected in series and let V 1 V2 V3 be the p.ds across the three capacitors. For a series circuit. V=V1+V2+V3 = = + + + + Capacitance in parallel: 16 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . charge on all capacitors is same but p.

plot voltage V(t) & power P(t) 17 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com Conclusions 1. The current in a capacitor is zero. In a fixed capacitor.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. that means the capacitor acts as an open circuit to dc 2.jntuworld. V-I Relation of circuit elements Circuit elements Resistor R (Ohms Ω) Voltage(V) V=RI Current(A) I= Power(W) P =i2R Inductor L (Henry H) V=L I= ∫ I= ∫ io P =Li v0 I =C P =C Capacitor C (Farad F) where v0 is the initial voltage across capacitor Problems: # The Current function shown below is a repeating square wave. 3. which is physically impossible. A small change in voltage across a capacitance within zero time gives an infinite current through the capacitor. With this current existing in a pure resistor of 10Ω. The capacitor can store a finite amount of energy. 4. even if the current through it is zero. if the voltage across it is constant. the voltage cannot change abruptly A capacitor behaves as short circuit just after switching across dc voltage. A pure capacitor never dissipates energy but only stores it hence it is called non-dissipative element.

jntuworld.com P = Vi = 50X5 = 250w # The current function for a pure resistor of 5 Ω is a repeating saw tooth as shown below. V(t) = R i(t) = 5 X 10 = 50 V 0‹t‹2ms V=5X5X103t =25X103 P=125X106t2 18 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . P(t). Find v(t).Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS V(t) = R i(t) = 10X5 = 50 www.

02H I(t) = ∫ ∫ dt ( Vardhaman Department of EEE – ) 19 College of Engineering .com P (watts) 10 V( Volts) # A pure inductance L = 0. & draw their wave forms V(t) = 150 sin 1000t L = 0.jntuworld. Determine the current i(t).Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.02H has an applied voltage V(t) = 150 sin 1000t volts.

20 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .5) = -562.com -7.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. connected in any manner. Circuit. A circuit is a closed conducting path through which an electric current either flows or is intended flow. 2.5 cos 1000t Amps =V(t) i(t) =(-150) (7.jntuworld. Network. A combination of various electric elements.5 sin 2000t UNIT – II Basic Terms used in a Circuit 1.

9. Active Network is one which contains one or more than one source of e. three loops and two meshes And the circuit of Fig (b) has four branches.Non-linear Circuit. These parameters may be lumped or distributed. Consider the circuit of Fig. Parameters.com 3. 6. 4. in it. Node 11. I t is a junction in a circuit where two or more circuit elements are connected together. six nodes. It is that circuit whose properties or characteristics change with the direction of its operation. It is that circuit whose parameters change with voltage or current.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. six loops and three meshes. It is a close path in a circuit in which no element or node is encountered more than once. It is a loop that contains no other loop within it. they do not change with voltage or current. 7. inductance and capacitance. 13. two nodes. (a). Bilateral Circuit. Unilateral Circuit. It is that part of a network which lies between two junctions. Linear Circuit.m. Passive Network is one which contains no source of e.m. A bilateral circuit is one whose properties or characteristics are the same in either direction.f. because it cannot perform rectification in both directions.jntuworld. Kirchhoff`s Laws 21 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . 8. Mesh. The usual transmission line is bilateral. Branch 12. A linear circuit is one whose parameters are constant i. A diode rectifier is a unilateral circuit.e. The various elements of an electric circuit are called its parameters like resistance. Loop. It has even branches.f. 5. because it can be made to perform its function equally well in either direction. 10.

I1+(-I2)+(I3)+(+I4)+(-I5) = 0 I1+I4-I2-I3-I5 = 0 Or I1+I4 = I2+I3+I5 Or Incoming currents =Outgoing currents 22 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . the algebraic sum of the currents meeting at a point (or junction) is Zero. are particularly useful in determining the equivalent resistance of a complicated network of conductors and for calculating the currents flowing in the various conductors. Kirchhoff`s Point Law or Current Law (KCL) In any electrical network. Consider the case of a network shown in Fig (a). two in number. Kirchhoff`s laws.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.com Kirchhoff’s laws are more comprehensive than Ohm's law and are used for solving electrical networks which may not be readily solved by the latter.jntuworld. I. That is the total current entering a junction is equal to the total current leaving that junction.

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II Kirchhoff's Mesh Law or Voltage Law (KVL) In any electrical network, the algebraic sum of the products of currents and resistances in each of the conductors in any closed path (or mesh) in a network plus the algebraic sum of the e.m.f.’s. in that path is zero. That is, ∑IR + ∑e.m.f = 0 round a mesh It should be noted that algebraic sum is the sum which takes into account the polarities of the voltage drops. That is, if we start from a particular junction and go round the mesh till we come back to the starting point, then we must be at the same potential with which we started. Hence, it means that all the sources of emf met on the way must necessarily be equal to the voltage drops in the resistances, every voltage being given its proper sign, plus or minus. Determination of Voltage Sign In applying Kirchhoff's laws to specific problems, particular attention should be paid to the algebraic signs of voltage drops and e.m.fs. (a) Sign of Battery E.M.F. A rise in voltage should be given a + ve sign and a fall in voltage a -ve sign. That is, if we go from the -ve terminal of a battery to its +ve terminal there is a rise in potential, hence this voltage should be given a + ve sign. And on the other hand, we go from +ve terminal to -ve terminal, then there is a fall in potential, hence this voltage should be preceded by a -ve sign. The sign of the battery e.m.f is independent of the direction

of the current through that branch.

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(b) Sign of IR Drop

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Now, take the case of a resistor (Fig. 2.4). If we go through a resistor in the same direction as the current, then there is a fall in potential because current flows from a higher to a lower potential.. Hence, this voltage fall should be taken -ve. However, if we go in a direction opposite to that of the current, then there is a rise in voltage. Hence, this voltage rise should be given a positive sign.

Consider the closed path ABCDA in Fig .

As we travel around the mesh in the clockwise direction, different voltage drops will have the following signs : I1R1 is - ve I2R2 is - ve I3R3 is + ve I4R4 is - ve E2 is - ve E1 is + ve (fall in potential) (fall in potential) (rise in potential) (fall in potential) (fall in potential) (rise in potential)

Using Kirchhoff's voltage law, we get -I1R1 – I2R2 – I3R3 – I4 R4 – E2 + E1 = 0 Or I1R1 + I2R2 – I3R3 + I4R4 = E1 –E2

Assumed Direction of Current: In applying Kirchhoff's laws to electrical networks, the direction of current flow may be assumed either clockwise or anticlockwise. If the assumed direction of current is not the actual direction, then on solving the question, the current will be found to have a minus sign.

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If the answer is positive, then assumed direction is the same as actual direction. However, the important point is that once a particular direction has been assumed, the same should be used throughout the solution of the question. Kirchhoff's laws are applicable both to d.c. and a.c. voltages and currents. However, in the case of alternating currents and voltages, any e.m.f. of self-inductance or that existing across a capacitor should be also taken into account.

Resistance in series: If three conductors having resistances R1, R2 and R3 are joined end on end as shown in fig below, then they are said to be connected in series. It can be proved that the equivalent resistance between points A & D is equal to the sum of the three individual resistances.

For a series circuit, the current is same through all the three conductors but voltage drop across each is different due to its different values of resistances and is given by ohm`s Law and the sum of the three voltage drops is equal to the voltage supplied across the three conductors. V= V1+V2+V3 = IR1+IR2+IR3 But V= IR

where R is the equivalent resistance of the series combination. IR = IR1+IR2+IR3 or R = R1 + R2+ R3 The main characteristics of a series circuit are

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5. a 24. www. 4. Applied voltage equals the sum of different voltage drops.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS 1. Resistances are additive. 6. Determine the voltage drops across each resistor? Total resistance R = R 1 + R2 + R3= 12 Ω According to Voltage Divider Rule. voltages divide in the ratio of their resistances and hence the various voltage drops are \ Resistances in Parallel: 26 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . Voltage drops are additive.com Same current flows through all parts of the circuit. Different resistors have their individual voltage drops. same current flows through each of the given resistors and the voltage drop varies directly with its resistance. Powers are additive Voltage Divider Rule In a series circuit.V battery is connected across a series combination of three resistors of 4Ω each. 3.jntuworld. 2. Consider a circuit in which.

Branch currents are additive.jntuworld. 2. I = I1+I2 +I3 = I= where V is the applied voltage. R = equivalent resistance of the parallel combination . G = GI + G2+ G3 The main characteristics of a parallel circuit are: 1. In this case (I) (ii) (iii) Potential difference across all resistances is the same Current in each resistor is different and is given by Ohm's Law And The total current is the sum of the three separate currents. 3. 5. as joined in Fig are said to be connected in parallel. Powers are additive 27 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. Same voltage acts across all parts of the circuit Different resistors have their individual current. Conductances are additive.com Three resistances. 4.

is I1 = .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Division of Current in Parallel Circuits www. lR = I1R 28 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . The current in each branch. given by Ohm's law.com Two resistances are joined in parallel across a voltage V.jntuworld. Then V = Ir Also V = I1R. The branch currents are also expressed in terms of the total circuit current or and This Current Divider Rule has direct application in solving electric circuits by Norton's theorem Take the case of three resistors in parallel connected across a voltage V Total current is I=I1+I2+i3 Let the equivalent resistance be R. the division of current in the branches of a parallel circuit is directly proportional to the conductance of the branches or inversely proportional to their resistances. and I2= = As = Hence.

C.Delta (Y.jntuworld. I1 = I[ ] ] ] I2= I[ I3 = I[ Star .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Or = www. Rc connected in star to three nodes A.B.C and a common point N & figure b shows three resistances connected in delta between the same three nodes A. Rb. (i) above. Figure a shows three resistances Ra.B. parallel and series – parallel combination of elements do not always lead to simplification of networks.∆ ) transformation The methods of series. If these two networks are to be equivalent then the resistance between any pair of 29 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com R= From …. Such networks are handled by Star Delta transformation.

Star resistances in terms of delta Equating resistance between node pair AB Ra + Rb = Rab // (Rbc + Rca ) = Similarly for node pair BC _ (1) Rb + Rc = Rbc // (Rca + Rab ) = For Node pair CA Rc + Ra = Rca // (Rab + Rbc ) = _ (2) _ (3) Subtracting 2 from 3 gives Ra – Rb = Adding 1 and 4 gives Ra = _ (4) _ (5) Similarly Rb = _ _ (6) Rc = (7) Thus the equivalent star resistance connected to a node is equal to the product of the two delta resistances connected to the same node decided by the sum of delta resistances.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld.com nodes of the delta connected network of a) must be the same as that between the same pair of nodes of the star – connected network of fig b). 30 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.com Delta resistances in terms of star resistances: Dividing (5) by (6) gives = Dividing (5) by (6) gives = Substituting for Rab & Rca in equation (5) simplifying gives Ra = ( Ra = ( ) ) ( ) = ( ) Rbc = = R b + Rc Similarly + 31 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.

If the circuits are complex.com Rc + Ra + Rab = Ra + Rb + Thus the equivalent Delta resistance between two nodes is the sum of two star resistances connected to those nodes plus the product of the same two star resistances divided by the third star resistance. R1 = RA = R1 + R2 + R B = R 1 + R3 + R2 = R1 = RC = R2 + R 3 + If all are similar equal to R R1 = MESH CURRENT AND NODE VOLTAGE ANALYSIS The simple series & parallel circuits can be solved by using ohm`s law & Kirchhoff’s law.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Rca = www. There are also other effective solving complex electric circuits. conducting several sources & a large number of elements. they may be simplified using star-delta transformation. 32 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.

If `b` is the number of branches & j is the number of junctions in a given network. The above circuit consists two batteries E1. Here. 33 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . Let the mesh currents for three meshes be I1.& I3 Mesh-1 --.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.E1 – I1R1 – R4(I1 – I2) = 0 I1[R1 + R4] – I2R4 – E1--------2 Mesh-2---. I2.E2 connected with five resistors.com Mesh current or loop current analysis & node voltage analysis are the two very effective methods of solving complex electric circuits. then the total number of independent equations to be solved reduces from `b` by Kirchhoff`s law b-(j-1) for loop current method. We have various network theorems which are also effective alternate methods to solve complex electrical circuits 1) Mesh current or loop current analysis 2) Node voltage analysis Mesh current analysis: This method which is particularly applied to complete networks employs a system of loop or mesh currents instead of branch currents as in Kirchhoff`s law. 1) Determine the current supplied by each battery in the circuit shown.jntuworld.-I2R2 – R5[I2-I3] – R4[I2 – I1] = 0 I1R4 – I2(R2+R4+R5) + I3R5 = 0---2 Mesh-3 --I3R3 – E2 – R5[I3 – I2] = 0 I2R5-I3[R3 + R5] – E2 = 0-----3 The above three equations can be solved to find the not only three mesh currents but branch currents as well. the currents in different meshes are assigned another paths so that they do not split at a junction in to branch currents.

82 Since I3 negative.3 24I1 – 9I2 = 45 ---1+3 ---2+8 24I2 – 72I2 + 16I3 – 120 ___________________________________ 63I2 – 16I3 =165 ------4 ___________________________________ 32I2 – 160I3 = 35+16 ------3+16 630I2 – 160I3 = 1650 -------4X10 _____________________________ -598I2 = -10990 _____________________________ I3 = .558 I2 = 1.135 I1 = 2.3.com Mesh-1--- 20 – 5I1 – 3(I1-I2) – 5 = 0 8I1 – 3I2 =15 ---1 Mesh-2 --- -4I2 + 5 – 2(I2 – I3) +5 – 3 (I2-I1) = 0 3I1 – 9I2 + 2I3 = -15 ----2 Mesh-3 --- -8I3 – 30 – 5 – 2(I3-I2) = 0 2I2 – 10 I3 = 35 --.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the actual directions of flow of loop currents are as shon in figure.jntuworld. 34 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .

Consider a general electrical circuit shown below where E1.jntuworld.f’s of the sources. 35 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . as the voltage of the third node is assumed to be at zero potential. For the application of this method. then number of simultaneous equations to be solved because (n-1) where `n` is the number of independent nodes.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.com Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Discharge Current Current Current Current Current of of of of of B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 = = = = = 765/299 A I1-I2 = 220/299 I2-I3 = 2965/598 A I2 = 545/299 A 1875/598 NODE VOLTAGE ANALYSIS A node is a point in a network.m. every junction in the network where three or more branches meet is regarded a mode. The number of equations to be solved by this methods is one less than the number of equations required in mesh current analysis. Hence. two equations have to be solved. E2 are the e. Node voltage analysis is one of the most effective methods of solving an electrical network. when two or more elements meet. A three node networks ill here two unknown voltages & hence. One of these modes is regarded as the reference node or datum node or zero – potential node.

e. if it = Mutual conductance between node 1 and node 2 which is always is flowing towards the negative.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld. say 3 is taken as reference node & is assumed to be zero potential.2&3. I1 = = Sum of all source currents to node 1. + + _ ( ) Equation 1 & 2 and written as G11V1+G12V2 = I1 G21V1+G12V2 = I2 Where G11 = sum of all the conductance connected to node 1 which is always positive G12 = negative. Currents in the various branches are assumed arbitrarily in any direction. Applying KCL to nodes 1&2. there are three nodes 1. The source current is positive. I1 = I2+I3 = + ( ) At node ---2. we get At node 1. 1&2 are assigned with node voltages V1 & V2 respectively.com In this circuit. The other two nodes i. One of these modes. If it is flowing away from the node 36 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .

5) Once the node voltages are known. 3) The node voltage equations are written using the general node equations. 4) The node voltage equations are solved. the current in all the branches of the network can be found. Procedure for solving an electrical circuit using node voltage analysis: 1) All the nodes of the network are identified one of them is taken as reference node at zero potential usually node to which maximum number of branches are connected is taken as reference node. = sum of all the conductance connected to node 2.. 2) The remaining nodes are assigned with node voltages V1.jntuworld. # Consider the circuit shown below and write down the node voltage equations.V2. I2 = = sum of all source current to node 2 www.com = mutual conductance between node 2 and node 1.V3 …. It is always negative.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS G21 = G22 = It is always positive. 37 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . etc..

The general equations are G11V1+G12 V2 = I1 G21V1 =G12 V2 = I2 G11 = ( )Mho = self conductance at node 1 G22 = ( )mho G12 = -(1/3) G21 = -(1/3) sum of mutual conductances between 1 & 2 & 2 & 1 I1= Source current at node 1=10/1=10A 38 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com ( * * ) + + # Write the Node equation by inspection method for the network shown below.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Network node www.jntuworld.

9 Volts 39 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com I2= Source current at node 2=2/5 +5/6=1.23 Node equations are 1.7v2=1.85 Volts V2= 10.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld.83v1 -0.33v1+0.23 # Write the node voltage equations and determine the currents in each branch for the network shown By xxxxxx V1 ( ) ( )=5 ) -V1( )+V2( Solving V1 & V2 we get V1 = 19.33v2=10 -0.

Hence for equilibrium 40 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . the applied voltage has to supply Ohmic voltage drop only. Obviously. If a single coil is rotated in a uniform magnetic field. In ac circuits.currents.jntuworld. Through pure Ohmic resistance Alone: The circuit is shown in Fig Let the applied voltage be given by the equation.C.com – UNIT-III single phase AC circuits: In dc circuits. A. voltage applied & current flowing are constant w. the currents Ф thus induces are called 1 . V = Vm = Let R = Ohmic resistance.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS I 10Ω = I 5Ω = I3 Ω = I1 Ω = – www.r. I = instantaneous current.t time & to the solution to pure dc circuits can be analyzed simply by applying ohm`s law. voltage applied & current flowing change from instant to instant.

we get Current `i` is maximum when sin is unity www. 41 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . I = Im sin Comparing (i) And (ii). in a purely resistive circuit. Instantaneous power. we find that the alternating voltage and current are in phase with each other as shown in fig. √ =X √ It is seen from the fig that no part of the power cycle becomes negative at any time. This is so because the instantaneous values of voltage and current are always either both positive and negative and hence the product is always positive. Putting the value of V from above. In other words. It is also shown vectorially by vectors VR and I in fig Power. P = Vi = and a fluctuating part is zero of frequency double that of voltage Power consists of a constant part and current waves. power is never zero. power for the whole cycle is P= P = VI Watss Where V = rms value of applied voltage . I = rms value of the current.jntuworld. equation (ii) becomes.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS V = iR. For a complete cycle the average of Hence.com Im = Vm/R Hence.

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. Only. is produced due to the selfinductance of the coil.f.m.m. As there is no Ohmic voltage drop.com A. the applied voltage has to overcome this self – induced e.jntuworld. a back e. Through Pure Inductance Alone: Whenever an alternating voltage is applied to a purely inductive coil. I = ∫ ( Max value of I is ) ( ) 42 ( ) = when Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . So at every step V= Now V= L Integrating both sides we get.C.f.

It is called the (inductive) reactance X L of the coil and is given in ohms if L is in Henry and is in radians/second. We have seen that Im = = Here plays the part of `resistance`. It is seen that XL depends directly on frequency of the voltage Higher the value of f. The maximum value of the instantaneous power is 43 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . Vectors are shown in fig.com Hence. where voltage has been taken along the reference axis. Now.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. greater the reactance offered and vice-versa. the current lags behind the applied voltage by a quarter cycle (fig) or the phase deference between the two is with voltage leading. Here again it is seen that power wave is a sine wave of frequency double that of the voltage and current waves. XL = . the equation of the current becomes I = ( ) Clearly. Power: Instantaneous power = Vi = Vm Im Power for whole cycle is P = ( ) sin 2 ∫ =0 It is also clear from fig that the average demand of power from the supply for a complex cycle is zero.jntuworld.

or phase difference between its voltage and current is with the current leading.d. Then q = cv = C Vm sin (where C is the capacitance) .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS A. q = Charge on plates at that instant.putting the value of v Now. developed between plates at any instant.C. The denominator Xc = 1/ is known as capacitive reactance and is in ohms if C is in farad and in radian/second. Vector representation is given in fig. then the current is given by I = Im sin ( ).. i= sin )= ( ( ) ) Obviously.jntuworld. Note that Vc is taken along the reference axis. current I is given by the rate of flow of charge. Hence we find that the current in a pure capacitor leads its voltage by a quarter cycle as shown in fig. Power Instantaneous power 44 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . V = p. the capacitor is charged first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. It is seen that if the applied voltage is given by V = V m sin .com When an alternating voltage is applied to the plates of a capacitor. When reference to fig. Through pure capacitance alone : www.

.C. 45 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . we find that in a purely capacitive circuit . The maximum value of the instantaneous power is A.jntuworld. Again. the average demand of power from supply is zero ( as in a purely inductive circuit). it is seen that power wave is a sine wave of frequency double that of the voltage and current waves.com P= vi sin . Through Resistance and inductance: A pure resistance R and a pure inductive coil of inductance L are shown connected in series in fig. Im sin = Vm Im sin Power for the whole cycle = ∫ =0 This fact is graphically illustrated in fig.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.

I cos Ф along the applied voltage V and I sin Ф in quadrature (i. OB V = √( ) √[ ] √ √ The quantity √ is known as the impedance (Z) of the circuit.) Z = i. In other words. I 46 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . The applied V is the vector sum of the two i.com Let V = r. current I lags behind the applied voltage V by an angle Hence. Vector OA represents Ohmic drop VR and AB represents inductive drop VL. if applied voltage is given by v = Vm sin ωt.XL – voltage drop across coil (ahead of I by 900) These voltage drops are shown in voltage triangle OAB in fig.s.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.m.e (impedance)2 = (resistance)2 + (Reactance)2 From fig. perpendicular) with V.e. As seen from the impedance 2 triangle ABC (fig. value of the applied Voltage. it is clear that the applied voltage V leads the current I by an angle Ф such that tanФ = = = . VL = I. I has been resolved in to its two mutually perpendicular components. then current equation is i = Im sin (ωt - where Im = Vm/Z In fig.jntuworld. I = r.s. The same fact is illustrated graphically in fig.e.m. value of the resultant current VR = IR – Voltage drop across R ( in phase with I).

Let us calculate power in terms of instantaneous values.s. Or Watts = VA cos Ф0 Or It should be noted that power consumed is due to Ohmic resistance only because pure inductance does not consume any power. voltage X r. Hence. It does not contribute to actual power since its average value over a complete cycle is zero.c. Instantaneous power is = vi = vm sin ωt X Im sin (ωt – Ф ) = Vm Im sin ωt sin (ωt – Ф ) [ ( – )] Obviously this consists of two parts A constant part of which contributes to real power ( – ) which has a frequency twice that of the voltage and A pulsating component current. the product of r. where V and I represent √ √ 47 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .s.com The mean power consumed by the circuit is given by the product of V and that component of the current I which is in phase with V So P = V X I cos Ф = r.m.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.s.m. amperes gives volt ampere (VA) and not true power in watts.jntuworld.m. Graphical representation of the power consumed is shown in fig. average power consumed rms values. circuit. Now P = VI cos Ф = VI X (R/Z) = V/Z X IR = I2R (∵ cos Ф = R/Z) or P = I2R watt. True power (W) = volt amperes (VA) power factor. current X cos Ф The term cos Ф is called the power factor of the circuit Remember that in an a.

. circuit gives voltamperes (VA).c.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Symbolic notation www. Power factor: it may be defined as i) ii) iii) Cosine of the angle of lead or lag The ratio R/Z = The ratio = Active and reactive components of circuit current I : active component is that which is in phase with the applied voltage V i.com Impedance vector has numerical value of Its phase angle with the reference axis is It may also be expressed in the polar form as i) Assuming It shows that current vector is lagging behind the voltage vector by The numerical value of current is ii) However.e I known as ‘wattful’ component. Out of this. It is also .jntuworld. Reactive component is that which quadrature is with ‘idle’ component. we find that it has two regular components : expressing the values (1) Active component which is obtained by multiplying KVA by and this gives power in KW. 48 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . it is also known as ‘watt less’ or It should be noted that the product of volts and amperes in an a. the actual power is and reactive power is in KVA. If we assume that It shows that voltage vector is a head of current vector is ccw direction as shown in fig.

(IZ).8. It is written as KVAR(kilovar).I = I2Z volt-amperes (VA) Active power (P or W): It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit resistance.m. The following relations can be easily deduced. As capacitive reactance Xc is taken negative. Vc is shown along negative direction if Y. here VR = IR = drop across R in phase with I.s value V is applied to it. Through Resistance and capacitance: This circuit is shown in fig. ii) iii) A.Z sin Ф = I . S = VI = (IZ). The three powers drawn by the circuit are as under: i) Apparent power(s): It is given by the product of rms values of applied Voltage and circuit current. suppose that current lags behind the applied voltage by Ф. from where it can be seen that S2 = P2 + Q2 or √ . where it should be noted that lagging KVAR has been taken as negative.com (2) The reactive component known as reactive KVA and is obtained by multiplying KVA by . REACTIVE AND APPARENT POWER Let a series circuit draw a current of when an alternating voltage of r. suppose a circuit draws a current of 1000A at a voltage of 20.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.13. These relationships can be easily understood by referring to the KVA triangle of fig. P = I2R = VI cos Ф watts Reactive power (Q) : It is t he power developed in the inductive reactance of the circuit.sin Ф = VI sin Ф volt-amp reactive (VAR) These three powers are shown in the power triangle of fig.000 V and has a power factor of 0. Then ACTIVE. For example. Q = I2XL = I2.C.axis in the voltage triangle 49 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .10.jntuworld.

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. (b) it is found that I leads V by angle such that Hence.C. From fig. Sollution.com The denominator is called the impedance of the circuit. it means that if the equation of the applied alternating voltage is v = V m sinωt.jntuworld. V = 50 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . This fact is shown graphically in fig Example: An A. Find (i) inpedance of the circuit (ii) power consumed and (iii) phase angle. the equation of the resultant current in the T-C circuit is I = Im sin (ωt + Ф ) so that current leads the applied voltage by an angle . voltage (80+j 600 volts is applied to a circuit and the current flowing is (-4+j 10 ) amperes. So Impedance triangle is shown in fig.

supply of r.s.jntuworld.com Hence (iii) Phase angle between voltage and current = 74. Inductance and Capacitance in series: The three are shown in fig.c. (a) Joined in series across an a. voltage V Let VR = IR = Voltage drop across R VL = I.90 with current leading as shown.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.Lagging I by VC = IXC = = Voltage drop across C 51 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .XL = Voltage drop across L ---.Leading I by ---. Resistance.m.in phase with I ---.

com Then the term is known as the impedance of the circuit. we have Numerical value of impedance Its phase is 52 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld. the current lags or leads the supply voltage by an angle Ф such that Using symbolic notation. (impedance)2 = (resistance)2 + (net reactance)2 Where X is the net reactance (fig0 Phase angel Ф is given by Power factor is net reactance /resistance Hence. The negative sign is to be used when current lags i.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.e when then equation of the In general.e. it is seen that if the equation of the applied voltage is resulting current in an R-L-C circuit is given by The positive sign is to be used when current lags i. Obviously.

there are two types of resonant circuits. The resonant condition in ac circuits may be achieved by varying the frequency of the supply. higher the selectivity or a circuit having a low value of bandwidth is said to be highly selective.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld. f1&f2. 1) Series resonant circuit 2) Parallel resonant circuit. The frequency response curve or the resonant curve is also known as the selectivity curve. The smaller the band width. The ratio or television receives is tuned to this resonant frequency to obtain signals from that particular station.are called as half power frequencies. . keeping the frequency constant. 53 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . because a resonant circuit is always adjusted to select a band of frequencies lying between f1&f2. keeping the network elements constant or by varying L or C.com UNIT-IV Resonance: Resonance is a phenomenon which occurs in ac circuits containing all the three elements R.L.C.

Conductance of R is C = Susceptance of L is Susceptance of C is Y = G +j(Bc-BL) For the circuit to be at resonance. Thus resonance will occur in a parallel circuit. When the power factor of the entire circuit becomes unity. Bc – BL = 0 B c = B L 54 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . Hence the imaginary port of Y is zero. power factor of the entire circuit being unity remains the same for parallel circuits also. Y should be a pure conductance.e.com The phenomenon of parallel resonance is of great practical importance because it form the basis of tuned circuits in electronics.jntuworld. Parallel resonance: The basic condition of resonance i.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.

YL = Admittance of capacitance Yc = Y = Y L + YC = 55 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . placed in parallel with a capacitance C & connected to an ac supply of voltage E of variable frequency f Admittance of coil ------.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld.com √ √ Practical resonant circuit: A practical parallel resonant circuit consists of an inductive coil of resistance R & inductance L.

com For the circuit to be at resonance. 56 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . then the expression becomes √ At resonance. `R` of inductive branch is neglected. Hence the imaginary part of the admittance must be zero.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the admittance of the circuit is purely conductive. At resonance √ If Resistance.jntuworld. the impedance of the circuit should be purely resistive of the admittance must be purely conductive.

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS But www. The resultant current is minimum under this condition & hence the current taken from the supply can be greatly magnified by means of parallel resonant circuit.com Current at resonance Quality factor: Total current is the phasor sum of branch currents Ic&Ic The circuit is at resonance when the reactive component of the current IL: = equals Ic IC = IL sin Thus the current in the inductive & capacitive branches may be many times greater than the resonant current under the condition of resonance & hence current magnification occurs.jntuworld. 57 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .

C series circuit: Inductive reactance Capacitive reactance Resultant Reactance = √ All the above parameters.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld. except the resistance are functions of frequency. Effect of frequency in R. 58 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com Hence the equation for quality factor of a series resonant circuit & a practical parallel resonant circuit are the same.L. Therefore a plot of frequency varying inductive reactance is a straight line and a plot of frequency versus capacitive reactance is a rectangular Hyperbola.

e.e. The figure below shows the effect of frequency variation on the current drawn by the circuit across the various parameters of circuit. The impedance curve has been plotted from the resistance line and resultant reactance curve. At all frequencies other than OA. i. if `R` is varied the current at resonance will charge but resonant frequency is independent of R.com Capacitive reactance has been shown in the forth quadrant because of its negative nature.m. It is obtained that the resultant reactance is negative for all frequencies below OA and positive for frequencies greater than OA. voltage across resistance will be also maximum and equals to applied voltage 59 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . At also other frequencies the impedance is higher than this value. impedance increases and therefore the current decreases. With all parameters being same.. since current is maximum at resonance.jntuworld. at frequency OA. The resultant reactance is zero at frequency OA hence the impedance of the circuit is minimum at the instant resultant reactance becomes zero. The curve of resultant reactance is obtained from the curves of X L and Xc. The r. at frequency OA.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.s value of current flowing in such a circuit is given by √ This current is maximum when impedance is minimum i.

voltage across resistance VR = IR will also be maximum and equal to applied voltage. since the current is maximum at resonance. the variation of current with frequency is given by with all parameters being same. if R is varied the current at resonance will change but resonance frequency is independent of R.jntuworld. Voltage across inductive resistance = IXL 60 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .L. The shape of current variation becomes flat as the resistance is increased. and C: RL: Voltage across resistance V = IR is maximum at resonance and equal to voltage applied to the series circuit. Voltage across elements R.com The current √ since the impedance is minimum and equal to ‘R’ at resonance.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the current is maximum and equal to and in phase with V it varies inversely as impedance Z.

com Both I & XL or increasing before resonance and the product must be increasing. At resonance 2 fr= √ VL = IXL = I At resonances VL = I ( VL = I * VL = I √ VL = I √ fr)L √ +L = √ = V√ Vc =I XC = = 61 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. Resonance in RLC series circuit: A RLC series circuit can be brought in to resonance by varying the frequency until the inductive reactance of circuit equals the capacitive reactance in the case X = 0 and Z = R and the circuit under this condition is said to be in electrical resonance. RC: At resonance I is constant and Xc is decreasing. The voltage across inductor continuous to increase until the reduction in current offsets the increase in XL. At resonance.jntuworld. IXL is maximum after f0. The variation of VR. Therefore the product should be decreasing. Hence IXc Should been maximum before resonance frequency f0. VL and VC are shown below. I is not changing but XL is increasing and hence the product should be increasing.

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.com =I =I √ * √ + √ Vc = √ =V√ At resonant frequency fr. Both the voltages are equal and each is greatest than the applied voltage.jntuworld. Voltage magnification or Q-Factor = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 2. a voltage magnification occurs at resonance condition.The quality factor may also be defined as Q-Factor = 2 Maximum energy dissipated at resonance = Power dissipated at resonance Power dissipated per cycle = √ √ ∵[ √ ] 62 of Engineering Vardhaman Department of EEE College .

Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Q= * + www.com 63 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.

When one or more parameters are continuously changing they help us to study the way in which a. the current is minimum and is given by Imin = 0. Vmax . the current is maximum and is given by Imax = power factor is zero and v by 900 When R = infinitive. In same parallel circuits. when voltage is kept constant. Voltage / power factor vary.Vmin & the power factor`s at which they occur. when one of the parameters of the circuit (whether series or parallel ) is varied. The Locus diagrams yield such important informations as Imax . Current / power factor vary.com LOCUS DIAGRAMS Locus diagrams are the graphical representations of the way in which the response of electrical circuits vary.jntuworld. `R ` can be varied by the rheostatic adjustment and xL can be varied by using a variable inductor or by applying a variable frequency source. RL series circuit. Consider an R – XL series circuit as shown below. a wide range of currents and potential differences can be obtained. When the variations are uniform and lie between 0 and infinitive. Imin . when current is kept constant. they will also indicate whether or not. 64 Vardhaman Department of EEE College and power factor = 1 of Engineering . the resulting locus diagrams are circles Case 1: when `R` is varied When R = 0 . b. across which a constant voltage is applied by varying R or XL.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. a condition for response is possible.

Locus of current in a series RL circuit is a semi circuit with radius = ( 0. where is the diameter of the circle.jntuworld. the current lags the voltage by an angle The general expression for current is I = = tan √ The equation I = is the equation of a circle in the polar form.com For any other values of` R` . The Locus diagram of a current i. Case 2: ) & where center is given by 65 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.e the way in which the current varies in the circuit. as `R` is varied from zero to infinitive is shown in below which is semi -circle.

When XL = to infinitive . The power factor is unity. the current lags the voltage by an angle The general expression for current is I = = √ The equation of a circle in the polar form where is the diameter of the circle The Locus of current in a series RC circuit is a semi circuit whose radius is RC Series Circuit: Case 1: when `R` is varied and whose center is ( ) 66 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . current is maximum and is given by and is in phase with V.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the current is zero.jntuworld. the power factor is zero and For any other value of `R`.com When XL is varied When XL = 0.

is the diameter 67 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . the current is zero.com When R = 0 current is maximum and is given by Imax = Which leads the voltage by 900 power factor is zero. The power factor is unity & For any other value of R the current leads the voltage by an angle The general expression for current is I= = √ is the equation of a circle in the polar form. where of the circle.jntuworld. When R = ∞.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. .

which is power factor is unity& When Xc = ∞ . current is maximum & is given by Imax = . When Xc = 0 . Power factor is 0 & voltage by an angle The general equation for the current is . the current is zero.com Locus is a semi – circle where radius is Where Xc is varied & center is ( ). for any other value of Xc .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the current leads the 68 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .jntuworld.

where is the diameter of the circle. RLC series circuit: 69 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . The locus is a circle of radius ( ) .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS I= The equation www.com is the equation of the circle in polar form.jntuworld.

if XL Xc b) R – Xc Series circuit if Xc XL The only difference would be.I=0 .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the locus of current is a semi circle of radius = 70 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . the resulting reactance is either XL – Xc or Xc – XL Case2 When XLis varied When Xc = 0 the circuit behaves as an R-Xc series circuit & the current is given by I= & √ When XL = Xc . The circuit behaves as an R – XL series circuit & the current is given by I= When XL = √ & . R. For any value of XL Lying between XC & .com The figure represents an R – XL – Xc series circuit across which. a constant voltage source is applied `I` is the current flowing through the circuit. XL. The characteristics of this circuit can be studied by varying any one of the parameters.jntuworld. the locus diagram of current are similar to those of a) R – XL series circuit. circuit the current is maximum or is given by Imax = & The power factor is unity Where XL > XC. the circuit behaves as a pure resistance. Xc &L Case1: when R is varied & the other three parameters are constant.

jntuworld. the circuit behaves as a pure resistance circuit. When XC is varied When XC = 0 the circuit behaves as an R-XL series circuit & the circuit is given by I= √ & When XC = XL.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. the circuit behaves as an R – XC series circuit & the current is given by I= √ & . The current is maximum and is given by I max = & The power factor is unity When XC>XL. The complete locus For any value of XC lying between XL & diagram of current as XC varies from o to 71 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . the locus of current is semi circle of radius is as shown below .com The complete locus diagram of current as XL varies from zero to infinity is as shown below.

jntuworld. I= As RC & XC are constants.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. IC remains constant.com Case 2: R-XC in parallel with R & ‘R’ varying. but IR1 = The total current is given by 72 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering . IC remains constant & is given by IC = √( ) ( ) & As R is variable IR is also variable. hence I = IC & is in phase with V For any other values of R = R1. When R = IR = 0. Consider a parallel circuit consisting of RC-XC branch in parallel with ‘R’ as shown.

can be plotted R= Ic R = R1 R = R2 ER1 ER2 V Locus Diagrams of parallel circuits: When a constant voltage. Case 1: R & XL in parallel R Varying: 73 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .com = Similarly for other values of The locus of the total current is as shown below.jntuworld.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. current varies only in that branch and the total current locus is get by adding the variable current locus with the constant current flowing in the other branch. constant frequency source is applied across a parallel circuit and any one parameters in one of the parallel branches is verified.

com Consider a parallel circuit as shown below. constant frequency source is applied.52 am 74 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .15 henries. # A 230 volts.I2 etc. For any other values of R = R1.42 ohms Imax = √ Xmax = 2X3.03 henries and 0.IR3 etc.Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www. → As XL Is constant IL is constant As R is variable IR is Variable When R = . the current IL remains constant.jntuworld. IR2.14 X 50 X 0. 50 H source is connected to a series circuit consisting of a resistance of 30 ohms and an inductance which varies between 0. and I1 . IR = 0 and I = IL which lags V by 900 and is in phase with V...67 amps Xmin = 2X 3. Draw the Locus Diagram of current.15 = 47. R3. Diameter of circle = = = 7.1ohms Imin = √ = 4. but IR1 = For other values of R=R2. etc.. can be found and plotted. across which a constant voltage.03 = 9..14x50x0.

com 75 Vardhaman Department of EEE College of Engineering .Lecture Notes ELECTRIC CIRCUITS www.jntuworld.

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