You are on page 1of 24

TRANSFORMER MVA SIZING USING ETAP

By Waqar Hussain Electrical Dept.

INTRODUCTION

y , transformer is one of many y In p power systems, devices whose proper size is critical to the design of a power delivery system. ETAP has complied p the information contained on standards ANSI IEEE C57, IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60726 into a program that can easily determine the proper size of a power transformer

FACTORS FOR TRAFO MVA SIZING IN ETAP


ETAP takes into consideration the following factors for trafo MVA sizing Ambient temperature Altitude Cooling Stage Type (dry or liquid fill) Expected future growth Short circuit requirement (trafo impedence and BIL)

2 WINDING TRAFO MVA SIZING


The two winding transformer MVA sizing calculation sizes the following parameters of a transfomer
Rated

MVA Maximum MVA Percentage impedance Maximum MVA is 1.25 times the rated MVA for ONAN ONAF trafo.

2 WINDING TRAFO MVA SIZING (CONTD.) (CONTD )


Transformer Loading This section allows you to find the operating load ( l l t d from (calculated f load l d flow fl analysis) l i ) or connected t d load to this transformer and then use either load for sizing gp purposes p Also you can manually enter the loading for the transformer While sizing transformer based on connected load, spares can also be included

2 WINDING TRAFO MVA SIZING (CONTD.) (CONTD )


Load Variation

Growth Factor For allowance for future growth. Growth factor is used for calculating the rated MVA of a transformer. If Use growth factor for max MVA is checked, then it is used for calculating the max MVA Load Factor is 100 % if the transformer carries required load continuously all the time

2 WINDING TRAFO MVA SIZING (CONTD.) (CONTD )


Installation

ETAP adjusts the calculated required Rated MVA based on trafos altitude value. For example p for Liquid q Immersed Forced Air Cooled trafo, the MVA rating is derated by factor 0.5 % for every 330 ft above 3300 ft. ft Ambient Temp. ETAP adjusts the required Rated MVA based on ambient temperature value

2 WINDING TRAFO MVA SIZING (CONTD.) (CONTD )


p Impedance

Basic Impulse p Level ( (BIL) ) Limit - ETAP utilizes this value for determining the trafo minimum impedance according to ANSI IEC standards Limit Short Circuit kA If this option is checked, then ETAP calculates % impedance based on short circuit kA, trafo type and BIL Limit

2 WINDING TRAFO MVA SIZING (CONTD.) (CONTD )


Results

Any one of the three results can be selected: Larger size, Required size or smaller size

OTHER REQUIRED DATA FOR TRAFO SIZING ON ETAP

Standard (IEC or ANSI) Type (Liquid fill or Dry) Sub type (mineral oil oil, synthetic liquid etc ) ) Class (ONAN, ONAN-ONAF, OFAF etc ) Temperature rize Primary Winding kV rating

REGULATION OF TRAFO ON MOTOR START

One of the factors to be considered while sizing a trafo is the voltage drop on the terminals of the largest motor (connected to trafo secondary) during motor start. According to IEEE Brown Book, the voltage at terminals of starting motor should not fall below 80% of rated voltage for typical NEMA design B motors This voltage drop is proportional to the regulation of trafo during motor start The voltage drop at trafo secondary (regulation) during motor start is inversely proportional to trafo short circuit kVA and directly proportional to motor starting kVA The Transformer MVA Sizing Module of ETAP does not take into account this factor. The regulation of trafo can be checked by Motor Starting Study on ETAP

REGULATION OF TRAFO ON MOTOR START


pp g drop ponthetransformersecondary y Approximate voltage canbecalculatedbythefollowingformula

Where D=%Voltagedroponsecondaryside P=PeakLoadontrafo inkVA otherthanlargestMotor M=StartingkVA oflargestMotor S=Shortcircuitcapacityoftrafo inkVA

EXAMPLE

UCH2 Unit Auxiliary Transformer sizing using ETAP

INPUT DATA TRAFO PARAMETERS


Standard: IEC Type: Liquid Fill Sub type: mineral oil

Cl Class: ONAN - ONAF

T Temp. rise: i 65

Primary V = 14.5 kV Sec. V = 6.6 kV

INPUT DATA UCH2 ETAP MODEL

Plant ETAP model is required to evaluate connected and operating load on a transformer

Unit Auxiliary transformer to be sized


u p of o 13869 3869 kVA Lump1 represents the UCH2 operating BOP load other than 1 No. circulation water pump motor. The lump load contains all the plant cable losses and loading factors of different loads

SIZING MODULE

Based on Operating transformer load, t f l d 120 % growth factor (for max MVA or ONAF) and 28 degree C p , the ambient temp. recommended size by ETAP is 20-25 MVA at ONAN-ONAF Here worst case load is considered for GT, HRSG and ST MCC MCC, as provided by HET. (This load is included as lump 1 in ETAP model)

UCH2 LOAD FLOW AT 3 DIFFERENT UNIT AUX. TRAFO RATINGS WORST CASE LOADING
1620MVAtrafo %Z=10,X\R=22.2 TrafoInputkVA TrafoOutputkVA 16198 15217 2025MVAtrafo %Z=10,X\R=22.2 16046 15286 2531.5MVAtrafo %Z=10,X\R=22.2 15932 15339

Increase in trafo output kVA as trafo rating g is increased. ?


20 % of the lump load in UCH2 ETAP model is static

Decrease in trafo input kVA as trafo g is increased. rating ?


Trafo % Z is taken as contant at 10 %

For ONAN ONAF rated trafo, ETAP performs Load flow at ONAN rating

For good voltage regulation at trafo sec. the static load consumes more kVA

ETAP MOTOR START STUDY AT 3 DIFFERENT TRAFO RATINGS NORMAL CASE LOADING
MotorStartingAnalysis ForCirculationWater PumpMotor 1620MVAtrafo %Z=8,X\R=22.2 2025MVAtrafo %Z=8,X\R=22.2 2025MVAtrafo %Z=10,X\R=22.2 TrafoInputMVA LoadFlowbefore Motorstart LoadFlowat Motorstart LoadFlowafter Motorstart(steady state) 15 277 15.277

13 607 13.607

20 865 20.865

13.655

21.345

15.333

13.632

20.865

15.277

If Normal loading is considered (i e lump 1 = 13600 kVA ), (i.e ) then the sizing module recommends 16 20 MVA trafo

ETAP MOTOR START STUDY AT 3 DIFFERENT TRAFO RATINGS NORMAL CASE LOADING .. CONTD
MotorTerminal MotorStartingAnalysis Trafosec.Voltageat ForCirculationWater VoltageatMotor MotorStart PumpMotor Start 1620MVAtrafo %Z=8,X\R=22.2 2025MVAtrafo %Z=8,X\R=22.2 2025MVAtrafo %Z=10,X\R=22.2 88.35% 92.09% MotorTerminal VoltageatSteady State 98.38%

90.34%

94.18%

99.49%

88.35%

92.09%

98.38%

As per IEEE Standard 399-1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power System Analysis (Brown Book), the Voltage at terminal of Motor g starting g shall not fall below 80 % of rated voltage. g during

Motor Rated Voltage: Please note that the motor rated voltage is 6.3 kA where as the MV bus and trafo sec. rated voltage is 6.6 kV
For ONAN ONAF rated trafo, ETAP performs Motor Start at ONAN rating

Hence this condition is satistfied for all the three different trafo ratings

CALCULATION OF TRAFO SEC. VOLTAGE AT MOTOR START USING FORMULA COMPARISON


MotorStartingAnalysis ForCirculationWater PumpMotor 1620MVAtrafo %Z=8,X\R=22.2 2025MVAtrafo %Z=8,X\R=22.2 2025MVAtrafo %Z=10, 10 X\R=22 22.2 2 Trafo sec.VoltageatMotorStart calculatedusingETAP 88.35% 90.34% 88.35% calculatedusing Formula 87.36% 89.89% 87.35% Almost same results using formula and ETAP, confirms the validity of the formula used in UCH2 trafo sizing calculations

Starting kVA of motor = Full Load kVA x 6 = 11412 kVA Peak load on trafo excluding motor load = 13869 kVA

SUMMARY . UCH2 UAT SIZING


Normal load for GT, ST, HRSG Growth Factor at ONAF Growth Factor at ONAN

16 20 MVA 20 25 MVA

ETAP Transformer Sizing Module

Worst load for GT, ST, HRSG

20 25 MVA

AT Normal Load for GT, ST, HRSG Total BOP Load including UAT losses = 15.9 MVA approx AT Worst Load for GT, ST, HRSG Total BOP Load including UAT losses = 15.3 15.6 MVA approx The Motor starting Condition is satisfied for both transformer ratings as indicated in previous slides

SUMMARY . UPSIZING OF UCH2 UAT FROM 16 -20 MVA TO 20 25 MVA


Before addition of 1 MW colony feeder and two 825 kW HSD Electric Heaters For 16 20 MVA trafo, at motor start the voltage at MV bus was greater than 90 %

After addition of 1 MW colony feeder and two 825 kW HSD Electric Heaters

For 16 20 MVA trafo, at motor start the voltage at MV bus became lesser than 90 %

Mushtaq Sb. (from PMT) required the voltage to be greater than 90 %

To incorporate this comment, UAT rating was increased to 20 25 MVA trafo at 8 % Z

STANDARDIZATION ON ETAP FOR TRAFO SIZING

g witnessed the harmony y between ETAP Having transformer sizing module and manual sizing through formulae, the sizing calculations can be standardized on ETAP Following documents can be issued if sizing is done using ETAP
ETAP Load Flow analysis Report Snapshot of ETAP sizing Module ETAP Motor Start Study Report

THANK YOU OU Q&A