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Issue 3 Date: November 2003.
FOR THE COMMERCIAL PILOT LICENCE CASA CYBER EXAMINATIONS This book is one of the CPL Cyber Examination Series by Bob Tait Other books in the series are:
CPL General Knowledge
CPL Air Law
HUMAN PERFORMANCE & LIMITATIONS
Bo b Tai
iat v sA
i on T h
Sch o o l
Phone 07 3277 8840 Fax 07 3275 2178 e-mail email@example.com www.bobtait.com.au
Bob Tait’s Aviation Theory School PO Box 712 Archerfield Queensland 4108 Australia Building 221 Qantas Ave Archerfield Airport Brisbane
The text occasionally goes beyond the requirements of the syllabus. when you have completed your study. . It contains a full text covering all areas of the syllabus relating to Aerodynamics. If you have a sound understanding of the contents of this book. As each section of the subject is dealt with. you will find final tests with explained answers. At the end of the book. you will be presented with exercises in the form of a set of multi-choice questions to test your comprehension of that section. you will have no trouble performing to the required standard in the CASA cyber examination in Aerodynamics. however the exercises are designed to indicate the level of understanding required by the CASA CYBER EXAMINATION. WHAT THIS BOOK IS NOT This book is not a manual on how to fly an aeroplane.WHAT THIS BOOK IS This book is a study guide designed to prepare students for the CASA Commercial Pilot Licence Australia [CPLA] Examinations. However. Each exercise is accompanied by fully explained answers. It does not set out to replace you instructor's pre-flight briefing. you should be well equipped with the required background to get the very best value out of your briefings.
The CASA cyber examination for Aerodynamics is a 1 hour 30 minute exam with a total of 40 marks.au Equipment requirements for the Aerodynamics Cyber Examination:Provided by ASL to the candidate: Provided by the Candidate: Scribble pad.] He entered into aviation after 8 years in the Education Department of Queensland as a teacher.au ABOUT BOB TAIT. . Multi Engine Training approval. None Further information on the CASA cyber examinations can be found on the CASA website at www. Bob Tait has been associated with flying training for more years than he'd like to remember. owns his own Pitts Special and flies helicopters for fun. He gave up the science lab to start his own flying school at Ingham in Queensland where he began full time theory courses to CPL. Applications can be made on an exam application form available from Assessment Services Limited at: GPO Box 286 Canberra ATC 2601 Phone 02 62628820 Fax 02 62628830 If you prefer you may make application for the exams directly through the ASL web site at www. He has been fully occupied with theory and flying training since then and presently runs his own theory school at Archerfield. He holds a Grade One Instructor Rating.casa. He has low level aerobatic test and training approval.gov. It is necessary to make application to do the exam at any one of the exam centres in Australia. The pass mark for the exam is 70%.com. Command Instrument Rating. [If you really must know it's 27 years.asl.ABOUT THE CPL CYBER EXAMINATION.
4 3.9 1.11 1.7 3.4 3.1.15 Bernouilli's Principle --------------------------------------------------.4 1.aerofoils ---------------------------------------------Exercise A2 and answers -------------------------------------------AEROPLANES Ground handling -------------------------------------------------------Take-off -----------------------------------------------------------------Torque reaction --------------------------------------------------------Gyroscopic effect ------------------------------------------------------Asymmetric blade effect ----------------------------------------------Ground looping --------------------------------------------------------4. drag.1 3.2 3. thrust and weight.7 1.3 3.13 Exercise A1 and answers -------------------------------------------.10 3.7 1.3 1.5 .6 1.3 AEROFOILS Aerofoil characteristics -----------------------------------------------Airflow characteristics ------------------------------------------------Angle of attack ---------------------------------------------------------Angle of attack and nose attitude ------------------------------------Lift coefficient ---------------------------------------------------------Drag coefficient --------------------------------------------------------Lift/drag ratio .1.1 AIRCRAFT MOTION Pitch ---------------------------------------------------------------------Roll ----------------------------------------------------------------------Yaw ----------------------------------------------------------------------Planes and axes --------------------------------------------------------Terminology ------------------------------------------------------------THE BASICS State of Motion --------------------------------------------------------Force --------------------------------------------------------------------Equilibrium -------------------------------------------------------------Pressure -----------------------------------------------------------------Work --------------------------------------------------------------------Power --------------------------------------------------------------------Kinetic Energy ---------------------------------------------------------Resolving Forces ------------------------------------------------------MANAGEMENT OF THE FOUR FORCES Lift.6 4.5 4.1 4. Lift and Drag ------------------------.6 1.4 4.1.8 1.9 3.CONTENTS Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------.10 1.2.2 1.3 4.2 1.12 1.
attitude and performance -------------------------------------.1 Effect of speed ----------------------------------------------------------.3 Angle of climb ----------------------------------------------------------.7.6 Gliding range in still air -----------------------------------------------.9 Exercise A4 and answers --------------------------------------------.8 TOTAL DRAG IN FLIGHT Parasite drag -------------------------------------------------------------.4.6.2 Rate and radius of turn -------------------------------------------------.5.1 Induced drag ------------------------------------------------------------.8.3 Power required ----------------------------------------------------------.6 THRUST AND POWER Thrust available ---------------------------------------------------------.3 Summary -----------------------------------------------------------------.184.108.40.206 .9.5.1 Rate of climb ------------------------------------------------------------.7 Summary -----------------------------------------------------------------.9 TURNING The basic principles ----------------------------------------------------.7.6 Effect of weight ---------------------------------------------------------.220.127.116.11 Factors affecting endurance -------------------------------------------.18.104.22.168.8.8.3 Wing plan form ---------------------------------------------------------.6.7 Effect of wind -----------------------------------------------------------.8 Lift augmentation devices ---------------------------------------------.1 Thrust required ----------------------------------------------------------.11 CLIMBING AND DESCENDING Forces acting ------------------------------------------------------------.6.7.3 Vortices and wake turbulence ----------------------------------------.3 Aircraft weight ----------------------------------------------------------.8.5.4 Ground effect -----------------------------------------------------------.5.2 Power available ---------------------------------------------------------.8 Performance considerations -------------------------------------------.5 Exercise A3 and answers --------------------------------------------.1 Load factor --------------------------------------------------------------.2 Factors affecting range -------------------------------------------------.5.5 Descending --------------------------------------------------------------.4 Total Drag ---------------------------------------------------------------.1 Power.8.5.6 STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT Lift management --------------------------------------------------------.7.7 Wind shear --------------------------------------------------------------.6.Wheel barrowing -------------------------------------------------------.9.8.7.
1 Stability and manoeuvrability --------------------------------------.22.214.171.124 Summary9.3 Stability in roll .11.2 Stability in pitch .3 Factors affecting the indicated stalling speed --------------------.10.6 Exercise A6 and answers -----------------------------------------.3 Aileron drag ----------------------------------------------------------.10.12.13.15 .126.96.36.199 STABILITY Static stability --------------------------------------------------------.5 Aerodynamic balancing --------------------------------------------.11.7 Effect of wind --------------------------------------------------------.Lateral stability ----------------------------------.12.7 Climbing turns -------------------------------------------------------.5 Mass balancing ------------------------------------------------------.188.8.131.52.12.10.8 Aerodynamics Final Test No 1 ----------------------------------.10.Effect of height ------------------------------------------------------.6 Spin recovery --------------------------------------------------------.9 Exercise A5 and answers -----------------------------------------.1 The stalling speed ---------------------------------------------------.1 Link balance tabs ----------------------------------------------------.Directional stability ----------------------------.11.4 Stall progression -----------------------------------------------------.9.9.5 Stability in yaw .12.1 Aerodynamics Final Test No 2 ----------------------------------.12.1 Dynamic stability ----------------------------------------------------.12.Longitudinal stability -------------------------.13.11 Answers to Final Tests -------------------------------------------.8 CONTROL Trims ------------------------------------------------------------------.6 Aerodynamics Final Test No 3 ---------------------------------.4 Differential ailerons -------------------------------------------------.5 SPINNING Causes -----------------------------------------------------------------.8 Spiral instability -----------------------------------------------------.3 The stabilator ---------------------------------------------------------.4 Frise ailerons ---------------------------------------------------------.184.108.40.206 STALLING The stalling angle ----------------------------------------------------.
many students react like a cash register with the 'NO SALE' flags in the window. What finally matters is the way you handle the examination standard questions in the exercises and tests which are found throughout the text. I have made every endeavour to follow any mathematical presentation with a plain English statement of the fact. It is impossible to go far with a study of aerodynamics without resorting to some mathematical presentation. However throughout this text you will find some concepts presented as a mathematical argument. In my years as a teacher of aviation subjects I have become very conscious of the fact that the moment any mathematical argument is introduced. Obviously the CASA does not require such depth of knowledge The questions which accompany this text give an indication of the level of knowledge required in the examination. PROMISE There is absolutely no reason why you cannot get 100% in the aerodynamics cyber examination without calling on any mathematical ability at all. If this leaves you cold.INTRODUCTION The subject of aerodynamics could well occupy years of study at the tertiary level.1 . Before we begin let me make this promise to you. you can ignore it completely as long as you accept the 'punch line' at the end. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1. All questions are accompanied by explained answers.
2[b] is rolling to the right about the longitudinal axis.1[c] lateral axis lateral axis When an aircraft moves in the manner shown in Fig 1.1.1[a] Nose-down pitch Fig 1.1[a] the nose is rising and the tail is dropping. It can pitch. In Fig 1.2 [a] Left wing drops Rolling right Fig 1. 2[a] the roll is to the left.2 it is rolling.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . All of the points forward of the axis are moving upwards and all of the points aft of the axis are moving downwards. it is pitching.2 [b] Right wing drops Left wing rises Fig 1.2 [c] longitudinal axis longitudinal axis 1. The left wing is dropping and the right wing is rising. In Fig1.1[b] axis axis Fig 1. The axis is the point about which the motion is occurring and is referred to as the lateral axis. roll and yaw. Rolling left Right wing rises Fig 1.AIRCRAFT MOTION An aircraft is capable of three types of motion. When an aircraft moves in the manner shown in Fig 1. In Fig 1. while all of the points to the right of the axis are moving upwards. All of the points to the left of the axis are moving downwards. The axis is the point about which the motion is occurring and in this case is referred to as the longitudinal axis. Nose-up pitch Fig 1. The aircraft in Fig 1.1[b] the aircraft is pitching nose down about the lateral axis.
In Fig 1. The axis is the point about which the motion is occurring and is referred to as the normal axis. roll and yaw. roll and yaw. we can be certain that we will always have complete control of the aeroplane since no other motion is possible. roll and yaw-maybe all three simultaneously-but still only pitch. while all points aft of the axis are moving to the right. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 normal axis 1. roll and yaw.3[c] Pitching. The most complicated aerobatic manoeuvre ever devised is simply various degrees of pitch. If we can initiate or prevent movement in pitch.3 . Some old text books may refer to the normal axis as the vertical axis.3[a] yaw left Fig 1. All three dimensional objects in the universe are capable of pitch. The aircraft in Fig 1.3 it is yawing.When an aircraft moves in the manner shown in Fig 1.3[b] is yawing to the right about the normal axis. All points in front of the axis are moving to the left. rolling and yawing are not unique to aeroplanes.3[a] the nose is moving to the left and the tail is moving to the right.3[b] yaw right axis axis Fig 1. The point that is often missed is that there is no other type of motion possible. Fig 1.
Fig 1.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . In flight all motion in pitch. This again is not unique to aeroplanes.Because of this. Fig 1. it is true of all objects that are free to move in space. You will hear a great deal more about the centre of gravity when we consider aircraft stability and control in detail later. roll or yaw occurs with the centre of gravity as the pivot.6 normal axis centre of gravity longitudinal axis lateral axis 1. The elevator which initiates or prevents motion in the pitching plane. an aircraft requires only three primary flying controls.5 normal axis yawing plane lateral axis aileron [roll] aileron [roll] longitudinal axis rolling plane pitching plane All three axes intersect at a common point-the centre of gravity.4 rudder [yaw] elevator [pitch] Fig 1. the ailerons which initiate or prevent motion in the rolling plane and the rudder which initiates or prevents motion in the yawing plane.
Fig 1. The figure below illustrates these basic components for a typical single engine light aircraft. you should be sure that you are completely familiar with the terminology associated with the aircraft structure.5 .7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Spinner Landing Gear [Undercarriage] Wing Strut [Lift Strut] Wing [Mainplane] Right Aileron Right Flap Fuselage Horizontal Stabilizer [Tailplane] Fin and Dorsal 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Rudder Elevator Left Flap Left Aileron Door Seat Windshield [Windscreen] Engine Cowl Propeller CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1.Before we go on with the subject of aerodynamics.
Here we go! STATE OF MOTION Since aerodynamics is all about motion. pressure. 1. That doesn't mean that the forces are not present. we are aware of relative motion ie the difference between our motion and that of other objects. Because these two forces are equal and opposite. the argument will never be resolved. let's begin by asking what motion is. however they have one important characteristic in common-there is no change in their state of motion. Most importantly we are aware of change of motion. our study of aerodynamics begins at the very beginning with the definition of the terms used so frequently. It is important to note that all forces attempt to change the state of motion of a body. The word stationary in this context has no meaning. neither succeeds in producing any change and the state of motion remains unaltered. especially pilots.THE BASICS The Oxford Dictionary defines dynamics as the study of forces and motion. especially when preparing for a multi-choice examination where so much depends upon comprehending the question. For an aircraft in straight and level flight at constant speed. the pilot's task can be thought of in terms of management of the forces which act on the aeroplane. A simple definition of force is: A force is a push or a pull which attempts to change the state of motion of a body. If my idea of pressure is different to your idea of pressure we can go on arguing until the proverbial 'cows come home' about the answer to a particular question.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . If you have ever stood in a crowded bus you have had no trouble detecting every change in its motion ie speed or direction. the force of thrust is attempting to change its speed to a higher speed. We humans are not aware of motion itself. It may be better to approach from the other side and ask what we mean when we use the word 'stationary'. As you sit and read this page. The sun is just one star on the spiral arm of a galaxy which is itself rotating and hurtling through space in a gravitational dance with other galaxies. just as confused as ever. The manoeuvres of an aeroplane are the result of forces which act to initiate or prevent motion. yet so often not clearly understood. FORCE Ask a physics teacher to define force and he/she will probably say that force is mass multiplied by acceleration-which leaves most people. Until we both agree on the exact meaning of the term. you are on the surface of a planet which is rotating on its axis and moving through space in its orbit about the sun. The exact meaning of terms such as force. Since the pilot is responsible for the control of those manoeuvres. Aerodynamics applies this study specifically to aeroplanes and considers the forces acting and the motion that results as the aeroplane manoeuvres in flight. thrust and power must be clear in your mind. A Jumbo Jet cruising in level flight at a constant speed and the Sydney Opera House are in very different states of motion. you can replace it with 'push or pull' and still preserve the exact meaning. Because we cannot hope to manage forces [or anything else for that matter] unless we investigate the fundamentals. Whenever you see the word force used in a sentence [or multi choice question]. work. it means they are not succeeding in producing a change of motion. No one said that they have to succeed in producing a change in motion. while the force of drag is attempting to change its speed to a lower speed. are you stationary? No.
A small pressure can produce a large force if it acts over a large area. A simple test for equilibrium is to ask if motion is changing. the result is referred to as pressure. their combined effect is to exert a considerable force. Because these forces are equal and opposite.8 direction but rather they act to 'squeeze' or compress [Fig 1. the body is in equilibrium. These molecules are constantly colliding with each other and with any surface exposed to them. the resulting forces do not produce movement in any particular Fig 1. the forces acting in the yawing plane are balancedthis does not necessarily mean that all the forces acting on the aeroplane are balanced]. each of which is in a state of constant random motion. PRESSURE Air is a mixture of gases. When the force is divided by the area over which it acts and is expressed as force per unit area. Since direction is changing during a turn. As countless millions of air molecules constantly collide with and rebound from the surface. while the force of weight is attempting to produce motion vertically downwards. the aircraft cannot be in equilibrium [in a balanced turn. neither succeeds in producing any change. In which of these situations is an aircraft in equilibrium? In straight and level flight at a constant speed In a straight climb at a constant speed In a straight glide at a constant speed In a balanced level turn at a constant speed During a loop If you picked the first three you are correct.Likewise the force of lift is attempting to produce motion vertically upwards. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1. you can be sure the body is in equilibrium. Each molecule has mass and when it collides with a surface it exerts a tiny force upon that surface. just as a small force can produce a large pressure if it acts over a small area. Note that pressure is not the same as force. If neither speed nor direction is changing. You have not fully described the motion of a body until you have defined both its speed and direction. It follows that if there is no change in motion there must be a balance between all the forces acting so that no one force succeeds in changing motion [equilibrium means 'equal balance']. Ask yourself these two questions to decide whether a body is in equilibrium: Is the speed changing? Is the direction changing? If the answer to both of these questions is no. During a loop there is a constant change in both speed and direction so the aeroplane cannot be in equilibrium. Each gas is composed of many millions of molecules.8].7 . EQUILIBRIUM Whenever a body has no change in its state of motion it is said to be in equilibrium. Since objects exposed to this molecular bombardment in still air are struck with the same frequency and intensity on all surfaces.
close enough to one tenth of a psi.A typical Cessna 172 aeroplane has a maximum weight of about 2300 pounds.6 psi 14. You may think that all this is pretty obvious. Since its wing area is a little over 174 square feet. In level flight it would require 2300 pounds of lift to support this weight.06%. distance will be greatest when force is least. the energy available is governed by the quantity of fuel on board.2 pounds of lift. Note that 13. The work that can be done depends upon the energy available.7 psi. WORK 12 12 12 12 = = = = = FORCE 6 4 3 2 x x x x x DISTANCE 2 3 4 6 This is like saying Note that if work is fixed. This is referred to as the wing loading and is found by dividing the weight by the wing area. It follows that once I tighten the fuel caps.6 psi would be enough to support the fully laden aeroplane. That represents a reduction in pressure of . The amount of work done can be calculated by multiplying the force by the distance moved. In the case of an aircraft. each square foot of wing would need to generate 13. I can move a small force through a large distance or I can move a large force through a small distance.9 14.7 psi 14. the force that must be overcome is drag.09 pounds per square inch [psi] .2 pounds per square foot is 0. Whenever a force succeeds in producing motion. but isn't it nice to know that we can prove it by resorting to such simple mathematics? 1. It is up to me how I spend that energy. In the case of an aeroplane in level flight. Total lift produced = 2300 pounds Fig 1. work has been done.6 psi 14. This means that if the pressure beneath the wing was equal to the standard sea level value of 14. MAXIMUM RANGE REQUIRES MINIMUM DRAG.7 psi WORK We have already seen that a force is a push or a pull that attempts to produce motion. the amount of work that can be done is fixed by the fuel quantity. so a given amount of fuel will carry me the greatest distance when the drag is kept to a minimum. This is a good example of a small pressure producing a large force. a reduction of pressure above the wing to 14.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Also anything that increases drag will reduce the range possible.
9 . Power and thrust are not the same since power is thrust multiplied by something else. Drag varies with the square of the speed Drag Power Power Power varies with varies with varies with varies with Speed Drag x Speed 2 Speed x 3 Speed 2 so Speed To fly twice as fast you need eight times the power . MAXIMUM ENDURANCE REQUIRES MINIMUM POWER.POWER Of all the concepts that must be dealt with in this subject. The time I can spend in the air is referred to as endurance. Some aircraft have a fuel flow meter in the cockpit to measure this.to fly three times as fast you need twenty seven times the power . Power is not force. You should link power and time in your head. This is not surprising since power is really a very sophisticated mathematical concept. One good measure of power is the rate at which fuel is being supplied to the engine to make thrust. Work = Force Power = Work So Power = Force x ÷ Distance Time x Distance Time and Distance Time So Power Power Power = Speed = = = Force Thrust Drag x x x Speed Speed Speed [The force involved is thrust] [In level flight thrust equals drag] If you're not very mathematical I bet you're not impressed! However we have at least proved one thing. here's something that may help in answering multi-choice questions. the fuel that I have on board will last the longest time. Power rhymes with hour. To put it mathematically. I will have minimum fuel flow. Power is a rate. It is the rate at which work is being done. Time in the air Time to cover a given distance Time to climb a given height Time to turn Endurance Speed Rate of Climb Rate of Turn All of these are controlled by power. Any performance item that is dependent on time is controlled by power. If I fly with minimum power. If you will forgive me for being a little bit juvenile.to fly four times as fast you need sixty four times the power. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1. If I have minimum fuel flow. It is probably best to begin by saying what it isn't. Power is not thrust. power is the one most students have most trouble understanding.
You will hear more about this in the section of Aeroplane Operation . This can be expressed as a simple formula. Speed has far more effect on kinetic energy than mass does. Therefore the landing distance required can be reduced dramatically by a relatively small decrease in approach speed just as it is increased dramatically by a relatively small increase in speed. Fig 1.10 potential energy Stored gravitational potential energy due to height. as long as a body has the potential to move. we could say that energy is the ability to produce motion. For this reason the manufacturer imposes limiting Indicated Air Speeds on the operation of the aircraft. but if I double the velocity I get four times the kinetic energy and if I increase the velocity by three times I get nine times the kinetic energy. The amount of kinetic energy a body possesses depends upon both the mass of the body and the velocity at which it is moving. 1. As Indicated Air Speed is increased.KINETIC ENERGY Energy is often defined as the ability to do work. but the formula is telling us some interesting things. Performance and Planning.10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . That means that if I double the mass I double the kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the outside airflow is represented by the reading of the Air Speed Indicator in the cockpit. The energy of height is being converted into the energy of motion. this energy increases rapidly to the point where the stresses imposed on the airframe can exceed the design limits. its potential energy will be released to produce motion. As height decreases speed increases. Since work is done when a force moves through a certain distance. When it does. it possesses energy. You will notice that velocity is Potential energy has become kinetic energy. A boulder balanced on top of a cliff possesses energy because of its height. It may not be moving at the moment but eventually erosion will cause it to fall. kinetic energy Kinetic energy = 1 2 mv 2 We are not interested in the calculation. squared but mass isn't. Air has mass. The energy a body possesses because of its motion is called kinetic energy. Motion does not actually have to be occurring. An aircraft on final approach to land must dissipate its kinetic energy during the landing roll.
In this case.12]. as long as we are consistent.RESOLVING FORCES. It doesn't matter what scale is used. Fig 1.11 . CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1. it is the principle that is important as vectors are often used to represent the forces acting on an aeroplane in flight. Fig 1. A line such as this is called a vector.11 [b] 4 cm Fig 1. To fully describe a force we must specify its magnitude or strength. Slide the 3 cm arrow to the right until its tail touches the tip of the 4 cm arrow [Step 1].11 [a] 3 kg force 4 cm 4 cm 4 kg force Fig 1. A force can be represented as a straight line where the length of the line represents the magnitude of the force.11 [b] shows how this situation can be represented with vectors. while a vertical down line 3 cm long represents the 3 kg force. To find the resultant. Remember that in the examination you will not be required to do any actual drawing of vectors. simply draw a new vector from the original point of application to the tip of the relocated vector [Step 2]. they can be replaced with a single vector representing a single force which would have exactly the same effect as the two original forces. the point at which it is applied and the direction in which it acts. the point from which the line is drawn represents the point of application of the force and the direction of the line represents the direction in which the force acts. One end is being pulled down with a force of 3 kg. This is done by a process called vector addition [Fig 1. while the other end is being pulled horizontally with a force of 4 kg. the 3 kg force and the 4 kg force acting together have the same effect as a 5 kg force acting in the direction indicated in Step 3. a horizontal line 4 cm long represents the 4 kg force.11 [a] represents a length of string passed around a drawing pin. The length of this vector represents the magnitude of the resultant. and it is often used to simplify situations where a number of forces are acting at a single point. If we let 1 cm of length represent 1 kg of force. Fig 1.12 res ult 5c an t m 5k gf or 3 cm ce 3 cm 3 cm Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 To add vectors we simply place the tail of one against the point of the other. Now that the two vectors have been established. This single vector is called the resultant.
Then from the point of the arrow. draw two lines to meet the components at right angles [Fig 1. This is a technique often employed in aerodynamics. would have the same effect as the original single force [Fig 12 f].12 c Fig 1. They represent the magnitude of two forces which.12 b Fig 1. would have the same effect as the original single force [Fig 1. draw the Fig 1. To find a horizontal and vertical component of the force. Fig 12 f The two vectors thus obtained represent the two component forces which.12 b that force is represented by a vector whose length is proportional to the magnitude of the force.12 e In Fig 1.12 a dashed lines [Fig 1. Define the directions you want for the two component forces and then draw perpendiculars to them from the point of the arrow. 1. Fig 1. The method is the same. it is entirely up to you to decide the directions.12 d]. The two vectors representing the vertical and horizontal components have now been determined. if they acted simultaneously.12 e the same force is divided into components in directions other than vertical and horizontal. In Fig 1.12 d Fig 1.12 b] in the directions of the desired components. if they acted simultaneously in those directions. The two component forces do not necessarily have to be vertical and horizontal.It is also possible to divide a single force into two components.12 a represents a piece of string attached to a pin with a force applied in the direction shown.12 c]. forc e Fig 1.12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
Drag is considered to act through a single point and opposite to the direction of motion. Lift is considered to act through a single point and is always at right angles to drag. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1. LIFT and DRAG Probably the most important thing to say about lift and drag is that they don't exist! There is no one real force acting at right angles to the direction of motion. The aircraft's passage through the air produces a reaction which is the result of all of the pressures acting on its surfaces. weight. LIFT The resultant of all the aerodynamic forces which act at right angles to the direction of motion. The study of aerodynamics at this level is made much simpler by resolving these into just four resultant forces. Aerodynamics centres around these forces so it makes sense to begin by defining them.13 Lift Drag Thrust Weight The distribution of pressure over the surface of an aircraft in flight and the forces that result are very complex. Weight is considered to act vertically downwards through the centre of gravity. thrust and drag are responsible for everything the aircraft does in flight and the pilot's task is to control them by manipulating the factors that affect each one. just as there is no one real force acting to oppose motion. THRUST The resultant of all the forces produced by the propeller which act to produce motion. lift. Thrust is considered to act through a single point and in the direction of motion. including the fuel load. WEIGHT The total weight of the aircraft and every item on board. DRAG The resultant of all the aerodynamic forces which act to oppose the motion of the aircraft. These four forces.13 .MANAGEMENT OF THE FOUR FORCES Fig 1.
Note that it is not true that all of the weight is concentrated at one point. Fig 1. but the aircraft behaves as though it was. As the aircraft's attitude and airspeed change in flight. Even though we know that every individual part of an aircraft [or any other object] has weight. it is equally valid to represent the aerodynamic forces as either the total reaction or as the combination of lift and drag. acting opposite to the direction of motion.14 For an aircraft in flight the centre of pressure is not on the wing as it is for an aerofoil in a wind tunnel. This is the point about which all the various weights are evenly distributed. This inevitably changes the magnitude of both lift and drag. Since lift and drag often change by different proportions.15 To tal Re act ion Drag The total reaction accounts for all of the aerodynamic forces which act on the aircraft and once it has been defined. Since both lift and drag are simply components of the total reaction. the ratio of lift to drag also changes. Likewise every square centimetre of surface is contributing to the aerodynamic forces but the aircraft behaves as though all of the forces were acting through a single point. can be resolved into a single force called the total reaction which can be considered to act through a single point called the centre of pressure. but the aircraft behaves as though it was. it can be replaced by the two imaginary forces of lift and drag. The centre of pressure is the point about which the various pressures are evenly distributed. To tal Re act ion Fig 1. It should be remembered however that the real picture is a little more complicated. Depending on the argument then. the total reaction changes in magnitude and position. Centre of pressure can be likened to centre of gravity. which is actually being produced over the entire surface area of the aircraft.This reaction. Quite often we consider the total reaction acting on the wing alone and resolve it into lift and drag. 1. acting at right angles to the direction of motion and drag.14 Lift BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . This is the point about which all of the various pressures are evenly distributed-the centre of pressure. Not only does it move fore and aft as aircraft attitude changes. it is at the intersection of the lift and drag lines. Once again it is not true that all of the aerodynamic forces are acting through a single point. We shall hear a great deal more about this so called lift/drag ratio in this course as it takes centre stage in many of the arguments about aeroplane performance. has exactly the same effect on the aircraft's motion as the total reaction acting alone. it is obvious that the factors that affect one must also affect the other. but it moves up and down as flaps or undercarriage extension change the drag characteristics. If the aircraft was suspended from that point it would hover horizontally in perfect balance. The combined effect of lift. it behaves as though all of its weight was concentrated at one point-the centre of gravity.
By now you should be able to answer these exam type questions. EXERCISE A1 Question No 1 For a body to be in a state of equilibrium there must be [a] no motion occurring [b] no force acting on the body [c] no change in its motion [d] the minimum amount of drag acting Question No 2 The kinetic energy possessed by a moving body depends upon [a] the velocity at which it is moving [b] the total mass of the moving body [c] the magnitude of the forces acting in the direction of motion [d] both the mass and the velocity of the moving body Question No 3 For an aircraft in level flight to cover the greatest distance per litre of fuel consumed it must be flown at a speed which produces [a] the least amount of drag [b] the greatest amount of lift [c] the lowest possible drag coefficient [d] the lowest possible fuel flow Question No 4 For an aircraft to remain in the air for the greatest possible time per litre of fuel consumed. it must be flown at a speed which requires [a] the least amount of drag [b] the smallest angle of attack [c] the least amount of power [d] the best lift/drag ratio Question No 5 The net effect of all forces acting on an aerofoil can be attributed to a single imaginary force called [a] lift [b] the total reaction [c] induced drag [d] total drag Question No 6 Indicated air speed is proportional to [a] the angle of attack being used [b] the density of the free airstream [c] the kinetic energy of the free airstream [d] the true outside air temperature Question No 7 For an aircraft to achieve maximum range in level flight in nil wind conditions it must be flown at a speed which requires [a] maximum thrust [b] minimum thrust [c] maximum power [d] minimum power CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 1.15 .
parallel to the relative airflow and opposite the direction of motion. Same as question 3. 2 Kinetic energy = 1 It depends upon both the mass and the velocity . Maximum range requires minimum drag. Maximum endurance is achieved with minimum power.16 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .Question No 8 For an aircraft to achieve maximum endurance in level flight it must be flown at a speed which requires [a] maximum thrust [b] minimum thrust [c] maximum power [d] minimum power Question No 9 The force of drag during flight always acts parallel to the [a] thrust line [b] wing chord [c] longitudinal axis [d] relative airflow Question No 10 To achieve maximum range in a piston engine aircraft. lift at right angles to the relative airflow and drag. Indicated Air Speed. like kinetic energy depends upon both the velocity and the density of the air. It is proportional to fuel flow. The total reaction is divided into two components. so minimum drag is also minimum thrust. Power is a rate. Distance is greatest when force is least. The lower the fuel flow the greater the endurance. Same as question 4. 1. All of the forces produced by the various pressures acting on the aeroplane are resolved into the total reaction. the power that is used must [a] produce the lowest possible forward speed [b] produce the indicated air speed corresponding to the highest lift coefficient [c] produce the indicated air speed corresponding to the lowest lift coefficient [d] produce the indicated air speed corresponding to minimum drag ANSWERS TO EXERCISE A1 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Answer [c] [d] [a] [c] [b] [c] [b] [d] [d] [d] Comment When a body is in equilibrium all forces acting on it are balanced and no net force is succeeding in producing any change in motion. In level flight drag and thrust are equal. mv 2 The work that can be done by a given amount of fuel is a product of the force and the distance.
HOW THE AEROFOIL MAKES LIFT As a rough old 'bushie' once said to me, "I don't care how it does it - so long as it does it!" Quite frankly, when I watch a Jumbo Jet lift its great bulk off the runway and climb gracefully into the blue, I often find myself saying; "How does it do it?" There are a number of different theories commonly used to explain the generation of aerodynamic forces. The CASA syllabus specifically refers to the student's understanding of Bernoulli's principle which we will be discussing shortly. There is a great deal going on in the complex changes that result as the air flows over, under and around the surface of the wing. Many different process are involved but fundamental to all is the well known law of physics proposed by the brilliant 17 th century mathematician, Isaac Newton. In his study of forces and motion Newton observed that, 'for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction' A force generated in one direction is always accompanied by an equal force generated in the opposite direction. This is illustrated by the hundreds of examples that abound in every day life.
Isaac Newton - 'For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.'
As a bullet leaves the barrel of a gun, the gun recoils in the opposite direction to the motion of the bullet. As the high speed stream of water leaves the nozzle of a fire hose, the firemen must brace themselves against the reaction as the hose attempts to move in the opposite direction.
When you attempt to jump from the deck of a small boat to the jetty, the boat moves away in the opposite direction [be careful of that one!]. All of these principles can be applied to the generation of lift and drag. Fig 2.1
wing lifted up and back [reaction]
change of velocity [action]
velo city afte r
The end result of the passage of air over the wing surfaces is that its speed and direction are forced to change. This change in velocity of the airflow is the action - the reaction is the force of lift and drag attempting to move the wing up and back [Fig 2.1].
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We can be a little more precise by considering vectors. Let the velocity before the wing be represented by a vector acting in the direction of the relative airflow and whose length represents the speed of the relative airflow [TAS]. Let the velocity after the wing be represented in the same way. After its passage across the wing, the airflow will be deflected downwards and its speed will have been reduced by friction. Fig 2.2
velocity before This is the change in velocity This is the reaction - pulling the wing up and back
Take the velocity before vector and place it nose-to-nose with the velocity after vector to find the change in velocity
velo city afte r
To find the velocity change, we subtract the two vectors. This is done by placing them nose-tonose as illustrated in figure 2.2 above. The velocity change is found by joining the tails of the two vectors. This represents the action. The reaction is the force of lift and drag acting to pull the wing up and back. The change in airflow velocity is accompanied by changes in the pressure distribution across the surfaces of the aerofoil [Fig 2.2]. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRESSURE If the pressure on one side of the surface becomes less than the pressure on the other side, there will be a net force acting to push the surface towards the lowest pressure. Aerodynamic forces such as lift and drag are created and maintained by changes in pressure as the air flows across the surface of the wing [Fig 2.3].
BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL
BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE In 1738, long before any aeroplane ever flew, a Swiss mathematician called Daniel Bernoulli published a paper which, among other things, investigated the behaviour of pressure in a moving fluid. Bernoulli found that when a fluid such as air was set in motion in a tube, the pressure exerted on the inside walls of the tube decreased when the velocity of the fluid increased and vice versa. He reasoned that since pressure in a gas is caused by molecular bombardment, as the velocity of the flow increased, the impact of individual molecules on the inside walls was reduced [Fig 2.4].
Reduced impact against the wall
Molecular impact with no horizontal movement.
Molecular impact with horizontal movement.
A tube which narrows near the middle is called a venturi. When air flows through such a tube it is forced to increase its speed as it passes through the narrowing section, just as a river flows more rapidly as it passes through a narrow gorge. Bernoulli found that the total energy of the stream, air or water, remains constant as it flows. As the kinetic energy increases with increased speed, the pressure exerted on the confining walls decreases. Fig 2.5. Fig 2.5
total airstream energy
If the length of the piece of string above represents the total energy of the airstream, that energy is manifest as either speed or pressure. If one increases, the other must decrease.
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4 r we o l s BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Make a small hole in a ping-pong ball and introduce some water to increase the weight a little. Fig 2. Place the reel on the card so that the pin is located inside the centre hole. Place the ball in the high speed airstream and release it. It remains firmly attached to the bottom of the reel.6 static air air in motion static air static air Hold a sheet of paper in the manner shown and blow across the top surface. When the air on both sides of the paper is static. It falls a little then remains in the stream. The higher pressure beneath the sheet exerts a net force upwards causing the sheet to rise.6 below. This is the process involved in the generation of lift on a wing and it can be simply illustrated by reference to Fig 2.7.7 Blow down the centre of the reel card pin Take a cotton reel and a piece of card such as a playing card. Fig 2.8 fa ste r slo we ball r 2. Can you see why it does that ? The diagram in Fig 2. Fig 2. When the air over the top surface is set in motion. the pressure acting on the upper and lower surface is the same and the sheet hangs as shown on the left.8 gives some hints.APPLYING BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE According to Bernoulli's Principle whenever there is a difference in the speed of airflow over a surface there is also a difference in the pressure exerted. Can you see why? [The pin simply stops the card from moving about laterally] Find a vacuum cleaner that has an exhaust port or an air compressor-something that will produce a high speed stream of air. Locate the centre of the card and insert a drawing pin as illustrated in Fig 2. Continue blowing and let the card go. the pressure acting on that surface drops while the pressure acting on the bottom surface remains the same. Blow down the centre of the reel. defying gravity. There are very many other examples of the principle in action-here are two more.
The example in Fig 3. The mean camber line is a line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge so that it always remains equidistant from the top and bottom surface of the aerofoil. rudders and elevators are examples of aerofoils. they cannot be taken as the last word on the behaviour of the aeroplane. Many things that can be done with an aerofoil in a wind tunnel cannot be done with a real aeroplane in level flight. Since the main component of the aircraft structure that contributes to the total reaction is the wing. The maximum camber occurs at the point where the greatest separation occurs between the chord line and the mean camber line.1 maximum thickness mean camber line leading edge maximum camber chord line trailing edge The chord line is the straight line joining the leading edge to the trailing edge. ailerons.1 . AEROFOIL CHARACTERISTICS Fig 3. Percentage of chord is used because it is the shape of the aerofoil that gives it its characteristics.1 has a maximum thickness of about 14% occurring at about 27%.AEROFOILS Structures designed to generate aerodynamic forces such as lift and drag when exposed to an airflow are called aerofoils. or we can vary the speed while keeping the angle of attack constant. Neither of these can be achieved with a real aeroplane in level flight. designers spend a great deal of time checking the performance of the wing at various airspeeds and attitudes. Once the shape has been tested the results remain valid no matter how big or small the actual wing is providing that shape is maintained. Wings. the angle of attack. For example in a wind tunnel we can change the angle at which the aerofoil is presented to the on-coming airflow. where a change in angle of attack invariably requires a change in airspeed and vice versa. It has a maximum camber of about 2% occurring at about 17%. Thickness and camber are expressed as percentages of the chord. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3. For the sake of answering examination questions it is important to recognise whether a question is referring to the behaviour of an aerofoil or an aeroplane [More about this later]. tailplanes. Many of these tests are conducted in a wind tunnel and . while the results reveal a great deal about the characteristics of that particular aerofoil. It is the fundamental unit of the aerofoil and all other lengths are expressed as a percentage of the chord. and keep the speed constant.
Because a turbulent boundary layer produces more drag than a laminar boundary layer. Initially the boundary layer is slowed by friction but maintains a smooth. one which passes over the top surface of the aerofoil and one which passes beneath the aerofoil. 3.AIRFLOW CHARACTERISTICS Fig 3.2 a]. an aerofoil with the point of maximum thickness well back along the chord will exhibit more extensive laminar flow and therefore less drag. orderly flow called laminar flow.2 a laminar flow turbulent flow transition point Even though it helps to keep it clean and smooth. as shown in Fig 2. The point at which this occurs is called the transition point. it modifies the behaviour of the airflow in its vicinity.2 above the boundary layer is greatly exaggerated for clarity. These are called laminar flow aerofoils [Fig 3. Fig 3. it is forced to increase its speed and therefore decrease the pressure exerted on that surface. The result.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . there is some advantage.2 net increase in velocity over the top surface laminar boundary layer turbulent boundary layer When an aerofoil is placed in an airflow. The laminar flow gives way to a chaotic tumbling called turbulent flow. This laminar flow tends to persist while ever the aerofoil is thickening. This so-called local airflow divides into two streams.2. especially in high speed aircraft. Since the laminar flow tends to persist while ever the aerofoil is thickening. At about the point of maximum thickness there is an abrupt change in the boundary layer. Each of these streams can be further divided into two sections. it is not the nature of the surface that makes it a laminar flow aerofoil .it is the shape. A very shallow layer which is profoundly effected by friction with the surface. As the air flows over the cambered top surface in Fig 3. in keeping the boundary layer flow laminar for as long as possible. The energy absorbed by this turbulent flow is experienced as extra drag on the aerofoil. called the boundary layer and the more remote portion which is forced to change its speed and direction as it passes.6 . In Fig 3. produces a pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces which gives rise to lift.
3]. A cambered aerofoil will produce some lift.some lift [b] increased angle of attack more lift [c] angle of attack too big . However if the flight path is climbing or descending. Nose attitude relates the aircraft's nose to the horizontal. Drag continues to increase as angle of attack increases. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3. a high nose attitude means a high angle of attack. It really doesn't make any difference to the forces generated so long as there is relative motion. This angle is called the angle of attack [Fig 3. is maintained while the leading edge of the aerofoil is raised.3 direction of motion chord li ne angle of attack direction of relative airflow As the angle of attack changes.less lift STALL ! 13° 21° The behaviour of drag with angle of attack increases is much more simple. the airflow finds it more and more difficult to negotiate the curvature over the top surface of the aerofoil. the lift produced also increases.5]. Initially.4]. as angle of attack is increased with other factors constant. the angle between the chord line and the direction of the relative airflow increases. In this subject we often consider the air flowing past the aerofoil and refer to it as the relative airflow. just as it is possible to have a low angle of attack with a high nose attitude [Fig 3. the lift and drag produced also change.ANGLE OF ATTACK During tests in a wind tunnel. while angle of attack relates the chord of the wing to the direction of flight. it is possible to have a high angle of attack with a low nose attitude. even at no angle of attack. up to and beyond the stalling angle. Angle of attack increases beyond this point will result in less lift.3 . ANGLE OF ATTACK AND NOSE ATTITUDE It is important not to confuse the angle of attack with the nose attitude. the aerofoil is fixed and the air flows past it. If angle of attack continues to increase however. In level flight. the aerofoil does the moving while the air stays still. Finally it separates into chaotic flow preventing any further increase in lift. Fig 3. Fig 3. The angle of attack at which lift begins to decrease is called the stalling angle of attack [Fig 3. In a real aeroplane in flight. If the direction of the relative airflow [which is always exactly opposite the direction of motion].4 [a] 0° angle of attack .
will achieve its best 'degree of success' in extracting lift from the airstream. at about 20° angle of attack. 3. It is a measure of the 'degree of success' being achieved in the production of lift. This aerofoil. it makes some lift even at no angle of attack.8 . Lift coefficient is not lift. It is then possible to study the effect of changing the angle of attack with all other factors constant. at about 20° angle of attack. These numbers are called lift coefficients.6 represents approximately the behaviour of the inboard section of the Cessna 152 wing.6 Lift continues to increase in a straight line until. This angle of attack is known C as the stalling [or critical] angle of attack. The amount of lift actually produced would also depend on how much energy is available ie speed and density of the airstream.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . L .Fig 3. a small negative angle of attack is required. Fig 3. a point is reached 1. but it does tell us some important things about the aerofoil.high angle of attack high nose attitude . Fig 3.4 0 0° 8° 16° 24° 32° Angle of Attack NACA 2412 Inboard section Cessna 152 Note that the lift coefficient is really a measure of how much of the energy available is being converted into lift. The aerofoil's ability to extract lift from the energy of the airstream is represented as numbers for each angle of attack. We are not interested in the numbers themselves. This cannot be done with a real aeroplane in flight.low angle of attack LIFT COEFFICIENT In a wind tunnel it is possible to select a fixed speed for the wind and then rotate the aerofoil through various angles of attack.5 angle of attack angle of attack horizon flig ht p ath ath tp h g fli low nose atttiude . It is one of the factors that produces lift and it depends upon angle of attack. Because the aerofoil is cambered.2 where any further increase in angle of attack results in less lift. it is the general behaviour of the aerofoil that concerns us. To produce no lift.
so a net gain in lift coefficient is noticed. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3. The centre of pressure continues to move forward with increasing angle of attack until the point is reached where the gain produced by the accelerating airflow near the front is cancelled by the loss due to the decelerating airflow at the rear. As air flows across the top surface. causing it to decelerate.8]. According to Bernoulli. As angle of attack increases. it stalls at a certain angle. its value as a lift producing agent is lessening. the original speed of the relative airflow has almost no effect on the angle of attack at which the stall is encountered.2 C L . the minimum pressure region on the top surface moves forward and becomes even lower.0° Fig 3. Curiously. exceeds the loss from the reduction in speed over the rear. For small angle of attack increases.7 4° 1.8 direction of flow highest speed = minimum pressure direction of flow pressure gradient pressure gradient highest speed = minimum pressure airflow accelerating airflow decelerating The change of lift coefficient with angle of attack can be explained in terms of the behaviour of the local airflow as it responds to the pressures produced around the aerofoil. this must also be the point of minimum pressure. it accelerates to reach a maximum speed near the point of maximum thickness. While ever the airflow is slowing down. its momentum carries it on but the pressure gradient is opposing the direction of motion. the gain from the extra speed over the front. This assists the airflow to accelerate over the front section. but also acts to further impede its progress aft of the minimum pressure. similar effects occur across the bottom surface.5 .4 24° 0 0° 8° 16° 24° 32° Angle of Attack NACA 2412 Inboard section Cessna 152 Fig 3.8 8° 16° . To a much lesser extent. Since there is a natural tendency for air to flow towards a region of low pressure. Any further increase in angle of attack produces a net loss of lift and the stall has occurred. not at a certain speed. In fact it is meaningless to talk about the stalling speed of an aerofoil. After the point of minimum pressure. as it approaches the point of minimum pressure the pressure gradient acts in the direction of motion and causes it to accelerate [Fig 3.
Note that a triangular area of flow reversal and separation has formed downstream of a discontinuity in the line of the leading edge. 3. The wool tufts show clearly how the airflow behaves in flight. Another area of flow reversal is evident further outboard near the wing’s trailing edge.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .One way of investigating the behaviour of the airflow as it passes across the wing is by means of a wool tuft experiment. The result can often be surprising as the following photographs show! Image No 1 These photographs were take during a wool tuft experiment conducted on a Piper Warrior at Archerfield. it can be seen that the higher angle of attack required at this lower airspeed has resulted in the region of flow reversal extending further across the wing. Image No 2 This is a close up of the same area of flow reversal seen in the image above. In this image the aircraft is flying at normal cruising speed [about 100 kt]. Image No 3 This image shows the situation with the aircraft flying at a lower airspeed [about 80 kt]. There is also a general tendency for the air to flow in towards the fuselage. each wool tuft deflects to indicate the behaviour of the local airflow. This involves attaching a number of tufts of knitting wool to the surface being considered. The wool tufts show the airflow in this region is actually flowing forward across the wing to the point where the main airstream separates. As the air passes across the surface. Comparing this with image number 1.
as the angle of attack increases it spreads to effect a greater and greater proportion of the wing’s surface. Image No 5 Images No 5 & 6 show the situation with the wing stalled. Separation and flow reversal can be seen across the entire inboard chord of the wing. Image No 6 Flow reversal and separation is almost always present to some extent. This is sometimes referred to as the spanwise component of the airflow. The flow in towards the fuselage is clearly indicated.” CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3.Image No 4 This is a close up view of the area of flow reversal shown in image number 3. The best definition of a stall is “that condition where any further increase in angle of attack results in less lift.7 . The stall on a wing such as this is not marked by a sudden change in behaviour of the airflow. it is a matter of degree.
Some tailplanes are symmetrical as are some wing sections. 3.2 C L . giving rise to an earlier and more rapid onset of flow reversal and separation of the airflow. A symmetrical aerofoil has no Fig 3.8 . You may be surprised to find that not all aerofoils are cambered. wing sections are often employed in advanced aerobatic aeroplanes such as the Pitts Special or Bellanca Decathlon to improve inverted flight performance. There is one point of similarity however.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .So far the aerofoil section we have been considering has been cambered. they can be found on general aviation aircraft. but are less common.10 is an approximate representation]. therefore no camber. A wing can be thick yet still have no camber. Symmetrical. There is no separation between the chord line and the mean camber line. Note that a laminar flow aerofoil need not be symmetrical.10 1. Another interesting application of the symmetrical aerofoil section is in the outboard section of the Cessna 152 wing. A symmetrical aerofoil has a lift coefficient of zero when angle of attack is zero. some have a symmetrical section. Fig 3. Aerobatic aircraft must sacrifice some performance in normal flight for the sake of improved performance in inverted flight. Laminar flow aerofoils are a common feature on high speed aircraft. changing to become symmetrical at the tip [you will hear more about the reasons for this later].4 0 0° 8° 16° 24° 32° Angle of Attack NACA 0012 Outboard section Cessna 152 Note that in Fig 3. You might say that a symmetrical wing section performs equally badly either way! Many students confuse symmetrical aerofoils with laminar flow aerofoils. In fact most laminar flow aerofoils are cambered. it is also easier to upset than a turbulent flow boundary layer. The Cessna 152 wing has a cambered aerofoil section at the root. Some thin laminar flow aerofoils also tend to exhibit a more abrupt stall than conventional aerofoils. Obviously the fin and rudder of most aeroplanes are symmetrical aerofoil sections since they must function with equal effectiveness to the left or right. or nearly symmetrical. It will have a lower lift coefficient than a cambered aerofoil for any given angle of attack [Fig 3.9 camber since the chord line remains equidistant from the top and bottom surface and therefore is also the mean camber line.10 the stall is more abrupt than was the case for a cambered aerofoil. Even though the laminar flow boundary layer produces less drag. Be Symmetrical aerofoil careful that you do not confuse camber with thickness.
Again we are not interested in the numbers. These numbers are called drag coefficients and they depend upon the angle of attack. this represents parasite drag acting alone. this so-called skin friction may be safely ignored. The component of the total reaction which acts parallel to the direction of the airflow is plotted.11 With the airflow at a constant speed and density.11]. it is possible to study the behaviour of drag under the same conditions ie with all other factors except angle of attack remaining constant. At the speeds encountered in general aviation aeroplanes. The results are not very surprising. The aerofoil is placed in the wind tunnel so that it extends from wall to wall with no tip present-it represents the behaviour of an aerofoil of infinite span [Fig 3. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3. Aerofoil section rotated to various angles of attack.DRAG COEFFICIENT Just as we can investigate the behaviour of lift with changing angle of attack.16 16° . the aerofoil is rotated to present various angles of attack.24 8° C D . it is the general behaviour of the aerofoil that concerns us. and the friction generated as air passes over its surface. The drag that is produced in this situation is called parasite drag and is caused by air 'getting out of the way of' the aerofoil. Nothing special happens to the drag coefficient at the stalling angle-it simply continues to increase. 0° . Because there is no tip present. and it increases rapidly as angle of attack increases.32 Fig 3. The drag coefficient is at a minimum at a slightly negative angle of attack.08 24° 0 0° 8° 16° 24° 32° Angle of Attack NACA 2412 Inboard section Cessna 152 The aerofoil's 'success' in creating drag from the energy available in the airstream is represented as numbers on the vertical scale in Fig 312. Fig 3. Parasite drag is caused by the shape [or form] of the aerofoil producing form drag.9 .12 4° .
if we ignore engine considerations for the moment. At this angle of attack the value of lift ÷ drag is greatest. The best lift/drag ratio occurs somewhere between the two. the angle of attack which produces the least drag is so small that it also produces the least lift -a poor lift/drag ratio. like lift coefficient is related to angle of attack. Fig 3. The angle of attack which produces the maximum lift. Note that it is the angle of attack which decides the value of the lift drag ratio while the speed decides the actual value of lift and drag as a number of pounds or kilograms. The fuel ultimately comes from the operator's cheque book! In a very real sense. The engine makes its thrust by burning fuel. for most general aviation aerofoils at about 4° angle of attack. For example an aeroplane flying straight and level with a low drag coefficient would have to be flying very fast to get enough lift at such a low angle of attack. we shall see that the drag coefficient is only one of the factors at work. the stalling angle. Remember that all of our discussion so far relates to an aerofoil in a wind tunnel. because the increased angle of attack would allow it to fly at a lower speed [more on this later].10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . For an aerofoil in a wind tunnel with constant speed airflow. If the aerofoil is operated at this angle of attack at any speed the ratio of lift to drag is at its best. 3. In fact. LIFT/DRAG RATIO . An aerofoil at a low drag coefficient presents itself to the airflow so as to make the smallest possible 'hole' in the airstream [Fig 3. the minimum drag coefficient determines the maximum speed an aeroplane can achieve.Another simple way to think of drag coefficient is to consider the size of the 'hole' the aerofoil makes in the airstream.13]. The force of drag acting would be large because of the high speed. lift/drag ratio is a measure of the 'value for money' being achieved. It would be quite possible for the aeroplane with the higher drag coefficient to be experiencing less drag.13 Low drag coefficient High drag coefficient From Fig 3. Drag must be overcome by thrust. also produces a very high drag -again a poor lift/drag ratio.AEROFOILS There is no point getting excited about the amount of lift an aerofoil produces at a given angle of attack unless we also consider the amount of drag produced at that angle of attack. When we consider the force of drag itself acting on a real aeroplane in flight. The true measure of an aerofoil's performance is the ratio of lift to drag.13 it can be seen that drag coefficient.
Note that the centre of pressure remains very close to that position until after the stall. the centre of pressure on many aerofoils exhibits less movement with angle of attack changes than you might think.14]. By the way the aeroplane's best Angle of Attack lift/drag ratio probably would not occur with the aerofoil at 4° angle of attack either.For the inboard section of the Cessna 152 wing the best lift/drag ratio occurs at about 4° angle of attack where it has 24 CL a value of nearly 24.AEROFOILS As we have seen. reduces the lift/drag ratio to less than half that 0 0° 8° 16° 24° 32° value.11 . changes of pressure distribution can cause a change in the position of the centre of pressure. when it moves rearward. move vertically upwards from 8° and hit the reference line. the total reaction is considered to act through a single point on the chord called the centre of pressure. at any speed. To find the centre of pressure position at 8° angle of attack. In the case of an aerofoil. Fig 3. the D value of lift produced is 24 times the 16 value of drag [Fig 3. We have seen that an increase in angle of attack causes the front portion of the wing to become a more important contributor to lift. Move horizontally across to the left to locate the centre of pressure position as a percentage of the chord [about 28%].14 CENTRE OF PRESSURE . That is to say that C at this angle of attack. However. Since the centre of pressure is the point about which all pressures are evenly distributed. There is a tendency on some aerofoils for centre of pressure to move forward as angle of attack is increased until the stalling angle is reached. since the bottom of the aerofoil also has some influence on the pressure distribution. What matters it that it still does occur at some particular angle of attack.15 at left shows centre of pressure movement for the Cessna 152 inboard section. Note that this considers the aerofoil only not the aeroplane. Fig 3. When we consider the aeroplane. lift and drag are simply components of the total reaction produced by all of the aerodynamic forces acting. 8 the extra drag produced by the fuselage. wheels etc. tail section. when it slowly moves back. Fig 315 Centre of Pressure position 0% % of Chord 40% 80% 100% 8° NACA 2412 16° 24° Angle of attack ° Cessna 152 32° Inboard section CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3.
The approximate behaviours of the lift and drag coefficients and lift/drag ratio for the Cessna 152 wing are shown below. These curves are the result of wind tunnel tests carried out on the wing section. Note that it is only in a wind tunnel that the airspeed can be kept constant and we can study the changes that take place when angle of attack alone is changed. This can never be achieved for an actual aircraft in flight, since if angle of attack is changed, speed will also change so it will become impossible to distinguish which changes are due to angle of attack alone. This point should be kept in mind particularly when considering the drag coefficient curve - CD. This is the result of rotating the wing section in a wind tunnel in a constant velocity airflow. Whenever the bottom axis of the graph is angle of attack, the graph refers to a wind tunnel test. When the bottom axis is speed, the graph refers to an actual aircraft in flight. An interesting feature of this wing is the use of two different aerofoil sections. On the left is the inboard section which is cambered, while on the right is the outboard section which is symmetrical. Note that with the symmetrical outboard section, the lift coefficient is zero when the angle of attack is zero - this is just what we would expect for a symmetrical aerofoil. The best lift/drag ratio angle of attack is at about 4° and the stalling angle of attack is just over 20°. Note that even though you often hear 15° used as an example of the stalling angle, nobody ever said that all aerofoils stall at 15°. What is important is that each aerofoil stalls at some particular angle of attack.
Cessna 152 wing. Inboard section
Cessna 152 wing. outboard section
Maximum lift coefficient - Stalling angle.
Maximum lift coefficient - Stalling angle.
Best lift/drag ratio -Minimum drag
Best lift/drag ratio -Minimum drag
-8 0 8 16 24 32
-8 0 8 16 24 32
Angle of attack - degrees.
Angle of attack - degrees.
BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL
Try these exam type Questions.
Question No 1 The term 'coefficient', when applied to lift and drag for a particular aerofoil is most closely related to [a] angle of attack [b] camber [c] speed [d] wing area Question No 2 The angle of attack of an aerofoil is the angle at which the relative airflow approaches the [a] top surface [b] bottom surface [c] chord line [d] mean camber line Question No 3 The net effect of all forces acting on an aerofoil can be attributed to a single imaginary force called [a] lift [b] the total reaction [c] induced drag [d] total drag Question No 4 As the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased from zero to the stalling angle at constant indicated air speed, the magnitude of the force of lift [a] increases then decreases [b] decreases continuously [c] decreases then increases [d] increases continuously Question No 5 Any increase in the angle of attack beyond the stalling angle at constant indicated air speed, will cause [a] less lift and more drag [b] more lift and less drag [c] more lift and more drag [d] less lift and less drag Question No 6 As the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased beyond the stalling angle at constant indicated air speed, the magnitude of the force of lift [a] increases then decreases [b] decreases continuously [c] decreases then increases [d] increases continuously Question No 7 Laminar flow in the boundary layer tends to persist [a] across most of the upper surface [c] while ever the aerofoil section is thickening
across most of the lower surface to the separation point
Question No 8 A laminar flow aerofoil has the point of maximum thickness [a] well forward and produces less parasite drag [b] near 50% of the chord and produces less induced drag [c] well forward and produces less induced drag [d] near 50% of the chord and produces less parasite drag Question No 9 An aerofoil is said to be at its stalling angle if any increase or decrease in angle of attack [a] produces less lift and less drag [b] produces a lower lift/drag ratio [c] produces less lift [d] produces more drag Question No 10 As the angle of attack is increased from zero to the stalling angle, the centre of pressure of most aerofoils [a] moves further forward [b] moves further aft [c] remains stationary [d] moves forward, then aft
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Question No 11 Subsonic air flowing through the throat of a venturi suffers [a] an increase in both pressure energy and kinetic energy [b] an increase in pressure energy and a decrease in kinetic energy [c] a decrease in pressure energy and an increase in kinetic energy [d] a decrease in both pressure energy and kinetic energy Question No 12 If angle of attack is increased from zero to beyond the stalling angle at constant indicated air speed, the magnitude of the force of drag [a] increases then decreases [b] decreases continuously [c] decreases then increases [d] increases continuously Question No 13 As the angle of attack of a cambered aerofoil is increased in flight towards the stalling angle, the effect on the total reaction is that [a] the point on the chord through which the total reaction acts moves aft [b] the point on the chord through which the total reaction acts remains stationary [c] the total reaction increases up to the best lift/drag ratio angle, then moves aft [d] the magnitude of the total reaction continues to increase up to the stalling angle Question No 14 An aircraft in level flight is flying at angle of attack X. This represents [a] the maximum speed in level flight [b] the minimum speed in level flight [c] the speed for the best lift/drag ratio [d] the speed for the best endurance
Angle of Attack
Question No 15 The value of the minimum drag coefficient of a particular aerofoil is a factor in determining [a] the maximum range of the aeroplane [b] the minimum speed in level flight [c] the stalling speed of the aeroplane [d] the maximum speed in level flight Question No 16 As the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased from about 4° to the stalling angle, at constant indicated air speed, [a] lift increases and drag increases [b] lift increases and drag decreases [c] lift decreases and drag increases [d] lift decreases and drag decreases Question No 17 The angle of attack of an aerofoil is defined as the angle between [a] the chord line and the longitudinal axis [b] the aircraft's nose and the natural horizon [c] the chord line and the relative airflow [d] the aircraft indicator and the horizon bar on the artificial horizon Question No 18 An angle of attack increase in straight and level flight is accompanied by [a] an increase in the total reaction and a forward movement in the centre of pressure [b] an increase in the total reaction and an aft movement in the centre of pressure [c] a decrease in the total reaction and a forward movement in the centre of pressure [d] a forward movement in the total reaction and no change in the centre of pressure
BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL
When flying at the angle of attack marked 'X' in level flight the value of lift is[a] equal to weight [b] greater than weight [c] at a maximum [d] less than weight L/D X Angle of Attack CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 3.CL Question No 19 Refer to the figure at left. [c] the coefficient of lift increases and the coefficient of drag decreases. An aircraft flying at the angle of attack marked A would be flying at [a] the maximum speed in level flight [b] the best lift/drag ratio [c] the stalling speed [d] the best climbing speed Angle of Attack A Question No 20 As the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased towards the stalling angle at constant IAS. [d] the coefficient of lift decreases and the coefficient of drag increases.15 . the effect on the coefficients of lift and drag is [a] the coefficient of lift increases and the coefficient of drag increases. [b] the coefficient of lift decreases and the coefficient of drag decreases. Question No 21 Refer to the figure at left.
In level flight lift must equal weight. the airflow is travelling 'up hill'. Further increases in angle of attack produce a reduced lift coefficient and therefore less lift. The lift/drag ratio increases or decreases at different airspeeds because drag changes while lift remains the same. The stalling speed is the speed at which the maximum lift coefficient is required to produce the necessary lift. Lift decreases after the stalling angle is exceeded. As the kinetic energy [speed] increases. At higher angles of attack the front portion of the wing contributes more of the total lift. The coefficient of lift and drag is simply a measure of the 'degree of success' the aerofoil is having in generating lift and drag from the total energy available in the free airstream. See Questions 4. Since laminar flow tends to persist while ever the aerofoil section is thickening. By definition. As the angle of attack increases a greater and greater proportion of the energy of the free airstream is absorbed. The total energy remains constant throughout. The question specifies up to the stalling angle not beyond.12 and 13. The force of drag increases as angle of attack is increased. 2 3 [c] [b] 4 5 6 [d] [a] [b] 7 8 [c] [d] 9 10 [c] [a] 11 12 [c] [d] 13 [d] 14 15 [b] [d] 16 17 18 19 20 [a] [c] [a] [c] [a] 21 [a] 3. you must fly at the highest possible speed.produces a lower lift coefficient. The total reaction accounts for all aerodynamic forces acting on the aerofoil [or aeroplane] by replacing them with a single force acting at a specified point. In level flight the value of lift is always equal to weight. more lift and more drag are generated for a given airspeed. A bigger coefficient means a bigger 'slice' of the available energy is being tapped. As angle of attack increases. It is the angle of attack that decides how big that 'slice' is.Comment While the aerofoil section is thickening. The stalling angle has no particular significance to the behaviour of drag-it simply continues to increase after the stalling angle is exceeded. The boundary layer tends to remain laminar.2. By definition. If the aircraft is flying with the highest possible lift coefficient it must be flying at the lowest possible IAS. so at constant IAS it produces the maximum possible amount of lift. Turbulent flow in the boundary layer gives rise to more parasite drag than laminar flow.3.16 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Any other angle of attackgreater or smaller.3]. The stalling angle produces the maximum lift coefficient. the pressure energy must decrease [see page 1. The total reaction continues to increase up to the stalling angle. The centre of pressure moves towards added lift just as the centre of gravity moves towards added weight.ANSWERS TO EXERCISE A2 No 1 Answer [a] Comment The coefficient indicates what proportion of the free airstream's energy is going into the production of lift or drag. just as the centre of gravity replaces all items of weight with a single force at a specified point. moving the maximum thickness further back encourages a more extensive area of laminar flow and therefore reduced parasite drag. but drag continues to increase beyond the stalling angle. See Questions 10 and 13.9]. The stalling angle produces the maximum lift coefficient. Lift continues to increase up to the stalling angle then begins to decrease after the stalling angle is exceeded.6. To fly at the minimum angle of attack in level flight. Minimum drag coefficient is not minimum drag-it is minimum angle of attack [see page 1.
It's time now to study the manoeuvres of the actual aeroplane in flight. weight and density Descending . but some types.angle of attack and airspeed Straight and level flight . an aircraft is out of its element on the ground.the forces acting and the effect of wind and weight Turning . Visibility: Ground visibility is often not a high priority in aircraft design and since the pilot must scan a taxi path at least as wide as the wing span. you will be presented with sets of multi-choice questions with explained answers to prepare you for the CASA examination.forces acting and factors affecting turning performance Stalling -understanding the factors affecting the stalling characteristics Spinning . Fig 4. In the often cluttered environment of parking areas and aprons. Because of the high nose attitude in a tailwheel aircraft [Fig 4. as you work through this section.taxi. nonexistent! It is necessary to 'clear the nose' when taxiing some tailwheel aircraft by occasionally yawing 30° or so to permit the pilot to check the intended taxi path. speed should be carefully monitored. Since visibility is determined to a large extent by the pilot's seating position. take-off and landing for nosewheel and tailwheel aircraft. Also.flying for range and flying for endurance Climbing . forward visibility is usually very poor.1]. In this section we will consider ground handling as it relates to both nosewheel and tailwheel aircraft.causes and recovery Stability and control . We will consider: Ground handling . taxi speed can easily become excessive. Due to the lack of visual cues close to the pilot.the forces acting and the effect of wind. and in some cases.design features and factors affecting stability and control The purpose of this study is to cover the general principles involved in each of these topics.1 . can be quite ungainly. correct adjustment of the seat is an important prestart check item. This background will help you get the most out of your instructor's briefings when these principles are applied to your specific aircraft type.before they are required.1 no forward visibility below this line CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 4. GROUND HANDLING Like many of God's creatures of the air. Lift and Drag in flight . Ease of ground handling varies with design. extra care is required.AEROPLANES So far in this section we have concentrated on the characteristics of aerofoils and their behaviour in wind tunnel tests. Brakes should be checked immediately after the aircraft moves . especially tailwheel aircraft.
The main wheels of a tailwheel aircraft are further forward . The application of one brake is often required for sharp turns in this type of aircraft. Tailwheel aircraft often have a fully or partly castoring tailwheel which requires a much larger amount of rudder travel for directional control. This tendency of the aircraft to yaw into the wind is sometimes called 'weathercocking' and it is much more pronounced in tailwheel aircraft.which is why it sits on its tail. it is often necessary to taxi crosswind or downwind. On the ground. When taxiing in very strong and gusty wind conditions. Since there is a greater surface area behind the pivot point. there is a net force attempting to push the tail of the aircraft downwind [into the page in Fig 4. In flight all movement occurs with the aircraft pivoting about its centre of gravity. tailwheel aircraft].2].2 pivot point wind direction pivot point wind direction As the wind strikes the keel surfaces of the aircraft it exerts a pressure on those surfaces. Consider what happens when wind strikes the aircraft from the side.3 Ri gh ta ile ro n up W Ri gh ta ile ro n IN D up Elevator down Elevator up W IN D 4. full correcting rudder and some brake may be required just to maintain a straight taxi path! In light aircraft the ailerons are usually held level with a little back pressure on the control column. the aircraft pivots about one of its wheels regardless of the position of the centre of gravity [Fig 4. In very strong cross winds. increasing the tendency to weathercock. the relative airflow is almost always coming from directly in front of the aircraft.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Wind: During flight. This presents a greatly increased area behind the pivot point. Fig 4.Control: Because nosewheel aircraft usually have direct steering of the nosewheel via the rudder pedals. Fig 4. directional control during ground operations is not difficult. During ground operations however.2]. the control surfaces are held in a position which will prevent strong gusts from lifting the upwind wing or tail [especially for high wing.
The propeller's rotation imparts a spiralling motion to the slipstream. this situation is most likely to be encountered during the take-off run and climb. causing it to rotate as it moves aft [Fig 4. which the pilot interprets as a yaw to the left. Spiralling slipstream Fig 4.4]. since there is no surface protruding beneath the fuselage. the main wheels must be moved further forward to allow the pilot to safely use them. Some high powered single engine aeroplanes have a rudder trim to assist the pilot during long climbs. TAKE-OFF Directional control: The purpose of the take-off run is to allow the aircraft to accelerate in a particular direction to a predetermined Indicated Air Speed.5 Nose yaws left Fin and rudder pushed to the right Tail pushed right This portion of the slipstream hits nothing CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 4. Slipstream effect is strongest when the propeller is generating maximum thrust. This leaves a net force pushing the tail to the right. That portion of the slipstream that rises up over the tail section strikes the fin and rudder on the left-hand side. If brakes are fitted. Apart from aerobatic manoeuvres. ie whenever full power is applied at low airspeed.they are: Slipstream effect: The air that is accelerated rearwards by the propeller is called the slipstream. the aircraft was designed without brakes.Some tailwheel aircraft have the centre of gravity only slightly behind the main wheels. the portion of the slipstream that passes under the tail section strikes nothing. The pilot must compensate by applying right rudder to prevent the yaw. ha b rsh re in ak g! Fig 37 harsh braking In the case of the well known Tiger Moth.3 . It would obviously be of great assistance to the pilot if it remained on the runway as it did so! There are a number of factors that the pilot must contend with to achieve this desirable state of affairs .5]. However. In this type of aircraft the harsh use of brakes can cause the aircraft to 'nose over' [Fig 4. applying a force which pushes the tail to the right.
all the while rotating to the left due to torque reaction. Even though it is the propeller which spins. Propeller rotates clockwise The torque reaction is still present after lift off and the designer must compensate for it to avoid the need to hold on correcting aileron throughout the entire flight. But if you wind up the rubber band and hold the propeller. the propeller spins. the airspeed is allowed to drop to the point where the engine torque begins to rotate the aircraft opposite to propeller rotation. it simply supplies the torque. the aeroplane spins in the opposite direction. Since almost all aircraft engines rotate clockwise as seen from the cockFig 4. at the end of a vertical climb at full power. If you wind up the rubber band and hold the aeroplane. Most single engine aircraft have some design feature which eliminates the slipstream effect during cruise. Note that the torque reaction's primary effect is to produce a roll. Likewise. counteracting the left roll produced by the torque reaction. with full power maintained.6 pit. the tendency to yaw to the left would be present to some extent at all times if the designer did nothing about it. generating more rollAircraft attempts ing friction during the ground run.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . in which. The resulting imbalance of friction forces contributes further to the left yaw already present due to slipstream effect. [The angle of off-set for the fin or thrust line is very small and not likely to be obvious to the eye]. an engine supplies torque. This rolling tendency presses the left wheel harder onto the surface than the right wheel. Off-setting the engine thrust line so that it pulls the nose to the right to counteract the slipstream effect at cruise power and speed. the torque reaction produces a tendency to roll to the left [Fig 4. The Pitts Special performs a manoeuvre called a torque roll. During cruise the left wing makes slightly more lift than the right wing. During this manoeuvre. Torque reaction: Imagine you are holding a small model aeroplane which is powered by a rubber band. It is up to the designer of the device to decide which one spins. the yaw is a secondary effect due to the increased friction acting on the left wheel. This is usually achieved by setting the left wing at a slightly higher angle of incidence than the right wing [again you would never see it with your eye]. Biasing the rudder so that it takes on a slight deflection to the right when the rudder pedals are at rest.Since the slipstream is present whenever the propeller is developing thrust. to roll to the left The effect is similar to applying a Increased rolling friction little bit of left brake. 4.6]. The rubber band doesn't care which one spins. there is always a torque reaction which attempts to rotate the aircraft in the opposite direction [and it succeeds in some light. high powered aerobatic singles!]. This can be achieved by: Off-setting the fin slightly so that it produces a right yawing tendency to counteract the slipstream effect at cruise airspeeds and power settings. the aircraft can be made to stop and actually fall backwards. or tendency to rotate.
it resists pitching but responds by yawing.7].to improve forward visibility. the spinning top remains upright. so as to push the top of the disk forward. you see that the force is applied at one point. The simplest of these is gyroscopic rigidity. He has told them that they must keep running at all times and if anything forces them off the line. Remove the front wheel from a bicycle [preferably your own]. This rather mysterious property of a gyroscope is called precession and it is really just a special case of inertia. Gyroscopic precession can be very clearly demonstrated by using a bicycle wheel. to improve acceleration by reducing the drag coefficient and to lift the fin and rudder into the 'clean' airflow above the fuselage.7 Force applied 90° further around in the direction of rotahere tion.is observed further on in the direction of motion. This is done for three reasons . Each runner reaches a maximum displacement after the force is applied. As each runner comes past him. but responds by moving forward at a point Fig 4. From your vantage point in the helicopter. Once set in motion. This is the property exhibited by a spinning top. but the displacement. the disk resists the force at the point of application. In terms of aircraft motion.8. the right Fig 4.the particles of matter within the disk . Imagine you are looking down from a helicopter on a observed here group of footballers at training. During the take-off run in a tailwheel aircraft. its axis of rotation becomes fixed and while the speed of rotation remains high enough.5 . if we attempt to move the disk in pitch. In Fig 4. resisting the force of gravity. so that. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 4. and hold it by the axle. Set the wheel spinning and attempt to make it move in pitch. the force is applied at the top of the disk. Another gyroscopic property. instead of the top of the disk moving forward. is present in a spinning propeller and it is the one that concerns us at the moment.suffer the displacement later. called precession. then regains the line.Gyroscopic effect: Any object that has mass and is rotating takes on the properties of a gyroscope. they must regain it as soon as possible-but keep running. A simple scenario which illustrates the principle quite well is shown in Displacement Fig 4. The coach has ordered them to run down the sideline of the football field.8 displacement observed here force applied here hand edge does. If a force is applied to the rim of a spinning disk [Fig 4. the coach gives him a solid shove to force him off the line.the effect of that force. the pilot lifts the tail soon after the run commences.7. but the 'runners' .
the aeroplane has advanced forward through the distance marked D. Now A/A1 is greater than B/B1. lifting the tail involves changing the pitch attitude of the propeller. At position A one blade is at the top of the disk and about to commence its downward travel. has been the same. the top of the propeller disk is pushed forward.11 B1 a direction of flight a A1 D B In Fig 4. a. so the down-going blade has travelled a greater distance through the air and so has encountered a faster airflow than the upgoing blade. More thrust is produced by the down-going blade and this asymmetry of thrust causes the thrust line to shift from the propeller shaft towards the side of the down-going blade.9]. A low airf tive rela a A1 D B Fig 4. this produces a yaw to the left [Fig 4. b.10 represents a propeller disk moving forward at right angles to the direction of flight. Also the relative airflow must have approached each blade from a direction opposite to its motion. Fig 4. and the blade at the bottom of the disk has rotated to the position marked B1. At position B the other blade is at the bottom of the disk and about to commence its upward travel. One half of a propeller revolution later. the propeller is advancing at an angle to the direction of flight as it would if the aircraft was flying at a high angle of attack.9 When the tail is lifted. each blade must have travelled at the same speed through the air.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . a. The downgoing blade has had both a higher speed and a higher angle of attack than the up-going blade. The propeller responds by attempting to push the right hand side of the propeller disk forward. Also the angle at which the relative airflow approached the down-going blade. During that one half of a propeller revolution.a yaw to the left. Fig 4.However. the angle of attack. 4.10 B1 n otio fm no ctio dire A dire ctio no fm otio n direction of flight rela tive airf low a Asymmetric blade effect or 'P' factor: Fig 4. the angle of attack of each blade. Pilots of powerful tailwheel aircraft soon learn that it is smarter to lift the tail gently. has been greater than that of the up-going blade.11. Since the lines A/A1 and B/B1 represent the distance travelled by each blade during one half of a propeller revolution and A/ A1 = B/B1. Note that gyroscopic precession is present only while the change is occurring and its strength depends upon the rate at which the change is made. the blade at the top of the disk has rotated to the position marked A1.
The friction force. This further contributes to the tendency to yaw to the left. Note that the asymmetric blade effect would be present only when the propeller disk is inclined to the relative airflow.13. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 4. Let's consider the extreme case with the disk advancing so that it is parallel to the direction of motion. As the aircraft begins to swing. the disk will be close to right angles to the relative airflow and the thrust line will move back to the centre of the disk. Fig 4. thrust line Fig 4. is allowed to continue unchecked. the down going blade makes more thrust than the up-going blade and the thrust line is displaced towards the right hand side of the disk. blade A is now advancing into the relative airflow.like a helicopter [Fig 4. while blade B is retreating away from the relative airflow. relative airflow Fig 4. If the disk is moving through the air at 80 kt.Now if all this makes your little head spin. there will be little or no asymmetric blade effect or gyroscopic effect during the take-off run.but that's another story. If a swing to either side [but particularly to the left]. The combination of these two forces encourages the swing.13 As a tailwheel aircraft begins its take-off run. the propeller disk is inclined to the relative airflow as in Fig 4. When the pilot lifts the tail.12]. here is a simpler way to look at it. Because of the asymmetric blade effect. acts against motion. an unstable combination of forces acts to the point where even full application of rudder cannot prevent it continuing. now increased because of the side load.this is the same effect that causes a side load on car tyres when cornering.14].12 80 kt relative wind This side advances into the wind This side retreats from the wind The difference in the speed of the relative airflow is 160 kt! Helicopter designers employ some clever devices to compensate for this. its inertia continues to act in the original direction of motion . In a nosewheel aircraft. as the aeroplane is sitting in a level attitude to begin with. This increases the distance between the forces and worsens the situation [Fig 4. Ground looping: Another problem that applies particularly to tailwheel aircraft is a loss of directional control during the take-off or landing run called ground looping.14 centre of gravity inertia friction The centre of gravity is behind the main wheels.7 .
the swing could have been stopped.15 shown in Fig 4. this will produce a pivot into wind on the nosewheel. allowing the aircraft to run along on its nosewheel only [Fig 4. Here are some good reasons why designers choose the tailwheel configuration. if it adds to directional control problems during take-off and landing.17 Performance considerations: The distance required for take-off depends upon the rate at which the aircraft accelerates during the take-off run. there is less rolling friction and improved take-off performance They're much more fun to fly! * * * Wheelbarrowing in nosewheel aircraft: The combination of excessive forward pressure on the control column during the ground run and high speed.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . * For fixed undercarriages.15].17]. The force available for acceleration is the difference between those forces which are pulling [or pushing] it forward and those forces which are acting to resist its motion [Fig 4.18]. can cause the mainwheels of some nosewheel aircraft to leave the ground.16 Fig 4.18 accelerating force Thrust to overcome total drag Total drag total thrust produced 4. the outside wing tip contacts the ground and it comes to rest in the classic pose Fig 4. Fig 4. As the swing continues.If corrective action had been taken early. a ground loop will almost surely follow. Fig 4. In a cross wind. but beyond a certain point.16. When the mainwheels return to the ground. even full application of opposite rudder cannot prevent it continuing. By now you may be asking why we bother with a tailwheel at all. the weight and drag saved by having no nosewheel is considerable in a small aircraft [have a good look at the size of a Cessna 152 nosewheel] The tailwheel configuration is much less prone to damage on rough strips and provides better ground clearance for the propeller Since the aircraft sits on only two wheels during most of the take-off run. the aircraft rolls out of the direction of turn [Fig 4.
The forces acting forward are the thrust produced by the propeller or jet and gravity if a down hill slope is involved. The forces acting to resist motion are aerodynamic drag, friction with the surface and gravity if an uphill slope is involved. It follows that anything which reduces the thrust or increases friction and/or drag will reduce the accelerating force available and therefore increase the time and distance required to achieve the required airspeed. Factors that reduce thrust include: * Part throttle operation * Reduction in air density * Use of carburettor heat * Carburettor ice * Incorrect mixture setting * Inefficient combustion [fouled spark plugs] Factors that increase the resisting forces include: * The use of too much flap * Too much backpressure on the control column during the take-off run * Removed doors or windows * Soft wet surface or long grass * Up-hill slope * High take-off weight A high take-off weight not only increases the friction forces during the ground run, but also increases the speed required for take-off. This means a higher speed must be achieved with a reduced accelerating force available. The result will be a large increase in distance required. The importance of density: Atmospheric density is a measure of the mass of air contained in a given volume. It actually depends upon the number of air molecules that are present. Fig 4.19 When a given volume of air contains a large number of molecules, the density is said to be high. When the same volume contains fewer molecules, the density is said to be low. Air density strongly affects such things as :High density - many molecules in a given volume.
 The lift produced at any given true air speed [TAS]  The engine power produced at any throttle setting.  The thrust produced by the propeller at any given RPM. The result is that a relatively small change in the ambient density produces a very dramatic change in aircraft performance. This reduction in performance is most noticeable during take - off and climb.
Low density - fewer molecules in the same volume.
Consider an aircraft taking off on a day when the density is low. To obtain the same lift as is possible on a day of high density, the aircraft must be accelerated to a higher TAS to compensate for the reduced density. However, since engine power output is controlled by the rate at which we can burn fuel, and this in turn depends upon the amount of air available, the engine power available will be reduced.
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This reduced engine power which is being delivered to the less efficient propeller as it spins in the less dense air provides reduced thrust which must now be applied to accelerate the aircraft to the higher TAS mentioned previously. The result is a drastic reduction in performance. Both the take-off distance required and the climb gradient after take-off will suffer. Fig 4.20
Day of high density 50 feet
Day of low density 50 feet Take-off run increased Take-off distance increased
Note that take-off distance is defined as the distance required for the aircraft to reach a height of 50 ft above the runway surface from a standing start. By the end of the take-off distance, the aircraft should have achieved its take-off safety speed, VTOSS. This is a speed published in the aircraft performance data which ensures that adequate control would exist in the event of a sudden and complete engine failure. VTOSS increases as aircraft weight increases and must not be less than 1.2 times the stalling speed.
BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL
DRAG. It goes without saying that the amout of drag acting on an aircraft during flight is of great concern to both the designer and the pilot. There are many things that the designer can do about drag during manufacture and we shall be investigating them shortly. Even though the pilot has fewer options when it comes to minimizing drag in flight, it is vital that he/she has a sound understanding of the techniques than can be employed to allow the aircraft to fly with minimum drag.
THE DRAG TREE. The total drag acting on the aircraft can be classified according to its source. It is helpful to imagine the relationship between the various sources of drag in the form of a ‘drag tree’ shown below.
Parasite Drag. Made up of:
Skin friction Skin friction is caused by the air ‘sticking’ to surfaces as it passes around the aircraft. Note that even if a surface had zero thickness [impossible of course], it would still suffer skin friction. It is relatively unimportant at speeds below about 300 knots, but it can be minimized by keeping all surfaces as smooth as posssible. Induced Drag
Form Drag also called Pressure Drag.
Parasite drag is caused by the air ‘getting out of the way’ as the aeroplane moves forward. All three dimensional objects will suffer form drag when moving through the air. Form drag can be dramatically reduced by changing the shape [or form] of the object which is moving. A bicycle rider can reduce form drag by leaning forward over the handle bars when travelling at high speed.
Induced drag is caused by the modification to the airflow as it interacts with any lift-producing surface. The main source of induced drag is the spanwise deflection of the airflow as it passes over the top and bottom surface of the aerofoil. Air ‘spills’ over the wing tips as it attempts to flow from the higher pressure beneath the wing to the lower pressure above. This causes the air passing over the top surface to deflect towards the fuselage while the air passing underneath deflects towards the tip. This results in the formation of rapidly rotating wing tip vortices and trailing edge eddies which bleed energy from the moving aerofoil.
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low aspect ratio .lower induced drag 5.the best is a 'teardrop' streamlined shape. pressure reduction behind pressure build-up in front DRAG DRAG DRAG Form drag can be reduced by as much as 90% simply by changing the shape of an object. However the long thin wing will produce less induced drag and therefore a more efficient wing. This is often called streamlining.Form drag can be reduced by altering the shape [or form] of the object.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Wheel spats. wing root fairings and a streamlined crosssection for lift struts all help to keep drag low. lift strut Wheel fairing or spat The designer can keep form drag to a minimum by ensuring that all surfaces exposed to the airflow are kept as streamlined as possible. A wing wing-root fairing with a long span and a short chord can have the same area as a wing with a shorter span and longer chord. The most efficient method used for the reduction of induced drag is keeping the wing tip as small as possible. The worst is a flat plate placed at 90° to the airflow .high induced drag high aspect ratio .
3 airflow over top surface lower pressure higher pressure airflow over bottom surface CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 5. while three times the speed produces about nine times the drag. As speed increases. Note that for an aircraft in level flight. The amount of parasite drag experienced by an aircraft in flight depends upon the speed and angle of attack at which it is flying and the position of the flaps and undercarriage.1 aircraft.2] for the whole aircraft in level flight the results are not very surprising.3]. * More about the wing tip later. twice the speed produces about four times the drag. the angle of attack would actually be lower at high speed. air attempts to flow from beneath the wing to the region above it via the tip [Fig 5. Because of the natural tendency for a fluid to flow from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure. It consists of form drag and skin friction. the aerofoil is rotated to present various angles of attack.TOTAL DRAG IN FLIGHT. This sideways deflection of the airflow is called spanwise flow. Skin friction may be ignored at the speeds encountered in the average light Fig 5. With the airflow at a constant speed and density.2 parasite drag speed Induced drag: For the aircraft in flight. Fig 5. Parasite drag: In the beginning of this section we considered the drag acting on an aerofoil in a wind tunnel. The pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure beneath it. Lift is produced because a pressure difference exists between the top and bottom of the wing. If we plot the behaviour of parasite drag against speed [Fig 5. That is. This influences the rest of the air flowing beneath the wing causing it to deflect slightly towards the tip. The component of the total reaction which acts parallel to the direction of the airflow is plotted. The rate of increase in parasite drag is approximately equal to the square of the speed. This spilling of air over the tip modifies the behaviour of the airflow across the entire wing. the air beneath the wing is moving out to curl over the tip. Meanwhile the air that spills over the tip pushes the rest of the air flowing over the top surface towards the fuselage. parasite drag increases.3 . The parasite drag increases because of the rising speed. This parasite drag is the result of the airflow 'getting out of the way of' the aerofoil. parasite drag is not the only influence at work. At the wing tip. Fig 5. this represents parasite drag acting alone. Because there is no tip* present.
no vortex direction of flight Fig 5. In the vicinity of the wing tip however.6 downward component imposed on the airflow lower pressure higher pressure Fig 5. The inclination of lift is the result of the change in the direction of the local relative airflow. It really is a case of looking at the same phenomenon in two different ways. In the vicinity of the wing tip. The vortices. Because of this change in the direction of the relative airflow.6]. eddies and the spanwise deflection of the airflow.4]. are really part of the same phenomenon.7 induced drag relativ e . there is also a change in the direction in which lift acts. the vortex imposes a downward component on the relative airflow [Fig 5.5 Induced drag can also be explained in terms of vectors. At the trailing edge.induced drag [Fig 5.Fig 5. Curiously this downward flow is signalled ahead and the approaching airflow deflects downwards before it reaches the wing [very much a case of the tail wagging the dog].5]. the deflected airflows from the top and bottom surface meet to form a series of small scale vortices called eddies. lift now has a component which opposes the direction of motion . The change in airflow direction results from the action of the vortices. The energy involved in maintaining these complex airflow patterns is manifest as extra drag acting in addition to parasite drag. The relative airflow is usually considered to be exactly opposite the direction of motion [Fig 5. Lift relative airflow . lift is inclined rearwards. Sometimes they combine to form a large unstable vortex sheet involving a large portion of the wing surface. You can think of induced drag as the action of the wing tip vortices or as the rearward inclination of lift near the wing tip. We saw previously that lift acts at right angles to the relative airflow.vorte airflow at ti p x pres ent direction of flight 5. Because it is an unavoidable consequence of lift production it is referred to as induced drag. As far as the aircraft is concerned. causes a spiralling sheet of air called a vortex to form at each wing tip [Fig 5. They are all the result of the pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces of the wing.7]. Fig 5.4 spanwise flow eddy vortex The combined effect of the air attempting to roll around the wing tip and the forward motion of the aircraft.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
. A wing with a long span and a short chord ie long and thin.5 . there is much more time available for the air to Fig 5.8 illustrates the behaviour of induced drag in level flight. vortex formation is reduced. However. It is at its greatest at low speed inc reas e d sp ee d and it decreases as speed increases [Fig 5.Two factors decide how much air spills across the wing tip and therefore the degree of vortex development and spanwise flow. The behaviour of dra gr induced drag in level flight is opposite to that of edu ces wit h parasite drag. Because it has a smaller tip. It should be reSpeed membered that if large angles of attack are applied at high airspeed. the pressure gradient across the wing tip is about the same at any speed.8]. when the aircraft is flying slowly. has a high aspect ratio. Note that Fig 5. Therefore. The size of the wing tip can also be reduced by tapering the leading or trailing edge towards the tip. in level flight. which reduces the angle of attack near the tip [more on this one later]. The time available for the air to complete the journey around the wing tip. Fig 5. They are: * The magnitude of the pressure difference between the top and bottom surface of the wing [the pressure gradient across the wing tip]. Aspect ratio is the ratio of wing span to wing chord. Wing plan form: This is really the designer's problem.9 high aspect ratio wash out induced drag low aspect ratio taper angle at root angle at tip CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 5. induced drag would be very high because the pressure gradient across the wing tip would be greatly increased. Other factors that determine the magnitude of induced drag are: low speed high speed ind uc Aircraft weight: A heavy aircraft must generate more lift. A high aspect ratio wing has a smaller tip for a given area than a wing with a low aspect ratio. so the pressure gradient across the wing tip must be increased. the degree of development of the tip vortex and the spanwise flow ed is greater than at high speeds. * The effect of speed: Since lift must equal weight in level flight. At low speeds then. the amount of lift generated in level flight is about the same at any speed. Lift is the result of the pressure difference between the top and bottom surface of the wing.8 complete the journey around the wing tip as it passes. such as during aerobatic manoeuvres. Some wings are built with a twist called wash-out.
2 Ra pe tio pe c io As As at tR Hi gh gh Hi ec sp Lo CL 0. Lo w w CL 0. 1.9 [b] ati o tR 1. This is because the lift curve for a low aspect ratio wing has a shallower slope than that of the high aspect ratio wing. This means that to achieve a given percentage increase in lift coefficient.9 [a].2 Fig 5. Fig 5. Very little change in angle of attack required to produce necessary increase in lift. which is evident in the attitude at which the heavy jet crosses the fence for landing.8 or A 0. You have probably already observed some of these effects without realising it.e.0 ct or A Lower stalling angle 0.6 Greater change in angle of attack required for the same increase in lift. The most obvious example of a high aspect ratio wing is a glider.4 0.i.2 0. aspect ratio has some other interesting effects on the characteristics of a wing. the chord is greater than the span!]. while an extreme example of a wing with a low aspect ratio is the delta or swept-back shaped wing found on some jet fighters or large jet airliners [an F111 with the wings swept back to the delta position for high speed flight has an aspect ratio of less than 1 .6 Same increase 0. Apart from reducing induced drag.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL Angle of attack CPL AERODYNAMICS Higher stalling angle .9 [a] Have you ever noticed that a heavy jet must be rotated to a very high nose attitude during take-off to increase the lift to what is required for lift-off.8 sp ec tR at io 1.0 1. Fig 5.More about aspect ratio.4 0.2 -4° 0° 4° 8° 12° 16° -4° 0° 4° 8° 12° 16° Angle of attack 5. a glider needs so little change in nose attitude that it is difficult to see the difference before and after lift-off. You will also note that the low aspect ratio wing has a higher stalling angle than the high aspect ratio wing. Fig 5. On the other hand. Large change in angle of attack required to produce necessary increase in lift.9 [b]. a much larger change in angle of attack is required.
6 Lo w A sp ec Same lift coefficient 0.9 [c] 1.4 0.4 0.9 [d]. if both wings were required to produce the same lift at the same speed. at io As pe ct o 0. Since the actual lift produced by a wing depends upon both the angle of attack [or more correctly. Fig 5. the wing with the lower aspect ratio would have to fly at a higher indicated air speed if it were to use the same angle of attack. the lift coefficient].2 Fig 5.7 . we still turn to the high aspect ratio wing. the wing with the highest aspect ratio would produce the greater lift at the same angle of attack and airspeed. to say nothing of the inconvenience of ground handling and ease of hangarage.0 sp ec tR Hi gh 16° CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 5.8 CL 0. It follows from this argument that.better lift for less drag. There are however good reasons for using low aspect ratio wings when high speed flight is involved.2 -4° 0° 4° 8° Angle of attack 12° However when we want efficiency at a cost. it would seem that designers would always choose high aspect ratio wings to take advantage of their superior efficiency . A 1. especially at low airspeed.9 [c]. The longer and thinner a wing becomes.0 You will also note that the wing with the highest aspect ratio actually achieves a greater lift coefficient at any angle of attack including the stall.Fig 5. Also high aspect ratio causes a lot of practical engineering problems. tR at 16° io 1.2 -4° 0° 4° 8° Angle of attack Lo 12° w or This means that if two wings were identical in every respect except for aspect ratio. the one with the lowest aspect ratio would require a larger angle of attack. Since this type of wing also produces less vortex activity. This famous aeroplane was made obsolete by the advent of spy satellites. Most gliders have such high aspect ratio that it becomes necessary to remove the wings for ground handling an hangarage. Fig 5. The high aspect ratio wing therefore comes out trumps when it comes to efficiency in producing lift. Back in the 1950s and 60s the USAF built and operated the U2 spy plane with extremely high aspect ratio for very long range .9 [d] pe ct Ra tio As gh Hi 0. the more difficult [read expensive] it becomes to build it with sufficient strength to tolerate the structural loads of flight.8 Higher lift coefficient at the same angle of attack 0.2 Ra ti CL 1. and the indicated air speed.6 0.high altitude photographic missions.
Once they have formed. the vortices occupy an area of sky equal to about two wingspans horizontally by about one wingspan vertically.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . The vortices which trail behind a large aircraft tend to persist as two rapidly rotating 'horizontal whirlpools' which are shed from each wingtip. A following aircraft which encounters these vortices is likely to experience a strong tendency to roll or yaw [or both] as it attempts to rotate with the circulating vortex. Depending on the generating aircraft's speed. such a situation occurring at low level would lead to a disastrous loss of control with fatal consequences. vortices can persist for up to three minutes. Once they have stabilised. In this case the aircraft would continue to roll in the direction of the vortex even though full opposite aileron was applied! Needless to say. the vortex trails may extend for two to five miles. armed with this understanding. there are some simple precautions the following pilot can take to reduce the chances of such an encounter. At 900 feet below the flight path the vortices tend to stabilize. 1 wingspan 2 wingspans 5. In some cases the rate of roll induced can be greater than the correcting roll rate available from aileron deflection. In stable conditions. ! ! ! Much research has been done on the behaviour of vortices after they have been shed from the wing and. They drift with the wind. The rotation will be clockwise in the vortex from the left wing and anticlockwise in the vortex from the right wing. Close to the ground [at about 200 feet] they stop sinking and begin to drift laterally outwards at about 5 knots. while at height they may persist for up to five minutes in calm conditions. vortices become part and parcel of the air and it can be useful to imagine that they behave like smoke.The problem of wake turbulence. Studies have shown that they sink at about 400 to 500 feet per minute behind the flight path.
700 to 1000 feet @ 500 ft/min. It follows that if the following aircraft remains at or above the generating aircraft's level. or more than 1000 feet below it.9 . Planning to land beyond the touchdown point of the heavier aircraft and planning to become airborne before its lift-off point on take-off will also reduce the chance of an encounter. If this vertical separation is not possible. 5 knot lateral drift 5 knot crosswind CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 5. the following aircraft should remain upwind of the generating aircraft. a 5 knot crosswind will cause the upwind vortex to persist in the vicinity of the runway presenting a serious risk for a departing or arriving aircraft using the same runway. the chances of an encounter with vortices is greatly reduced. 5 knot lateral drift 5 knot lateral drift Because the vortices drift outwards at about 5 knots.
Vortices begin at lift-off. Vortices cease at touch-down An approach in a light quartering tailwind can produce a wake turbulence hazard for a light aircraft following a heavy jet. For the same reason the vortices will abruptly disappear once the aircraft has touched down and the wings cease making lift transferring the weight of the aircraft to the wheels.It should be remembered that. wi Touch-down point nd vortex vor tex 5. There would be a high probability of an encounter by the following light aircraft on late final or even during the round-out and hold-off when speed is low and aileron effectiveness is degrading.10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . since the wing tip vortices are part and parcel of the process of producing lift. During take-off there will be no vortices until the nose is rotated to present the wings at an angle of attack to the on-coming airflow and the vortices will be insignificant until the full weight of the aircraft is supported by the wings at lift-off. while a slight downwind component causes it to drift beyond the touchdown point into the region of the runway where vortices would normally not be present. Note that in this case the encounter with the vortex could occur even though the pilot's aiming point was ahead of the touch-down point of the preceding heavy aircraft. they will not be present if no lift is being produced. With a crosswind component of about 5 knots. the upwind vortex tends to remain on the runway.
A light aircraft crosses under the flight path of a heavy jet. Effect of flap on wake turbulence. 5.pdf. The distribution of lift is across the wing surface is modified with the inboard section becoming the main lift producing area. Therefore when flaps are extended the area about the wing tips contributes less to the production of lift and the vortices are not as pronounced as they are when flaps are retracted.Other high risk situations are illustrated below.gov.3. The reference for these separation standards is AIP ENR Section 1. Because flaps are always situated on the inboard trailing edge of the wing.airservices. http://www. Also the higher lift coefficient associated with flap extension allows a smaller angle of attack at any given IAS. This AIC may be downloaded from the address below. The wake turbulence separation standards which apply to air traffic control give some idea of the appropriate time or distance which should be used to ensure aircraft taking off and landing are given adequate separation from preceding heavy or medium weight aircraft. A slow flying wing with flaps up will always make more wake turbulence than with flap extended. A heavy aircraft carrying out a missed approach can leave wake turbulence for the entire length of the runway.4 paragraph 7. Also there is an AIC produced by CASA on the subject of wake turbulence in general. when flaps are extended the bulk of the lift is generated in this area.2 and 7. It would be a good idea to read that reference and take note of the distances and times which relate to light aircraft following heavier ones. In addition to vortices it should be remembered that significant thrust stream turbulence from the jet exhaust can extend up to 500m behind an aircraft like a 747.11 CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 .au/pilotcentre/SpecialpilotOps/wake. Heavy jet lifts off before the runway intersection.
[b] flying behind and at the same level as the heavy aircraft.HELICOPTER ROTOR DOWNWASH A hovering helicopter supports its weight by forcing a large mass of air down at high speed. [c] flying behind and 900 to 1000 feet below the level of the heavy aircraft.12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Light aircraft taxiing in close proximity to the hovering helicopter can be seriously affected by this downwash. The effect of helicopter rotor downwash on a light training aeroplane can be significant to a distance equivalent to three rotor diameters. Question No 2 The rate of lateral drift of vortices after they have reached ground level is closest to [a] 5 knots [b] 10 knots [c] 15 knots [d] zero Question No 3 Select the situation which would be most likely to present the most significant wake turbulence hazard for a light aircraft following a heavy aircraft. Question No 1 Select the phase/s of flight during which wing tip vortices are likely to be present [a] while ever the engine is running. It should also be remembered that heavy helicopters leave wake turbulence in flight in much the same way as heavy fixed-wing aircraft. WAKE TURBULENCE QUIZ. When the light aircraft is [a] flying behind and above the heavy aircraft. [d] being overtaken by the heavy aircraft. [b] during the take-off run. [d] during the landing roll. When this air strikes the ground it spreads out horizontally in all directions from the helicopter as a turbulent gust. 5. [c] from lift-off to touch-down.
13 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 .Question No 4 The minimum distance which should be allowed to avoid helicopter rotor downwash from a heavy helicopter which is hovering is [a] one rotor diameter. [b] two rotor diameters. The approximate speed at which the vortices from the heavy jet would drift towards the light aircraft is [a] 5 knots. [b] 152 m. Question No 8 Given that one knot is about 30.5 m. [c] 15 knots. [d] 500 m. [d] 20 knots. [d] four rotor diameters. [d] is about to lift off. Question No 6 Wake turbulence is most severe behind a heavy aircraft which [a] is flying slowly. [c] a 15 knot headwind. [b] is flying fast. [b] 10 knots. [c] has just touched down. [d] a strong crosswind. Question No 5 Select the conditions under which a wake turbulence encounter at low level is most likely for a light aircraft landing behind a heavy jet [a] dead calm conditions. Answers: Question No 1 Question No 2 Question No 3 Question No 4 CPL AERODYNAMICS [c] [a] [c] [c] Question No 5 Question No 6 Question No 7 Question No 8 [b] [a] [c] [b] 5. the distance that vortices at ground level would be expected to drift laterally in one minute in calm conditions would be closest to [a] 30. light aircraft 1 t 0k Heavy jet lifts off before the runway intersection.5 metres per minute. Question No 7 Consider the figure at left. [b] a 5 knot quartering tailwind. [c] three rotor diameters. [c] 305 m.
To find the total drag we simply add the values of parasite and induced drag together. At high speed.S1. The vertical dashed line represents the value of parasite drag and the solid line represents the value of induced drag at each of these speeds. total drag is higher because of the high induced drag.10 parasite drag TOTAL DRAG When we investigate the behaviour of the aircraft in flight. At low speed. It is this total drag which must be balanced by the engine's thrust to produce equilibrium in level flight. S2 and S3.12 the minimum value for total drag total drag the speed in level flight where total drag is at a minimum S2 speed BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL 5. The most interesting feature of the total drag curve is that it displays a minimum value near the middle of the speed range.the first three items are really all saying the same thing ** since lift has a fixed value in level flight. total drag is higher because of the high parasite drag. we have the total drag curve.14 . the total drag is at a minimum.11]. If the aircraft is flown straight and level at the speed S2.Fig 5. we must consider the combined effect of parasite and induced drag at any given speed. Fig 5. the lift/drag ratio is greatest when drag is least CPL AERODYNAMICS induced drag drag S1 S2 S3 speed value of parasite drag value of induced drag Fig 5.11 total drag drag speed S1 S2 S3 value of parasite drag value of induced drag Fig 5. it will achieve: Maximum range in nil wind conditions* Best air nautical miles per gallon Least gallons per nautical mile Best lift/drag ratio for the aeroplane** Best gliding range in nil wind conditions * assuming the engine and propeller efficiency remains the same over the speed range . This is done by laying the solid line and the dashed line end-to-end for each speed [Fig 5. At the point where induced drag and parasite drag are equal. If we draw a curve joining the total values for each speed. S2.10 represents the relative values of parasite and induced drag at three different speeds .
Fig 6.PROPELLER One of Isaac Newton's best known laws of motion states that 'for every action. Therefore. when speed is low. thrust would decrease as speed increased. The propeller takes advantage of this principle to generate thrust.1 CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 . the speed thrust available at full throttle change through the propeller is reduced and high thrust thrust is less.less thrust big speed change . speed thrust low speed high speed Fig 6. the forward speed Fig 6. Later in the take-off run. the thrust would be highest when the forward speed is lowest. there is an equal and opposite reaction'. 6. That force is thrust. As this mass of air is thrown backwards. With full power applied. It follows that an aircraft could never achieve level flight at a speed equal to the speed of its slipstream.1 smaller speed change . if full power is airspeed slipstream Fig 62 airspeed slipstream Fig 6. thrust goes on decreasing and drag goes on increasing until they eventually become equal and equilibrium is established. The amount of thrust generated depends upon two things: * * the mass of air being accelerated the velocity change imparted to that air by the propeller disk Note that it is not the speed of the slipstream alone that decides how much thrust is generated. the speed change through the propeller is great so thrust is high.1 represents an aircraft taking off. As the airflow passes through the propeller disk it is accelerated rearwards. low thrust As forward speed continues to increase.high thrust thrust decreasing drag increasing applied.it is the difference in speed before and after the propeller disk that matters.2 has increased. Early in the take-off run. Since the speed of the slipstream has not changed much. The speed of the propeller slipstream doesn't change very much throughout the speed range.THRUST AVAILABLE . the aircraft experiences a force which pushes it forwards.2 shows the result if we plot the curve showing thrust available at full throttle against aircraft speed.
1. If we continue slowing down to the extreme low speed end of the speed range. POWER AVAILABLE Now if Power and Work then Power since Distance ÷ Time Power so Power 6. It is the speed at which the maximum surplus exists between the thrust available at full power and the thrust required for level flight.3 thrust required in level flight Since thrust in level flight at any given speed must always equal drag.3]. the thrust available becomes less than the thrust required. How are you going . Work and Power in 'The Basics' on pages 1.still with me? Before going on. Fig 6. We will return to this argument later when we consider climbing in detail.LEVEL FLIGHT Fig 6. At this stage it is sufficient to realise that anything that increases thrust required or decreases thrust available will reduce the surplus thrust and therefore affect the aircraft's climb performance.4 thrust required thrust available maximum surplus thrust thrust speed S1 S2 S3 If full power was applied.4].THRUST REQUIRED .1. Some interesting items of aircraft performance can be defined if we superimpose the thrust available curve over the thrust required curve [Fig 6. thrust speed The speed marked S3 represents the maximum speed possible in level flight. The speed marked S2 is the speed which requires the minimum thrust in level flight. This surplus thrust can be used for climbing.2 = = = = = = Work ÷ Time Force x Distance Force x Distance ÷ Time Speed Force x Speed [the force involved is thrust] Thrust x Speed CPL AERODYNAMICS BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL .9 of this section.6 to 1. as controlled flight becomes more and more difficult due to the loss of control effectiveness and the increase in slipstream and torque effects. the only way this low speed could be maintained would be to raise the nose and commence a climb. thrust required rises fairly sharply as flow reversal and separation on the wing cause a rapid increase in drag. The speed marked S1 represents the point where the greatest separation exists between the thrust available and thrust required curves.3]. the thrust required curve is identical to the total drag curve. revise the section on Force. Approaching the stall the argument becomes academic. It is also the speed at which total drag is at a minimum [see Fig 6. since at any speed higher than that.in fact the only change is the name on the vertical axis [Fig 6. An aircraft climbing at speed S1 will achieve the maximum angle of climb.
5]. The power required curve is similar in shape to. Figure 6.6].6 power required power available power maximum surplus power However you will note that at speeds below maximum endurance speed.5 Fig 66 airspeed slipstream smaller speed change . the power available from a piston engine is nearly constant throughout the speed range [Fig 6. With full throttle applied at high speed. The slower the speed in the region of reverse command the greater the power required to maintain flight. thrust required is quite high [Fig 6.With full throttle applied at low speed. Since power is the product of thrust and speed. flying at lower airspeed requires more power.3].6 shows that above maximum endurance speed. It rises more steeply at the high speed end [Fig 6. This is sometimes called the region of normal command. An aircraft flying at a speed below S3 would find that if the nose was raised the airspeed would reduce and continue to reduce until more power was introduced to stabilise it. but not the same as. The speed S3 is the speed which requires minimum power and therefore minimum fuel flow in level flight.high thrust thrust decreasing speed increasing This is why piston engines are often rated as so many horse power. because thrust changes as speed changes. [S3]. more power is required if speed is increased until at maximum speed.propeller combination in terms of its thrust. thrust is high. You could not rate a piston engine . remains almost constant. airspeed slipstream Fig 6. so power required is fairly high. thrust is low. The speed S2 provides maximum surplus power. The speed S1 is the maximum possible speed in level flight. and produces the maximum rate of climb. the thrust required curve. thrust required is also high so power required is very high. When speed is high.3 .less thrust big speed change . the power required has increased to equal the power available. Power however. The region of reversed command. POWER REQUIRED When speed is low. Fig 6. Reverse command region speed S2 S1 S3 CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 6. This is the speed to fly for maximum endurance. This is called the region of reversed command.
since they are equal in level flight] The smallest value angle a can have if P is to be a point on the curve occurs when the line OP makes a tangent to the curve.7 How much do you remember about your school days and trigonometry? If you're interested. while OS is the value of speed at point P. Now consider the triangle OPS. draw a line to make a tangent to the power required curve.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . here is a method for finding minimum drag by using the power required curve [Fig 68]. Now don't tell me that didn't leave you breathless! Fig 6. The tangent of angle [a] is the opposite side over the adjacent side ie O speed S tan a = PS OS PS is the value of power at point P.Fig 6. Call the point of tangency P. If that is the smallest value the angle can have. Therefore speed S represents the smallest value drag [or thrust] can have. Speed S is the speed corresponding to point P. power P Power required to fly at speed S a From point O at the intersection of the axes. S 6.8 thrust or drag power P Power required to fly at speed S a O speed S O speed for the same aircraft. so tan a = = = = power speed thrust x speed thrust x speed speed thrust [speed cancels out] since power then tan a so tan a [or drag. this is the same speed. it is also the smallest value that the tangent of the angle can have.
or an increase in angle of attack or speed. For level flight: High at low speedLow at high speed MINIMUM DRAG Requires minimum thrust in level flight Provides maximum range in level flight in still air Determines the best lift/drag ratio in level flight Determines the best glide performance in still air THRUST Minimum thrust corresponds to minimum drag in level flight Maximum surplus thrust determines maximum angle of climb POWER Minimum power produces maximum endurance in level flight Maximum surplus power determines maximum rate of climb CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 6. Increased by a decrease in speed or an increase in gross weight. Low at low speed High at high speed.5 .SUMMARY TOTAL DRAG Parasite Drag Induced Drag Caused by air getting out of the way of the aeroplane in flight. Increased by flap or undercarriage extension. Caused by the pressure difference between the top and bottom surfaces of the wing.
6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the parasite drag acting on an aircraft [a] decreases continuously [b] increases continuously [c] increases then decreases [d] decreases then increases Question No 3 As speed is increased from stalling speed to maximum cruising speed in level flight. the induced drag acting on an aircraft [a] decreases continuously [b] decreases then increases [c] increases continuously [d] increases then decreases Question No 2 As speed is decreased from maximum cruising speed to stalling speed in level flight.EXERCISE A3 Question No 1 As speed is increased from the stalling speed to maximum cruising speed in straight and level flight. wash out and taper have the effect of increasing the aircraft's [a] maximum speed [b] stalling speed [c] maximum lift [d] maximum lift/drag ratio Question No 6 The greatest amount of induced drag would be produced by applying [a] high angles of attack at high speed [b] high angles of attack at low speed [c] low angles of attack at low speed [d] low angles of attack at high speed Question No 7 In level flight induced drag is [a] directly proportional to weight and speed [b] inversely proportional to weight and speed [c] directly proportional to weight and inversely proportional to speed [d] inversely proportional to weight and directly proportional to speed Question No 8 The speed which produces best lift/drag ratio angle of attack in level flight is also the speed which requires [a] maximum thrust [b] minimum thrust [c] maximum power [d] minimum power Question No 9 As the pilot raises the tail of a tail-wheel aircraft during the take-off run [a] the tendency to swing to the left will increase [b] there will be a tendency to swing to the right [c] there will be no noticeable change in the tendency to swing [d] there will be a tendency to overpitch 6. the total drag acting on an aircraft [a] increases continuously [b] decreases continuously [c] increases then decreases [d] decreases then increases Question No 4 The least amount of total drag in level flight is produced when the aircraft is flown [a] at the slowest possible speed [b] at a speed which produces the best lift/drag ratio [c] at a speed which produces minimum lift [d] at a speed which produces minimum drag coefficient Question No 5 Design features such as high aspect ratio.
Question No 10 The initial effect of propeller torque on a single engine aeroplane when power is increased is [a] the aeroplane will tend to yaw to the left [b] the aeroplane will tend to yaw to the right [c] the aeroplane will tend to roll to the left [d] the aeroplane will tend to roll to the right Question No 11 For an aircraft to achieve maximum range in level flight in nil wind conditions. it must be flown [a] at speed S in all wind conditions [b] at speed S in nil wind conditions only [c] faster than speed S in a headwind [d] slower than speed S in a headwind S Speed CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 6.7 . it must fly [a] at speed S [b] faster than speed S [c] slower than speed S [d] at minimum power Total Drag S Speed Question No 12 Which indicated air speed would produce maximum endurance in level flight in a piston engine aeroplane? [a] the speed which requires minimum power [b] the speed which requires minimum thrust [c] the slowest possible speed [d] the speed which produces the best lift/drag ratio Total drag Drag Question No 13 Refer to the total drag curve at left. Which item of performance for a piston engine aeroplane would occur at the speed marked S in level flight? [a] least fuel consumption [litres/hr] [b] maximum speed in level flight [c] minimum speed in level flight [d] the best lift/drag ratio speed S TAS Power req'd Power Question No 14 For an aircraft to remain airborne for the maximum time per litre of fuel used.
then the speed S1 represents [a] stalling speed [b] best rate of climb speed [c] best angle of climb speed [d] best lift/drag ratio speed Question No 20 Refer to the figure in Question No 19. a pronounced swing to the left develops. The speed S3 represents [a] the stalling speed [b] the best range speed [c] maximum level flight speed [d] best gliding speed 6. a likely cause would be [a] slipstream effect [b] torque effect [c] gyroscopic effect [d] a strong cross wind from the right Question No 18 As the tail is lifted in a tail wheel aircraft during the take-off. If the line AB represents the maximum separation between the two curves. The speed S2 represents [a] best lift/drag ratio speed [b] best rate of climb speed [c] best endurance speed [d] best angle of climb speed thrust B S1 S2 speed S3 Question No 21 Refer to the figure in Question No 19.Question No 15 "P factor" refers to the displacement of the thrust line towards the "down going blade" side of the propeller arc. The effect is greatest [a] at high angles of attack with low power applied [b] at low angles of attack with high power applied [c] at low angles of attack with low power applied [d] at high angles of attack with high power applied Question No 16 Torque is that reaction which causes an aircraft to [a] yaw in the direction of propeller rotation [b] roll in the direction of propeller rotation [c] roll opposite to propeller rotation [d] yaw opposite to propeller rotation Question No 17 If an aircraft with a clockwise propeller rotation as viewed from the cockpit has a tendency to swing to the right during take-off. This would most likely be attributable to [a] slipstream effect [b] torque effect [c] gyroscopic effect [d] a strong cross wind from the right thrust required thrust available A Question No 19 Refer to the figure at left.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
The angle of attack marked A represents [a] the stalling angle of attack [b] the angle of attack for minimum drag [c] the angle of attack for maximum lift [d] the angle of attack at which minimum power is required CL CD [lift/drag ratio] A Angle of attack Question No 26 The application of high power with low airspeed is accompanied by [a] engine torque producing a roll [b] gyroscopic effect producing a roll [c] engine torque producing a yaw [d] slipstream effect producing a roll Question No 27 For a piston engine aircraft. then the speed S2 represents [a] best rate of climb speed [b] best angle of climb speed [c] best lift/drag ratio speed [d] best endurance speed Question No 23 Refer to the figure at left.power required power available A Power T B Question No 22 Refer to the figure at left. the aeroplane must be flying below [a] Vno [maximum structural cruising speed [b] the speed for maximum endurance speed [c] the speed for best angle of climb [d] the speed for minimum drag CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 6.If OT represents the tangent to the power required curve. If the line AB represents the maximum separation between the two curves. the maximum rate of climb possible at a given gross weight is primarily governed by [a] the maximum lift possible [b] the minimum drag possible [c] excess thrust [d] excess power Question No 28 If more power is required to maintain altitude when indicated air speed is reduced. then the speed S3 represents [a] best rate of climb speed [b] best angle of climb speed [c] best range in still air [d] best endurance speed O S1 S2 S3 Speed Question No 24 Refer to the figure above. . The speed S1 indicates [a] the speed for best miles per gallon [b] the speed for best endurance [c] the speed for minimum drag [d] the best rate of climb speed Question No 25 Refer to the figure at left.9 .
10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . induced drag will [a] increase continuously as speed is decreased [b] decrease continuously as speed is decreased [c] increase then decrease as speed is decreased [d] decrease then increase as speed is decreased Question No 30 Refer to the diagram at left. [d] greater at high speed than at low speed. [c] the same whether the flaps are up or down.Question No 29 If the indicated air speed is progressively reduced during level flight. [b] after touch-down. [c] a lower nose attitude with a decrease in power required [d] a lower nose attitude with an increase in power required. [b] a higher nose attitude with an increase in power required. [d] while ever the engine is generating thrust. a reduction in IAS will require[a] a higher nose attitude with no change in power required. Question No 33 The phase of flight during which wing tip vorticies will always be present to some extent is [a] taxi and take-off run. 6. The speed marked S would represent [a] maximum endurance in level flight [b] minimum litres per hour in level flight [c] maximum nautical miles per litre [d] minimum speed in level flight Thrust required for level flight Thrust S Speed Question No 31 If the approach speed of an aircraft is in the region of reverse command. [b] greater with flaps down than with flaps up. [c] from lift-off to touch-down. Question No 32 The wake turbulence gererated by a slow flying aircraft will be [a] greater with flaps up than with flaps down.
Thrust always equals drag in level flight. Speed S is minimum drag. Gyroscopic effect occurs as the propeller disk changes its plane of rotation.it must equal weight. The fuel on board will last the longest time when it is used at the lowest rate. the stronger the vortices become.9. All of these features act to decrease vortex formation by reducing the size of the wing tip. this is also the best lift/drag ratio. Remember the aircraft will tend to yaw into the wind ie right for a wind from the right. Minimum power produces minimum fuel flow. 4 5 [b] [d] 6 [a] 7 8 [c] [b] 9 10 [a] [c] 11 12 13 14 15 [a] [a] [d] [a] [d] 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 [c] [d] [c] [c] [a] [c] [a] [c] [b] [b] [a] [d] CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 6. contributing to the left swing. The primary effect of the torque reaction is to produce a tendency to roll opposite to the direction of propeller rotation.11 . the torque reaction will be opposite to the direction of propeller rotation. Level flight is impossible beyond this speed since the thrust available becomes less than the thrust required.ANSWERS TO EXERCISE A3 No 1 2 3 Answer Comment [a] [a] [d] Induced drag is at its greatest in level flight when speed is lowest. Slipstream effect causes a yaw. Don't confuse torque with slipstream. so it has no effect on endurance. It begins to decrease as speed increases. It gets stronger as the speed increases. In level flight. The bottom of the power curve is minimum power. Even though induced drag in level flight is highest at low speed. the lift/drag ratio must increase. The bottom of the drag curve is minimum drag. the greater the P factor or asymmetric blade effect. This results in less induced drag. See 'Power" on page 1. or by reducing the angle of attack at the wing tip.the wind would have to be the culprit. This is also the best ratio between lift and drag [see question No 4]. Minimum drag produces maximum range. The ratio between lift and drag therefore. The greater the inclination of the propeller disk to the on-coming airflow. This produces a roll to the left. will be greatest when drag is least. The more time the air has to flow around the wing tip. This corresponds to the maximum range in still air. Gyroscopic effect will come into play. total drag starts rising as parasite drag increases.such as in aerobatic manoeuvres. Thrust will be least when drag is least. Lift is fixed in level flight. Assuming the propeller rotates clockwise as viewed from the cockpit [as the examination will ]. Since all other choices produce a yaw to the left. The wind has no effect on the rate at which fuel is consumed by the engine. Near the middle of the speed range. The tangent to the power curve locates the speed of minimum drag.8. Surplus thrust determines the maximum angle of climb. Surplus power determines the maximum rate of climb. In level flight. the greater the weight the greater the lift required so the greater the vortex formation. the vortices form more readily because of the extra time available for the air to complete its journey around the wing tip. Parasite drag is the same as the drag you experience when riding a bicycle into wind. This inclination is decided by the angle of attack of the aeroplane. If drag reduces for the same lift.torque reaction causes a roll. the pressure gradient increases so much that the vortices become stronger than ever. Surplus power determines the maximum rate of climb. Minimum power produces maximum endurance [see question No 12]. Total drag is high near the stall because of induced drag. See 'Work' on page 1. Minimum drag in level flight produces the best lift/drag ratio. At low speed. This happens when the tail is lifted during take-off. the highest lift/drag ratio is achieved at minimum drag. This produces minimum fuel flow and therefore maximum endurance. In level flight. if high angles of attack are applied at high speed.
12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Any reduction in airspeed will result in a requirement for extra power to stabilise the speed. It gets greater as speed gets lower. Induced drag is the result of the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the wing [and therefore the lift] at the tip. 32 [a] 33 [c] 6. requires more power. Without the additional power.No 28 29 30 31 Answer [b] [a] [c] [b] Comment Maximum endurance occurs at the speed which requires minimum power.two ways of saying the same thing. They will always be present whenever lift is being generated . Maximum range is maximum nautical miles per litre. Minimum drag produces maximum range. The vorticies are really the unavoidable by-product of the generation of lift. The region of reverse command is sometimes referred to as the 'back of the power curve'. from lift-off to touch-down. Flap extension causes the main lift area to move inboard away from the wing tip. Induced drag is inversely proportional to speed. Any attempt to fly a speed other than that speed [higher or lower]. a higher nose attitude will produce an ever decreasing airspeed to the point of stall. The vortices are less vigorous when the flaps are down and more vigorous when the flaps are up.e.i.
Twice the velocity produces four times the lift. three times the velocity produces nine times the lift. 4 The maximum plan area of the wing. For a simple rectangular wing the plan area would be the span multiplied by the chord.2. The velocity of the relative airflow determines the number of molecules that encounter the aeroplane in a given time.PILOT TECHNIQUE. as in row your boat] 3 The velocity of the relative airflow. It also determines the speed at which each molecule is moving. For a particular wing in a particular flap configuration. by using the appropriate units of measurement for each of the above factors. thrust and power. [pronounced row. The lift coefficient is represented mathematically as CL . Since lift is the result of pressure differences and pressure is the result of air molecules impacting the surfaces of the aeroplane. Lift varies with the square of the velocity. If all other factors are constant. The three factors above all determine the pressure that is generated.STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT . Mathematicians can calculate the actual lift produced [in pounds or kilos]. Factors that affect lift: [Be sure you are familiar with the content of pages 1. To appreciate the force that results we must consider the area over which that pressure acts. Changes in velocity have a very big effect on the production of lift. Velocity is represented mathematically as the letter V. Lift increases as angle of attack increases up to the stalling angle. ten times the velocity produces one hundred times the lift etc. The number of molecules present in a given volume of air determines the density of the air. Note that the maximum plan area is the area as viewed from directly above when the chord line is horizontal. We now consider how the pilot can apply these principles to the performance of the aeroplane in level flight. The formula they use looks like this: 7. a bigger wing makes more lift [not very amazing really].1 to 1.2. changes in angle of attack produce changes in lift. This allows 'S' to have a constant value since the plan area changes when the chord is inclined to the line of sight of the observer [see fig 7. drag. If all other factors remain constant.4 of this section before proceeding].1a maximum plan area reduced plan area CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 .1 Fig 7. the number of molecules present in a given volume of air has a lot to do with the amount of lift produced. The magnitude of the force of lift at any moment in flight depends upon the following factors: 1 The angle of attack. Most of the argument so far has been centred on the theoretical considerations behind lift. the angle of attack determines the value of the coefficient. 2 The density of the air. Density is represented mathematically by the Greek letter rho ' '. It is equal to the true airspeed at any moment. Area is represented mathematically by the letter S which represents the maximum plan area of the wing.1a at left].
any change in one will require a change in the other. the kinetic Fig 7. Once the nose attitude has been established. If speed is to be reduced and level flight maintained. A climb at a given IAS and rate of climb.2 Fig 7. since in level flight. If we translate all of this into the environment of the cockpit. it follows that if level fight is to be maintained. we find that the lift coefficient is the result of the nose attitude. In fact any desired performance can be achieved using this principle. POWER + ATTITUDE = PERFORMANCE. to generate a constant amount of lift. Since lift is the result of angle of attack and indicated air speed. As far as the pilot is concerned. as far as the pilot is concerned. Fig 7. Apply the appropriate power. a descent at a given IAS and rate of descent or level flight at a given IAS.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL constant lift SS SSS AA AA AA SS . Kinetic energy is 1 2 1 2 is introduced to allow the term 1 2 V 2 to represent the m V 2 so 1 2 V 2 is the kinetic energy possessed by a unit volume of air. this is represented in the cockpit by the indicated air speed [IAS]. an increase in angle of attack will be necessary.LIFT = C L 1 2 V 2 S The kinetic energy of the airstream. The pilot uses the elevators to control the value of CL.1 1 2 _ energy of the relative airflow elevator controls nose attitude LIFT = C L 2 V S and therefore angle of attack [the IAS] is the result of the power applied. one must increase if the other decreases and vice versa. All are the result of applying the appropriate power and adopting the appropriate nose attitude.2 is a favourite among many flying instructors for presenting this relationship between angle of attack and indicated air speed as a simple graphic. a decrease in angle of attack will be necessary. adopt the appropriate attitude and 'presto' you have level flight. If S represents indicated air speed and A represents angle of attack. if speed is to be increased and level flight is to be maintained. nose attitude determines the angle of attack. the whole thing throttle controls power and therefore airspeed boils down to a combination of power and attitude. The pilot CL uses the throttle to control the value of 1 _ 2 1 2 V2 Fortunately. Likewise. CPL AERODYNAMICS V 2 S AA 7.
Aircraft with low wing loading are capable of slow speeds. On the other hand. becomes much lighter. The aircraft will end up flying faster at a lower angle of attack as fuel is burnt. However all the while they CONSTANT SPEED must fly at the same height and speed to allow the fuel transfer to take place. the nose attitude must be lowered to reduce the lift. lower the nose and accept a higher IAS. This means that less lift is required for level flight. A high wing loading is ideal for high speed since what the aircraft lacks in wing area. Aircraft weight reduces in cruise due to the fuel burn-off.3 . One interesting item of aircraft design is the ratio of the weight of the aeroplane to the area of the wing.it is necessary to prevent the speed from changing [Fig 7. Note that in this case. As the fighter is refuelled in flight by the tanker. What actions would be As weight decreases. lower the nose and reduce power required by the pilot of the fighter as he accepts the extra weight of fuel. a smaller angle of attack would be necessary to allow lift to remain equal to the reducing weight. This is a measure of the contribution each square metre [or square foot] of wing makes to the total lift produced.3 illustrated in Fig 7. such as most of the high speed jets may still be capable of quite low airspeeds on approach by using leading edge devices and sophisticated slotted flaps. Aircraft with high wing loading. a change of power does not result in a change of speed. the fighter will become much heavy fuel load reduced fuel load heavier while the tanker As weight decreases.4. Another very good example of lift management is CONSTANT POWER Fig 7.it has a very low wing loading.4 Wing Loading. This decrease in angle of attack will however also reduce drag. If the pilot decided not to allow the speed to change. it makes up for in airspeed. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 7. If power is kept constant. Being a biplane. The smaller angle of attack would also produce less drag.3]. aircraft with small wings compared to their weight have a high wing loading.A simple example of this relationship in flight is an aircraft cruising at constant power for a long period of time. so power would have to be reduced to allow thrust to remain equal to the reducing drag.? What actions would be required by the pilot of the tanker as he loses the weight of the fuel being transferred? heavy fuel load reduced fuel load Fig 7. a Tiger Moth has a very big wing area but a low weight .
4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the maximum range possible will be reduced. the maximum range possible will be increased [Fig 7. When a wind exists this parcel of air is in motion and the aircraft becomes part of that motion.5].FACTORS AFFECTING RANGE IN LEVEL FLIGHT We have already seen that to achieve maximum range in level flight. Fig 7. When flying with a tail wind. the aircraft must be flown at the speed which produces minimum drag. When flying straight and level into a headwind. This however will be true only in no wind. Effect of wind: An aircraft in flight is moving through a parcel of air.5 imaginary parcel of air No wind A distance travelled in a given time in no wind wind wind wind distance travelled in the same time in a headwind wind wind wind distance travelled in the same time in a tailwind 7.
Even though it is impossible to escape the effect of a headwind, there is something the pilot can do to minimize it. This is best understood by using the philosophical technique called 'reductio ad absurdum', which means reduce to the absurd. The truth of an argument can often be understood by considering the extreme or absurd case. For example, let's consider an aeroplane with a minimum drag speed of 80 kt. If this aeroplane was flying into a headwind of 80 kt, it would never get anywhere- its maximum range would be zero [Fig 7.6]. Fig 7.6
wind speed equal to TAS [80 kt]
TAS 80 kt
The aircraft gets nowhere. It remains over A A
What would happen if the pilot increased his speed to 90 kt? When all of the fuel was exhausted the aeroplane would at least have made some headway against the 80 kt wind. Even though the minimum drag speed is 80 kt, it requires a speed higher than that to make any progress against the wind[ Fig 7.7]. Fig 7.7
wind speed 80 kt
TAS 90 kt
In the same time the aircraft makes some headway A
To achieve best range in a headwind, we must fly at a speed faster than the minimum drag speed. If you're interested, the exact speed required to make the best of the headwind situation is shown in Fig 7.8. The tangent from the origin, O, to the power required curve locates the minimum drag speed [S1]. This is the speed to use for maximum range in no wind. If we move up the speed axis a distance equal to the wind speed and draw a new tangent, we have located S2, the best range speed for that wind condition.
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speed O wind speed S1 S2
By a similar argument, the best speed for range in a tailwind is less than the minimum drag speed. In practice for light aircraft in normal wind conditions, the actual increase or decrease in speed required to compensate for headwind or tailwind effects is so small it can be safely ignored if normal fuel reserves are carried. In any case, the power required curve for most light aircraft is not included in the available performance data. The examiner will expect you to know that a speed other than the minimum drag speed is required in strong wind conditions, but you will not be required to calculate any actual figures. Effect of weight: Provided the pilot flies at the correct angle of attack, the best lift/drag ratio remains the same and weight has no effect on it [see LIFT/DRAG RATIO- AEROFOILS on page 3.8]. However a heavy aircraft requires more lift, so the speed required to achieve the best lift/drag ratio becomes higher. Because lift is greater, drag is also greater, so thrust required increases. To provide more thrust at a higher speed, more power is required. The increase in fuel flow is greater than the increase in speed so range is reduced [Fig 7.9]. Fig 7.9
increased lift lift
best lift/drag ratio angle of attack
best lift/drag ratio angle of attack
Best lift/drag ratio occurs at one particular angle of attack.
increased drag To fly at the same angle of attack, more speed is required.
Effect of height: In light piston engine aeroplanes without oxygen, height will have very little effect on the range possible if all other factors remain constant. It is much more likely in practice that the availability of favourable winds will decide the height to fly.
However, in theory the aeroplane should be operated at a height where full throttle can be used to produce the required speed. This would allow the engine to operate at its theoretical best volumetric efficiency. This height is called 'full throttle height' and it is most unlikely that this will ever be a consideration in practice. For example the best lift/drag ratio speed for a typical light aircraft is simply the speed you would glide at to achieve best gliding range - somewhere around 65 to 70 knots IAS. Imagine climbing to a height where full throttle produced a cruising speed of 65 knots in a Cessna 172! The fuel used to get there [ it would probably be about 17000 to 18000 feet ], would be much better spent in getting on with the flight at a lower level - to say nothing about the probability of very strong winds at such a height. In the case of a turbo charged engine, full throttle height would be much higher still. To further complicate the issue, the propeller efficiency would also have to be considered. All of the items we have considered here relate to achieving maximum range. In practice this will rarely be required and many operators have a compromise power setting often referred to as 'long range cruise' which provides good fuel economy but still allows reasonably high cruising speeds. You will hear more about this topic in Aircraft Operation, Performance and Planning.
BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL
FACTORS AFFECTING ENDURANCE Endurance is the time spent in the air. It is not the same as range. To achieve maximum endurance the fuel on board must last the longest possible time. Fuel will last the longest time when it is used by the engine at the lowest rate. Therefore maximum endurance is achieved by operating the engine at minimum fuel flow i.e. minimum power. For a typical fixed-pitch GA aeroplane minimum power is minimum RPM. Every time an induction stroke occurs the cylinder takes a 'bite' of fuel. If you have the least 'bites' per minute you will consume the least fuel per minute. It follows that anything that directly affects power required will affect endurance. Effect of wind: When we consider endurance we are not interested in the distance covered over the ground, we are concerned only with the aeroplane remaining in the air as long as possible. Once airborne, the aircraft is part of the air parcel that contains it and the minimum power required for flight is the same no matter what the wind is doing. If you stand in the ball room of an ocean liner, you can move about with equal ease in any direction and the fact that the ship is in motion is of no concern. You are part of the 'parcel'. Since wind has no effect on the minimum power required for flight, it has no effect on endurance. Effect of weight: More weight requires more lift and as a consequence, produces more drag. More drag requires the use of more power. The minimum power required will be higher when weight is increased. This results in a higher fuel flow and reduced endurance [Fig 7.10].
power required [heavy]
Effect of height: We have seen that lift is the result of a certain angle of attack and a certain indicated air speed. When operating at high power required levels, a greater true air speed is required to [light] achieve any given indicated air speed because of the reduced air density at higher altitudes. Since it is true air speed that determines the Speed power required, piston engine aeroplanes require more power for level flight at any given TAS as height is increased. Therefore best endurance will be achieved by staying as low as possible. To fly for maximum endurance then, you should fly as low as possible with the engine RPM as slow as possible. All of the items we have considered here relate to achieving maximum endurance. However the airspeed which results by flying at absolute minimum power is usually so low that the controls are sluggish and the aircraft becomes difficult to fly accurately especially in turbulence. In practice this extreme measure will rarely be required and many operators have a compromise power setting often referred to as a 'holding' rate. This is a higher power setting which still provides a low fuel flow, but allows the aeroplane to fly at a speed which provides better control effectiveness. This is often necessary during flight under the instrument flight rules where holding over an aerodrome due to poor weather may be necessary in turbulent conditions. You will hear more about this topic in the section on Aircraft Operation, Performance and Planning.
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SUMMARY TO FLY FOR MAXIMUM RANGE IN LEVEL FLIGHT IN NO WIND Fly at the speed which produces minimum total drag. the height should allow them to operate at maximum efficiency while producing the power required to fly at the correct speed. This will be a higher speed. IF A HEADWIND OR TAILWIND EXISTS Fly faster than the speed which produces minimum total drag to minimize the effect of a headwind. Fly as low as possible with the engine RPM as slow as possible.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL . 'Full throttle height'. the effect of increased weight is usually ignored.propeller combination are concerned. Theoretically this would occur at the height where full throttle is required. in any wind. HEIGHT TO FLY FOR BEST RANGE As far as the airframe is concerned. Fly slower than the speed which produces minimum total drag to maximize the effect of a tailwind. TO FLY FOR MAXIMUM ENDURANCE IN LEVEL FLIGHT Fly at the speed which requires minimum power at any weight. The speed for maximum range will always be higher than the speed for maximum endurance. Minimum drag always occurs at a higher speed than minimum power. This is because the tangent to the power required curve must always touch the curve further to the right than the lowest point on the curve. but the angle of attack will be the same. CPL AERODYNAMICS power required power max endurance max range Speed 7. height doesn't matter as long as the speed is the best lift/drag ratio speed. As far as the engine . This is alsothe best lift/drag ratio speed the speed used for best glide the speed which requires minimum thrust and best air nautical miles per gallon IF WEIGHT IS INCREASED Fly at the speed which produces minimum total drag. For light aircraft.
Even though flaps are used as lift augmentation devices. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 7. however the proportional increase in drag is greater than that for lift. Fowler flap: This is a very good lift-producing flap. Fig 7. It also allows fresh. they also affect drag. and almost always for landing. It moves rearwards as well as down producing a small increase in wing area. More useful for control of airspeed during approach and landing than for producing extra lift.LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES Revise pages 3. Small extensions are useful for lift increases. The lift/drag ratio will always be spoilt by flap extension.9 . This can be achieved by increasing the effective camber of the wing with flap extension.11 Split flap: Featured on some general aviation aeroplanes.6 There are times in flight when the designer takes steps to increase the amount of lift generated at any given angle of attack.1 to 3. but it generates high drag when fully extended. Generally small extensions of flap are useful in lift augmentation. or simply by giving the boundary layer more energy to help overcome the effects of friction. This is sometimes the case for take-off. Any device that helps the air to continue flowing across the top surface of the wing will augment the production of lift. Plain flap: This device increases the effective camber. It further extends the effects of the Fowler flap. this type produces high drag. this type of flap is often used on heavy aircraft. This is why they are never used to fly for range or to improve gliding distance. high pressure air to flow from the bottom to the top surface adding extra energy to the seriously retarded airflow over the top surface. Double-slotted Fowler flap: An excellent lift producer.
12]. Flow reversal and separation and therefore the stall. on the other hand. is delayed and the wing can operate at much higher angles of attack [Fig 7. called a slat. in which case they are called fixed slats. the air that emerges onto the top surface is better able to follow the curvature of the surface. aerofoil with slat CL basic aerofoil Angle of attack C L wing fence 7. Some wings employ a barrier called a wing fence. The gap between the slat and the wing is called a slot. They allow the aerofoil to operate beyond what would otherwise be its stalling angle. This improves the wing's performance and allows slower approach speeds to be used. just ahead of the wing's leading edge. caused by the action of vortices at low air speed.12 slat Both flaps and slats increase the maximum lift coefficient of the wing. Fig 7. Sometimes they are retractable.10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS ae ro fo il ba wi sic th ae fla ro p fo il Angle of attack . the maximum lift coefficient can be increased by as much as 60%. Slats however have no effect on lift coefficient until high angles of attack are reached. so that they come into use only when high angles of attack are employed. After passing through the gap between the slat and the wing. Slats are sometimes built in as a permanent feature of the aerofoil. reduces the lift coefficient because the air is not flowing straight across the wing surface as the designer intended. Retractable slats are deployed for approach and landing. often automatically in response to the increasing angle of attack. actually create an entirely new wing section which generates more lift [and more drag] at every angle of attack. WING FENCES The spanwise flow.SLATS By placing a small auxiliary aerofoil. which straightens the spanwise airflow near the tip and allows the air to follow the correct path over the wing. Flaps.
Vortex generators lift this stagnating air away from the surface and replace it with the higher speed airflow above [Fig 7. but it works. The air that remains in close proximity to the wing surface.11 .13 Vortex generators EXERCISE A4 Question No 1 An aircraft of a certain weight is flown at 150 kt IAS at 1000 ft. The idea sounds outrageous.VORTEX GENERATORS Other devices used to delay flow reversal and separation are known as vortex generators. The action is not unlike that of a disk plough which lifts a strip of earth and rolls it over. especially when the flow is laminar. the angle of attack required to maintain level flight would be [a] greater because of the reduced density at 20000 ft [b] less because of the reduced drag in the thinner air [c] greater because the TAS would have to be higher [d] the same Question No 2 Devices such as slats. slotted flaps and vortex generators act to modify the behaviour of the [a] tip vortices [b] boundary layer [c] free air stream [d] total drag Question No 3 Compared with nil wind conditions.13]. is slowed by friction. If the same aircraft was flown at 150 kt IAS at 20000 ft. a headwind component during cruise will result in [a] a reduction in maximum range and a reduction in maximum endurance [b] a reduction in maximum range but no change in maximum endurance [c] no change in either maximum range or maximum endurance [d] no change in maximum range but a reduction in maximum endurance CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 7. On seeing vortex generators on a wing for the first time. many students find it hard to believe that it isn't sabotage! Fig 7.
Question No 4 To achieve maximum range when a head or tail wind exists. the aircraft must be flown [a] at speed S for any weight [b] faster than speed S if weight is increased [c] slower than speed S if weight is increased [d] faster than speed S if weight is reduced Question No 8 Refer to the figure at left For an aircraft to achieve maximum endurance in level flight it must be flown [a] at speed S [b] slower than speed S in any wind conditions [c] slower than speed S if a tailwind exists [d] faster than speed S if a tailwind exists S speed thrust required Question No 9 Ignoring all other considerations the theoretical height to fly at in a piston engined aeroplane to achieve maximum range is[a] as low as possible [b] as high as possible [c] at full-throttle height [d] the height at which the indicated airspeed is highest 7. The maximum distance per litre of fuel consumed in level flight would be achieved by flying at [a] at speed S in any wind conditions [b] slower than speed S if a headwind exists [c] faster than speed S if a headwind exists [d] faster than speed S if a tailwind exists total drag S speed Question No 7 Refer to the figure in Question 6. and lower in a headwind [c] higher than best lift/drag ratio speed in a headwind. To use the least amount of fuel in a given distance for nil wind conditions.12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the correct speed to use is [a] the best lift/drag ratio speed in all conditions [b] higher than best lift/drag ratio speed in a tailwind. to achieve maximum range in nil wind conditions [a] both should fly at the same speed [b] the heavy aircraft should fly faster than the light one [c] the heavy aircraft should fly slower than the light one [d] the heavy aircraft should fly faster than the speed which produces its best lift/drag ratio Question No 6 Refer to the figure at left. identical in every respect except for gross weight. and lower in a tailwind [d] lower than the best lift/drag ratio speed in both a headwind and a tailwind Question No 5 For two aircraft.
a particular power setting is required. Question No 15 in the lift formula in Question 14 above. level flight may be maintained by [a] increasing indicated air speed and raising the nose [b] increasing indicated air speed and lowering the nose [c] decreasing indicated air speed and raising the nose [d] decreasing indicated air speed and lowering the nose Question No 13 Consider an aircraft maintaining straight and level flight at the speed which produces maximum endurance. represents- [a] [b] [c] [d] the total surface area of the top and bottom wing surfaces the maximum plan area of the wing the surface area of the wing and tailplane the surface area of the curved upper surface of the wing.13 .Question No 10 For an aircraft at a particular gross weight to maintain level flight at a particular height and IAS. As weight reduces with fuel burn-off. Question No 16 The term 1 2 V2 in the formula in Question 14 above is most closely associated with- [a] [b] [c] [d] true airspeed surface area of the wing wind speed indicated airspeed CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 7. representsThe term [a] the temperature of the air [b] the density height of the ambient air [c] the ambient atmospheric pressure [d] the mass of a unit volume of air. If level flight is to be maintained. [a] more power will be required if speed is reduced [b] less power will be required if speed is reduced [c] less power will be required if speed is increased [d] less power will be required if speed is changed to the speed of minimum drag Question No 14 The term 'S' in the lift formula [ C L 1 2 V2 S ]. If the gross weight is increased [a] a larger angle of attack and more power would be required [b] a larger angle of attack would be required but no change in power [c] the same angle of attack could be used along with increased power [d] a smaller angle of attack and more power is required Question No 11 When flap is lowered on an aircraft in flight [a] lift and drag both increase [b] lift decreases and drag decreases [c] lift decreases and drag increases [d] lift increases and drag decreases Question No 12 An aircraft is in straight and level flight at constant power.
Speed S is the bottom of the drag curve so it represents minimum drag. any other speed.Question No 17 You are required to hold over an aerodrome to wait for fog to clear. The term 'S' always represents the plan area of the wing.4 of this section. These devices are sometimes referred to as boundary layer control devices [BLC]. Rho stands for density. [b] as low as possible at minimum power. Minimum power is always a slower speed than minimum drag [ See Summary on page 1. Maximum endurance requires minimum power. The question specifies a particular IAS. Both aircraft should fly at the same angle of attack. [c] at any height as long as you use minimum power. therefore more speed for the same power. a larger angle of attack will be required. The curved upper surface of the wing would have a slightly greater area than the plan view.8]. This means a reduction in drag. Density is the mass per unit volume. lift will be unchanged. If you were heavier. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [b] [b] [c] [b] [c] [a] [b] [c] 10 [a] 11 12 13 14 [a] [b] [a] [b] 15 16 [d] [d] 17 [b] 7. The term 'one half rho times the velocity squared' is actually a measure of the kinetic energy of a unit volume of air. Drag will increase by a bigger proportion than lift. If weight is unchanged. but you should still fly at speed S. Since maximum endurance occurs at the speed which requires minimum power. angle of attack must also be the same. it must fly at a higher IAS. If weight is increased. higher or lower. Since the heavy one needs more lift. if IAS is the same. Maximum endurance is achieved by flying as low as possible where the a given IAS requires the least TAS.14 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . If power remains constant. Since lift is the result of IAS and angle of attack. However the engine will not be at its most efficient unless the throttle is wide open . reducing the lift/drag ratio.7. speed S would be a higher speed. To ensure the maximum possible holding time available you should fly[a] as high as possible at minimum drag. A headwind requires a speed greater than minimum drag. The airframe is at its most efficient at any height as long as the IAS is equal to the best lift/ drag ratio speed. [d] at any height as long as you fly at minimum drag ANSWERS TO EXERCISE A4 No 1 Answer [d] Comment In level flight lift must equal weight.7. See page 1. the nose must be lowered to allow lift to remain equal to the reducing weight. Indicated Air Speed is a function of both the density of the air and the true airspeed. Then both the engine and the airframe will be happy. will require more power. Wind has no effect on endurance.a wide open throttle means there is least resistance to the air flowing into the cylinders. Also minimum power [ie minimum RPM for a fixed pitch aeroplane] will result in minimum fuel flow and therefore maximum endurance. Power would have to be increased to maintain IAS. This value is most accurately represented in the cockpit by the airspeed indicator. That causes an increase in both lift and drag. Theoretically the aircraft should be flown at a height at which full throttle produces the best lift/drag ration IAS. That is the area enclosed by the wing if it was drawn in plan view onto a flat surface. It is really the total reaction which increases. This will cause an increase in drag also. Minimum drag only produces maximum range in no wind.
CLIMBING As an aircraft carries out a climb at a constant throttle setting and a constant IAS.11 and 1. This is a reasonable assumption provided that we consider one small segment of the climb path at any one time. but an ever shallowing curve [Fig 8. TAS increases during a climb at constant IAS. The weight acts vertically downwards. then all of the forces acting on it are balanced.2 In Fig 8. Fig 8. of these two forces [see pages 1.HIGH ALTITUDE path followed during a long climb Fig 8. are exactly balanced by the forces resisting the climb.1 .lift and thrust.weight and drag. while the drag acts opposite to the direction of motion. For the same reason.2. power and thrust available decrease as height increases because of the reducing air density. Forces acting: If we accept that the aircraft is in equilibrium at any one point. its path through the air is the result of its vertical motion [rate of climb] and its horizontal motion [ground speed].1 rate of climb rate of climb nt die a r bg clim ng ulti res ent b gradi m i l c g resultin ground speed CLIMB GRADIENT. we assume that equilibrium does exist.1]. This resultant represents the combined effect of all the forces acting to resist the climb.LOW ALTITUDE ground speed CLIMB GRADIENT. If we draw two vectors to represent the magnitude and direction of weight and drag. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 cli mb pa th weight dra g R1 CPL AERODYNAMICS 8. the small circle represents the position of the aircraft at a given moment in a climb. we can find the resultant. The forces assisting the climb .12 of this book].1 shows clearly that an aircraft in a climb is not in equilibrium since the path it follows is not straight. R1. Fig 8. However for the sake of investigating the forces acting in a climb. For an engine without turbocharging. The actual path through the air is not a straight line.
the thrust must first overcome drag just to prevent the aeroplane from slowing down. g cli mb pa th cli mb pa th dra g weight R1 Fig 8. you will find that thrust is greater than drag and lift is less than weight. the less it needs its lift and the more it needs its thrust. If we now resolve R2 into two components.5 shows that for the same weight and drag. the more steeply it climbs.2 of this book]. Now if you would care to do some measuring. but they find it a bit of a shock that lift is less than weight.Fig 8. we g dra lift g dra lift weight R1 ath bp clim Another way of looking at it is that during a climb. as the angle of climb is made steeper.the drag component of weight. we can determine the values thrust and lift must have to provide this resultant [Fig 8.5 thr ust R2 al qu st e g mu dra f ust he thr g + t ent o dra pon com ight. This resultant represents the combined effect of thrust and lift. weight has a component acting against the direction of motion. Draw the resultant R2 so that it is exactly equal and opposite to R1. The climb is made possible by the surplus thrust remaining after drag has been accounted for [see page 6. the forces acting to assist the climb. If you consider a vertical climb it becomes obvious that thrust would have to equal weight plus drag and there would be no lift! More precisely.4 R2 ust lift thr dra weight R1 It is not all that surprising when you consider that an aeroplane does not use its lift to climb. Most students find no problems accepting that thrust is greater than drag. Fig 8. In fact. one along the direction of flight and one at right angles to the direction of flight.it uses its thrust. 8. Total thrust must equal the aerodynamic drag plus this drag component of weight.2 weight g ent dra pon t h com weig of BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL ath bp clim CPL AERODYNAMICS . R2 Fig 8. the thrust vector becomes greater while the lift vector decreases. ie thrust and lift.4].3 R2 If we are going to assume that the aircraft is in equilibrium. must provide a resultant that is equal and opposite to R1.
of course. Also. Effect of increased height: As height increases. speed S represents the speed to use with maximum power to obtain the maximum rate of climb at a particular height and weight. The reduced surplus power available results in a decrease in the maximum rate of climb possible. The height at which this occurs is called the absolute ceiling.high Note that as height increases the maximum surplus power available also occurs at a different speed. Some manufacturers publish a figure called the service ceiling. is unaffected by weight increases. This is because of the increased drag at the higher angles of attack that are necessary.high power available . Power available. the power available decreases due to the reducing air density. the power required for level flight at any particular speed increases.RATE AND ANGLE OF CLIMB Maximum rate of climb is achieved by climbing the aircraft at a particular speed with maximum continuous power applied.high For most light aircraft operating at speed S below ten thousand feet. especially for non-turbocharged aeroplanes. this change in the required speed is ignored and a single average speed is recommended for maximum rate of climb.6]. surplus power .6. The speed to use is that which provides maximum surplus power over and above that required to fly level [Fig 8. the power required would go on increasing. If we imagined the climb speed S to continue at any particular weight.low power required .3 .7].6 maximum power available at speed S pow requier red power available In Fig 8. The surplus power and therefore the maximum rate of climb possible reduces quite rapidly with increased height [Fig 8.low power available .7 power required . the power required to fly level at any particular speed increases. power surplus power at speed S power required to fly level at speed S speed S Fig 8. Effect of increased weight: As weight increases. Fig 8. power CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 8. where the rate of climb falls below a practical value. while the power available would go on decreasing until eventually there would be no surplus power available at all.
4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL . 80 kt provides the maximum surplus power. Since 60 kt is not the best rate of climb speed. for better engine cooling and improved forward visibility. 6 t 0k 80 kt height gained in one minute distance covered in one minute Now assume that the same aircraft repeats the climb at 60 kt.ANGLE OF CLIMB While rate of climb considers the height gained in a given time.8 climbs at its best rate of climb speed of 80 kt. However. it will gain the same height as it would have in no wind. the angle of climb [shaded] is actually greater. Its angle of climb [black]. In most high performance aircraft. while 60 kt provides the maximum surplus thrust. the best angle of climb and best rate of climb are used only when required by the circumstances. because it also travels less horizontal distance in each minute. Angle of climb is increased [Fig 8. Effect of wind: The wind has no effect on the surplus power available. Maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb are two different performance items. Fig 8. Consider the same aircraft climbing at 80 kt into a headwind. is determined by the height gained and the horizontal distance covered. Other climbs are made at a higher speed and often at reduced engine power. A tail wind will reduce the angle of climb. 80 kt provides the maximum height gained in a given time ie rate of climb. The slower speed would provide better obstacle clearance. the greatest height will be gained in each minute. therefore it has no effect on the rate of climb. Such climbs are called cruise climbs. CPL AERODYNAMICS Fig 8.8 Let's assume that the aircraft in Fig 8. less height will be gained in each minute. To be a bit more technical. After one minute.9 nd wi d a he d height gained in one minute a t in k 80 80 kt o in n win distance moved by the wind in one minute distance covered in one minute 8. But 60 kt provides a greater height gained in a given distance ie angle of climb. In this example. reducing the horizontal distance covered. Since this is the speed at which maximum surplus power is available. angle of climb considers the height gained in a given distance. But during that minute the wind would have pushed it back.9]. They usually occur at two different speeds.
Fig 8. The phenomenon is called ground effect and its influence is noticeable from a height equivalent to one wing span down to ground level. During take-off. ground effect has caused a number of landing accidents. This causes a loss of speed and a loss of lift. If the pilot responds by commencing the climb too early. ground effect allows the aircraft to accelerate well just after lift-off. Since induced drag is the predominant form of drag at low airspeed.10 The figure at left shows how the reduction in induced drag relates to 60% height above the ground. in which a damaged multi-engine aircraft avoided ditching by flying just above the surface of the sea in ground effect. % reduction in induced drag for a given angle of attack 20% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% height of the wing above the ground as a % of the wing span Experienced pilots operating from badly prepared surfaces. One result is that vortex formation is inhibited with a corresponding decrease in induced drag. when the aircraft has floated 'for ever' after round-out with the pilot refusing the option to apply power and admit defeat. Ground effect actually increases the lift/drag 40% ratio for any given angle of attack. use ground effect to assist the take-off by allowing the aircraft to accelerate to a safe flying speed just a few feet off the ground. Fig 8.11 ground effect !?! climb commenced too early incre ased drag CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 8.GROUND EFFECT When a wing is operating very close to the ground. giving the impression that it is ready to climb like a homesick angel. as it is during take-off or landing. the angle of attack increases further and the 'angel' suddenly develops a sentimental attachment to the runway! Combined with high approach speeds. the behaviour of the local airflow is modified by viscosity effects. induced drag suddenly increases to its normal value when the wing leaves the ground effect region. As the aircraft settles. this results in a very significant reduction in total drag for the same angle of attack [up to 40%].5 . Cases were reported during the sec- ond world war.
12 a]. The force acting to assist its motion.DESCENDING An aircraft in a straight descent at a constant IAS may be considered to be in a state of equilibrium. these angles are equal.13 In the small triangle: R cot a = lift drag distance height lift drag weight l ua eq lift to a t lif In the large triangle: cot a distance height = g dra ath tp h flig weight So height = a distance 8. Because these two triangles are similar. One is contained in a small triangle and the other is contained in a large triangle. all we need to do is reduce the drag vector by an amount equal to thrust.12 a Fig 8.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL In still air. the distance you can glide from any height depends upon the lift/drag ratio and nothing else! CPL AERODYNAMICS . The co-tangent of an angle is the ratio of the side adjacent to it to the side opposite to it. Gliding range in still air: The distance an aircraft can glide in still air depends not only on the lift present. weight. We need not complicate descent diagrams by trying to introduce a thrust vector. lift and the residual drag will balance weight and the aircraft will follow a shallower flight path [Fig 8.12 b residual drag Fig 8. Consider the two angles marked a [shaded black] in Fig 8. When equilibrium is established. Fig 8. it is the lift/drag ratio that decides the angle of descent and therefore the gliding range. drag and lift [Fig 8.12 c].13. lift is less than weight and thrust is less then drag. R Fig 8. In a descent.12 b]. that thrust will counteract some of the drag [Fig 8. is exactly balanced by the forces acting to resist its motion.12 c lift subtract thrust t lif g dra th t rus weight g dra ht flig h pat r oweath l l a sh ht p flig residual drag If a small amount of thrust is introduced.
14 R2 An aircraft with a lift/drag ratio of 10 to 1. We simply use a single average IAS to achieve best gliding range. However in a 70 kt headwind. the gliding range would be zero. If the glide speed in the headwind had been increased to 80 kt. As is often the case. would be able to glide ten times its own height in no wind ie about 10 nm from 6000 ft. When a wind exists. Since lift and drag are the result of both angle of attack and IAS.Fig 8. To achieve maximum gliding range in a headwind. In no wind. Since the aircraft is part of the air parcel which contains it.3.9 of this section]. wind has no effect on the glide performance relative to the air. it will maintain the same flight path.15].14]. gliding at its best lift/drag ratio speed of 70 kt. but it must glide at a very high speed. this will produce the maximum gliding range. In a tail wind you should glide slower than the best lift/drag ratio speed [Fig 8. Consider an aircraft of a given weight. Fig 8. but of course it does affect glide distance over the ground. However for equilibrium to be established. the amount of speed increase required to compensate for weight increase in an average light aircraft is so small that it is ignored in practice. L2 L1 R1 D2 D1 ath tp h flig W1 W2 This leads us to the almost outrageous conclusion that weight has nothing to do with the distance we can glide.7 . if the aircraft maintains the same angle of attack. Since it is the angle of attack which determines the lift/drag ratio [see page 1. the resultant of lift and drag must be increased from R1 to R2. Effect of wind: The aircraft glides within a parcel of air. Providing we select a speed which allows the best lift/drag ratio angle of attack to be used.15 nd wi o n in kt 0 t7 ha t a p gliding range at 70 kt is zero gliding range at 80 kt ht flig gliding angle gliding range CPL AERODYNAMICS 70 kt headwind ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 8. a particular aircraft will glide the same distance in no wind whatever it weighs! The space shuttle has a very good glide performance. IAS must be increased to provide the additional lift and drag [L2 and D2]. it follows that if angle of attack is to be maintained. What if weight was increased from W1 to W2 [Fig 8. that parcel of air is in motion. you should glide at a speed faster than the best lift/drag ratio speed. it would at least have made some headway against the wind.
As it continues to descend. in a headwind. However the light aircraft is still in the air at the lower speed. provided you use the correct speed for your weight. If both aircraft start at the same height and glide at the angle of attack which produces the best lift/drag ratio. When it comes to obtaining maximum gliding range in a headwind. By the time the heavy aircraft has reached the ground.In no wind both aircraft glide down the same surface. but the heavy one [black]. they will both glide the same distance.16 represents two aircraft. The heavy aircraft will reach the ground before the light one. the wind has more time to push it back. Both aircraft start at the same height. but the heavy one will have to glide faster than start the light one. The white one is light and the black one is heavy.17 distance moved by the wind range [heavy] Because the light aircraft spends more time in the air. it is actually an advantage to be heavy! range [light] distance moved by the wind 8. In Fig 8. identical in every respect except weight [and colour]. reaches the bottom first One very interesting consequence of all this is that. the wind pushes it back still further. Fig 8. we repeat the experiment.17. but they will both cover the same distance. but this time in a headwind.16 gliding range Fig 8. Fig 8.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the wind has pushed the parcel of air that contains them back as indicated. an aircraft will actually glide further when it is heavy than when it is light.
If the wind shear is encountered at low level however. Rate and angle of descent increase. Because of inertia. Because IAS is involved in the production of lift. The airspeed indicator reads 70 kt IAS. Under these conditions.WIND SHEAR On a number of occasions now. the nose may have to be lowered and power applied to assist in regaining the original airspeed. the aircraft suddenly loses lift. This aircraft suddenly encounters a new air parcel which is moving at only 10 kt and the pilot maintains the same nose attitude. But the headwind is now only 10 kt.18 20 kt ASI reads 70 kt 10 kt ASI reads 60 kt aircraft shadow travels over the ground at 50 kt aircraft shadow travels over the ground at 50 kt The aircraft in Fig 8. However if the aircraft leaves one moving parcel of air to enter another one which is moving at a different speed. For the sake of the argument. Fig 8. The shadow of the aircraft must be travelling across the ground at 50kt. angle of descent or gliding range. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 8. the IAS will eventually return to 70 kt and the aircraft will adopt a gliding angle shallower than before because of the decreased headwind. Heavy aircraft have more inertia and so are affected to a greater degree. the aircraft cannot suddenly change its actual speed over the ground.9 . we have considered the wind to be a moving parcel of air and the aircraft carrying out its manoeuvres within that moving parcel. so momentarily it continues to travel over the ground at 50 kt. the wind has no effect on the manoeuvres unless we relate the aircraft motion to the ground. there certainly will be an effect on the aircraft's flight characteristics. so the IAS suddenly drops to 60 kt.18 is descending into a 20 kt headwind. If the pilot maintains the nose attitude. as in angle of climb. let's assume that this is also 70 kt TAS. The problem only occurs while the inertia acts.
Wind shear can also be encountered on climb after take-off. 8. and a gain in lift. Fig 8. where both rate and angle of climb will be affected. Sudden violent changes in wind speed and direction are commonly found in the vicinity of thunderstorms and fast moving cold fronts. Undershoot shear is often encountered downwind from a hill where the wind speed has been blocked by the presence of the hill. Fig 8. In this case. There will be a sudden increase in IAS. windy days. This causes the aircraft to ascend above the intended approach path. the aircraft on approach suddenly encounters an increase in the headwind component. Not so frequently encountered but certainly possible are overshoot wind shears.Wind shears which cause a drop in IAS on descent are sometimes called undershoot wind shears since their effect on a landing approach is to cause the aircraft to lose lift and descend below the intended approach path.19 original flight path resulting flight path slow fast original flight path resulting flight path fast slow Wind shear is common at low level on gusty.10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .19 presents a summary of wind shear effects.
1 F A certain force. No object can carry out a turn unless a force acts towards the centre of the turn [centripetal force]. Each time the ball encounters a force. As it passes a certain point. it deflects by a certain angle. it has a large radius of turn . If the deflections are small. This results in a certain radius of turn.if the deflections are large. acts at regular intervals towards the centre of the turn. we end up with the ball following a circular path with a continuous force acting towards the centre of the turn. each time it encounters the force. The radius of the turn depends upon the speed of the object and the strength of the centripetal force that acts. it is tapped with a billiard cue which applies a force towards the centre of the table. The degree of bank controls the strength of the centripetal force. The angle by which it deflects each time. the ball takes a lot of room to turn around. C. a. A number of other players are waiting and each applies the same force at equal intervals.1 . it takes much less room to turn around. F. depends upon the speed of the ball and the strength of the force.3 F If speed is increased for the same force. allowing the horizontal component to provide the necessary centripetal force [Fig 9. A ball travelling at a certain speed will deflect by a certain angle.2 a a F F If the force is increased for the same speed. it has a smaller radius of turn. An aeroplane is banked into the direction of the desired turn. F F F F a a a Fig 9. the angle of deflection is less radius of turn increases. C a Fig 9. Fig 9. eventually reversing its direction. This causes the force of lift to incline towards the centre of the turn. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9. these principles remain true. and therefore the radius of turn for any given speed. a F If we allow the time intervals between each encounter with a force to become infinitely small. the angle of deflection at each encounter becomes greater radius of turn decreases.4].TURNING Imagine a billiard ball rolling across a billiard table. Whether it is a billiard ball or an aeroplane.
Load factor: A good indication of the amount of energy being extracted from the airstream is the ratio of the lift being produced to the weight of the aeroplane. It turns out that there is a simple relationship between the rate at which load factor increases and the rate at which stalling speed increases. To achieve this. expressed as lift ÷ weight.6 L V L Li s tw ice W 60° L is abou t thr ee ti mes W 70° horizon W W CPL AERODYNAMICS 9. so the load factor is 2. This ratio. Light aircraft do not have the power to increase IAS during a turn [in any case this would increase the radius of turn so it would be a silly option].8]. V t lif d a r t re ex qui re d t ire igh u q l re el f t lif lev in W Fig 9. It is called the limit load factor and is set by the manufacturer and published in the aircraft flight manual.4 L V vertical component Since larger angles of attack are required at any given IAS. There is a limit to the load factor that the airframe can tolerate without risk of failure. the actual lift being generated must be increased above that required for level flight [Fig 9. lift is equal to weight. so angle of attack must be increased. the load factor is almost 3.6]. the vertical component of lift must continue to support weight.If no height is to be lost during the turn. Fig 9. In a 60° bank level turn. tells us 'how hard the wing is working'. lift horizontal component H weight W Fig 9. Either angle of attack or IAS must be increased to provide this additional lift.5]. the stalling angle of attack will be required at a higher speed than in level flight.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL . lift is twice weight [Fig 9.5 L V In level flight. The IAS at which the stall occurs increases during a turn. By the time the bank reaches 70°. The stalling speed increases with the square root of the load factor [See Fig 9. so the load factor is 1.
This supporting force acts along the line of lift. This produces an inertia reaction [or centrifugal reaction] which tries to fling the aircraft and its occupants away from the centre of the turn. This 'g' loading is always exactly equal to the load factor.3 . They are forced to follow the curved flight path by the action of the horizontal component of lift. Unlike load factor. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 weight W 9. You will hear more about the physiological effects of 'g' when you study Human Performance and Limitations. There is no mystery here.7 L V vertical component lift horizontal component H centrifugal reaction reaction Centrifugal Path that would be followed by the pilot’s body if it were suddenly released from the aeroplane. Consider the aircraft performing the turn illustrated below. The occupants are constrained to follow the curved flight path by a force applied by their seats which acts to support weight and force them into the direction of turn. they would experience 3 'g'. This centrifugal reaction combines with the force of weight to define a path which would be followed if the occupants were suddenly released from the aeroplane. The force the occupants feel is measured by comparing it to the normal force of gravity 'g'. WING LOADING Load factor or 'g' load should not be confused with wing loading. their seats are pushing against them to overcome their natural tendency to resist the changing motion according to Newton's laws. it is exactly the same as the leaning sensation you get when a car turns sharply around a corner. Fig 9.in fact they are not being forced into their seats. wing loading does not change with manoeuvres such as turns because it considers the actual weight of the aircraft not the 'apparent weight' which results from 'g' loads. Wing loading concerns the design engineer rather than the pilot. so that in a 60° bank level turn the occupants would experience 2 'g' ie they feel as though their weight has doubled! In a 70° bank turn. It is calculated by dividing the gross weight of the aeroplane by the wing area and is usually expressed as pounds per square foot. The occupants feel the sensation of sinking into their seats .'G' LOADING. At any point during the turn the aircraft and its occupants would 'prefer' to obey Newton's laws of motion and continue travelling in a straight line.
Fig 9. radius radius at twice the TAS 9. In fact the radius of turn increases with the square of the speed. From Fig 9. That is.8 Assuming a level-flight stalling speed of 60 kt.9.9 This figure shows to scale. It should be remembered that relatively small increases in speed produce very large increases in radius.Fig 9. reducing speed results in a spectacular decrease in radius of turn.1 66 kt 48° 1.9 2. an aircraft that has a level flight stalling speed of 60 kt.4 204 kt Most light aircraft would have reached the end of their performance envelope in a level turn at 60° of bank.0 1.4 84 kt 75° 3. Full power would be required to maintain such a speed against the increased drag at this high angle of attack.0 120 kt 85 11. It goes without saying that 75° and 85° are out of the question! RATE AND RADIUS Two variables control turning performance:Angle of bank and Speed [TAS] To understand turning performance.2 72 kt 60° 2. the radius of turn increases.5 3. Conversely.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Bank Load Factor √Load Factor New Stall Speed 34° 1. doubling the speed at the same bank angle requires four times the radius of turn [See Fig 9.8 above. must maintain a speed above 84 kt during a level turn at 60° of bank to prevent stalling.5 1. Changing TAS at constant angle of bank: If TAS increases and angle of bank is kept constant. the effect of doubling the TAS in a turn with angle of bank kept constant. we must consider the effect of changing one while the other is kept constant.2 1. I can't help but feel that some fatal weather related accidents may have been avoided had the pilot fully appreciated this important point.
will turn in the same radius.I'll bet you'll be surprised. If you carry out a 60° bank level turn at 60 kt the load factor is 2. If you carry out a 60° bank level turn at 120 kt the load factor is 2. If bank is increased while TAS is kept constant. the load factor and stalling speed remain the same. but it is not the weight that affects the turning performanceit is the speed. A Jumbo Jet and a Cessna 152 at the same angle of bank. All aircraft in a level turn at 60° of bank experience a load factor of 2.10]. reduce the power and allow the aircraft to slow down. they will both turn in the same radius [Fig 9. Now.the rate of turn is increased. no matter what the speed. the occupants of the aircraft experience 2g. Slowing down contributes greatly to the aircraft's turning performance. while the rate of turn is increased. Commence a turn at a particular angle of bank. With the same bank. but is flying at the same speed. you must slow down! This is easily demonstrated in flight. Note the rate at which the horizon is passing in front of the windscreen [rate of turn]. would turn in the same radius if. it takes less time . the longer it takes to complete the turn.not speed. In a level turn. CPL AERODYNAMICS 9. Consider the aircraft in Fig 9. If two aircraft. Try it . and it's a big 'if'. Note again the rate at which the horizon is passing in front of the windscreen. the aircraft must travel four times as far at twice the speed. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 radius radius A heavy aircraft and a light aircraft turning at the same angle of bank and the same TAS. maintaining the angle of bank. Another interesting feature of turning performance is that the radius of turn depends upon the bank used and the TAS and nothing else. The radius of turn is reduced. When the load factor is 2.10 One last word on load factor. the radius of turn increases fourfold. You don't need an instrument to tell you that the load factor is increasing. yet the radius of turn is greatly reduced at the lower speed. Slowing down allows the aeroplane to complete a given turn in much less distance and in much less time.10 carrying out a turn through 360°. if you want to hurry up. Changing the bank at constant TAS: There are no surprises here.you can feel it. However it should be remembered that increasing the bank also increases the load factor and therefore the stalling speed. Aircraft weight has nothing to do with it.5 . one heavy and one light. they were flying at the same speed! Fig 9. This means that the turn will take twice as long to complete! The faster you fly. load factor depends upon angle of bank and nothing else. If a Jumbo Jet and a Cessna 152 carry out a level turn at 60° of bank. the load factor is still 2. the aircraft will turn in a smaller radius. It is true that a heavy aircraft is likely to be flying faster. ie they feel as though their weight has doubled. The occupants of the aircraft experience a physiological response to the load factor through the 'g' load. To complete a turn through 360°. Since it now travels less distance to complete the turn. carry out a turn at the same angle of bank and the same TAS.Note that load factor and therefore stalling speed in the turn depends upon bank only . When it comes to turning performance. When the TAS is doubled. Rate of turn: The rate of turn determines the time taken to complete any given turn.
The lift struts of a high wing aeroplane are under a tensile load during normal flight.or inverted! The aircraft structure may be subject to any combination of these types of loads at any moment during flight.like wringing a towel . They act in the opposite direction to tensile loads. Drag acting on a wing or tailplane. the force of lift not only attempts to bend the wing. The loads imposed on an airframe are often classified according to the manner in which the airframe deforms in response to the load. As the IAS or angle of attack increases. produce stresses on structures such as airframes. The resulting bending loads attempt to lift the wing tips above the wing roots. in turn. The wings must accept bending loads while ever the aircraft is flying. COMPRESSION LOADS Forces that act longitudinally to compress a structure are responsible for compression loads. especially at high IAS. The designer takes them very seriously indeed! SHEARING LOADS Shearing loads act to rip a structure as shown in the figure at left. As the centre of pressure on a wing or tailplane moves along the chord. subjects the structure to shearing loads. the force of lift increases. It is for this reason that designers impose limits for IAS under various flight conditions. It follows that if the pressure acting is great enough. There is a limit to the bending load the wing can tolerate before permanent deformation or failure of the structure occurs.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL . TENSILE LOADS Forces that attempt to stretch a structure longitudinally generate tensile loads. Bending loads attempt to deform the structure as shown in the figure at left. Excessive twisting loads on the wing and tailplane can quickly become a threat to the structure. distortion under a bending load distortion under a torsional load TORSIONAL LOADS When forces act to twist the ends of a structure in opposite directions . it also attempts to twist it. Forces. CPL AERODYNAMICS distortion under a shearing load tensile load compression load 9. BENDING LOADS. the resulting force may cause permanent deformation or failure of the airframe.the resulting loads are called torsional loads.LOAD FACTOR AND STRUCTURAL LIMITATIONS When a pressure acts on a surface a force is exerted on that surface. The magnitude of that force depends upon the area of the surface and the amount of pressure applied. The lift struts of a high wing aeroplane are under compression loads when it is at rest .
Turbulence penetration speed Some aircraft impose another limiting speed called Vb. VS1 [flaps and wheels up] is the bottom end of the green arc on the ASI. This is a speed which is calculated on the loads imposed by a 3000 ft/min vertical gust acting on the aircraft. It is not marked on the face of the ASI. Apart from the load factor requirements discussed above. At these relatively low speeds the continued application of elevator would cause the wings to stall before the load factor can increase to the limiting value. If IAS is too high. an increase in bank would require an increase in back pressure on the control column and therefore an increase in load factor.Stalling speed The level flight stalling speed. but also from the rate at which the deflection is made. the effect on the structure is similar to sudden rapid control inputs. Vno . At and below Va therefore. VS0 [with full flap and wheels down] is the bottom end of the white arc on the ASI. Do not exceed Vne under any circumstances. In a steep turn at a speed above Va. Flight in turbulent air should be limited to speeds below this. At Vne the dynamic pressure of the air stream is such that damage could result even with no control input. Vs. In severe turbulence operate at a speed just below Vb. It will be found in the aircraft's Flight Manual.Never exceed speed. Some of the limiting indicated airspeeds in common use are given below. it is possible to exceed the limit load factor before the stall occurs. builds margins into these limiting speeds. Vb is a compromise between these two extremes. [Elevator is usually the most critical]. This speed should never be exceeded.Manoeuvring speed or Maximum control deflection speed. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9.7 . is the lowest IAS at which a load factor of 1 is possible [ie lift equal to weight or 1 'g' ] Any IAS below this is not available in normal operation. Damage or failure of the structure may result. Do not apply full or abrupt control inputs at IAS above Va. full elevator control deflection cannot cause airframe damage since the stall will intervene before excessive load factors can be imposed. Vs . It is the top end of the green arc on the ASI. speed limitations are often imposed for the operation of devices such as flaps and undercarriage. it will be found in the aircraft's Flight Manual. Operate above Vno in smooth air only and then only with caution. Strong vertical updrafts produce a sudden increase in angle of attack. At speeds above Va however. [Avoid rough handling and sudden control application. Vne . the limit load factor cannot be reached. they can cause the stalling angle to be exceeded resulting in a loss of control. Vno considers the aircraft's response to sudden control inputs as well as its gust response characteristics. however if you choose to deliberately exceed any of them he can no longer make any promises about the structural integrity of the aircraft. these sudden angle of attack increases can impose unacceptable structural loads. of course. Vb . Va is not marked on the ASI. Vne is marked on the ASI as a radial red line. At any IAS between Vs and Va. Excessive structural loads may result not only from the degree of control deflection. If the speed is above Va. followed by a suffix to define the flight condition being referred to. When the aircraft encounters turbulence. the extra lift generated by full or abrupt application of elevator would impose bending loads on the wings beyond the design limit. The designer.Manufacturers refer to limiting performance and structural indicated air speeds by using the letter 'V' which represents speed.Normal operating speed. If the IAS is too low. Va .
AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGS Red line Never Exceed Speed VNE Yellow arc Caution range VSO Power-off Stalling speed Flaps and Wheels down [max weight] 200 180 160 VNO max structural cruising speed AIRSPEED KNOTS 40 60 80 VSI Power-off Stalling speed Flaps and Wheels up [max weight] 140 120 100 White arc .8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .maximum landing gear extended speed. above which the landing gear should not be operated. always lower.flap extended range Green arc Normal operating range VFE max speed with flap extended Note that turbulence penetration speed [Vb]. 9.. Vle is not marked on the ASI. These speeds will be found in the aircraft's Flight Manual.Vle . This speed should not be exceeded if the landing gear is extended. which create extra drag during the actual undercarriage extension cycle. They are sometimes displayed as cockpit placards. the aircraft may operate up to Vle.maximum flap extended speed This speed should not be exceeded if the flaps are extended. manoeuvring speed [Va] and landing gear extended speed [Vle] are not marked on the face of the ASI. this speed is imposed to allow for the operation of undercarriage doors etc. Called Vlo. Once the undercarriage is down and locked. Note that some aircraft have different speeds for undercarriage extension and retraction. It will be found in the Flight Manual or placarded in the cockpit. Vfe . Vfe is the high end of the white arc on the ASI. Some aircraft have another speed.
It works quite well for the typical airspeeds of most general aviation aircraft but it should be obvious to you that an aircraft doing a turn at 900 knots will not require 97° angle of bank to achieve rate one!!! Also the speed we are talking about is the true airspeed during the turn. will take more than two minutes to complete at 30° angle of bank and 120 knots. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9. These rates of turn are quantified on a scale of 1 to 4 according to the following table. We have already seen that an increase in airspeed at constant bank causes the rate of turn to decrease. it is a rule-of-thumb. The following rough rule-of-thumb has been devised to provide a reasonable estimate of the angle of bank required for a rate 1 turn at various true airspeeds. ANGLE OF BANK REQUIRED FOR A RATE 1 TURN = TRUE AIRSPEED ÷ 10 + 7 From the above formula. A 360° turn that takes two minutes at 30° angle of bank and 100 knots. At 150 knots you would require 150 ÷ 10 + 7 = 22° angle of bank for a rate 1 turn.More about rate of turn. not the normal level flight cruising speed. a greater angle of bank will be required if the speed is increased. Remember that the rule is not a valid mathematical formula. If a given increase in airspeed causes an even greater increase in radius of turn for any given bank. it follows that the aircraft will have to fly further to complete a 360° turn at a higher airspeed. Rate of turn may be measured in degrees per second.9 . an aircraft with a true airspeed of 120 knots during the turn would require an angle of bank of 120 ÷ 10 + 7 = 19° to complete a 360° turn in 2 minutes. It follows then that if the rate of turn is to be constant. RATE Rate 1 Rate 2 Rate 3 Rate 4 TIME TO COMPLETE 360° 2 minutes 1 minute and 30 seconds 1 minute 30 seconds DEGREES / SECOND 3°/second 4°/second 6°/second 12°/second A rate 1 turn is often called a 'standard rate' turn and from our discussion so far it should be clear that the angle of bank required to allow an aircraft to perform a rate 1 [or any other rate] turn will vary with the speed at which the aircraft is travelling. however the rate of turn is also often expressed according to the number of seconds taken to turn through 360°.
10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL . wi wi nd An aircraft turning at a constant bank and speed is following the circumference of a circle in the air.12]. When ground speed is highest. Aerobatic pilots enter a loop at a certain IAS. Try it one day. A glance at the turn and balance indicator confirms that the aircraft is not skidding and no correction is required. radius of turn will increase if height increases because the TAS increases for the same IAS as height increases. wind has no effect unless we try to relate the manoeuvre to the ground. Effect of wind: As usual.13]. CPL AERODYNAMICS Fig 9. especially at low level when the ground features are clearly visible. radius low at a certain IAS radius If a turn is carried out at a certain angle of bank and IAS. The object of the exercise is to carry out a turn so as to follow the same radius about a point on the ground. when TAS increases. On a windy day. the plot thickens! To carry out such a turn the angle of bank must be varied least bank most bank required throughout so that the rate of turn matches required the aeroplane's ground speed. bank must be highest and when ground speed is lowest. bank must be lowest [Fig 9. As usual.11]. The Americans place importance on a training manoeuvre known as a pylon turn.11 high at the same IAS Effect of height: The only factors that affect turning performance are speed and bank. However it should be remembered that the speed to be considered is the TAS. This is simple enough in no wind. The instinctive reaction is to increase bank. the pilot experiences an illusion of skidding out of the turn [Fig 9.13 distance moved by the wind wind apparent flight path 9.it's not so d n easy. but when a Fig 9. The diameter of the loop is greater if it is performed at a greater height. the increase in radius of turn will be accompanied by a decrease in rate of turn [Fig 9. Height will have no direct effect.Fig 9. This increases the load factor and the stalling speed. As the aircraft turns from downwind to upwind. the air [and the circle] is moving relative to the ground. when in fact it is not required.12 wind exists.
15 constant bank constant bank roll out required to maintain a constant bank relative to the horizon. Fig 9. CLIMBING TURNS wind apparent flight path During a turn with constant bank and TAS. rotating the aircraft rapidly out of the turn.15]. During a climbing turn.14 distance moved by the wind The pilot of an aircraft turning from upwind to downwind at low level will experience the illusion of slipping into the turn [Fig 9.11 . the aircraft can be imagined to be travelling about the circumference of a circle which is inclined to the horizontal [the path followed is actu- ally a spiral. the aircraft is travelling about the circumference of a circle [Fig 9. Remember that bank angle refers to the aircraft's attitude relative to the horizon. which has been occurring all the while.14]. In a climbing turn. since it has the largest angle of attack throughout. Note that during a level turn at constant bank. but the principle still applies]. if a constant bank angle relative to the horizon is to be maintained.15]. to become a snap.Fig 9. This allows the roll. constant bank constant bank If the aircraft is allowed to stall during a climbing turn.sometimes even beyond vertical! CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9. the aircraft must in fact be continually rolled out of the turn! This continuous roll-out means that the outside wing is always travelling downwards in the relative airflow and therefore experiences a larger angle of attack [Fig 9. In the case of a level turn this imaginary circle is horizontal. the aircraft's attitude relative to the plane of the imaginary circle is constant ie there is no rolling motion involved. the outside wing is likely to stall first.
the maximum rate.16. all general aviation aircraft fall short in the power department. Watch your wrist carefully as you attempt to keep the angle of bank constant during the turn. AND FINALLY. If you fly around a turn of minimum radius at the highest speed you must complete the turn in a minimum time i.e. Another way of looking at it is presented in Fig 9. This limit is imposed by the manufacturer. there is always a speed that will generate the limit load factor if you are to stay on the minimum radius of turn. This is considering the difference travelled by the wing tips. [Here's hoping you have left sufficient height to recover!]. So a maximum rate turn is a turn that takes the minimum time to complete. since angle of bank is usually limited to about 15° in a climbing turn for performance reasons. assuming the engine can supply the power required to keep the speed at or above the stalling speed. The faster you fly the more bank you require to maintain any given radius of turn. the angle of bank required to fly around that radius would depend on the speed .16 height gained by each wing distan ce trav elled b y insid e wing distance travelle d by ou tside win g It should be remembered that .12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . However once this theoretical minimum radius has been determined. The difference in distance travelled for the inboard sections where most lift is made is even less. grab a model aeroplane and make it do some climbing turns. The rate of turn is dependant on the time it takes to complete 360° of turn. the diameter of the turn is quite large . Minimum Radius of Turn. The limit for rate of turn therefore is the structural strength of the aircraft. When you consider that the wing span of an average light aircraft is about 10 m. Even though some military aircraft are limited by the structural strength of the aircraft. but the outside wing travels further than the inside wing. There is a theoretical limit to the minimum radius of turn that can be achieved by a particular aeroplane. Both wings gain the same height during the turn. 9..If you find it hard to believe that the aircraft is actually rolling out during a climbing turn.typically between 500 and 1000 m for a light aircraft. the actual difference in distance travelled is in the order of 1 or 2 %.. To achieve the theoretical minimum radius the wing would need to be operating at the maximum lift coefficient [stalling angle] during the turn.as we saw earlier. Fig 9. Maximum Rate of Turn. so the outside wing has had a larger angle of attack [black]. The relative airflow always comes from a direction opposite to the direction of motion. The aircraft simply stalls before the limit load factor can be applied. Since the speed determines the bank required and the bank determines the load factor. As bank is increased so is the load factor and for any given aircraft there is always a limit to the load factor the aircraft structure can tolerate. Note that in this event the stall is actually your friend since it prevents you from ever causing damage to the aircraft structure.
It would also make sense to fly as high as the cloud will permit since this will increase safety and provide a larger area for the turn as most valleys are narrowest at the bottom. it is the radius of turn that matters in this case. To ensure your safety. but we all occasionally make bad decisions [or in some cases . Most light aircraft have precious little power to spare so you don't want to use a high angle of bank with the accompanying high load factors. So what if one day you find yourself boxed up a valley with cloud above. The right-hand side would be best if you are sitting on the left-hand side of the aeroplane since that would put you on the inside of the turn providing the best visibility of the terrain ahead and below. narrowing sides and bad weather up ahead?. The speed to use would vary with your experience and the aeroplane characteristics so it would be a good idea to ask your instructor to help you investigate the best combination of speed and bank angle for a best practical minimum radius turn.no decision at all].i. so rate is not the main issue. achieving maximum turning performance may be vital for safety. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9.it can be a matter of life and death! In a situation where the combination of weather and terrain make it imperative that a turn be made in a confined space such as a valley. Now that's OK if you're Tom Cruise in Top Gun but it would be advisable to give yourself some sensible margin over the stall.you don't particularly care how quickly you complete the turn. In theory you should use a bank angle that requires maximum lift coefficient .e. you fly at the stalling angle during the turn. you can make a huge difference to the turning radius by slowing down. It would make sense to fly over to one side of the valley to provide the maximum clear area in which to turn.13 . you need to make a turn with the smallest possible radius .Radius of turn in the real world. Because the radius of turn varies with the square of the true air speed. Now it's all very well to say that a VFR pilot should never find himself/herself in such a situation. high drag and increased stalling speed. The only sensible decision is to turn around and go back out the way you came. Understanding the turning performance of your aeroplane can have far more significance than passing a theory exam .
During the turn the horizontal component of the lift generated by the wings must provide the centripetal force and the vertical component must be equal to weight. a heavy aircraft will require more speed to achieve the best lift/drag ratio angle of attack. so load factor increases.i.SUMMARY FOR CLIMBING. maximum gliding range is achieved by gliding at a speed faster than the best lift/drag ratio speed If a tailwind exists. Since the extra lift is generated by using a higher angle of attack . Maximum rate of climb is achieved by climbing at maximum surplus power. The angle of bank produces the centripetal force necessary to produce a turn. This means that the total lift must be greater than weight alone. Wind affects the angle but not the rate of climb Increased weight reduces both the angle and rate of climb Reduced density reduces both the angle and rate of climb In a descent lift is less than weight and thrust is less than drag EFFECT OF WIND EFFECT OF WEIGHT EFFECT OF DENSITY FORCES ACTING IN A DESCENT MAXIMUM GLIDING RANGE Maximum gliding range is achieved by gliding at the speed which produces the best lift/drag ratio angle of attack in no wind If a headwind exists. DESCENDING AND TURNING FORCES ACTING IN A CLIMB TYPES OF CLIMB In a climb lift is less than weight and thrust is greater than drag Maximum angle of climb is achieved by climbing at maximum surplus thrust. maximum gliding range is achieved by gliding at a speed slower than the best lift/drag ratio speed The best lift/drag ratio angle of attack will be the same for any one aircraft no matter what the weight. by pulling back on the control column .14 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .e.drag also increases during the turn. The load factor increases as the angle of bank increases [actually it increases with the secant of the angle of bank]. However. Thrust required during the turn will always be greater than that required for level flight at the same speed. EFFECT 0F WEIGHT FORCES ACTING IN A TURN 9.
... the greater the angle of bank necessary to stay on the minimum radius path.. a decrease in rate An increase in bank causes...e.15 . The aircraft will fly around the circumference of that minimum radius whenever the wings are operating at the maximum lift coefficient [i. All aircraft turning at the same speed and using the same angle of bank will turn in the same radius and therefore take the same time to complete the turn ... The faster you fly.RADIUS OF TURN Every aircraft has a theoretical minimum radius of turn which is controlled by that aircraft's level flight stalling speed. the stalling angle] during the turn.i. radius of turn decreases as bank increases... they will have the same rate of turn... rate of turn decreases as TAS increases For constant speed. The faster you fly around the minimum radius the more bank you need to stay on the path. radius of turn increases as TAS increases.. The limit is achieved when the aircraft is at the stalling angle at a speed [therefore bank] which produces the limit load factor. For constant speed.e.. a increase in rate a decrease in radius a increase in radius a increase in rate a decrease in radius a increase in radius a decrease in radius a increase in radius a increase in rate a decrease in radius a increase in radius CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9. RATE OF TURN Maximum rate of turn is achieved when the aircraft flys as quickly as possible around the minimum radius path.. If speed is kept constant An decrease in bank causes. For constant bank.20] Cross out the incorrect response in the shaded boxes... a decrease in rate a increase in rate a decrease in rate An increase in speed causes. rate of turn increases as bank increases EFFECT OF WEIGHT Weight has no direct effect on the bank required for any given rate or radius of turn.. [Providing there is sufficient engine power available to maintain a speed not below the stalling speed.. For constant bank. [Answers on page 9.. If bank is kept constant a decrease in rate An decrease in speed causes.
Which of the following factors would have the effect of reducing the angle of climb? [a] a decrease in IAS [b] an increase in headwind component [c] a reduction in density height [d] a reduction in take-off weight Question No 6 A pilot assesses that he is undershooting the selected field while on final for a forced landing in nil wind at the best lift/drag ratio speed. Which of the following would reduce the angle of climb ? [a] a decrease in IAS [b] a headwind [c] a reduction in density height [d] a reduction in take-off weight Question No 3 During an approach what is the effect of a sudden decrease in headwind component on IAS and rate of descent ? [a] IAS and rate of descent would both increase [b] IAS and rate of descent would both decrease [c] IAS would decrease and rate of descent would increase [d] IAS would increase and rate of descent would decrease Question No 4 Partial extension of flap in a glide at constant indicated air speed will result in [a] an increase in rate and angle of descent [b] a decrease in rate and angle of descent [c] an increase in rate of descent and a decrease in angle of descent [d] an increase in angle of descent and a decrease in rate of descent Question No 5 The best angle of climb speed for a particular piston engine aircraft is 65 kt IAS. The safest procedure to employ is [a] move the propeller pitch control to fully fine [b] adopt a higher nose attitude [c] increase the indicated airspeed [d] maintain the present nose attitude and airspeed Question No 7 Which of the following describes the effect of an increased headwind component during a steady climb with constant indicated air speed and constant power maintained? [a] rate of climb and angle of climb both increase [b] rate of climb increases and angle of climb remains the same [c] rate of climb remains the same and angle of climb increases [d] rate of climb and angle of climb both remain the same 9.EXERCISE A5 Question No 1 If frost forms on the wings of an aircraft overnight and is not removed before flight [a] the acceleration during the take-off run will be less than normal [b] the stalling angle will be higher than normal [c] there will be less margin between the take-off safety speed and the stalling speed [d] there will be an increase in stalling speed and stalling angle Question No 2 The recommended IAS to achieve the maximum angle of climb at sea level is 80 kt for a particular aircraft.16 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
17 . an increase in altitude will cause [a] an increase in rate of turn [b] an increase in radius of turn [c] a decrease in radius of turn [d] no change in radius or rate of turn CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9. During the turn he wishes to follow a circle which is a constant radius from P. a pilot should be aware of [a] the illusion of slipping when turning from upwind to downwind [b] the illusion of skidding when turning from upwind to downwind [c] the illusion of slipping when turning from downwind to upwind [d] the illusion of slipping in any turn Question No 10 wind direction [a] [b] P [d] [c] A photographer wishes you to fly anticlockwise about the point P which is on the ground.Question No 8 The effect of fitting an aircraft with a more powerful engine would be most noticeable during [a] a maximum rate climb [b] a maximum rate turn [c] maximum speed during level flight [d] minimum speed during level flight Question No 9 When manoeuvring at low level on a very windy day. a sudden decrease in headwind component during the final approach will initially cause [a] a decrease in IAS and a decrease in the gliding angle [b] an increase in IAS and an increase in the gliding angle [c] a decrease in IAS and an increase in the gliding angle [d] no change in IAS but an increase in the gliding angle Question No 12 Which of the following describes the effect of increased weight on the maximum gliding performance of an aircraft in nil wind? [a] the speed for best glide increases and the gliding distance decreases [b] the speed for best glide increases and the gliding distance remains the same [c] the speed for best glide remains the same and the gliding distance decreases [d] the speed for best glide remains the same and the gliding distance increases Question No 13 If angle of bank and indicated air speed are kept constant. At which point in the turn would you require the greatest angle of bank? Question No 11 If nose attitude and power are kept constant.
carry out a balanced level turn at the same indicated air speed and angle of bank. [b] raise the nose to a higher aircraft descent attitude to increase the glide distance. 9.Question No 14 An effect of lowering full flap during a descent is to [a] reduce the induced drag [b] decrease the gliding angle [c] increase the lift/drag ratio [d] increase both lift and drag Question No 15 Which of the following would result if the headwind component during a descent suddenly decreased? [a] both rate of descent and indicated air speed would increase [b] indicated airspeed would increase and rate of descent would decrease [c] indicated airspeed would decrease and rate of descent would increase [d] both indicated airspeed and rate of descent would decrease Question No 16 The indicated airspeed at which the stall occurs during a 75° bank level balanced turn would increase over the level flight stalling speed by approximately [a] 200% [b] 40% [c] 100% [d] 400% Question No 17 Two aeroplanes.18 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . The heavier aeroplane will have [a] a greater radius of turn than the lighter one [b] a greater rate of turn than the lighter one [c] a lower rate of turn but a greater radius of turn than the lighter one [d] the same radius of turn and the same rate of turn as the lighter one Question No 18 What will be the effect on turning performance if indicated air speed is increased during a level turn at constant bank? [a] load factor will increase [b] lift will increase [c] radius of turn will decrease [d] rate of turn will decrease Question No 19 The angle of bank required to perform a rate one turn at a true air speed of 180 knots is closest to [a] 30 [b] 15° [c] 25° [d] 35° Question No 20 During a steady descent at a constant indicated air speed [a] lift is equal to weight [b] thrust is less than drag [c] lift is equal to drag [d] thrust is equal to drag Queston No 21 An aircraft is carrying out a glide descent during a forced landing in no wind The pilot is maintaining the airspeed recommended for the best lift/drag ratio and realises that he is undershooting the aiming point. identical in every respect except for gross weight. [c] apply more flap to increase the lift/drag ratio [d] maintain the current aircraft descent attitude to achieve maximum gliding distance. The correct course of action would be [a] dive to increase the IAS then float in ground effect to the field.
19 .Question No 22 The limit to the rate of turn that can be achieved by a typical general aviation aircraft is [a] the structural strength of the airframe. Question No 23 The load factor limit is most likely to be exceeded during a level turn if [a] angle of bank is increased at a speed above Va. [d] the amount of power available from the engine. [c] the stalling speed of the aircraft. [c] speed is increased at a speed above Va [d] speed is increased at a speed above Vs Question No 24 Abrupt control movements are likely to impose excessive stresses on the airframe if they are made at [a] Va [b] Vno [c] Vx [d] Vs CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 9. [b] the amount of aileron deflection available. [b] angle of bank is increased at a speed above Vs.
The take-off safety speed is a figure published in the performance data. It would not change.. This must be overcome by applying extra power. If the turn is to remain a level turn. Any speed other than 80 kt would result in less surplus thrust and reduce the angle of climb An undershoot windshear causes IAS to drop..15 9. an increase in angle of bank will require an increase in elevator deflection and therefore an increase in load factor. but a headwind will increase the angle of climb Increases in power available will produce increased surplus power-so increased rate of climb See Fig 110 The greatest bank is required when the ground speed is highest An undershoot wind shear will cause a reduction in IAS and a steeper descent path Weight has no effect on the distance an aircraft can glide in no wind If IAS is kept constant. a decrease in rate a increase in rate a decrease in rate An increase in speed causes.. Lift would remain the same because the pilot would have to decrease the angle of attack to maintain height.ANSWERS TO EXERCISE A5 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Answer [c] [a] [c] [a] [a] [d] [c] [a] [a] [c] [c] [b] [b] [d] [c] [c] [d] [d] Comment The stalling speed would increase if frost were present. spoiling the lift/drag ratio An undershoot wind shear causes a reduction in IAS and a loss of lift At 75° of bank the load factor is 4.. results in a higher rate of descent.. The load factor at high angles of bank is accompanied by a dramatic increase in drag as well as an increase in stalling speed.... 19 [c] 20 21 [b] [d] 22 [d] 23 [a] 24 [b] Cross out the incorrect response in the shaded boxes. TAS increases with an increase in altitude Drag always increases by a greater proportion than lift.. level flight will result. all you can do is maintain the current aircraft descent attitude and 'hope for the best'. Any speed other than 65 kt would result in less surplus thrust and reduce the angle of climb You can do no better than fly at the best lift/drag ratio speed in no wind Wind has no effect on rate of climb. The question says at. If speed is kept constant An decrease in bank causes.. If you are undershooting while maintaining the best lift/drag ratio speed.. so rate of descent will increase Flap always spoils the lift/drag ratio. The best lift/drag ratio provides the best angle of descent... If thrust becomes equal to drag.. In a descent thrust is always less than drag.. The stalling speed increases by 4 ie by 2 Provided they are at the same height! A higher TAS increases the radius and decreases the rate of turn.20 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .. Airspeed ÷ 10 + 7 = 180 ÷ 10 + 7 = 25° This formula is a 'rule of thumb' not an actual mathematical formula. a decrease in rate An increase in bank causes.. However if they were made at Vno that would certainly be above Va. This results in less lift. a climb will result.. At speeds above Va it is possible to exceed the limit load factor before the wing stalls.. Abrupt control inputs would not overstress the airframe if they were made at Va. A steeper angle of descent at a constant speed.. a increase in rate a decrease in radius a increase in radius a increase in rate a decrease in radius a increase in radius a decrease in radius a increase in radius a increase in rate a decrease in radius a increase in radius Answers to exercise on page 9. If bank is kept constant a decrease in rate An decrease in speed causes... Light aircraft simply run out of power and can no longer maintain the speed at or above the stalling speed. It works well for the airspeeds which apply to the usual GA aircraft. If thrust becomes greater than drag.
6 and 3. flight path modified Fig 10. as flow reversal and separation extends across the upper surface [see photographs on page 3. Consider what happens when an up-elevator control input is introduced in normal flight. 10.1 CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 . we literally lose more than we gain. It is important to remember that an aerofoil stalls at a certain angle not at a certain speed. Beyond the stalling angle. However. the actual flight path takes time to change.1 relative airflow aircraft pitches nose-up but continues along the original fight path extra lift generated by the increased angle of attack up-elevator control input introduced Note that when the nose pitches up into a new nose attitude in response to the elevator input.MORE ABOUT STALLING Revise LIFT COEFFICIENT on page 3. This increased lift produces the desired change in flight path [Fig 10. This results in an increase in angle of attack which produces more lift. The best definition of the stall is that condition where an increase in angle of attack results in less lift.1]. The inertia causes it to momentarily continue along on the original flight path with the higher nose attitude! It is really this inertia effect that results in the increased angle of attack and therefore the increased lift. The stalling angle: As angle of attack increases.7]. the lift coefficient of a particular aerofoil increases until the stalling angle is reached. because of inertia. lo increased lift w flig ht p ath mo dif ied original relative airflow original flight path This sequence of events will occur only if the rate and magnitude of the pitch change is gentle enough to allow time for the flight path to change.2 mo dif and therefore the angle ied rela of attack will decrease tive airf to some lower value.4 of this book. the relative airflow will come from a direction opposite to the modified flight path Fig 10. the aircraft does not immediately start heading off in a new direction. The aircraft will always respond to the elevator input by pitching nose-up about its lateral axis. Once this increased lift has succeeded in changing the flight path.
You occasionally see clear examples of this type of stall occurring in TV news footage of accidents at overseas airshows.3].3 abrupt up-elevator control input introduced aircraft pitches nose-up but the original flight path is maintained intended flight path stalling angle exceeded When a wing exceeds the stalling angle in this manner. This results in less lift and at low level the result can be catastrophic [Fig 10.If the up-elevator control input is abrupt. Fig 10. and the airspeed is relatively low.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the inertia delay between the change in pitch attitude and the change in flight path can cause the angle of attack to increase beyond the stalling angle. 10. Such a stall is referred to as a high-speed stall [also called a dynamic stall or an induced stall]. the stall occurs irrespective of the current airspeed.
any attempt to fly slower than that will result in a stall.3 .The stalling speed: The question you may now be asking is.4 stalls when the angle of attack reaches 18°. so the stalling Fig 10. at 50 kt. "If the aerofoil stalls at a certain angle whatever the speed. so it should operate whenever the stalling angle is approached at any weight and in any manoeuvre. Since this is the stalling angle. This IAS is called the stalling speed.4 2° 4° 12° 18° 100 kt 80 kt 60 kt 50 kt Because weight is constant. not speed. Anything that changes the necessary lift. An increase in weight causes the stalling angle to be required at a higher IAS. Unfortunately. In this case. angle would be required at a different speed. The stall warning device fitted to your aircraft however. at 80 kt it must be increased to 4°. Let's imagine that the aircraft in Fig 10. changes the stalling speed. while a decrease in weight causes the stalling angle to be required at a lower IAS. 50 kt would be the stalling IAS for that particular weight. at 60 kt it must be increased to 12° and finally. IAS to produce the required lift.congratulations for thinking of it! The stalling speed published in an aircraft's flight manual is the IAS at which the stalling angle of attack would be required to maintain level flight at maximum all-up weight. the required angle of attack is 18°. A good definition of stalling speed is: "The stalling speed is the indicated air speed at which the stalling angle of attack is required to produce the necessary lift. It is flying at a certain weight. each angle of attack requires one. it doesn't always work! CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 10. each angle of attack requires one. IAS. and only one. When it is flying at 100 kt the angle of attack is 2°. Any other weight and any other flight condition will cause the stall to occur at a different speed. so it requires a certain amount of lift. is triggered by angle of attack. and only one. Since lift is the result of IAS and angle of attack. and only one." It should be remembered that the stalling IAS published in the aircraft's flight manual refers to one weight in level flight only. Note that any change of weight would require a different IAS at each angle of attack. IAS to produce the required lift. how come when I open a flight manual I find mention of a stalling speed and not a stalling angle?" Well that is a very good question . Therefore the stalling angle of attack requires one.
Remember that damage due to bird strikes is likely to affect only one wing! Ice or damage increase the stalling IAS. The amount of lift required from the wings decreases. The stall occurs at a lower IAS when flaps are applied. C of G position: Most aircraft are designed so that the tailplane/elevator provides a down force during flight [see Fig 11. 10.the necessary lift increases. Load Factor: Power: Flaps: lifting component of propeller thrust Fig 10. Anything that changes the necessary lift will change the stalling speed. will produce less lift at any given angle of attack. The stall occurs at a higher IAS when load factor increases. an increase in load factor is exactly the same as an increase in weight . These two effects combined can cause a dramatic change in the aeroplane's stall characteristics.5]. The lifting component of thrust is simply added to the wing's lift to produce a single lift vector. This leaves the horizontal component of thrust to balance drag as usual.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the propeller's thrust has a component which acts to assist lift [Fig 10. the aircraft becomes tail heavy. The effect is similar to a reduction in weight. The slipstream of wing-mounted engines in multi-engined aeroplanes also assists by adding extra energy to the airstream as it flows across the wing. we still consider only one lifting force.7]. Note that. requiring a reduction in the taildown force. As the angle of attack increases. Flaps increase the lift coefficient at any angle of attack. for the sake of drawing vector diagrams. Ice or Damage: A wing which has changed its cross-sectional shape due to ice deposits or damage. As the centre of gravity moves aft.6 & 11.5 prope ller th rust thrust Aircraft weight is supported by lift plus the lifting component of propeller thrust. Also. A lower IAS is required to produce the necessary lift. The stall occurs at a higher IAS when weight increases. Weight: As weight increases. Here are the factors that change the stalling IAS.FACTORS AFFECTING THE STALLING IAS The stalling speed is the speed at which the stalling angle of attack is required to produce the necessary lift. the nose of the aircraft points above the actual flight path. the damaged or ice-covered wing is likely to stall at a lower angle of attack because of disruption to the airflow. Stalling IAS decreases as centre of gravity moves aft. As far as the wings are concerned. If power is applied. the necessary lift increases. A higher IAS is required at any given angle of attack. so the stalling IAS decreases.
As the wing begins to drop.5 . In flight. Be calm Robin. This would particularly be the case if the tip of one wing stalled first. [I've heard it said that stall strips and vortex generators are an indication that the designer has given up and admitted defeat!] airflow angle of attack at wing tip Elevator stops are placed in a position which ensures that there is not enough elevator travel to maintain a nose attitude high enough to deliberately stall the wing all the way to the tip.6]. this tends to happen on most wings even without specific design features to assist. A wind gust can often affect one wing only. or even a section of one wing. it could suddenly suffer a rapid loss of lift on one side.6 Holy moly Batman!. This would produce a pronounced wing drop.. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 10.Stall progression: Once the stalling angle is exceeded. the angle of attack increases even further causing an acceleration in the rate of roll. as well as pilot control inputs. Ideally the stall should begin near the wing root and progress in a more or less orderly fashion towards the wing tip. Fig 10.7]. Designers spend a lot of time ensuring that this will not happen under normal environmental conditions. causing a loss of lift on a long arm from the centre of gravity [Fig 10. Fortunately. This is just what we want to happen! Fig 10. You should remember that when we investigated induced drag. A stall strip is a small wedge-shaped projection placed on the leading edge of the wing to trip the airstream and encourage the stall to begin in the location we want it to. If an aircraft flying very close to the stalling angle encountered such a gust. we discovered that the vortices impose a downward component on the relative airflow before it arrives at the wing tip [Fig 10. angle of attack increases can result from environmental factors such as wind gusts.7 airflow angle of attack at wing root downward component imposed by vortex Design features which help to ensure satisfactory progression of the stall from root to tip include. This modification of the approaching relative airflow results in a reduction in the angle of attack at the wing tip and a tendency for the wing to stall at the root first. twisting the wing to reduce the angle of incidence towards the tip [washout] and stall strips. most wings suffer a very rapid increase in flow reversal and separation accompanied by a rapid loss of lift..
the rising wing begins to follow an up-hill path.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL . While the wings are level. so the dropping wing has a tendency to stop dropping and return to level flight. but this now results in less lift. The relative airflow approaches the wing from a direction opposite to the direction of flight. In fact you cannot understand what is going on in a spin unless you consider the post-stall behaviour of the wing. resulting in an increased angle of attack. The dropping wing continues to drop and the rising wing continues to rise. This means that the down-going wing not only moves downwards. The wing with the largest angle of attack suffers most drag. Take a model aeroplane and make one wing move down and back. The rising wing still has the smallest angle of attack. the angle of attack of each wing is the same. the dropping wing begins to follow a down-hill path. but now this results in more lift. First let's consider an aircraft which suffers a wing drop while operating below the stalling angle [Fig 10.do it continuously. The dropping wing still has the biggest angle of attack. more lift stall X Fig 10. CPL AERODYNAMICS lift coefficient rising wing has a smaller angle of attack so experiences more lift and less drag.8 angle of attack path followed by each wing path foll ow rising win ed by g wed by path follo wing dropping aircraft rolls.9 less lift dropping wing has a larger angle of attack so experiences less lift and more drag. which results in a decreased angle of attack. When an aircraft suffers a wing-drop after the stall it is a very different picture. it also moves backwards. when the Fig 10. the wing with the largest angle of attack makes the greatest lift.9]. while the other moves up and forward .8]. Because the aircraft is not stalled. Now consider drag. That's a spin. angle of attack 10. while the wing with the smallest angle of attack suffers less drag [Fig 10. However. On the other hand.SPINNING It is impossible for an aircraft to enter a spin unless the wings have stalled.
We will discuss spiral dives fully when we investigate aircraft stability.It seems strange that an aeroplane in a spin is continually rolling. because the yaw is continuous.spinning is sometimes called autorotation. yet it never becomes inverted. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 10. Now make it yaw to the left just a little. This is because of the drastic changes in the relative airflow's speed and direction over the surface of the aircraft and the gross errors induced at the pitot and static vent. Now make it roll to the left just a little. the aeroplane never becomes inverted. Since the spin can start and/or continue only while the aeroplane remains stalled. This is because it is also continually yawing. Your flying instructor will cover the pilot techniques applicable to any one type of aircraft. This rotation will continue automatically while ever the wings remain stalled . the airspeed is higher and rapidly increasing. the most crucial requirement is to unstall the wings. Keep repeating this sequence and you will see that although the roll is continuous. The balance ball will deflect away from the direction of spin and the airspeed indicator will give a very low and almost unchanging reading. The rate of rotation will become almost constant in a fully developed spin and the turn indicator will indicate the direction of spin. Hold it in a level attitude. Grab your model again. however there are some basic principles that always apply to spin recovery. Note that the actual speed indicated during a spin is quite meaningless. However the low and unchanging airspeed indication during a spin can be used to differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive. The effect can be clearly seen if you isolate the two types of motion. SPIN RECOVERY This is a theory book. In a spiral dive.7 .
10. a spin recovery would be achievable simply by letting go of the controls! The most common technique taught is to apply opposite rudder to stop the yaw. The power is removed to assist recovery. some types require the opposite rudder input before the elevator input. Widely distributed items of weight on board generate centrifugal effects which flatten the spin. No aircraft should be deliberately spun unless the manoeuvre is specifically approved in the flight manual. Airshow pilots can flatten a spin by applying power after the spin has developed to lift the nose to an almost level attitude. As a spin flattens. This is why some aircraft must not be spun with aft passengers or with a fuel load above a certain level. ie the aircraft spins in a more level attitude. your instructor will advise you of the technique most suited to your aeroplane type. the rate of rotation increases and the recovery may become more difficult. Again. The rapid yaw resulting from the asymmetric drag is stopped by applying rudder opposite to the direction of yaw. Most modern aerobatic aeroplanes will remain in a spin only if the pilot continues to hold full back elevator.This requires a nose-down pitch which can be induced by applying forward movement to the control column. Because of a degradation of elevator authority during a spin.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . or in most cases. followed almost immediately by the elevator input to unstall the wings. Spin characteristics vary widely from type to type and also with load distribution for any one type. simply relaxing the existing back pressure. In these types.
the object is said to possess positive static stability. it comes to rest in a vertical position [Fig 11. if the restoring force is too strong. Suspended at rest under the influence of gravity.1 object at rest force causes a displacement from rest position Dynamic stability: When we consider the sequence of events which now follow as the pendulum responds to the influence of the restoring force. However.2 dynamic stability dynamic instability CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 11. When the outside force is removed. In the case of an aircraft. If. roll or yaw. There follows a series of oscillations about the rest position. In the case of the pendulum.1 .STABILITY Stability is that property possessed by an object which causes it to seek to return to its original position after it has been displaced. An even stronger restoring force now acts to produce a nose-up pitch. A good example of static stability is a pendulum. the nose overshoots the level attitude to a nose-down displacement greater than the original nose-up displacement.2]. after a small displacement in pitch. gravity supplies a restoring force which acts to cause the pendulum to move back towards its original rest position Note that it would be quite possible for an aircraft to meet the requirements of static stability. Static stability: If after the original displacement. Fig 11. the pendulum is subject to a restoring force [gravity].1]. An outside force acts to displace it from its rest position. after suffering a displacement in pitch. a stable aircraft seeks to return to equilibrium about each axis without any control input by the pilot. forces are brought into play to prevent further displacement and cause the object to move back towards its original position. yet be dynamically unstable. Fig 11. These decreasing oscillations are a feature of positive dynamic stability. which causes it to move back towards its rest position. the nose moves back towards the level attitude. it initially overshoots the rest position and swings to a displacement on the other side. we are concerned with dynamic stability. the aircraft is statically stable. Each oscillation diverges further from the level attitude indicating dynamic instability [Fig 11. with each displacement becoming smaller until the pendulum returns to rest.
Stability and manoeuvrability are opposites.3 c]. It is quite possible that an aircraft can be too stable. 11. he has no choice but to make it less manoeuvrable.Another good example of stability is the 'marble in a hubcap' illustration. it doesn't particularly care what happens to it after a displacement. A manoeuvrable aircraft is one which readily changes attitude at the pilot's command. We shall return to this point later. If he wants to make it more stable.3 c NEUTRAL and place the marble on top [Fig 11. In fact it is true to say that one can only be enhanced by the absence of the other.3 b UNSTABLE Fig 11. There will be no attempt to return to the rest position. The degree of stability is least in roll. Such an aircraft would require large control inputs to affect any change in attitude. The slightest displacement from this position will allow gravity to cause further displacement. If a designer wishes to make an aircraft more manoeuvrable. This illustrates the condition known as neutral stability. This is an example of both static and dynamic stability. An aircraft that is very stable will tend to resist changes in attitude. Aircraft are designed to be stable to a different degree in each type of motion. Stability and manoeuvrability: A stable aircraft is one which resists changes in attitude and attempts to regain the original attitude after a displacement. when the disturbing force is removed.3 a.3 b].2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .3 a STABLE displacement Fig 11. it will oscillate about the rest position. If the marble is removed from the hubcap and placed on a flat table top [Fig 11. with no attempt to diverge further or return to the original position. are close to being neutrally stable. Aircraft that are designed for advanced aerobatic flight. It is quite content to remain in any new position. Some high performance fighter aircraft are in fact unstable and cannot be safely flown without the use of on-board computers. This is an example of static and dynamic instability. Stability is greatest in yaw. Consider a marble placed in a hubcap as illustrated in Fig 11. Now invert the hubcap rest position consequence Fig 11. finally coming to rest in the original state. he has no choice but to make it less stable. The pilot would probably complain of heavy controls and poor response. where the highest degree of manoeuvrability is desired. If the marble is displaced from its normal rest position.
2. Centre of gravity is the most important variable controlling longitudinal stability. The aircraft in Fig 11. STABILITY IN PITCH . destabilizing Fig 11. Some of the resulting forces act to produce destabilizing moments which encourage the pitching motion to continue. stabilizing arm CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 11. or arm.LONGITUDINAL STABILITY In flight. Performance and Planning.4 suffers a nose-up displacement from the level attitude during flight. the angle of attack of the wings. 3 and 1. This arm determines the strength of the moment contributed by the tailplane. When an aircraft is displaced in pitch. That is the result of the load distribution and it is up to the pilot. The designer cannot be held responsible for the Fig 11. A great deal of responsibility for what happens rests with the designer. An understanding of what is going on is impossible unless we consider it. it rotates about its centre of gravity. 1. from the centre of gravity to the centre of pressure of the tailplane. This inertia effect is fundamental in the sequence of events concerned with stability. the stabilizing moments will dominate. inertia causes the aircraft to continue for a moment along its original flight path. all motion occurs with the centre of gravity as the pivot point. One of the key influences in longitudinal = centre of gravity stability is the distance.4 = centre of gravity This changes the pressure distribution over the aircraft. fuselage and tailplane increases.5 position of the centre of gravity.3 . which is the most important single item ensuring stabilarm ity. the shorter is the arm to the tailplane and the stronger the destabilizing influences become [Fig 11. If the designer has done his job.4 of this book. While this is happening. Some act to produce stabilizing moments which attempt to return the nose to the original level attitude.5].Revise AIRCRAFT MOTION on pages 1. attempting to flip the aircraft nose over tail. destabilizing stabilizing stabilizing direction of motion direction of motion destabilizing The further aft the centre of gravity moves. After the initial displacement. It briefly continues along the original direction of motion due to inertia. You will hear a great deal more about it in the subject of Aeroplane Operation. however there is one vital contribution the pilot must make.
since it means the wing must operate at a higher angle of attack and therefore suffer more drag. The wings must produce sufficient lift to balance weight and the downward force acting on the tailplane. The mathematical considerations involved are enough to satisfy the appetite of even the most passionate maths 'junkie'. nose-down pitch caused by lift and weight weight Fig 11. instead of a conventional tailplane. on the area of the tailplane.6].6 lift By the way. keeping in mind that there really is a lot more to it than meets the eye. One reason for imposing a forward limit on the centre of gravity position is to prevent the aeroplane from becoming too stable in pitch. If the nose pitches up.plane and elevator must produce a downward force to compensate for this nose-down tendency [Fig 11. The Wright brothers thought of it first! Fig 11.Design features contributing to longitudinal stability: The various influences at work in producing aircraft stability are interrelated in very complex ways. Tailplane volume: The effectiveness of the stabilizing contribution of the tailplane depends upon its distance from the centre of gravity and of course. Orientation of lift and weight: Designers usually ensure that the centre of pressure of the wings will be behind the centre of gravity. so the downward force on the tailplane decreases. This is a bit of a shame. Most designers accept this penalty for the sake of improved longitudinal stability. As it climbs it loses speed. This corrects the situation by allowing the nose to pitch down towards the original level attitude. This causes these two forces to act to produce a nose-down tendency [Fig 11.7 lift weight down-load on tailplane 11. the tail.7]. We will confine our study to the basic principles. the down load on the tailplane must be accounted for if the aircraft is to maintain level flight. the increased angle of attack that results will cause the total lift to increase and the aircraft begins to climb. A large tailplane which is a long way from the centre of gravity produces very strong stabilizing moments.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . When the aircraft is correctly trimmed in level flight. Nevertheless you may have seen some modern designs which use a lifting surface at the front [a canard].
8 mainplane 3° tailplane 2° 1° 3° 2° direction of flight direction of flight Fig 11. However the angle of attack of the tailplane has increased from 2° to 3°. Although the name 'pendulum' is used. During any one flight.3%. The figures above simplify the real situation. This ensures that the tailplane contribution always remains strong enough to provide the required degree of stability. The angle of attack of the mainplane increases from 3° to 4°. inertia will keep it travelling in the original direction of motion. the ailerons are used almost continuously. Another good indication of the degree of stability present is to consider which control is used most often. however. lateral stability is usually relatively weak. Fig 11. The principle. the inclined lift will no longer support weight and the aircraft will begin to lose height.8 represents an aircraft which has the mainplane set at an angle of incidence [ie relative to the aircraft's longitudinal axis] of 3°. vertical component lift horizontal component High wing or pendulum stability: The simplest way to ensure lateral stability is to place the wing on top and hang the weight from beneath it. [God used this technique when He made birds].LATERAL STABILITY Because it is desirable to maintain a high degree of manoeuvrability in roll. that many of the Fig 11. The weakest stability will require more frequent control inputs to maintain a given attitude. STABILITY IN ROLL .9 features which affect one also affect the other.8]. remains valid. it is not quite that simple. The horizontal component of the inclined lift vector will act to produce a sideways motion as well [Fig 11. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 mo tio n weight res ult ing CPL AERODYNAMICS 11. Since the lift coefficient curve is almost a straight line at these angles of attack. any increase in angle of attack produces the same proportional increase in lift. the lift vector inclines from the vertical. while the tailplane is set at 2°. This downwards and sideways motion is called a sideslip.Longitudinal dihedral: By setting the tailplane onto the fuselage at a slightly smaller angle of incidence than the mainplane.9]. For the moment. The relative airflow that encounters the tailplane has in fact been affected by the slipstream and by its passage over the wing. Design features contributing to lateral stability: Lateral stability is so profoundly interrelated with directional stability. This is demonstrated by trimming the aircraft to fly hands-off and observing where the first divergence from a level attitude appears. let's consider lateral stability alone. Assuming no control inputs. If an aircraft drops a wing in flight. If the aircraft now pitches noseup by 1°.5 . an increase of 50%. an increase of 33. while the elevators and rudders require much less attention. a nose-up pitch will always produce a bigger proportional increase in lift on the tailplane than it does on the mainplane [Fig 11. You can bet it will drop a wing and begin to roll.
the relative airflow approaches from the direction of the slip. lift Dihedral: Another design feature that enhances lateral stability is dihedral. These two effects result in more lift on the lower wing which stops the wing drop and produces a roll towards the level attitude.12 ow irfl a tive rela slip side In some cases.11 dihedral Also. Fig 11.12].10 You should always keep this sideslip in mind when considering stability. but always appears to a much greater extent on low wings. Because of the dihedral. disrupting the airflow across it. in the case of low wing aircraft particularly. During the sideslip. the fuselage shields the higher wing. as it not only plays an important part in roll. This alone improves lateral stability. the angle of attack on the lower wing becomes greater than that on the higher wing [Fig 11. but also produces a reaction in yaw [more on this later]. weight Fig 11. ip esl d i s The wings are set at an angle to the yawing plane [or to the horizontal if you consider level flight.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .11]. lift can end up above weight even though the aircraft has a low wing! 11. dihedral also assists because the upward inclination of the wings effectively raises the point from which lift acts. In a low wing aircraft. the aircraft commences a sideslip as we saw earlier. Fig 11.Fig 11. This is often found on high wing aircraft. In the event of a wing drop.
While the aircraft remains wings-level. Sweep-back: Sweep-back has a very powerful effect on lateral stability. The effective span of the lower wing has been greatly increased. Fig 11. High speed flight requirements often call for sweep-back and sometimes the designer must take steps to prevent the aircraft from becoming too stable in roll because of it.7 . The cross-sectional shape and therefore the camber of each wing is the result of the thickness distribution along the chord [shaded black]. as the relative airflow now approaches from the direction of the sideslip. Fig 11. the sideslip occurs as usual [Fig 11. All of the air within the span of each wing will encounter that wing as it advances. Since the thickness of each wing has not altered. chord and camber of each wing is the same and therefore lift is symmetrically distributed. the span. improve lateral stability by presenting a large surface area above the axis. the effective camber of the higher wing has been greatly reduced [shaded black]. while the effective span of the higher wing has been greatly reduced. while any surface above the axis will contribute a stabilizing moment.14 represents a wing with sweep-back advancing into the relative airflow in straight and level flight. some quite drastic changes are noticed. Floats reduce lateral stability because they present a large surface area well below the longitudinal axis. the effective chord of the lower wing is much smaller than the effective chord of the higher wing. the effect on lateral stability is profound. Also. any surface below the axis will contribute a destabilizing moment encouraging the roll. during the sideslip. The chord of each wing represents the distance the air travels as it crosses that wing [we are ignoring any spanwise flow for simplicity].Fig 11.3 Effect of fin and rudder on lateral stability des tab iliz ing mo me nt stabilizing moment Effect of floats on lateral stability Keel surfaces: Since the aeroplane rolls about its longitudinal axis. on the other hand. If a wing drops. Much more air will now be flowing over the lower wing. A high fin and rudder.14 Fig 11. Combined with the fuselage shielding of the higher wing.15] however. it is true to say that.15 span span e ctiv effe an sp e ctiv effe an sp chord chord effective chord CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 11.
DIRECTIONAL STABILITY Of the three types of stability. directional stability is perhaps the simplest concept to grasp. The weak lateral stability allows good manoeuvrability in roll. the sideslip becomes even more pronounced. producing a roll to the left. all of the surfaces aft of a line passing through the centre of gravity generate stabilizing moments which tend to realign the nose into the direction of the relative airflow. the aircraft will begin a sideslip to the left. it seeks to point its nose into wind. stabilizing realignment with the airflow The major contributor to directional stability is the surface area of the fin and rudder.16]. When the left roll increases. This is in spite of the lateral stability's half-hearted attempt to produce a correcting roll to the right. The aircraft is intentionally designed like that. resulting in further yaw which drops the nose below the horizon. the stronger directional stability will dominate. will react by attempting to yaw the nose into the new direction of airflow ie to the left. The outside wing accelerates. All of the surfaces forward of that line generate destabilizing moments which encourage the aircraft to yaw away from the relative airflow [Fig 11. if the wings are kept level. This 'dog-chasing-its-tail' condition is called a spiral dive. Directional stability however. but if the pilot takes no action after a wing drop. 11. the stronger will be the stabilizing moments. We have seen that if the left wing drops in flight. This pulls that wing back producing a yaw into wind. Putting it simply. That's fine in cruise. increasing its lift and in the case of the left wing dropping.16 centre of gravity Whenever the relative airflow strikes the aircraft from a direction other than directly in front of the nose. The outside wing accelerates again producing further roll. Directional stability is that property which causes the aircraft to align its longitudinal axis with the direction of the relative airflow. Note that dihedral and sweepback also contribute to directional stability since the increase in lift on the into-wind wing is accompanied by an increase in drag. the heading will look after itself ie no tendency to uncommanded yaw. Spiral instability: We have a conflict here. producing a yaw into the direction of the sideslip. Who's going to win? Lateral stability is always much weaker than directional stability. ie nice light aileron response.STABILITY IN YAW . Lateral stability will react by attempting to roll the aircraft back to level flight ie to the right. The larger this area and the further away from the centre of gravity it is located. destabilizing Fig 11. The strong directional stability ensures that during cruise.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
the airspeed will quickly [within seconds] build up to produce dangerous structural loads. airspeed is high and rapidly increasing.] The pity of it is that all you need to do to recover from a spiral dive is level the wings! CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 11. unlike a spin. The spiral dive proof aeroplane would have strong lateral stability and weak directional stability. It goes without saying that the chances of surviving terrain impact in a spiral dive are extremely remote. The forces generated will not only bend the wing and tailplane structure upwards. the total loss of visual reference outside the cockpit. or for a pilot not trained in instrument flight.Fig 11.17 Spiral dive It would be quite possible to design an aircraft which couldn't spiral dive. either at night or in cloud. It would have heavy and sluggish aileron response. If no corrective action is taken by the pilot. [Game over-insert another twenty cents. nobody in his/her right mind would want such an aircraft. A spiral dive is a dynamically unstable condition in which. while requiring constant rudder input to maintain a heading in cruise. This would permit the lateral stability to level the wings before the directional stability could produce a yaw into the sideslip. The two most likely situations which could result in a spiral dive are pilot incapacitation.9 . but also produce shearing loads [tearing back] and torsional loads [twisting-as in wringing out a towel]. The continual divergence in roll and yaw quickly produces a very steep bank angle and a very low nose attitude. The trouble is.
[b] tailplane which is less than that of the mainplane. [b] stronger longitudinal stability. [d] wing fence. [c] pitch the nose up. [c] tailplane which is the same as that of the mainplane. [b] flap. [c] weak lateral stability and strong directional stability. [b] weak lateral stability and strong longitudinal stability. [b] rolling and pitching. [d] low speed and high speed Question No 5 Select the combination that would increase the tendency for an aircraft to spiral dive [a] strong lateral stability and weak directional stability. [b] ensure that the wing tip will not stall before the wing root. [d] weaker longitudinal stability. Question No 2 The dihedral angle on a high wing aircraft is usually less than that on a low wing design because the high wing design has [a] stronger lateral stability. [c] more lift and less drag. [d] left wing which is the same as that of the right wing. [d] less lift and more drag. [c] stall strip. [d] yaw to the left. an aircraft which has rolled to the left from the level attitude will have a natural tendency to [a] yaw to the right. [b] pitch the nose down. Question No 7 Compared to the upper wing. Question No 3 If no control inputs are made by the pilot. Question No 4 Spiral instability is a result of an interaction between [a] rolling and yawing. [b] less lift and less drag. [d] strong lateral stability and strong directional stability.PROGRESS TEST SECTION 10 & 11 Question No 1 A primary reason for designing a wing with washout is to [a] reduce induced drag at cruising speed. Question No 6 Longitudinal dihedral enhances stability in pitch by providing an angle of incidence of the [a] tailplane which is greater than that of the mainplane. [c] weaker lateral stability. [c] yawing and pitching. 11.10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . [d] increase the rate at which the aircraft rolls. Question No 8 A device which encourages the airflow to separate from a wing surface during stall progression is a [a] slat. the lower wing of an aircraft in a spin is experiencing [a] more lift and more drag. [c] improve aileron effectiveness throughout the speed range.
a stall strip is used to 'trip' the airflow and encourage it to separate as it should. Some high wing aircraft have no dihedral at all e. By reducing the angle of attack at the wing tip induced drag is reduced. The dropping wing will always suffer an increase in angle of attack and so experience less lift. The high wing design features the 'pendulum effect' which gives the aircraft natural lateral stability because the weight is below the lift. Drag which has been increasing up to the stall. so [a] is not correct. When a stall occurs it is desirable that the separation progresses from the root to the tip. Aircraft with this design feature need little else to enhance stability in roll.11 . but that effect is most noticeable at low speed.g. the wing tip is the last section of the wing to stall. During the yaw the outside wing travels faster than the inside wing. The other reason for washout is to ensure that during the progression of the stall. After an initial roll. the weak lateral stability attempts to return the wings to level attitude but this effect is overcome by the strong yaw which results from the strong directional stability. After the stall any increase in angle of attack will produce less lift. A spiral dive results. This ensures that the nose will eventually pitch down after an increase in angle of attack. After the roll. 2 [a] 3 [d] 4 [a] 5 [c] 6 [b] 7 [d] 8 [c] CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 11. As the outside wing accelerates it produces extra lift which makes the roll continue in spite of the lateral stability's feeble attempt to correct it. the Cessna 152. simply goes on increasing as angle of attack increases. the tailplane increases its lift by a greater proportion than the mainplanes. No such thing happens to drag however. generating more lift. the aircraft sideslips to the left causing the directional stability to induce a yaw in the direction of the slip. It is insignificant at cruising speed. Some even have slight anhedral to prevent the lateral stability from becoming excessive. This produces a further roll which causes the slip to continue inducing a further yaw and so on. If for any reason the wing root or centre section tends to 'hang on' as the stall progresses towards the tip. The lower incidence of the tailplane ensures that for a given angle of attack change.ANSWERS TO PROGRESS TEST SECTION 10 & 11 Number 1 Answer [b] Comment There are two main reasons for washout.
5 A SPIRAL DIVE A SPIRAL DIVE 5 A SPIRAL DIVE 11.12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
acts on a longer arm from the hinge.3. To maintain this deflection. This generates a restoring moment which attempts to return the elevator to the zero deflection position in Fig 12. Most conventional aircraft are designed so that lift acts behind weight. while thrust and drag are producing a nose-up moment.2 represents an elevator at zero angle of Fig 12. leaving the aeroplane to purr along in a level input attitude. It would be nice if drag thrust these two opposite moments could cancel each other tailplane out.4 control cable to cockpit control cable to cockpit In Fig 12. a moment can be generated equal to the restoring moment caused by the larger force F.CONTROL Trims: During flight it may become necessary to deflect a control surface into the airflow for an extended period of time. This force would have to be supplied by the pilot. As the air flows around the trim tab. Fig 12.1 control cable to cockpit Fig 12.3 control cable to cockpit The aerodynamic reaction to this deflection is the force F.1 Lift and weight are producing a nose-down moment. a continuous force would be required in the top cable.2.4 a small trim tab on the trailing edge of the elevator is deflected downwards. the elevator must be deflected upwards as in Fig 12. the balance would not be maintained for long since lift changes its magnitude and position in response to angle of attack changes. If the correct angle of deflection is arm f found for the trim tab. this state of affairs can rarely if ever be attained. Even if it could. F arm control cable to cockpit Fig 12. which acts at a certain distance from the hinge [arm]. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 12. The tail plane input must change frequently to accommodate the changes in the other forces. a smaller local lift force. f. lift weight Fig 12. The elevator F now remains in the deflected position rem r a lieving the pilot of any need to maintain a force via the control cables.1 . Thrust changes its magnitude as power changes. In a single engine aeroplane this should not be necessary under normal circumstances for the ailerons or rudder.2 deflection with respect to the tailplane. Even though a well designed aircraft comes close. The tail plane must supply the correcting moment to achieve equilibrium. drag changes its magnitude and position as the flaps or undercarriage are operated and weight changes its magnitude and position as fuel is burnt or people move within the cabin. If a down control cable to cockpit load is required on the tailplane. but for all aircraft it will certainly be a requirement in the case of the elevator. Consider Fig 12.
while aileron trim [and rudder for light singles]. Consider Fig 12. Fig 12. A simple rule of thumb is 'tab down .and are adjusted by bending in the appropriate direction. which way would he need to bend the ground adjustable trim tab after landing? Since the tab is located on the right aileron. the aeroplane had a tendency to fly left wing low.7 2 MIN 12. the elevator trim is adjustable in flight via a control in the cockpit within easy reach of the pilot. is usually provided by ground adjustable tabs if at all.wing down' ie the wing will move in the same direction as the tab is bent.since the ailerons are interconnected.5.tail right'. If the indications in Fig 12. which way would you bend the ground adjustable rudder trim tab? ground adjustable trim tabs cockpit adjustable tirm tabs Fig 12. we must consider what the right wing must do to correct the situation. the right wing must be lowered.Because of the need to retrim the aircraft after any change in speed. The trim tab must be bent downwards so that the local aerodynamic reaction will lift the right aileron to force the right wing down [Fig 12.7 are observed in an aircraft with the wings level and no rudder pressure applied.6 tab down aileron up f wing down F Fig 12. ie right aileron is required to maintain the wings in a level attitude.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the rule becomes 'tab left . To remedy a left wing low tendency. power setting or weight distribution.tail left or tab right . If the rudder tab is involved.6]. Rudder trim on high performance singles is usually cockpit adjustable. If the pilot found that with the balance ball centred. Most multi engine aeroplanes also have a similar arrangement for aileron and rudder trims to provide for the continuation of flight after the failure of an engine.5 Ground adjustable aileron trim tabs are placed on one aileron only.
8].10 and 12.8 to Mach 1.Mach 0. 12. A device often used in light aircraft to lighten up the control feel is the link balance tab [Fig 12. requiring a good deal of effort to deflect.9 tailplane elevator tab constant length linkage Fig 12.' Fig 12. This arrangement is sometimes called a lagging balance tab and it serves to make the control pressures lighter.11 CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 . This allows the aircraft to achieve a trimmed condition with less parasite drag. Sometimes the opposite effect is desired. the tailplane/elevator combination is replaced with a one-piece symmetrical aerofoil hinged at its aerodynamic centre . Because the entire surface moves. In this arrangement. A typical elevator travels from about 30° up to about 20° down. the tab moves down and as the elevator moves down. increasing the pressures required. the tab moves up. As the elevator moves up. The tab is now resisting the control surface movement. In both cases. the device can double as a trim tab.2.3 constant length linkage Fig 12.[Answer: to the right. the tab moves up and as the elevator moves down. if the length of the linkage is made adjustable from the cockpit. The stabilator also finds an application in high speed aircraft by improving control response in the transonic speed range .10 Fig 12.] The rule of thumb in this case: 'bend the rudder tab in the same direction as you want the ball to move. This arrangement is called a leading balance tab. The stabilator: Another device which is becoming increasingly common in light aircraft design is the stabilator. the degree of deflection required to produce any given load is much less than is required for an elevator.9. If you contemplate this for a moment you will see that the tab moves to assist the elevator. The controls are too light and there is a danger that the pilot could inadvertently apply such a large and rapid control deflection as to overstress the airframe.11]. A constant length linkage is connected to the movable tab in such a way that as the elevator moves up. A stabilator would require only about half as much deflection to achieve the same result. the tab moves down.usually with a leading balance/ trim tab [Fig 12. the tab is arranged as illustrated in Fig 12. In this case.8 tailplane elevator tab Link balance tabs: Sometimes the designer finds that a control surface has a heavy feel.
The spade deflects downwards when the aileron moves up.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . where the physical effort required to fly a sequence can be very demanding. They greatly reduce the physical effort required to deflect the ailerons through large angles of deflection at relatively high airspeeds. Trim achieved by raising or lowering the tail plane leading edge. With moderate force on the control cable the rudder moves without assistance from the tab When the cable force exceeds a preset limit. Aileron spades. These devices greatly reduce the effort required to deflect the ailerons. When the force applied to the control cable exceeds a preset limit. 12. the spring ‘breaks’deflecting the tab to assist the movement of the rudder. Elevator trim by changing the incidence of the tailplane. This is an arrangement where the bellcrank is spring loaded so that moderate forces applied through the control cable will produce normal operation by deflecting the control surface and tab together with no assistance from the tab. much less angle of deflection is required than moving the elevator alone. The plate protrudes into the airflow beneath the wing and is deflected downwards whenever the aileron is deflected up. assisting the aileron deflection. The Piper Pacer at left achieves elevator trim without any aerodynamic trim tab at all. A flat plate is attached to the aileron by a bar. The action of the airflow on the deflected plate [or spade] pulls it back. The cockpit trim control changes the incidence of the tailplane by raising or lowering the leading edge. The theory is that if the entire tailplane is deflected in this manner.Fin Rudder tab Spring tab. the spring loading allows the bellcrank to 'break' pulling the trim tab in the appropriate direction to assist the deflection of the control surface. This feature is greatly appreciated by pilots who fly advanced and unlimited competition aerobatics. Airflow striking the spade pulls it back. This produces less parasite drag for a given trim condition. assisting the upward movement of the aileron. Aileron spades are commonly seen on advanced aerobatic aircraft.
12.12 direction of roll more drag direction of yaw If you take a model aeroplane and make it roll to the left. Two design features which help to reduce this so called aileron drag are differential ailerons and Frise ailerons.Aileron drag: When ailerons are operated. then maintaining the bank.create extra drag which results in a loss of airspeed. the aileron which moves down effectively increases the lift coefficient of that wing. Unfortunately the additional energy extracted from the airflow by the down-going aileron is manifest as extra drag as well as extra lift. The deflected control surfacesailerons and rudder. The wing which rises is therefore also pulled backwards. This asymmetric drag causes the adverse yaw. have a look at the aileron travel on a Tiger Moth . but the fact that the drag is not even. you will see that this causes the nose to rise above the horizon and the aeroplane begins to slip sideways into the direction of the intended turn.5 CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 . This unwanted tendency to yaw opposite to the direction of bank must be counteracted with left rudder. make it yaw to the right. while the aileron which moves up decreases the lift coefficient on its wing. Fig 12. Differential ailerons: The problem with aileron drag is not so much the drag itself. while the up-going aileron produces a reduction in lift and drag. Most of the drag caused by the down-going aileron is induced drag. more parasite drag is produced as form drag.13 wing and eliminates the yaw.I won't spoil it for you by saying any more. Differential ailerons are rigged so that the full extent of downward travel is much less than the full extent of upward travel [usually about half]. resulting in a yaw opposite to the direction of roll. Full down travel Full up travel Next time you get a chance. This additional drag on the down-going wing evens up the drag acting on each Fig 12. By extending the travel of the up-going aileron.
so that when the surface moves to one side.smooth airflow maintained Aileron up . the horn is displaced into the airflow on the opposite side.additional parasite drag created Some aircraft feature Frise ailerons which also have differential movement. Some resistance to control surface movement is desirable to allow feedback to the pilot. Aerodynamic balancing is used. This aileron has a wedge shaped nose and is hinged at the top. This generates a force which assists to deflect the surface. 12. the wedge protrudes beneath the bottom surface of the wing and generates additional parasite drag by disrupting the smooth airflow. to assist the pilot. The horn balance assisting force protrudes in front of the control surface hinge.Frise ailerons: Another device which evens up the drag caused by deflected ailerons is the Frise aileron [Fig 12. However when it is deflected upwards. The total drag acting is actually reduced. the effort required to deflect the control surface into the airflow becomes greater.14 hinge Frise Aileron Aileron down . most commonly on rudders and elevators.15 go too far with aerodynamic balancing. When the aileron is deflected downwards.14]. Note that even though the up-going aileron generates extra drag. Aerodynamic balancing: As the control surfaces get bigger and the aeroplanes get faster. it alleviates the need for a large amount of rudder deflection by evening up the drag. The designer must ensure that he doesn't Fig 12. the wedge tucks up into the wing and smooth airflow is maintained. Fig 12.6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
so as to bring the centre of gravity of the system closer to the hinge [Fig 12. the flutter can rapidly increase in amplitude and frequency causing serious vibrations and eventual structural damage. Designers employ all sorts of clever tricks to hide the mass balances from sight.16 restoring force A feature which prevents flutter is the mass balance. it encounters the airflow beneath the wing and is forced back towards the neutral position.17]. Depending on the distribution of mass within the aileron and other factors.Mass balancing: Because control surfaces are situated on the trailing edge of the parent aerofoil. Mass balance Fig 12. under certain circumstances a combination of aerodynamic and inertia forces can cause unstable oscillations known as flutter. A weight is attached to the control surface [usually the aileron is the culprit].17 flutter Fig 12.18 Mass balance in a Frise aileron CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 12. If a control surface deflects downwards due to some outside disturbance. the mass balance is usually tucked away in the nose of the aileron in the form of lead weights. Mass balances are also often hidden beneath the wing tip fairing or in the front of horn balances. Some light fabric-covered ailerons require no mass balancing at all. Fig 12. it overshoots and enters the airflow above the wing where it is forced back towards neutral once more. Because it has inertia. Once it starts. In the case of Frise ailerons. an unstable flutter can begin.7 .
When required the spoilers are raised above the wing surface creating a sharp discontinuity in the airflow and causing a large loss of lift. the spoilers on the side of the up-going aileron rise with the aileron while the spoilers on the side of the down going aileron remain stowed. Large jet aircraft also deploy the spoilers immediately after landing to 'dump' the residual lift during the landing roll and transfer all of the weight of the aircraft to the wheels to permit more efficient braking. Spoilers allow the pilot to deliberately spoil the lift by disrupting the smooth airflow over the wing's upper surface.19 Spoilers stowed Spoilers. Large jet aircraft commonly deploy spoilers on both wings to allow a high rate of descent while the aircraft body angle remains relatively level with no significant rise in airspeed. This is a popular arrangement in some military aircraft as it makes the entire length of the wing's trailing edge available for flaps. Some aircraft even do away with ailerons altogether and use only spoilers for roll control.Fig 12. Because jet engines operate most efficiently at very high altitudes. When not in use.20 Spoilers deployed Spoilers can also be used to enhance roll control by assisting the ailerons. Fig 12. there are times when the designer wants to get rid of lift. they are stowed so as to have no effect on the airflow.21 spoilers deployed for increased rate of descent Spoiler deployed to assist aileron in roll. When used in this manner.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . Fig 12. While lift is a very necessary ingredient for level flight. fuel can be saved by remaining high as long as possible and then descending steeply as the destination is approached. 12. The loss of lift created by the rising spoilers assists that wing to drop thereby contributing to the rolling tendency. Spoilers are hinged surfaces on the upper surface of the wing.
the angle of attack increases because [a] the relative airflow changes direction [b] inertia prevents a change in the flight path [c] there is a corresponding change in the flight path [d] the aircraft begins to climb Question No 3 Which of the following indications would positively establish that an aircraft is in a spin and not a spiral dive? [a] low nose attitude [b] rapid rate of turn [c] indicated air speed low and almost unchanging [d] steadily increasing indicated air speed Question No 4 Which of the following applies to an aircraft which stalls during a sudden pull out from a dive? [a] the stalling speed and stalling angle will both increase [b] the stalling speed will increase while the stalling angle will remain the same [c] the stalling speed will increase while the stalling angle will decrease [d] the stalling speed will remain the same while the stalling angle will increase Question No 5 Which of the following combination of factors would cause a change in the indicated stalling speed of an aeroplane? [a] power and weight [b] altitude and load factor [c] turbulence and air density [d] air density and wing loading Question No 6 What effect will the formation of ice on the leading edges of the wings of an aircraft during flight have on the stalling characteristics of the aircraft? [a] the stalling angle will be increased [b] the stall will occur at a lower indicated air speed [c] both the stalling angle and the stalling indicated air speed will be increased [d] the stalling indicated air speed will increase and the stalling angle will decrease Question No 7 For an aircraft to enter a spin [a] it must first be stalled [b] it must be loaded outside the aft limit of the centre of gravity range [c] it must be banked in the direction of the spin [d] the pilot must apply rudder in the direction of the spin tailplane elevator trim tab [a] [c] Question No 8 The drawing at left shows the relative positions of the tailplane.EXERCISE A 6 Question No 1 For a given angle of attack and power setting.9 . Which diagram correctly shows the positions of these surfaces if the aircraft is trimmed to fly level at a lower IAS? [b] CPL AERODYNAMICS [d] ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 12. elevator and trim tab for an aircraft in level flight. an aircraft leaving ground effect will [a] experience an increase in lift [b] experience an increase in induced drag [c] experience an increase in IAS [d] experience an increase in rate of climb Question No 2 If the nose of an aircraft is suddenly raised in level flight.
Question No 9 One effect of moving the centre of gravity of an aircraft further forward is that [a] the stalling angle will increase [b] the stalling angle will decrease [c] the longitudinal stability will increase [d] the directional stability will decrease Question No 10 When indicated air speed is increased.10 . but the ailerons' effectiveness is unchanged [c] the elevator and ailerons' effectiveness is improved. The ground adjustable trim tab [a] on the left aileron should be bent up [b] on the right aileron should be bent up [c] on the rudder should be bent left [d] on the rudder should be bent right L R Question No 14 Which of the following would cause a reduction in the indicated stalling speed of an aeroplane? [a] an increase in altitude [b] an increase in weight [c] a rearward movement in the centre of gravity [d] a forward movement in the centre of gravity left wing aileron trim tab [a] [c] Question No 15 Which diagram at left correctly shows the relative positions of the wing. aileron and trim tab if the pilot has bent the tab to correct for a tendency to fly right wing low? [b] [d] BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS 12. the effect on the flight controls is [a] the rudder and ailerons effectiveness is unchanged. but the rudder's effectiveness is unchanged [d] the effectiveness of all flying controls is improved Question No 11 Which of the following is a likely result of ice forming on the propeller blades during flight? [a] the propeller's pitch will change towards a coarse setting [b] there will be a reduction in thrust and probably vibration of the engine [c] there would be a large drop in RPM and probably engine vibration [d] there would be a tendency for the propeller to overspeed Question No 12 An aeroplane leaving ground effect will experience [a] an increase in lift [b] an increase in induced drag [c] an increase in indicated air speed [d] an increase in rate of climb Question No 13 An aircraft flying with a constant heading has the indications shown on the turn and balance indicator at left. but the elevator's effectiveness improves [b] the rudder and elevator effectiveness is improved.
Question No 16 One result of ground effect is [a] the take off run is longer than usual [b] the float after round out is longer than usual [c] the climb after lift off is improved [d] the touch down occurs immediately after round out Question No 17 One effect of swept-back wings on aircraft stability is [a] longitudinal stability increases [b] lateral stability increases [c] directional stability decreases [d] lateral stability decreases Question No 18 Mass balances are fitted to aircraft control surfaces to [a] make them easier to move at high airspeed [b] prevent control surface flutter [c] improve low speed handling [d] reduce drag on the deflected control surface Question No 19 Aileron drag is the tendency of the aircraft to yaw away from the direction of turn when large amounts of aileron are applied at low airspeed. [d] downwards to push the elevator down. [b] extending an area behind the hinge in the opposite direction to the desired rudder deflection. This is caused by [a] uneven lift produced when the ailerons are operated [b] extra drag produced by the down going aileron [c] extra drag produced by the up going aileron [d] a higher angle of attack on the rising wing Question No 20 To trim an aircraft for a higher nose attitude. the elevator trim tab must be deflected so as to provide a local lift force which acts [a] upwards to lift the elevator up. [d] extending an area behind the hinge in the same direction to the desired rudder deflection. [c] extending an area forward of the hinge in the same direction to the desired rudder deflection.11 . [c] downwards to lift the elevator up. [b] upwards to push the elevator down. CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 12. Question No 21 A horn balance reduces the force necessary to deflect the rudder by [a] extending an area forward of the hinge in the opposite direction to the desired rudder deflection.
See page 12.12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . A spin requires that lift decrease and drag increase when angle of attack is increased. not at a certain speed. reducing the effective camber. The nose rises in response to elevator command. However the flight path does not change immediately because of inertia. the IAS is high and rapidly increasing. A propeller blade is an aerofoil. The centre of gravity of the mass balanced aileron is near the hinge. but the flight path remains the same due to inertia.ANSWERS TO EXERCISE A6 No 1 2 3 4 Answer [b] [b] [c] [b] Comment The vortex formation is inhibited by the proximity of the ground. This imbalance can produce vibration. the effective span of the lower wing increases and the effective chord of the higher wing increases. The requirement for a down load on the tail plane reduces. As the kinetic energy of the relative airflow increases.thus lifting the nose.wing down] The reduction in induced drag that occurs with ground effect prolongs the float. the forces generated by control surface deflection increase. As the centre of gravity moves aft the aircraft becomes tail heavy. the IAS must be higher. [Tab down . the IAS remains at a low value. In a spiral dive. This can only happen after the stall. Induced drag is inhibited by the proximity of the ground. induced drag increases. To correct for a right wing low tendency. The aircraft will always respond to elevator input by rotating about its lateral axis. When a swept-back wing begins to sideslip after a wing drop. When the aircraft leaves the ground effect region. This results in strong lateral stability. Density and altitude cause the stall to occur at a higher TAS but the same IAS. Also there is a high probability that different amounts of ice will form on each blade. When a spin develops. As the aircraft leaves the ground effect region [about one wing span]. Its efficiency is impaired by ice formation changing the aerodynamic shape of the blade. The elevator must by raised to produce a down force on the tail to achieve a higher nose attitude. Bend the tab in the direction you want the ball to move. When the elevator trim tab is deflected downwards it provides a force which acts upwards lifting the elevator to force the tail down . Because the angle of attack is lower. At a lower IAS a greater angle of attack is required. Ice changes the aerodynamic shape of the wings allowing flow reversal and separation to occur at a lower angle of attack. the left wing must be lowered.6 5 [a] 6 [d] 7 8 9 10 11 [a] [a] [c] [d] [b] 12 13 14 [b] [d] [c] 15 16 17 [a] [b] [b] 18 19 20 21 [b] [b] [a] [a] 12. The larger the keel surface area behind the centre of gravity the greater is longitudinal and directional stability. The wings react as though weight has been reducedthe stalling speed reduces. The stalling angle is reached at a higher IAS. Bend the tab on the left wing down. the induced drag increases. Anything that changes the lift that the wings must produce will change the stalling IAS. This prevents flutter by reducing the inertia forces. An aerofoil stalls at a certain angle. Even though differential or Frise ailerons remedy aileron drag at normal speeds. the adverse yaw is often still present when large aileron deflections are applied at low airspeed.
[a] lift increases and drag increases [b] lift increases and drag decreases [c] lift decreases and drag increases [d] lift decreases and drag decreases Question No 3 As indicated air speed is increased from the stalling speed to maximum level flight cruising speed. To correct for this [a] the trim tab on the left aileron should be deflected up [b] the trim tab on the left aileron should be deflected down [c] the trim tab on the rudder should be deflected to the left [d] the trim tab on the rudder should be deflected to the right CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13. The best lift/drag ratio in level flight could be achieved by [a] flying at speed X [b] flying slower than speed X [c] flying faster than speed X [d] flying just before the stalling speed X True Air Speed Total Drag Question No 5 The effect of moving the centre of gravity further forward in flight would be [a] directional stability would decrease [b] lateral stability would increase [c] stalling speed would decrease [d] directional stability would increase Question No 6 When operating a single engine propeller driven aircraft at high power and low indicated air speed [a] ailerons are more effective than elevators [b] elevator and rudder are more effective than ailerons [c] rudder is less effective than ailerons [d] all controls are less effective Question No 7 An aircraft flying with wings level and constant heading has the ball on the turn and balance indicator deflected to the left. the stalling speed in a 60° bank level turn at the same weight would be closest to [a] 60 kt [b] 75 kt [c] 85 kt [d] 90 kt Question No 2 As the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased from about 4° to the stalling angle.AERODYNAMICS FINAL TEST No 1 Question No 1 If the IAS at which the stall occurs in level flight at a particular gross weight is 60 kt. at constant indicated air speed. [a] induced drag decreases then increases [b] total drag increases continuously [c] induced drag decreases continuously [d] total drag increases then decreases Question No 4 Consider the total drag curve shown at left.1 .
level flight may be maintained by [a] increasing indicated air speed and raising the nose [b] increasing indicated air speed and lowering the nose [c] decreasing indicated air speed and raising the nose [d] decreasing indicated air speed and lowering the nose Question No 14 Consider an aircraft maintaining straight and level flight at the speed which produces maximum endurance. If level flight is to be maintained.Question No 8 When flap is lowered on an aircraft in flight [a] lift and drag both increase [b] lift decreases and drag decreases [c] lift decreases and drag increases [d] lift increases and drag decreases Question No 9 The indicated air speed at which the stall occurs would decrease if [a] altitude is increased [b] the head wind component increased [c] power is reduced [d] the gross weight is decreased Question No 10 As altitude increases.2 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the stalling speed occurs [a] at a higher true air speed but the same indicated air speed [b] at a higher true air speed and a higher indicated air speed [c] at the same true air speed but a lower indicated air speed [d] at the same true air speed and the same indicated air speed Question No 11 As ice forms on the wings of an aircraft during flight. [a] more power will be required if speed is reduced [b] less power will be required if speed is reduced [c] less power will be required if speed is increased [d] less power will be required if speed is changed to the speed of minimum drag 13. [a] stalling speed increases but stalling angle remains the same [b] stalling speed increases and stalling angle increases [c] stalling speed increases and stalling angle decreases [d] stalling speed remains the same but stalling angle decreases Question No 12 Which of the following would allow a pilot to differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive? [a] the indicated air speed would be lower in a spiral [b] the indicated air speed would be lower in a spin [c] the rate of rotation would be higher in a spiral [d] the rate of descent would be higher in a spin Question No 13 An aircraft is in straight and level flight at constant power. As weight reduces with fuel burn off.
The speed marked X would represent [a] minimum power and maximum range [b] minimum drag and maximum endurance [c] minimum power and maximum endurance [d] minimum drag and maximum range X Y True Air Speed Question No 16 The speed which produces maximum rate of climb for a given weight and power is [a] the best lift/drag ratio speed [b] the slowest speed possible for that power setting [c] the speed which produces maximum thrust [d] the speed at which maximum surplus power is available over and above that which is required for level flight at that speed Question No 17 The effect of increasing headwind component during a climb at constant indicated air speed and constant power is [a] the rate of climb is increased while the angle of climb is unchanged [b] the rate of climb is unchanged while the angle of climb is increased [c] the rate of climb is decreased while the angle of climb is unchanged [d] the rate of climb is unchanged while the angle of climb is decreased Question No 18 The effect of increased weight on the gliding range of an aeroplane is [a] the gliding range is reduced if the angle of attack is kept constant [b] the gliding range is not affected if the angle of attack is increased [c] the gliding range is not affected if the angle of attack is kept constant [d] the gliding range is increased if the angle of attack is reduced Question No 19 Compared to still air performance. when a tail wind exists for a descent at constant indicated air speed [a] both rate and angle of descent are changed [b] rate of descent is changed but angle of descent is not [c] rate of descent is unchanged but angle of descent is decreased [d] rate and angle of descent are both decreased Question No 20 A sudden drop in headwind component during an approach to land will initially cause [a] a reduction in indicated air speed for the same nose attitude [b] a reduction in indicated air speed and a higher nose attitude [c] an increase in indicated air speed and a lower nose attitude [d] an increase in indicated air speed for the same nose attitude Question No 21 An aircraft stalls at 50 kt IAS in level flight at a particular weight.3 .Power Required Question No 15 Consider the power required curve at left. the indicated stalling speed would be approximately [a] the same [b] 60 kt [c] 70 kt [d] 75 kt CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13. In a 45° banked level balanced turn.
This is due to [a] slipstream effect [b] engine torque [c] asymmetric blade effect [d] gyroscopic precession Question No 27 Stalling speed is increased by an increase in [a] flap extension [b] power [c] load factor [d] angle of attack Question No 28 Climbing an aeroplane at a higher speed than that recommended for the best rate of climb will result in [a] an increased rate and decreased angle of climb [b] an increased rate and angle of climb [c] a decreased rate and angle of climb [d] a decreased rate and increased angle of climb Question No 29 A thin coating of clear ice on the leading edge of an aerofoil of an aircraft in flight [a] decreases lift and increases drag by changing the aerofoil characteristics [b] has no particular effect as the decrease in drag is accompanied by a decrease in lift [c] increases the efficiency of the aerofoil by reducing drag [d] increases lift by increasing the camber of the aerofoil 13. a turn at a given bank and indicated air speed would [a] have a greater radius if altitude was increased [b] have the same radius at all altitudes [c] have a greater radius if altitude was decreased [d] have a smaller radius if altitude was increased Question No 24 Tail wheel aircraft are more prone to ground looping than nose wheel aircraft because [a] pilot visibility is reduced [b] the centre of gravity is behind the main wheels [c] the centre of gravity is ahead of the main wheels [d] the wings are at a higher angle of attack Question No 25 Which of the following could be attributed to ground effect? [a] the aircraft may become airborne at a speed well below a safe climbing speed [b] the aircraft may become difficult to rotate [c] the float between round out and touch down may be shorter than usual [d] the initial climb. will be greatly improved Question No 26 A tendency to yaw is noticed as the tail is lifted to the flying attitude during the take off run in a tailwheel aircraft.Question No 22 A heavy aircraft and a light aircraft are turning at the same indicated air speed and angle of bank. just after take off.4 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . If both aircraft are at the same altitude. the radius of turn [a] is greater for the heavy aircraft [b] is less for the heavy aircraft [c] depends upon the weight [d] is the same Question No 23 For a given aircraft.
5 .Question No 30 The recommended speed for flight in turbulent conditions is [a] a speed which allows flap to be lowered for better forward visibility [b] as fast as possible to minimise the effect of a gust induced stall [c] a speed which gives a compromise between excessive structural loads and the stall [d] as slow as possible to minimise the loads on the aircraft structure Question No 31 An aerofoil is said to be at its stalling angle if any increase or decrease in angle of attack causes [a] more drag [b] a lower lift/drag ratio [c] less lift [d] less lift and less drag Question No 32 How will lift and drag vary if the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased from 4° up to the stalling angle [a] lift will increase and drag will decrease [b] lift and drag will both increase [c] lift will decrease and drag will increase [d] lift and drag will both decrease CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13.
6 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . elevator and trim tab for an aircraft that is correctly trimmed to maintain a high nose attitude? 13.AERODYNAMICS FINAL TEST No 2 Question No 1 The angle of attack of an aerofoil is defined as the angle between [a] the chord line and the longitudinal axis [b] the aircraft's nose and the natural horizon [c] the chord line and the relative airflow [d] the aircraft indicator and the horizon bar on the artificial horizon Question No 2 An angle of attack increase in straight and level flight is accompanied by [a] an increase in the total reaction and a forward movement in the centre of pressure [b] an increase in the total reaction and an aft movement in the centre of pressure [c] a decrease in the total reaction and a forward movement in the centre of pressure [d] a forward movement in the total reaction and no change in the centre of pressure Question No 3 If indicated air speed is kept constant and angle of attack is increased [a] induced drag will remain the same but parasite drag will increase [b] both induced drag and parasite drag will increase [c] induced drag will increase but parasite drag will remain the same [d] induced drag will increase and parasite drag will decrease Question No 4 An aircraft flying at the angle of attack marked X in the figure at left would be flying at [a] the maximum speed in level flight [b] the best lift/drag ratio [c] the stalling speed [d] the best climbing speed CL X Angle of Attack Question No 5 Forward movement of the centre of gravity during flight will produce [a] increased longitudinal and directional stability [b] decreased longitudinal and directional stability [c] a decrease in the stalling speed [d] a decrease in lateral stability Question No 6 A decrease in indicated air speed produces [a] less resistance to control movement and better control effectiveness [b] less resistance to control movement and reduced control effectiveness [c] more resistance to control movement and better control effectiveness [d] more resistance to control movement and reduced control effectiveness Tailplane [a] [c] Elevator Trim tab [b] [d] Question No 7 Which figure at left correctly represents the relative positions of the tailplane.
7 . [a] an increase in indicated air speed will require an increase in angle of attack [b] an increase in indicated air speed will require a decrease in angle of attack [c] a decrease in indicated air speed will require a decrease in angle of attack [d] providing indicated air speed is kept constant.Question No 8 If flap is lowered during an approach and nose attitude and power are kept constant [a] airspeed and angle of descent will both increase [b] airspeed and angle of descent will both decrease [c] air speed will decrease and angle of descent will remain constant [d] air speed will decrease and angle of descent will increase Question No 9 During the pull out from a dive. will occur at [a] the same indicated air speed but a lower angle of attack [b] a higher indicated air speed but a lower angle of attack [c] a higher indicated air speed but the same angle of attack [d] a lower indicated air speed but the same angle of attack Question No 10 Which of the following factors would produce an increase in indicated stalling speed? [a] a decrease in air density [b] a decrease in head wind component [c] an increase in engine power [d] an increase in load factor Question No 11 Cockpit indications which would allow a pilot to differentiate between a spiral dive and a spin would be [a] in a spin the indicated air speed would be low and unchanging [b] in a spin the indicated air speed would be high and rapidly increasing [c] in a spiral the indicated air speed would be low and unchanging [d] in a spiral the indicated air speed would be high initially. the power that is used must [a] produce the lowest possible forward speed [b] produce the indicated air speed corresponding to the highest lift coefficient [c] produce the indicated air speed corresponding to the lowest lift coefficient [d] produce the indicated air speed corresponding to minimum drag Question No 15 The indicated air speed which produces the maximum rate of climb in a piston engine aircraft changes as height increases. This is necessary to [a] maintain the maximum surplus power [b] maintain the maximum surplus thrust [c] maintain the minimum total drag [d] maintain the maximum possible engine power CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13. then steadily decreasing Question No 12 When flying straight and level at a particular aircraft weight. various angles of attack may be used Question No 13 As aircraft weight decreases with fuel burn off in straight and level flight at constant power setting [a] angle of attack must be decreased and indicated air speed will decrease [b] angle of attack must be increased and indicated air speed will increase [c] angle of attack must be decreased and indicated air speed will increase [d] angle of attack must be increased and indicated air speed will decrease Question No 14 To achieve maximum range in a piston engine aircraft. the stall compared to level flight.
Question No 16 When the headwind experienced during a climb suddenly decreases [a] angle of climb increases [b] rate of climb increases [c] angle of climb remains the same but rate of climb decreases [d] angle of climb decreases Question No 17 Which of the following factors would produce a decrease in the angle of climb? [a] a decrease in aircraft weight [b] an increase in surplus thrust [c] an increase in headwind component [d] a turn during the climb from upwind to downwind Question No 18 When flap is extended during a glide at constant indicated air speed [a] both rate and angle of descent will increase [b] rate of descent will decrease and angle of descent will increase [c] rate of descent will remain the same but angle of descent will increase [d] rate of descent will increase. The effect on gliding range will be [a] the heavy aircraft will glide further [b] the light aircraft will glide further [c] both aircraft will glide the same distance [d] both aircraft will suffer the same decrease in range because of the headwind Question No 20 A pilot suspects that he is undershooting a forced landing in calm conditions. and angle of descent will decrease Question No 19 A heavy aircraft and a light aircraft of the same type are gliding into a headwind at the same lift/drag ratio. The best technique to employ would be [a] raise the nose to decrease the gliding speed [b] increase the gliding speed to allow for a longer float after round out [c] increase the flap extension [d] maintain the speed that produces the best lift drag ratio Question No 21 A level balanced turn with an angle of bank of 75° would cause an increase in stalling speed of approximately [a] 10% [b] 50% [c] 100% [d] 200% Question No 22 More power is required during a level turn to maintain the same indicated air speed as in straight and level flight because [a] the nose attitude in a turn is higher [b] the elevator in a turn is deflected into the slipstream [c] aileron drag is produced by the deflected ailerons during a turn [d] the total drag on the aircraft is increased during a turn Question No 23 During a level balanced turn at constant bank the effect of increasing power will be [a] rate of turn will be the same but radius of turn will decrease [b] both rate and radius of turn will increase [c] rate of turn will increase and radius of turn will decrease [d] rate of turn will decrease and radius of turn will increase 13.8 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
9 . the immediate effect on the aircraft will be [a] a decrease in thrust available [b] an increase in total drag [c] the propeller blades may not be able to be feathered [d] the extra weight will affect the centre of gravity Question No 25 One result of ground effect is [a] the take off run is longer than usual [b] the float after round out is longer than usual [c] the climb out after take off is improved [d] the touch down occurs immediately after round out Question No 26 The initial effect of propeller torque is to cause the aircraft to [a] roll opposite to propeller rotation [b] yaw opposite to propeller rotation [c] roll with propeller rotation [d] yaw with propeller rotation Question No 27 The tendency to yaw on take off in a tailwheel aircraft with a clockwise rotating propeller is greatest in [a] a crosswind from the left [b] a headwind [c] calm conditions [d] a crosswind from the right Question No 28 Which of the following factors will alter the indicated stalling speed of an aeroplane? [a] air density [b] power setting [c] altitude [d] density altitude Question No 29 The most significant effect of not clearing frost from the wings of an aircraft before flight is that [a] the stalling angle will increase [b] the indicated stalling speed will increase [c] there will be a marked deterioration on acceleration during the take off run [d] both the indicated stalling speed and the stalling angle will increase Question No 30 Which of the following flight instruments will best allow a pilot to differentiate between a spin and a spiral dive? [a] the vertical speed indicator [b] the flight attitude indicator [c] the airspeed indicator [d] the turn and balance indicator Question No 31 The aerodynamic lift force on an aeroplane always acts perpendicular to the [a] longitudinal axis [b] wing chord [c] relative airflow [d] thrust line CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13.Question No 24 If ice forms on propeller blades during flight.
Question No 32 How will the magnitude of the lift force vary if the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased towards the stalling angle? [a] lift will decrease and then increase [b] lift will increase [c] lift will increase and then decrease [d] lift will decrease Question No 33 More power is required to maintain altitude as the IAS is reduced. if the aeroplane is flying at speeds below the [a] maximum structural cruising speed [b] maximum endurance speed [c] best rate of climb speed [d] best range speed 13.10 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS .
AERODYNAMICS FINAL TEST No 3 Question No 1 In which situation is ground effect most pronounced? [a] during the landing roll [b] at 50 feet during the approach to land [c] during the initial take off run [d] immediately after take off L/D Question No 2 Which statement is true for an aircraft flying at the angle of attack marked X? [a] the aeroplane is at the stalling angle [b] the wings are developing maximum lift [c] the drag is at a minimum [d] the speed is at a maximum X Angle of Attack Question No 3 To achieve maximum specific air range. a piston engine aircraft must be flown at a speed which will give the [a] minimum lift/drag ratio [b] minimum fuel consumption rate [c] maximum lift [d] least total drag Question No 4 What effect will a headwind have on the angle and rate of climb? [a] the angle will increase and the rate will remain unchanged [b] the angle will decrease and the rate will increase [c] the angle will increase and the rate will decrease [d] the angle and rate will both increase Question No 5 If the indicated stalling speed of an aeroplane is 50 kt in level flight.11 . what will the indicated stalling speed be in a 45° bank balanced turn? [a] 50 kt [b] 70 kt [c] 100 kt [d] 60 kt Question No 6 One reason for using flap during an approach to land is that it [a] increases downwash and reduces ground effect [b] increases drag and permits a steeper approach angle [c] increases lift and prolongs the float before touchdown [d] increases the lift/drag ratio and reduces touchdown speeds Question No 7 How will lowering partial flap affect the glide performance if IAS is maintained? [a] the glide angle will decrease [b] the rate of descent will decrease [c] the glide distance will increase [d] the glide angle and rate of descent will both increase CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13.
what will the indicated stalling speed be in a 60° bank level turn? [a] 70 kt [b] 75 kt [c] 60 kt [d] 85 kt Question No 12 Climbing an aeroplane at a slightly lower speed than that recommended for best rate will result in [a] a decreased rate and angle of climb [b] a decreased rate and increased angle of climb [c] an increased rate and angle of climb [d] an increased rate and decreased angle of climb Question No 13 Consider the turn performance of two aeroplanes of different gross weights. At the same IAS.12 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . the effect on the static stability is [a] lateral stability will improve [b] directional stability will deteriorate [c] longitudinal stability will deteriorate and directional stability will improve [d] longitudinal stability will improve Question No 11 If the indicated stalling speed of an aeroplane is 60 kt in level flight. what will be the effect on turn performance? [a] rate and radius of turn will increase [b] rate of turn will increase and radius of turn will decrease [c] rate of turn will decrease and radius of turn will increase [d] radius and rate of turn will decrease Question No 10 If the centre of gravity of an aeroplane is moved further forward. the heavy aeroplane will have [a] a lower rate and greater radius of turn than the light one [b] a greater rate of turn than the light one [c] the same rate and radius of turn as the light one [d] a greater radius of turn than the light one Question No 14 In level flight the speed at which total drag would be a minimum would be [a] the minimum speed for level flight [b] the maximum cruising speed [c] the normal cruising speed [d] less than the normal cruising speed Question No 15 How will gliding at a higher speed than that recommended for the best glide affect the glide range? [a] glide range remains the same [b] glide range decreases [c] glide range increases 13.Question No 8 To achieve the maximum glide range in still air at a higher weight the pilot should [a] maintain IAS and reduce the angle of attack [b] reduce the IAS and increase the angle of attack [c] reduce the IAS and maintain the angle of attack [d] increase the IAS and maintain the angle of attack Question No 9 If bank is increased and power is kept constant during a level turn. altitude and bank angle.
On arrival you are advised by ATC that holding at that level is not available and you are required to hold at 5000 feet instead. Question No 22 What will be the effect of a headwind on glide range and glide endurance if an aeroplane is flown at its best lift/ drag ratio speed? [a] range will be unaffected but endurance will increase [b] range will be reduced but endurance will be unaffected [c] range will be unaffected but endurance will be reduced [d] range and endurance will both be reduced CPL AERODYNAMICS ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 13. the induced drag will [a] decrease progressively [b] decrease then increase [c] increase progressively [d] increase then decrease Total Drag Question No 20 Which item of piston engine aeroplane performance will occur at the speed marked X [a] maximum still air range [b] maximum rate of climb [c] best endurance [d] minimum rate of descent X True Air Speed Question No 21 Due to high traffic density at your destination you have planned to hold. [c] the maximum time for which you can hold will not be affected. [b] the maximum time for which you can hold will decrease. if required. at an altitude of 1500 feet. The effect this change of level will have on holding is [a] the maximum time for which you can hold will increase.Question No 16 The stalling angle of attack of an aerofoil is that angle of attack at which [a] the lift and drag produced are equal [b] the lift/drag ratio is at a maximum [c] the aerofoil is producing maximum lift [d] the aerofoil is producing maximum drag Question No 17 The stalling speed of an aeroplane in level flight will increase if [a] flaps are lowered [b] weight is increased [c] altitude is increased [d] power is increased Question No 18 How will ice formation on the leading edge of the wings affect the stall characteristics of an aeroplane? [a] the stalling angle will be increased [b] the stalling IAS and the stalling angle will be increased [c] the stalling IAS will be decreased [d] the stalling IAS will be increased and the stalling angle will be decreased Question No 19 If the IAS of an aeroplane is progressively reduced while maintaining straight and level flight. [d] less power will be needed for holding.13 .
If the pilot now increases the back pressure on the control column the effect on rate of descent and indicated air speed will be [a] both rate of descent and indicated air speed will increase [b] indicated air speed will increase and rate of descent will decrease [c] indicated air speed will decrease and rate of descent will increase [d] both rate of descent and indicated air speed will decrease Question No 26 Which statement is correct regarding the accumulation of ice on the blades of a propeller during flight? [a] it is impossible due to the speed of rotation of the blades [b] it can be encountered at OATs above freezing on humid days [c] thrust could exceed the maximum permitted if ice forms [d] thrust will be reduced and vibrations are likely Question No 27 An aircraft which takes off in calm conditions climbs through a wind shear where a strong tail wind is encountered. In order to execute a steep turn at the same height and IAS. how will lift and drag vary as the angle of attack of an aerofoil is increased from 4° towards the stalling angle? [a] lift will increase and drag will decrease [b] lift and drag will both increase [c] lift will decrease and drag will increase [d] lift and drag will both decrease Question No 25 An aircraft is established on final in the region of reverse command.Question No 23 An aeroplane is flying at 120 kt IAS in straight and level flight.14 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . extra power is required to offset the [a] centripetal force induced by the turn [b] increased wing loading as bank is applied [c] loss of the vertical component of lift caused by the bank [d] increased induced drag caused by the higher angle of attack Question No 24 Assuming other factors remain constant. What initial effects will this have on IAS and flight path? [a] IAS will decrease and the flight path will be steeper [b] IAS will increase and the flight path will be steeper [c] IAS will decrease and the flight path will be shallower [d] IAS will increase and the flight path will be shallower Question No 28 An increase in which of the parameters listed below will always result in an increase in induced drag? [a] IAS [b] angle of attack [c] lift/drag ratio [d] aspect ratio Question No 29 At what speed would the aeroplane be flying if it was at the angle of attack marked X? [a] maximum level flight speed [b] minimum level flight speed [c] speed for maximum glide range [d] speed for maximum angle of climb L/D X Angle of Attack 13.
The reduced drag produces more speed. The effect of the ice layer is to change the shape of the aerofoil. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 CPL AERODYNAMICS 13. The stalling IAS is a measure of the minimum kinetic energy required in the airflow to permit level flight.[1. 28 [c] [b] [b] [a] [c] [d] [b] [c] [c] [a] [b] [d] [a] [b] [a] [d] [c] [c] 29 30 [a] [c] Answers to FINAL TEST ONE. large increases in angle of attack can cause a stall at low airspeeds. The production of lift and drag depends on the shape of the aerofoil. 20. so 60 kt is the only possibility. The higher ground speed produced by the tailwind combined with the unchanged rate of descent reduces the angle of descent. Replace the spinning propeller with a spinning bicycle wheel and try it out. more speed is needed. IAS decreases even though no change in nose attitude is made. The lower ground speed produced by the headwind combined with the unchanged rate of climb produces an increase in angle of climb. All aircraft motion occurs about the centre of gravity in flight. 26.No. Since rate of climb is reduced and forward speed is increased. 10. Since the stalling angle is reduced. 1. including the stalling angle. Ice disrupts the smooth airflow over the wing surface promoting separation of the airflow at a lower angle of attack. Rate of climb is measured in ft per min. 23. Any increase in angle of attack produces more lift and therefore increases the structural loads. Whenever time is involved power is the controller. 7. The same IAS at a higher altitude would produce a higher TAS and increased radius. Particularly during the landing roll when inertia tends to encourage the tail to "run ahead" of the wheels. 24. Answer [c] [a] [c] [a] [d] [b] [d] [a] [d] [a] 11. Try pushing a model across the table with your finger at the tail. Comment Stalling speed increases with the square root of the load factor. 6. When the air is less dense. In the case of climbing.15 . To generate more lift higher airspeeds are required at any angle of attack-including the stalling angle. 2. Also more keel surface behind the c of g. A great increase in TODR results. 18. An increase in load factor means an increase in lift. 45° of bank must be less than that and it cannot be the same. 19. Gliding range depends on lift/drag ratio. Less weight means less lift is required for level flight and therefore less speed is required at any angle of attack. Weight has no effect.higher or lower. the high drag prevents speed increasing "At constant power" angle of attack must be reduced. The fuel must therefore last the longest time. When the spinning propeller disk is moved in pitch. 5. In a 60° bank level turn the load factor is 2. 60° of bank increases the stall speed by 2 = 1. it requires a higher true speed to produce the same kinetic energy. Therefore the induced drag is worse at low speed. However the drag increases by a bigger proportion than lift does. 25. 8. while the ailerons are outside this influence. This is far more important than the increased weight. Wind has no effect on rate of descent.. Maximum endurance requires minimum power. However drag increases faster than lift does after about 4° angle of attack. inertia prevents the aircraft speed through space from changing at the same rate.4 times = 70 kt. 17. 21. 16. Since the value of lift is fixed at any moment in level flight. Rate of climb is not affected by wind. the lift/drag ratio is at a maximum when drag is at a minimum. Radius of turn is governed by true air speed and angle of bank. 12.4 x 60 = 85] Both lift and drag continue to increase up to the stalling angle. Therefore more power is required to fly at any other speed . If the heavy aircraft glides faster at the same angle of attack. The square root of 2 is about 1. 4.4. it produces both more lift and more drag but the ratio remains the same. Also induced drag increases when you try to climb away causing the aircraft to resettle into ground effect. 14. 15. thus decreasing the lift/drag ratio. it reacts to produce a yaw. Since the aircraft can spin only while it remains stalled. The further forward the c of g. especially at high speeds. 27. When the wind change is sudden. the longer is the arm for the fin/rudder to work on. Obviously any speed other than best rate of climb will produce a lower rate of climb by definition of the word 'best'. Minimum power means minimum fuel flow. At low speed there is more time for air to flow from the bottom to the top of the wing. 3. If strong up drafts are encountered they have the effect of increasing the angle of attack. 13. 22. The slipstream from the propeller sends high energy airflow across the rudder and elevators. You work it out! Flaps increase both lift and drag. it is surplus power that matters. 9. the angle of climb must also be reduced.
load factor is 4. [b] 4. A decrease in headwind would produce an increase in ground speed. [c] [a] [b] [a] [d] [c] 10. This decreases the stalling angle and therefore increases the stalling speed. If the lift/drag ratio is the same. speed would have to increase Maximum range requires minimum drag. 5. So the stalling speed will double. 16. This relieves the wings of some of the lift requirement thereby allowing smaller angles of attack to be used at any given speed. When the tab is deflected down. 2. and assists lift. In level flight this is also best lift/drag ratio. Comment By definition As the region near the trailing edge is more affected by non-conforming airflow at higher angles of attack. To obtain the same lift at an increased speed. 13. More speed produces a much increased radius of turn. The stalling angle remains the same whatever the aircraft may be doing. less angle of attack would have to be used. Since power is constant. 22.] If an aircraft flies four times the distance at twice the speed it takes twice as long to complete the turn. thrust is acting above the flight path and so is assisting to lift the aeroplane. An aircraft cannot spin unless it remains stalled. The high drag keeps the speed low. The stalling speed is the IAS at which the maximum lift coefficient is required to produce the necessary lift. More power produces more speed. Rate of climb. An increase in load factor requires more lift. rate of descent must also increase. the front of the wing becomes the most important contributor to lift. the reaction raises the elevator which in turn applies a down force on the tail. 7. Flap will always spoil the lift/drag ratio and steepen the angle of descent. [Twice the speed produces four times the radius. 23. nothing you can do will increase range. A propeller blade. Increases the arm of the fin and tailplane. Frost changes the shape and surface characteristics of the aerofoil. BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS No 1. Answer [c] [a] 3. Ground effect reduces induced drag. If you are already gliding at the best lift/drag ratio. 27. A cross wind from the left is the last thing you need! At high angles of attack such as near the stall. Centre of pressure moves forward. Also if the wind speed change was sudden. It also gives the wing a higher profile contributing to parasite drag. there would be a change in airspeed which would result in a decreased rate of climb. The stalling angle can be reached at a high speed. Maximum surplus power controls the max. Flap produces extra drag which causes a speed decrease.] Once again an increased ground speed would cause the aircraft to cover more distance for any given height gain. The question says up to the stalling angle-not beyond it. 12. [d] [c] [d] [d] 24. If speed is constant and angle of descent increases. 26. More lift is required during a turn so more drag will be produced. 21. 11. An abrupt pull out from a dive causes the aircraft to rotate about its lateral axis in response to elevator but inertia prevents a change in flight path. the still air gliding distance must be the same. like any other aerofoil. The stall speed decreases if power is applied. loses its efficiency when ice forms on it. Also increases the keel surface behind the c of g. The speed varies with height. it spends less time in the headwind so glides further. As lift decreases so does drag. All the other influences are attempting to swing the aircraft to the left. [d] [a] [b] [c] [d] [a] [d] 17. Answers to FINAL TEST TWO. The aircraft attempts to rotate about the crankshaft opposite to propeller rotation. Since lift/drag ratio is spoilt. At 75° bank. 15.31 32 [c] [b] This is the best definition of the stalling angle. A higher angle of attack at the same IAS produces more spillage of air onto the top surface therefore more induced drag. 4 = 2. Since the heavy aircraft must glide faster to achieve the same lift/drag ratio. 19. therefore more speed at any angle of attack. The total reaction increases with angle of attack so lift and drag both increase. encouraging the early separation and flow reversal of the airflow. 28 [a] [b] [a] [a] [b] 29 [b] 13. 25. 8. [Assuming you were already climbing at best rate of climb speed. 9. 18.16 . Less energy available in the free air stream. 14. the angle of descent will increase. [d] [a] [a] 20. 6.
Rate of climb is determined by maximum surplus power-this is not affected by wind. If you remember that the load factor is 2 in a 60° bank turn this would produce a stalling speed increase of 50 x 2 = 50 x 1. Any speed. you end up with a worse glide! Stalling angle produces maximum lift coefficient. It doesn't begin to decrease until after the stalling angle is exceeded. More weight means more lift is required. the stalling speed must be less than 70 and more than 50. This causes a reduction of airspeed and may result in the aircraft settling back down into ground effect. the best ratio between lift and drag occurs when drag is at a minimum. lift will be at a maximum at that angle of attack. This increases both the force and arm [restoring moment]. Higher speeds are required at any angle of attackincluding the stalling angle. If IAS is kept constant. Maximum lift/drag ratio is also minimum drag in level flight. Since the approach angle is steepened [see Question No 6 above]. requires more power. the radius of turn will decrease. Rate decreases and angle increases. Specific air range is range in still air. Since lift is fixed in level flight because it must equal weight at any given moment. Since the bank in this case is 45°.4 = 70. It is the angle of attack that decides the lift drag ratio. Rate and radius of turn depend upon angle of bank and TAS and nothing else.17 . The best rate of climb speed is always higher than the best angle of climb speed for a piston engine aircraft. and the wind reduces the ground speed. an increased angle of climb must result. higher or lower. Since the speed will also reduce if power is kept constant. There is only one choice that fits . The angle of descent depends upon the lift/drag ratio. Surely if you glide at a speed other than that which produces best glide. When the bank angle is 60° the load factor is 2. Weight has no direct effect on turning performance. but they increase drag by a greater factor than lift. Lift increases with angle of attack increases up to the stalling angle. It would not continue however. Since rate of climb remains unchanged. Flaps increase both lift and drag. The best ratio between lift and drag in level flight occurs when drag is a minimum. Maximum lift/drag ratio is also minimum drag in level flight. In a spiral dive the airspeed indication will be higher and rapidly increasing. The rate of descent increases.30 31 32 33 [c] [c] [b] [b] In a spin the airspeed indication will be low and almost unchanging. if the aeroplane continues down a steeper path at the same speed it must also lose more height in any given time. The further the centre of gravity is moved forward. the induced drag is reduced because the tip vortex formation is inhibited. By definition. thus spoiling the lift drag ratio and steepening the descent angle. since the two speeds are usually fairly close together and slowing down too much would result in a reduction of angle of climb as well. The stalling speed varies as the square root of the load factor. Maximum endurance in level flight is obtained at the speed which requires minimum power. Most conventional light aircraft cruise at a power setting that produces a speed above minimum drag speed. Slowing down slightly from the best rate of climb speed brings you closer to the best angle of climb speed. However the heavier the aircraft is. the new stalling speed is 2 times 60 kt = 85 kt. An aircraft has one angle of attack which will always produce the best glide no matter what the weight is. Answers to FINAL TEST THREE Comment While the aircraft remains very close to the ground. More bank produces a greater centripetal force in the direction of turn. This increases the rate of turn. increasing the longitudinal and directional stability. so at 60° of bank. the higher the speed that must be used at any given angle of attack. The stalling speed increases with the square root of the load factor. the greater the keel surface area behind it and the greater the distance from the centre of gravity to the tailplane. a sudden increase in induced drag occurs when leaving ground effect. If an attempt to climb is made before adequate speed is attained. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2002 No 1 Answer [d] 2 3 [c] [d] 4 [a] 5 [d] 6 [b] 7 [d] 8 [d] 9 [b] 10 [d] 11 12 [d] [b] 13 14 15 16 17 [c] [d] [b] [c] [b] CPL AERODYNAMICS 13.
If you pull back on the control column. The maximum time for which you could hold would decrease. The least power is required at low altitudes because the TAS is less for any given IAS. you are flying at a speed less than the maximum endurance speed. This decreases the stalling angle and therefore increases the stalling speed. At constant IAS. Thrust is reduced because of the change in shape of the blades.18 BOB TAIT'S AVIATION THEORY SCHOOL CPL AERODYNAMICS . If you had to hold at a higher level than you had planned.18 [d] 19 [c] 20 21 [a] [b] 22 [b] 23 24 25 [d] [b] [c] 26 27 [d] [c] 28 29 [b] [c] Ice changes the shape and surface characteristics of the aerofoil. your IAS will begin to decrease continuously unless you add more power. At low speeds in level flight the air has more time to complete the journey from the bottom to the top of the wing-the vortex is well formed and induced drag increases. 13. Inertia prevents the aircraft from suddenly changing its ground speed when the tailwind is encountered. An increase in angle of attack intensifies the pressure gradient from the bottom to the top of the wing. you would not be able to hold as long because more power would be required to maintain flight at any given airspeed. For maximum holding time you will need to fly for maximum endurance. then lift will decrease while drag will continue to increase. but the time to descend is not altered. The aircraft actually glides down the same path relative to the air. it's just that the air [and the aircraft] are in motion relative to the ground when a wind is present.e. Flying at minimum drag produces maximum range. See the definition of work in the text. This results in a reduction in the speed of the relative airflow across the wings. Maximum range is achieved by flying at the speed which produces minimum total drag. Therefore the best lift/drag ratio occurs when drag is a minimum. If you are flying in the region of reverse command. The rate of descent will increase. producing imbalance and vibration. less than minimum power. Induced drag depends upon the pressure difference between the upper and lower surface of the wing and the time available for the vortex to form. See the definition of work in the text. encouraging the early separation and flow reversal of the airflow. an increase in angle of attack will produce more lift and more drag until the stalling angle is exceeded. This question mentioned nothing about increasing power. Air flow over the tips increases causing an increase in induced drag. More lift is required during a turn so more drag is generated. Lift reduces and IAS drops. The distance over the ground is decreased in a headwind. That means fly with minimum power applied. It is likely that a different weight of ice will form on each blade. The value of lift is fixed in level flight since it must equal weight at any moment. i.
See Stability: lateral stability Directional control.3 spanwise flow 5.4 elevator 1.10 Equilibrium.9 Endurance in level flight.2 yawing plane 1.8 thickness 3.aerodynamic.3 Controls.3 yaw 1.1 transition point 3.2 pitching plane 1.4 lift/drag ratio 3.1 eddies 5.2 rolling plane 1.2 camber 3. See Level flight Energy 1.2 turbulent flow 3. See Drag: induced drag Asymmetric blade effect. See Aerofoil Dynamic stability. See Aircraft motion: primary flying controls Aircraft motion lateral axis 1. See Aerofoil C Camber.8 effect of increased height 8. 3.maximum 1. See Aerofoil .3 pitch 1.4 rudder 1. See also Thrust: surplus thrust Aspect ratio.4 ailerons 1.6 mass balancing 12. See Control Bernoulli's principle.4 Coefficient of drag.1 relative airflow 3.1 skin friction 5.4 vertical axis 1. See Control Aileron spades 12. See Control Dihedral.11 chord line 3. See Stalling E Eddies.2 venturi 2.1 boundary layer 3.1 rate and angle of climb 8.3 Aileron drag. See Aircraft motion: primary flying controls D Descending 8.3 effect of increased weight 8.9 laminar flow 3.10 potential energy 1.2 normal axis 1.1 climbing turns 9. See Aerofoil: lift coefficient Control 12.4.4 Angle of attack. See Aerofoil Angle of climb 8. See Control Aerofoil aerofoil characteristics 2.3 effect of wind 8.Index . See Aircraft motion: primary flying controls Endurance .2 effect of speed 5.Aerodynamics Index A Aerodynamic balancing.5 differential ailerons 12.1 centre of pressure 3. See Stability Centre of pressure 1.6 aileron drag 12. See Stability Dynamic stall. See Aerofoil Boundary layer.8 trims 12.4 roll 1.10 kinetic energy 1. See also Aerofoil Centrifugal reaction.3 Bernoulli's principle 2.1.1 aerodynamic balancing 12.1 link balance tabs 12.4 primary flying controls 1. See Thrust Centre of gravity.4 Ailerons.8 effect of wind 8. See Ground handling Directional stability. See Turning Centripetal force. See Turning Chord line.3 symmetrical aerofoil 3.14.6 effect of weight 8.1 induced drag 5. See Aerofoil Coefficient of lift. See Drag: induced drag Elevator.7 Differential ailerons.10 Newton' laws 2. See State of motion: equilibrium B Balancing .1 Drag coefficient. See Ground handling: directional control Available thrust.6 gliding range in still air 8.1 angle of attack 3.2 lift coefficient 3.3 forces acting 8.7 spoilers 12.2 parasite drag 5.3 effect of weight 5.5 Frise ailerons 12. See Aerofoil Climbing 8. See Stability Drag 5.1 drag coefficient 3.2 vortices 5.
3 visibility 4. See Control: trims Load factor.maximum 1.6 power changes in level flight 7. See Drag Pendulum stability. See Stability G 'G' loading..3 maximum surplus power 6.1 Lift coefficient.11 wing fences 7. See Energy L Laminar flow. See Thrust Rolling plane.7 effect of wind 7. See Stability: lateral stability Kinetic energy. See Power: maximum surplus power: rate of climb Relative airflow.9 flap 7.7 R Range.10 vortex generators 7.2 take-off performance 4.9.Aerodynamics F Flap.3 torque reaction 4. See Lift: lift augmentation devices force.8 Rate 1. See Turning Gliding range in still air. See Turning: rate and radius of turn Rate of climb. See Stalling I Induced drag.5 'P' factor 4.6 effect of weight 7. See Control Full throttle height 7.6 Pitching plane.3 Pressure 1. See Level flight Range .9 taxiing in wind 4. See Turning longitudinal axis. See Stability: longitudinal stability Longitudinal stability. See Turning H High-speed stall. See Ground handling: directional control Gyroscopic effect.8 nosewheel aircraft 4. See Aircraft motion Nose attitude 3.2 use of brakes 4. See Ground handling: directional control M Manoeuvrability. See Aircraft motion Plain flap. See Aircraft motion: primary flying controls . See Aerofoil Normal axis.1 angle of attack and indicated air speed 7. 6.3 Nosewheel aircraft. See Ground handling P 'P' factor.3 power required 6.7 effect of height 7. See Lift: lift augmentation devices Frise ailerons. See Aircraft motion Rudder.4 effect of height 7. See Lift: lift augmentation devices Potential energy.4 wheelbarrowing 4.6 maximum range in level 7.2 endurance in level flight 7. See Aerofoil Lateral axis.6 ground looping 4.1 directional control asymmetric blade effect 4.Index .7 effect of weight 7. See Stability: lateral stability Photographs of wool tufts 3. See Drag K Keel surfaces.5 Ground handling 4.7 Pylon turn. See State of motion Formula for lift.2 tailwheel aircraft 4.10 lift formula 7.9 slats 7. See Aircraft motion Longitudinal dihedral. See Descending Ground effect 8. See Stability Mass balancing. See Aerofoil Required power. See Aerofoil Link balance tabs. See Power Required thrust. See Stability Level flight 7. See Lift Fowler flap. See Ground handling: directional control Parasite drag. See Aerofoil Lift/drag ratio. See Control N Newton' laws.6 slipstream effect 4.1 Ground looping.3 definition of 6. See Aircraft motion Lateral stability.3 Lift lift augmentation devices 7. See Energy Power 1.7 gyroscopic effect 4.
5 sweep-back 11.2 Types of motion. 7.4 Stabilator. See Ground handling Take-off performance. See Control Turbulent flow.3 Wool tuft photographs 3. See Drag: induced drag W Wash-out 5.5 stalling angle 10.11 Venturi. See Ground handling: directional control Wind effect in level fight.1 surplus thrust 6.2 . See Aircraft motion V Vector 1. See Drag Total reaction 1.8 static stability 11. See also Drag: induced drag Weight effect in level flight.Index . See Ground handling: directional control Total drag. See Aerofoil Trims.7 pendulum stability 11.2 high-speed stall 10.3 load factor 9.6 stalling speed increase 9.2 stall progression 10.6 Work 1.6 keel surfaces 11.14 Transition point.Aerodynamics S Shear. See Drag: induced drag Speed and induced drag.6 force 1. See Ground handling Vortex generators. See Aerofoil Turning 9. See Drag: parasite drag Slats.7 Spiral dive.7 longitudinal stability 11.4 manoeuvrability 11.4 effect of height 9. See Stability Sweep-back.8 'G' loading 9.4 Stalling speed. See Aerofoil Thrust 6.8 Y Yawing plane.7 effect of wind 9.3.1 centrifugal reaction 9.7 rate 1 9.2 spiral dive 11.1 Stalling 10. See Ground handling: directional control Spanwise flow. See Lift: lift augmentation devices Wing Loading.1 climbing turns 9.7 rate and radius of turn 9. See Aerofoil Torque reaction. See Stability: lateral stability Symmetrical aerofoil.1 dynamic stall 10.3 centripetal force 9. See Aircraft motion T Tailplane volume.2 thrust available 6. See Control Stability 11. See Control Spring tab 12.3 lift and weight 11.2 pylon turn 9. See Ground handling Taxiing in wind. See Lift: lift augmentation devices Spoilers.1 stalling speed factors that change the stalling IAS 10.6 spin recovery 10. See Stability Spiral instability.3.1 thrust required 6.5 dihedral 11.9 Wing fences. See Wind shear Skin friction. See Ground handling Thickness. See Lift: lift augmentation devices Vortices.8 dynamic stability 11. See Aircraft motion Visibility.9 spiral instability 11.6 Static stability.1 lateral stability 11.4 longitudinal dihedral 11. See Drag: induced drag Spinning 10. See Level flight: maximum range in level Wind shear 8.1 directional stability 11. See Lift: lift augmentation devices Slipstream effect. See Stability: longitudinal stability Tailwheel aircraft. See Stability Split flap.5 tailplane volume 11. See Stalling State of motion 1. See Aerofoil Vertical axis. See also Drag: induced drag Weight and induced drag 5. See Level flight: maximum range in level Wheelbarrowing.