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Machines and ACS6000c Cycloconverter

Phase current

© Copyright year ABB. All rights reserved. - 1 30/01/2004

Links to machines/cyclo training material
„ Machines „ Cyclo

principle description

„ System

© Copyright 2003 ABB - 2 -

© BA ATEM Training - 1 After Sales.ppt 2003-04-17

Ilpo Värelä

Marine AMG & AMZ Training

© BA ATEM Training - 2 After Sales.ppt

Introduction to Synchronous Machines

3 After Sales.ppt Number of poles .Type Designation Code AMG 0710MM06 ABB Industry Synchronous Machine G = generator Z = motor Standard shaft height in millimeters Designation letter for frame length Designation letter for core length © BA ATEM Training .

Training subjects „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training .ppt Presentation Generator design Propulsion motor design Bearings & lubrication units Accessories Test reports Windings AVR Maintenance Hands-on „ „ .4 After Sales.

5 After Sales.Main Components AMG Transformers Air Filters Stator Windings Shaft End Shield D-end Bearing Exciter Neutral Point Line Terminals Stator Core © BA ATEM Training .ppt Fan Rotor Poles Diode Bridge Rotor Windings .

6 After Sales.Main Components AMZ Line Terminals Neutral Point Stator Windings Exciter D-end Bearing Shaft N-end Bearing N-end D-end Rotor Poles Stator Core © BA ATEM Training .ppt Diode Bridge .

7 After Sales.ppt „ Frame and end shields are made of fabricated steel .Stator Core and Frame © BA ATEM Training .

ppt Support Bar .8 After Sales. high-grade. low-loss silicon steel sheets. Sheet thickness is 0. stacked.Stator Core • Stator core is made of punched.5 mm and it is insulated on both sides • Radial cooling ducts in the stator core ensure uniform and effective cooling of the stator • Complete VPI for the stator as a single unit making it virtually maintenance free Core Radial Air Duct Pressure Plate Fixing Plate © BA ATEM Training .

5 times the nominal speed Shaft is made of forged steel and salient poles are bolted to the rotor hub Poles are constructed of punched and stacked steel plates and provided with damper winding. Cooling and supporting of windings by aluminum profiles „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training .ppt .Rotor „ Rotor is designed to withstand the vibration and stresses appearing up to 120 % of rated speed Critical rotational speed is at least 1.9 After Sales.

ppt . Securing with a key Mounting inside the motor frame with removable inspection covers Mind tightening torques when inspecting or replacing semiconductors and rectifier bridge components Diode bridge is mounted on the exciter rotor hub that is shrink fitted on to the shaft „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training . impregnated and shrink fitted to the shaft.10 After Sales.Excitation „ Generators and propulsion motors are with brushless excitation Exciter rotor windings are wound with enameled wire.

11 After Sales.Windings and Insulation „ MICADURâ-Compact Industry (MCI) Insulation System based on Vacuum-Pressure Impregnation (VPI) and has been used 20 years and it is well known for its high reliability.ppt . Winding insulation exceeds Class F requirements (temperature limit 155°C). The complete winding and its supporting structures are vacuum pressure impregnated with epoxy resin which ensures a very robust. solid and moisture resistant insulation. Insulation voltage level is matched to converter voltage waveform VPI is used for all stators and rotors „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training .

Terminals „ The stator line terminals and neutral terminals are situated in the top box on the top of the generator Excitation transformers are installed in the terminal box The terminals for excitation and control equipment are in auxiliary terminal box Main Terminals Voltage Transformer Neutral Point „ „ © BA ATEM Training .12 After Sales.ppt Differential Protection Transformers Current Transformer for Parallel Operation Short Circuit Current Transformers .

13 After Sales.ppt .Cooling „ For propulsion motors the internal cooling air flow is symmetrical and separate fan motors are used For generators the internal cooling air flow is asymmetrical and fan is mounted to the rotor shaft „ © BA ATEM Training .

Balancing and Vibration „ „ „ „ Dynamic balancing on two planes Balancing is carried out with a half key Balancing grade G6.ppt .8 mm/s (RMS) with nominal speed and excitation Max.3 Vibration level of a fully assembled generator mounted on rigid foundation is below 2.allowed vibration level is 20 mm/s (RMS) according to ISO 8528-9 (DIN 6280 Teil 11) Reference measurement is always taken in three directions on the bearings (vertical. transversal and longitudinal) „ „ © BA ATEM Training .14 After Sales.

ppt .Bearings and Lubrication „ „ „ „ The generator is provided with split-type sleeve bearings as standard Non-drive end bearing is insulated Bearings are spherically seated to facilitate assembling and maintenance The D-end bearing is designed to carry the loads produced by a coupling misalignment and the rotor weight © BA ATEM Training .15 After Sales.

16 After Sales.Accessories „ „ „ „ „ Winding temperature pt-100 sensors Cooling air temperature pt-100 sensors Space heaters Leakage water indicators Lubrication units (motors only) „ „ „ oil flow filter indicatotors jack-up pressure © BA ATEM Training .ppt .

Checking of temperature detectors and space heaters 6. Wave form measurement / IEC 34-1 + IEEE 115 5. Losses and efficiency Special tests 1. Overspeed test for generator 14. No load curve 18. Axial play for unlocked bearing 8. Measurement of the shaft voltage 4. Winding resistance measurement 5. Zero power factor test 22.ppt Routine tests 1. Short circuit curve 19. Starting of the synchronous motor (locked rotor test) 7. Insulation resistance measurement in hot condition Type tests 16. Short circuit point 12. Load switching on / off test 6. Polarization index / IEEE 43 .Testing „ „ „ Routine test performed on every motor Type test performed on one of a series of identical motors Special tests performed as required © BA ATEM Training . Bearing run 9. Heat run test (temperature rise test) / IEC 34-1 + IEEE 115 20. Terminal markings and direction of rotation 7.17 After Sales. Sudden short circuit test / IEC 34-4 + IEEE 115 3. High voltage tests 13. Moment of inertia 17. Visual inspection 2. Air gap measurement and clearance check of sleeve bearings 3. Tests of excitation cubicle 15. Sound level measurement at no load / ISO 3744 2. No load point 11. Insulation resistance measurement in cold condition 4. Vibration measurement 10.

Capital Parts „ „ „ „ „ „ . Safety Parts „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Excitation system Rectifier bridge semiconductors Temperature sensors Bearing parts Oil lubrication unit Brushes and brush holders Tachometers and encoders Protection units Water cooler element Cooling air motor & fan Slip rings Voltage and current transformers Space heater Exciter rotor and stator Rectifier bridge Rotor pole Rotor complete Stator (wound core) Stator with frame „ 2.18 After Sales.ppt 3.Recommended spares for AMG/AMZ machine „ 1. Maintenance Parts „ „ „ „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training .

19 After Sales.ppt Inspection Installation Commission Maintenance On site testing Condition monitoring Trouble shooting Upgrading and modification Recondition „ „ .Site Service „ „ „ „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training .

ppt Documentation Drawings FAT On site testing protocols Recondition instructions Insulation laboratory Redesign Recalculation .20 After Sales.Technical Support „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ © BA ATEM Training .

Cycloconverter principle ACS6000c cycloconverter Phase current © Copyright year ABB. All rights reserved.1 30/01/2004 . .

..2 7. 1570V Maximum continuous current up to 4500A(water cooled) Nominal speed of delivered motors 30…220rpm Maximum speed 720rpm © Product service .Cycloconverter Low speed and high power frequency converter „ „ „ „ „ „ Runs always synchronous motor (AC motor with DC excitation) Power up to 27MW Motor nominal voltage 1350V.2003 .2.

3 7. load High torques 0.15 MW 115...2003 ..2.300 % >1000 kNm Roughing mills for steel and aluminium Z-mills for stainless steel Tandem Cold rolling mills Cold mills for aluminium and copper Performance and availability are most important © Product service .5.Cycloconverter in metals Rolling mills „ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Nominal power Max..

4 7..2003 .Cycloconverter in Marine with Azipod Main propeller „ „ „ „ Nominal power Speed up to 20 MW 100.300rpm In cruise vessel normally 2 or 3 main propellers Safety and redundancy are really important © Product service .2.

2003 .5 7.Operation of synchronous motor N „ „ „ The magnetic field of the stator attracts the rotor magnet The rotor rotates until the rotor N-pole meets the S-pole of stator Continuous rotation is not possible with permanent magnet S © Product service .2.

2.Operation of synchronous motor Stator magnetic field „ Battery voltage makes current Current induce field Attracts rotor magnet Stator magnetic polarity swap Rotor turns 180° Continuous rotor rotation is possible thought starting may be difficult from certain positions Jumpy torque N S „ + _ „ Battery voltage polarity reversing „ „ + _ N S Right timing of U swaps „ „ © Product service .6 7.2003 .

2003 .7 7.2.Operation of synchronous motor Stator „ In order to allow starting in any position a stator with 3 phase winding is used A phase winding is divided in two parts opposite side of stator Rotor permanent magnet is also replaced with winding „ Excitation „ © Product service .

Operation of synchronous motor DC pulse control(simple method) „ „ Torque is not smooth Step operation(stepper motor) AC sinusoidal supply „ „ Smooth torque If frequency and voltage can be controlled also motor speed can be controlled © Product service .2.8 7.2003 .

2. speed .2003 SM frequency vs.© Product service .9 7.

2.Motor power supply Main requirements for the power supply of motor „ „ „ „ „ Sinusoidal phase currents Variable frequency and voltage Low losses (cyclo efficiency is >99.2003 .10 7.5 % at rated load) Can be easily connected to utility’s power network Fast control of currents for fast torque control © Product service .

2...20 / 24 HZ 3 -PHASE M „ „ „ © Product service ..2003 Input frequency 50 or 60 Hz + 5 % Input voltage 1000V(1000V or 1200V in marine) Output voltage controllable 0…1500V(0…1570 in marine) Output frequency controllable 0.11 7..690VAC „ „ ..Cycloconverter CONSTANT FREQUENCY AC NETWORK 50 / 60 HZ VARIABLE FREQUENCY 0.20 / 24 Hz Auxiliary voltage 220.

Supply network Three phase constant frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz) constant voltage system u u u r time s t 20 ms (for 50 Hz) 16.7 ms (for 60 Hz) © Product service .2003 1 second = 1000 milliseconds = 1000 ms .2.12 7.

SCR thyristor Semiconductor switch „ Switches in the rectifiers have to be fast.13 7.2.2003 A .5 mm thick and 50 .150 mm diameter disk of silicon packed in a housing made of metal and ceramics A thyristor can withstand a voltage of over 5000 volts and conduct a current of several thousand amperes(4200 or 5200 Volts SCR’s used in cycloconverter) Thyristor is controlled by a short gate current pulse of few amperes (the firing pulse) Anode Cathode K G Gate „ „ „ „ © Product service . in 50 Hz network they have to close and open 50 times every second Thus mechanical switches are unsuitable and a semiconductor switch is used instead A high power thyristor is a 0.

Controlled gbridge ur us ut α=0 α≠0 U output time „ Output voltage can be controller by controlling firing angle Motor current can be controlled by controlling drive output voltage „ © Product service .2003 u+ Average voltage .14 7.2.

2.© Product service .2003 Firing angle .15 7.

Sinusoidal output Supply voltage U output I output © Product service .16 7.2.2003 .

Positive and negative thyristor bridge 1 0.5 -1 © Product service .5 Thyristor bridge change time I 0 90 180 270 360 0 -0.17 7.2.2003 .

2003 -1.5 .5 per unit 0 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 Time (ms) -0.Phase currents Phase currents of a rolling mill cycloconverter drive.5 -1 © Product service .2.18 7. f = 8 Hz (simulation) 1.5 Phase a current 1 Phase b current Phase c current 0.

2.Phase voltages Phase voltages of a rolling mill cycloconverter drive.2003 -1.5 .5 Phase a voltage Phase b voltage Phase c voltage 1 0.5 per unit 0 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 Time (ms) -0.5 -1 © Product service .19 7. f = 8 Hz (simulation) 1.

Cycloconverter drive Phase current © Product service .2003 Excitation current (DC current) Positive bridge Negative bridge .20 7.2.

2003 Base speed Speed . thus Us=100% * 0% = 0% At nominal speed both flux and speed are nominal. VOLTAGE and FLUX All electrical motors have a so called base speed or nominal speed. then Us=100% * 100% =100%=Nominal voltage If speed is increased over the base speed then flux(i. controlled by excitation current ω = speed This means that faster the motor is running the higher is the voltage provided that flux is kept constant At zero speed flux is nominal 100% and speed 0%. excitation current) has to be reduced.21 7. Stator voltage formula is Us = Ψ * ω Ψ = flux.. Us= Ψ * ω = 50% * 200% = 100% Nominal flux Flux Nominal voltage Voltage 0 © Product service .2. Constant flux/torque range Field weakening/ constant power range • at this speed the motor voltage is nominal(100%) • below this speed excitation current is kept constant • if speed is increased above this speed motor flux has to be reduced to prevent motor over voltage .Operation curves. For example 2 * base speed. On AC motors it is related to frequency.e.

Operation curves. Because flux is reduced in field weakening area the absolute torque(Nm) is reduced. controlled by excitation current Is = stator current Normally all drives can produce full current through the whole speed range.22 7.2. TORQUE Constant flux/torque range Field weakening/ constant power range Motor torque is the product of flux and torque. Same applies also to cycloconverter.2003 Base speed Speed . Torque Flux Stator current 0 © Product service . Motor torque formula is T = Ψ * Is Ψ = flux.

Flux Torque Power Power Speed 0 © Product service .23 7. POWER Constant flux/torque range Field weakening/ constant power range Motor shaft power is product of torque and speed.2.2003 Base speed Speed .Operation curves. Motor power formula is P = T * ω T = Torque ω = motor speed This means that full power could be reached only at base speed.

propeller and fan Constant flux/torque range Field weakening constant power range Motor torque Load curve of propeller or fan is quadratic. For example in cruise liner main propulsion field weakening point could be 125rpm and maximum speed Maximum power 145rpm. Power Propeller load curve 0 © Product service .Operation curves.2003 125rpm 145rpm Speed .24 7.2.

The load depends on the rolling schedule and material. rolling mill Constant flux/torque range Field weakening constant power range 2 1 3 Torque 4 5 Power Rolling mills and extrudes are constant load machines.Operation curves.2003 125rpm Speed . On the example there are roughing mill passes 1…5.25 7. First passes are at low speed and high torque 0 © Product service . In Extruder load depends mainly on material.2.

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