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Volume

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Issue

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CONTENTS Modern Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers
Mk 6I l05-mm Self-Propeiled Howitzer Mk F3 l55-mm Self-Propelled Gun GCT 155-mm Self-Propelled Gun
M52 105-mm Seif-Propelled Howitzer
M 109 155-mm

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Abbot l05-mm SellPropeiled Gun Ban&anon 1A 155-mm Self-Propelled Gun DANA I 52-mm SeltPropelled Howilzel Anatomy of a Soviet Self-Propelled Artillery Unit
M 1973 152-mm Self-Propelled M

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Picture acknowledgements
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Cover pictwe A 175 mm (6 98-in) M107 self-propelled gun in seMce \u1h ihe British Army

and mortar-locating systems such as the American AN/TPQ-34 and AN/TPQ-37 has meant that artillery weapons can now easily be located and rdentrfied and counter-battery flre quickly brought to bear This means that in future conflicts artillery will fire only for a short perlcd belore moving off to a new fire position. the long range of the 175-mm (6.8-mile) plus rounddeveloped tor them. West Germany and the United Kingdom are :c replace thelr MlO9s from the late 1980s with the 155-mm (6 f -in) SP-7C which is based on automotive components of the Leopard I MBT and wl also be fitted with an automatic loading system.:c: that this was one of the deciding factors in the rapid collapse of Argei-:nian morale. but this was never er:ported. seif-propelted gnrns and howitzers were developed and deployed on a -arge scale. engineers and he-copters. the M 1 07 has since been phased out of American seniice to be converted to 203-mm (9-in) Mi I0AZ howitzer systems. During this conflict Germany and the United States devoted con- s:derable resources to the development and production of selfprcpelled quns and howitzers and some of these. this weapon has already been exported to Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Italy. 1-in) and -15-mm (4. After the war Western armtes became increasingly mechanized and. self-propelled artillery has avast azray of fire control aids andtypesof ammunitionavailablein ord. . - the combined arms concept with armour. although specialized :ank destroyers and assault gn:ns have been in servtce for many years. to name jusi a few.erto ptoduce exactlythe amount of fire tosuitany sifintion. Sweden was the first country to deploy a self-propelled gun with a:: automatic loading systemr the Bandkanon lA. remain in service today. laser rangefinders and meteorological stations.Used inVietnam to provide long range fire support. battahon and battery computers. positiorand azimuth determining systems. Between the -. 13-rn) calibres. The Israelis used theMllT widely in the I973Yom Kippurwar andintend to keep itin service. such as the MZ 'Priest'.. RPVs and surveillance arrcrafl4reLcopters. These were mostly of the 203-mm (8-in) 155-mm (6. As one of the uital components of the combined afins concept. towed quns could not be expected to keep up with these units. Firing the special40-km (24. Many other armies who use the equipment are likely to followsuit.crld wars much work was done on self-propelled artillery weapons but ::ardly any of these were in service by the time that World War II broke li:.'. Since the end of World War II the self-propelled gnzn and howitzer has become an essential part of the modern battlefield scene. which is now an essential part of requirement.entail neutralization. It is only in recent years that the Soviet Unton has started to deploy self-propelled guns and howitzers on a large scale. Self-propelled guns and howitzers are by no means a new invention as in . The introduction c: artillery.:orld War I the Britlsh developed a version of the tank that could lansport a towed artillery piece across the battlefield.89-in) gun is ideal for Israel's special The recent conflicts in the Mrddle East have again proved that there is no substitute for self-propelled arttllery.'. For a variety of reasons towed rather than self-propelled ar-lery was used in the Falklands campaign of 1982 but there is little do'. although by the 1960s the last was being phased out in most countries due to preference for the more effective -35-mm (6 l-in) weapon which could also fire a nuclear projectile. infantry. France has recently deployed the l55-mm (6 1-in) GCT sel--propelled gmn that can fire at the rate of elght rounds per minute until i:s ammunition is exhausted. Self-propelled artillery weapons are of little use without the full range of fire-control aids that now include surveillance and locating radars sound-ranginq equipment. for static location wril swel.

and has no amphibious capability. Obsolete by modern standards. where production contmues today.62-mm (0. United Arab Emirates ald Venezuela.owrtzer ol rhe French army was the Lmerican 155-mm (6 l-in) M41 Howitzer Motor Carriage. 2.-emcles the equipment was placed in p:cductron at the Atelier de Construc--:n Roanne in the late 1950s under the -esrgmation Obusier de I05 Moddle 50 sur Afftt Automoteur for the French a:ny It is strll available to special ::der from Creusot-Loire. but can be fltted wrth rubber pads to reduce damage to the road surface. l-in) Mk F3 self-propelled gnrn. calibre barrel has a double-baffle muzzle-brake and a screw breech mechanism.l3 hght tank chassis with 155-mm (6. it has leen purchased by Morocco Israel =d the Netherlands. (21.13 in) of armour at 65" A total of 56 rounds of ammunition is carried.1-in) u/eapons. Qatar. maximum rangre 350 km (217 miles). 1-in) GCT s=li-propelled weapon. Morocco. the idler at the rear and three track-return rollers.li09A1. Elevation and traverse are both manual. 13-in) howitzer has a double-baffle muzzle-brake and can be elevated from -4" 30' to i. In addition to being used by the French army the Mk F3 is used by Argrentina. and a simiiar traversed througrh 360'was built but not placed in production although a few were purchased for trials purposes by Switzerland. 13-mm) self-propelled howit- steel.295-in) machinegrun rs mounted externally on the roof for anti-aircraft defence. army in the 1960s. 13-in) separate-loading ammunition can be liSht tank family.es Specification Crew: 5 Weight: 16500 kq(36.ih the lsraeli army. the driver = on the left side and the fully en:iosed gun compartment is at the rear. -rhich is basically a shortened AMX. and a rocket-assrsted projectile to AMX-30 variants and the AMX-10P family. Sudan. mth a traverse of 20'left and right up to an elevation of *50'and of 16'left and 30'right from +50" up to the maxrmum elevation. including Argentina. charges and associated fuzes.60 m (5 ft 3 in) kW) fE -: -.-N4X. along with other members of AMX-13 liqht tank family.65 m (B ft B% in). Chile. including the Mk F3. Before firing commences two spades are The 155-mm (6. but as this plant tooled up for production of the AMX-30 MBT. This '. production of the whole AMX13 family.410 yards). 13-in) equipment wrth based on the AMX-l3light tank cfiassis. l-in) gun mounted at the rear of the hull. and the commander has are normally HEAT rounds. The engdne and :arsmission are at the front.nstruction that provides the crew '. A major disadvantage of the Mk F3 (in addition to the total lack of protection for the gmn and its crew) is that only the driver and commander can be carried in the actual vehicle The remainder of the gnrn crew are carried in an AMX VCA (Vehicule Chenille d Ac- compaqnement. and of these sx werghrng 16 fired including an HE projectile fitted with a turret that could be The prototype of a srmilar vehicle but r.rth a slightly modified version of the II the standard self-pgopelled standard Mll4 towed howitzer. The ordnance rs based on the Modele 50 :cwed weapon of the same calibre. The Mk 6l does not have an NBC system.70 m (18 ft 87: :width 2.ras replaced in the 1960s by the 155nm (6. When travelling the ordnance rs held in a travel lock and 2BZ rate. Kuwait.375 lb) Dimensions: Ienglh 5. Performance: maximum road speei 60 lan/it (37 mph). it is still available to special order.3 lb) to a maxlmum range of 15000 m (16. By the time the turet version was ready most countries had already decided to replace thetr 105-mm (4. . The VCA can also tow an TheMkF3 in firing positionwith its recoil spade down.7C :.'-th protectron from small arms flre ard shell splinters. was oriqrinal- ly undertaken at the Atelier de Construction Roanne. and the following can be fired: high explosive wtth a maximum ranqe of just over 20000 m to a range of 17750 m (19.':loped At an early stage the French ::my rssued a requirement for a 105:er. l-in) ordnance is mounted at the very redr ofthe chassis and can be elevated from 0'to +67". or tracked suppofi vehicle) or 6x6 truck which also car- ries 25 projectiles. 1-in) GCT.8 in) of armour at an incidence of 0' or 105 mm (4. and consists on each srde offive rubber-tyred road wheels.'. Hydraulic shock absorbers are provided at the first and last road wheel stations. and in most cases chose the American MlO9. and it was decided to base thrs Mk 6l eqLlpment on a modifled AMX-13 ::rk chassis After tdals with prototype -. a French government facility.875 yards). Rate of fire for the first few minutes rs three rounds per minute.FRANCE Mk 61 105-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer development by the Atelier de C'crctruction d'lssy-les-Moulineaux of :-e AMX-13 light tank in the late 1940s i-d the basis for one of the largest :anihes of tracked vehrcles ever de-. A 7. with the drive sprocket at the front. traverse rs 20'left and right. i.13 of the +66". manually released at the rear of the hull and the vehicle then reversed backwards to provide a more stable flring platform. which now he a cupola with periscopes for all-round observation. The type has aready been phased out of service -.i-ar ivrt rs 155-mm Self-Propelled Gun the perrod rmmediately after World :. 1-in) l.'. essentially the lvi24 Chaffee light tank chassis fitted '. Ecuador. One of the drawbacks of the Mk 61 is the limited traverse of the ordnance.000 rounds of ammunition being carried for these weapons. The 105-mm (4.5-mm (0. The total Lack of gun and crew protection is self- evident. The suspension is of the well-proven torsion-bar type. The tracks are ::n (4. the last havingr a -:agrer 3O-ca[bre barrel. The chassis of the Mk 6l was also used for tdals with the Roland surface{o-air missiie system and as a minelayer but neither of these variants entered productlon. (B ft 10/+ in) Powerplant: one SOFAM BGxb Bcyhnder petrol engine developing 250 hp (186 more effective 155-mm (6. In additron to :eLng used by the French army. The 33- Productionof the Mk F3.405 yards) and a HEAT projectile which will penetrate 350 rnm (13. The vehicle is of all-welded steel kg (35.ccess hatches are provided in the : : rf and rear. height 2. but when the Mk F3 is used rn the sustained fire role the rate is one lound a minute. in the French army it is beingr :eplaced by the 155-mm (6. vertical obstacle 0. Ammunition is of the separate{oading type.1. illuminating and smoke a traversed B" to the right. althougrh at a much lower range of 253300 m (27 670 yards). Traverse and elevation are both manual. havingr been re::aced by the 155-mm (6.:rlds and markets all members -:. Various types of standard 105-mm (4. A similar chassis is also used for the AMX-13 DCA twin 3O-mm self-propelled antiaircraft gmn produced for the French weapon is carried inside the vehicle for use in the gnound role. gradient 60%. was n-ansferred to Creusot-Loire at ChA1on-sur-Sa6ne. inanumberof Middle East The MkFS iswidely used and South American countries. The M k 6 I is one of the many vehic. It will be replaced in the late 1980s in French service by the i55-mm (6.3-in) or 7. trenc.65 (2 ft 2 in).

s is also fire the American CannonLaunched Guided Projectile (CLGP) :-anual controls for eri-rergency use. although this has not yet been nrret traverse is 360'at the rate of accepted by the French army.::: and the 105-mm (4.7-mm (0.085 m (6 ft 1O in) fI - 6Ur ISS-mm Self-Propelled Gun ::: ::. vertical obstacle 0.ner suffered a major disadvan.Ienqth (hull) 6. r.:'--30 MBT chassis. and fol.7A mQ2 ft0 rn).nts of the Umted States Field Artillery in the pedod lmmediately after World War 1I. dischargers are mounted on each side ofthe turret. Standard equrpment ofall vehicles rncludes nighr-vsion equipment and a ventilatrng system. The French army r=_:_ :=!-oys it in regiments of 18 weapons --:ee batteries each wlth sx GCTs). The first pro. while optional equipment includes an NBC The GCT is seen here with its otdnance atits maximum elevation of66 degrees.::-=i I r='. the rear. trench 1. hvo to three rounds per minute can be fired. which is much heavier and has a gneater HE content. the TlR. eventually including tac- started tn 1951 at the Detroit Tank Arsenal under the designation T98El. For a number of :=::f. The ordnance can The iast has a ranqre of30500 m (33. Production The M52 105-mm (4. The basic vehicle is powered by a petrol engine. but can consist of 36 -sx racks ofsu) HE and sx (one rack of smoke projectrles. Elevation :::lar :--:zzle-brake and a vertical sliding rs to that of the AMX-30 MBT but the :::n'e fitted with a 155-mm (6.::Cge breech block. required this can be replaced by a General Motors Detroit Diesel 6V-537 developing 280 hp (209 kW). and The major feature of the GCT is the r:iomatic loading system for a total of 12 projectiles and a srmrlar number of :artridqes caried in racks in the turret :ear. i' to + 66" at a rate of 5" per second. T\rrret traverse and A 7.-::d at the Atelier de Construction ::-rne with the assrstance of many BS jnates the GcT the 155 AU Fl.--.the gmn crew had Although meant to replace the MkF3 in French service. The automatic loading system enables the GCT to fire up to eight rounds per --: -:er full-tracked :.5--' . width 2. In the late -s a new self-propelled gun called ---= CdI (Grande Cadence de Tir) was ::: :.:r. and uses many automotrve components common to the M41 light tank. f -in) M1O9 self-propelled howitzer based on the same chassis as the M108. thrs being standardized subsequently as the M52.93 m (3 fl 02/z trt). herght3. yards) and has been developed by Thomson-Brandt.355 establishments all over r--:: a new all-welded turret in . maximumrange 450 kn (280 miles).25 m(10 ftB in) Powerplant: one Hispano-Suiza HS t t0 ::) pack.595 lb) Dimensions: length (qun forward) 10.--ce was completed in 1972. wrdth3. This proand.1.25 m (33 fITVz tn). The four-man crew can reload the GCT in i5 minutes. and the gunner can select either single ing just 45 seconds.360 lb) Dimensions: lengrh lgun forward) duces a slightly higher road speed operational range from 300 to 400 km 6. -.90 m (6 ft 3 in) Specification Crew:4 Weight: 42000 ks (92. and these are now :e-:g dellered.'ihre barrel that has a multi-baffle from -js mentroned above.=::=i mount wrth ltmited traverse and to be carried vehicle that also the ammunrtion.11*& F! I5ilmm Self-Propelled Gun (continued) speaker and cable. Access to the two electrrcally-operated smoke- Leopard I MBT chassis but this combination has not so hr been adopted by any country. smoke and rocket-assrsted.:r elevation are hydraulic. most important of all. height 2. the latter tak- :::r for ::::Ce.. When manual shots or sx-round bursts. the GCT was first deployed by S audi Arabia.l-in) 40:.:er GIAT loading rs used.-:ioped on a slightly modified -rl. illuminatinq.1-in) . but if Modern Self-Propelled Gwrs and Howitzers (185 to 250 mites).3-in) or 12. . :ave been the 155-mm (6.62-mm (0.ns Saudr Arabia was the frrst -: -r::ry to deploy the GCT. the M52 can still be found in a number of NATO and Far Eastern countries.trcal situation. From the early 1960s the weapon was replaced by the 105-mm (4. since when ithas beenadopted hy Ircq and used in the Gulf War. an increased Specification Crew:2 Weisht: 17400 ks (38. For trials purposes the turet of the GCT has also been fitted to the propelled howitzer was developed to meet the requireme.= :: irat its weapon was in an unpro. 13-rn) MIOB. l:. which itsel1 was soon replaced by the 155-mm (6. and rs therefore considerably more effective. with in) machine-gun rs mounted on the turret roof for antr-aircraft defence.310 yards) ammunitron. It also has the longer rangre of 14000 m (15. The following projectiles can be fired by the GCT: high explosive. The main and can fire a wider selectron of tical nuclear ammunition. l3-in) Mk 61.=.r-::-ied weapons of the French 1=_.1::e recently Iraq has placed an GCTs.q r . includrng a round carryrng sx antr-tank mines. and if required loadinq can be undertaken while the weapon is being fired.'.72 m (B ft I 1 in).-:-g trials with a pre-production minute.1-in) projectile. I 2-cylinder water-cooled multi-fue] engine developing 720 hp (537 kW) Performance: maximum road speed 60 km/h (37 mph). and :=:::: of l0 vehrcles production got -:-r=r way in 1977.13-in) self- = iurSZ 105-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer reasons for the replacement of the M10B and M52 by the Ml09 was the latter's 155-mm (6.22m(20 ft 5 in). The automatrc loading system enables a rate of erght rounds per minute. 15 m (10 ft 4 in). --i per second. 1. gradient 60%. they ::::led 51 systems plus a complete --::-rcntrol system. The GCT rs manuJac. Ammunition mx depends on the . the chassr.:ry years the standard self. Another Althoughreplaced in US advantage of the M109 over the M52 rs Army sewice by the M I 09 series. muzzle veloclry measuring :rnmumtron racks for reloading purpcses is via two large turret doors in equipment and varrous fire-control devices. More advanced projectiles are now under development for the GCT and the towed equivalent.

Belgium. trench 1.aughltn-York (BMY) where production of the latest version Taiwan.s greater operatinq rangre of 390 kn 2ii mlles) thanks to the use of a diesel :]1qtlne. when the :equrrement was issued for a new selfpropelled howitzer to replace the 155mm (6.325 yards). and much redesign 'rork had to be carried out to improve rts reliability. tactical nuclear. at the front and there are fout return ::ilers. wrth been in production for so long is that lts basic chassrs has proved capable of constant updating and of accepttng Ionger-barrelled ordnance that fires projectiles to a gEeatei distance. this facilrty beinq run by the Cadillac Motor Car Division. In the United States Army the Mi09 armoured and mechanized division of six M109s). width 3. At the same time a decision was taken that all future American AFVs would be powered by diesel enqines for gEeater operatingt range. Standard equipment includes infra-red driving Iights and an amphibious kit enabling the vehicle to propel itself across slow- m/ 15. Saudr Arabia. Normal rate of fire ts one round per minute. with the engine compartment to his r. kw) . Iran. 149 m (10 fr 4 in). Kuwait. larqe muzzle- brake and a Welin-step thread type breech block. The weapon can fire a wide range of projectiles including high ex- rs issued on the scale of 54 Per (three battalions each of lB vehicles. At that time the 110- The Ml09 155-mm (6. Standard equipment includes a heater. One of the reasons that the Ml09 has verticalobstacle 0. The ordnance has a Specification Crew: 6 Weight:23786 ks (52. thr"s There were numeroLls problems with equipment. each battalion having three battedes continues today. NorwaY. and both gmn elevation and turret traverse are powered. there are no track-return rollers. Japan. A 12. Tumsia. an aLxiliary crenerator so that the batteries will ::re rear and is unusual in that it ::commodates the driver.7-mm (0. The extensive stowage spaces for reserve ammunition and the turrei revolver-type 'Lazy Susan' 2 I -roun= ready-use rack can clearly be seen :-this rearviewof aUS ArmyM52.'ce. The i05-mm = I3-rn. aad it was decided to use its hulJ and ftrret as the basrs for the new weapon. Ethiopia. ltalY.3 lTn/h (35 mph): manmum range 160 kn (100 miles). In 1961 this was accepted for service as the M109 self-propelled howrtzer. Turkey and the United Kinqtdom. high explosive rocketassisted (with a range of 15000 m/ yards).+ i3-rn) M49 howitzer with an eleva::cn of +65" and a depression of :ievation/depression and turret raverse are manual.r 1959 the first prototype was com- pieted under the designatron T196. Spain and T\rrThe hull and turret of the M52 are of -2 7-mm (0. antipersonnel. West GermanY.33-in) T195 self-propelled howrtzer was already being designed. so howitzer mounting the shortbarrel M 1 2 6 howitzer barrel.10". the drive sprocket '. Jordan. tactrcal CS and Agents VX or GB. Both direct (anti-tank) and indirect sights are fitted. howitzer has a maximum :argre of I). Qrradient 60%.nrch 21 rounds are located in a verti- . and consists of sx road wheels on :ach side with the rearmost of these r:nng as the idler.S-in) M2HB machine gmn is mounted on the commander's cupola for anti-atrcraft defence.p r o pel led we apons and has seen exlensjve combat service throughout theworld. flowing rivers with its tracks. South Korea. and the flrst the Netherlands.S army service by the M10B and I. high explo16. leaflet. LibYa. Greece.It was about to fire on an exercise in 1 959. Tlrret traverse s 360'. lenqrth (hull) 6.80 m ( 19 ft 07s in).440 lb) Dimensions: length (enrn forward) 6. € ifffOg l55-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer propelled howitzer is the most widely . The turret ::r be traversed 60" left and right..:nmunition is stowed in the turret and 500 hp (373 kw) :rder the hull at the rear. Pakistan.289 m (10 ft 9Vzrn) Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Model 8V-7 1T diesel developing 405 bhP (302 large fume extractor.219m (4ft). Italy. The basic M I 09 self. the vehicle was redesiqnated TI96EI wrth such a powerplant. l-in) caiibre for commonality in NATO.'. 900 rounds of ammunition are carried for this weapon. :ally-mounted revolver-type rack Specification Crew:5 Weight: 24040 kg (53. Ln). heisht (with AAMG) 3.828 m (6 ft 0 in) Performance: maxrmum road speed 56 kdh (35 mph)i maximum range 390 kn (240 miles). The M109 has a 155-mm (6. howiizer was cleared to fire the follow- ing types of ammunition (not all of these are used today)t chemical.6 12 m (2 I ft B/q in). It has been used in action in a number of conflicts in the Middle East (by Iran and Israel) and the Far East (by the USA in Vietnam and manual controls available for emerqency use. althougth it can ford to a depth of 1.sed self-propelled artillery weapon r the world today. Spatn.295 m (lO ft 9% in). anci a total of 102 ::unds of ammunition rs carried. and consists of seven road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear. smoke. At a later date the plant was run by ChrysIer.256 m (20 ft 6/s in).ll09. In addition to the US Army and US Marine Corps. width 3. Kampuchea. Enadrent 60%.7-mm ::ar. the M109 is used by Austda. Portugral. A 12.270m (12. high explosive.'3ry shofi barrel. ]-in) howitzer M126 with an elevation of +75'and a depression of -5'.:ih the engine and transmrssion at the sive plastic. aswell as seeing constant adaptation and updating. '. Oman.1-tn) self- mm (4. a bilge PumP and a fixed fire-extingnrishing system The M52 has no NBC system and no amphibious capability. ::nt of the hull and the turet at the Suspension is of the torsron-bar :. and r. (0. a turret-mounted ventilator (essential to remove fumes from the turret when the ordnance is fired).ight. although the former would only be used as a last resort.316 m(10 ft 10% in) Powerplant: one Continental AOS-895- 3 6-cylinder petrol engnne developrngt . The hu]l and turret of the MlO9 are of three rounds per minute can be plosive (maximum range 14320 The driver is seated at the front on the attained. Morocco. but some vehicles have been fitted with infra-red driving lights. of '. l-in) M44. zB4 left. .propelled Denmark. A total of 28 projectiles and charges is carried. Its development :an be traced back to 1952. Israel. Canada. all-welded aluminium construction. The M49 has a '. Peru. Switzerland. l4-in) howitzer.S-rn) welded steel armour. but is still used by Belgium. heiqht 3. The vertrcalobstacle 0.533 m (1 ft 9 in).-. but for short periods by Kampuchea). But rn 1956 it was Cecrded to stick to a l55-mm (6.000 ]b) Dimensions: lenqth 5. and tactical CS.:cmmonly called the Lazy Susan) at --:le left rear of the turret. production vehicles were completed in late 1962 at the Cleveland fumY Tank Plant. illuminating. The M I 09 serjes r the mos t widely used of all self.400 The M52 has longr been replaced in . and the turret is at the rear' The suspension is of the well-tried torsion-bar type. and 500 rounds are provided for this weapon. The fully enclosed turret rs at srnoke. rlluminatinet. I'lain armament consists of the 105-mm .M52 105-mm Self-Propeiled Howitzer (continued) .914 m (3 ftO trenchl. which would be armed with a 156-mm (5. not quickly run down.5-in) Browning anti-aircraft machine-qun is mounted on the com- mander's cupola for anti-aircraft use. but in the 1970s all production of the M109 series was taken over by Bowen-Mci.3reece.B2Bm(6ft01n) Performance: maromum road speed 56.660 yards). Additional .

with extra stowage for 2 2 additional rounds of :..09 Above: A pair of British M109s |ocated in woods during a field exercise.: jl' = :::. und.: p port Weapons programme..s s. BAOR operates most British MI09s.. - : .The t'1109 Familg : i :: e fr rs t M I 0 9 w as issue d to the US Army in I 9 63 the design has undergone a .. Left: The M992 Field Artillery Ammunition Support (FAASV) will be used from 1983 onwards to carry 1 I8 extra rounds per vehicle for the US Army M i. '.erthe llowitzerExtendedLife :i -:r Fr:e'ra. In the late 1970s and eaily 1980s the XM965 missile launcher andthe "t-*.-.: . u. .rjfion . r::"i€ "f a f im p r o v e m e nts. '. units.^. :i r :.rn (EELP).t i 3 2 Ammunition Resupply and Fire Direction Centre vehicles were developed.: i :1 : u Ern m o d eI. The XM 975 tracked carrier for the US vers:c:. i t zer . the M I 0 942. :'L). -.'. and has be en us e d as the hasis fo r s ev eral other r e ..:: wilh the Fire Unit Module in place.::.rn West Germany.. the European Roland SAM missrTe sysf er. *': The latest configuration of one of the Extended Life Program test vehicles :e::g evaluated as part of the US Army's Divisional .09.":s.-.A J that entered sewice in 1973.-:s jble through ::: the muzzle brake of another.i srirnprovementstothe M109 are inuiew.'e: An jnterior view of a British M i. Thiswas followedin 1979 by amajor " . showing : : ::eech end and ammunition loadingsystem. BritishArmy of the Rhine MI09s on exercise ::. .-. The first improvement was the longer barrel conversion kit forthe 1"J. .'l .:..

. heiqht 3. 155-mm (6. At the rear ofthe chassts is a rammer and loader assembly to lift the projectile from the ground. Pakistan. but does not have an NBC system.8-in)gun.RV. The followrng projectiles can be fired: high explosive (weight 92.r. this serires with many countries rcludingr the United States.825 yards).89:-l self-propelled gmn T235. A protection kit is being developed and is expected to be fielded soon. The M110 entered semce with the US Army Field Artiliery in 1963. the first vehicles beLng completed in 1962 and the flrst battalion forming at Fort Sill (home of re US Field Artillery) in early 1963.i-in) s::-plopelled gul. In the tile. with manu- five (commander. charge nine of the Ml lBAl propelling it to flre Performance: maximum road speed 56 kn/h (35 mph). Italy. Agents GB or VX. Suspension is of the torsion-bar tlpe and consists of flve large road wheels with the rearmost actlng as the rdler. The charge is then loaded and the ordnance fired. the M] 10s are beinq upgraded with the aid of kits supphed by the United States. The 203-mm (B-in) M2A2 howitzer 286 tactical nuclear. ArmyMl l0A2. manual controls are provided for emergency use. height 2. and is rssued today on the scale ofone battery of four per rnfantry Crvrsion and one battahon of L2 for each armoured and mechanized divisron Productron was oriqinally completed in the late 1960s but was resumed in the 1970s by BowenMclaughlin-York (BMY) and the latest r. Turkey. grradient 60% vertrcal obstacle 1. Some convertedtotheMl I0A2 configuration by replacing the 1 75 - piaced in production as the M57B liqht i. and tection for the gun crew iiom shell splinters. 149 m 4 in). Further development. m(3 ft4 in) trench 2. a rammer and loader assembly is mounted at the rear ofthe chassis.016 sradient 60%.'"s -re M55 which had the chassis ::i iurret of the M53 155-mm (6. Greece. to rectifu the original lack ofcover for the gun crew.745 yards) To assist the crew in toading the 66. Israel. Agents GB or VX. This countries use 6 x 6 trrrcks to support the Ml07 but often these have poor crosscountry mobility compared with the M107. Prototypes were built by -:-e Pacrfic Car and Foundry CompanY '::der the desiqnations 175-mm (6. the Netheriands. mm(6.jt in the end only the T12OE] was although a special round is used by Israel with a range of some 40000 m (43. One of the main drawbacks of the Ml10 is the complete lack of any progn-inners) al controls for emerqency use.362 m(7 ft9 in) . Only one round was ever standardized for US Army use. The 175-mm (6. South Korea. Iran. The chassis of the M110 is of allwelded steel construction with the drrver seated under armour on the tront at the left with the engine compMment to hrs right and the howitzer on its mount on top of the chassts at the rear. SouthKorea. high explosive (carrying 104 or 195 gnenades). 149 m (10 ft 4 rn). which has a total crew of 13. posltrons in and then rams it into the Powerplart: one Detroit Diesel M::= BV-7 I T diesel developing 405 hp (302 chamber. with traverse 30" left and rrgrht. The US Army deployed the 175-mm in l2-gnrn battalions at corps level but rn recent years all of these weapons have been converted to the 203-mm (B-in) Ml102 confiQruration as this has a range of just over 29000m (31. It has no amphibious capability althougrh it can ford to a depth of 1. this allowing an elevation of *65' and a depression of -2'. The ML07 rs normally fitted with infoa-red night-nsion equlpment. Production of the M107 was undet:aken initially by the Pacific Car and Fouldry Company. including re replacement by diesels of the petr:i engnnes for increased operational :-:n) self-propelled howitzer T236. Only hvo projectlles and charges are carried on the MI10.'. The :a:Ere. Only tvvo projectrles and charges are carned on the M107. The main draw- :a:ks ofboth these weapons were that :. maximumrange 725 kn (450 miles).89-in) gmn has an elevatton of +65" and a depression of -2' and traverse is 30'left and right. although Greece.93 m (9 ft 7Il+ in) Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Model BV-7 1T diesel developing 405 bhp (302 or a HE rocket-assisted projectile to the M110 is in the firing position to provide a more stable firing platform. width 3.066 m (3 ft 6 in). Iran. small arms fire and NBC aqents. Sparn.243.467 m(24 ft 6 in).500 lb) Dimensions: lenqth (enrn forward) 7. Japan. Traverse and elevation are powered. . Taiwan.:. The suspension can be locked when was developed well before World War II and is located on the mount M158. especially in Europe. The MI l0A2 is almost rdentical to the M11OA1 but has a muz- zle-brake which enables charge whereas the Ml10Al can go only up to charge eiqht. come into and be taken out of ac--i ::i qurckly. lenerth (hull) 5.256 m (36 fl73/q rn): lenqth (hul 5. width3. The Ml07 was also exported to :::i-1950s a decision was taken to des-jr a new family of self-propelled ::-:i1ery that would share a common :::ssis and mount. verticalobstacle 1. Israel. lifts the projectile from the gTround. others being provided from the M54B carrier that also Iransports the remainder of the crew. of whom flve (driver. The chassis of the familywas :lso used as the basis for a number of remainder are carried in the M54B tracked carqo carrier that also carrres AUS Army Ml07 in travelling orie: All of these vehicles have now beo-: the bulk of the ammunition.53 kg/204 lb to a maximum range of 16800 m/18. the M110 is cperated by Belgium. the United Kingdom and West Germany. The complete crew of the M]10 consists of 13 men.72 m (18 ft9 in).016 m (3 ft 4 in).89-1n) M107 s::-propelled howitzer of the US Army '. kw) trench2. other rounds available are Improved Conventional Munitions. position it and ram it into the chamber.72 m (lB ft 9 in). commander and Specification Crew: 5+B Weight: 28 168 kq (57 690 lb) Dimensions: leng1h (gmn forward) Performance: maximum road spe+: 56 kn/h (35 mph). . This list includes those on order and in many cases. many of these countries are now also converting their M107s to the Ml10A2 conflgmration The chassis of the M107 is fully described in the entry for the M110.:e = ittroz l75-mm Self-Propelled Gun i930s the standard 203-mm (B-in) by Bowen-Mclaughlin-York. Binary or tactrcal nuclear. Italy.78-kg (147-lb) projectrle. maximum range 725 kw) kn (450 mrles).715 yards) with a HERA (Hiqh Explosive Rocket Assist) projec(6. the drive sprocket is at the front and there are no track-return rollers. The M2A2 has no muzzle brake or fume extractor and has an lnterupted screw breech block.375 yards). three gunners) travel on the M107.::ci engines gave them (160 :=ge of only 260 km miles). driver and three are on the actual vehicle. the United Kingdom and West Germany. 203-mm the Netherlands.326 m (7 ft 9 in) € -:) Mi07 iurrrO 203-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer as The M I I0 203-mm (B-rn) selfpropelied howitzer uses the same :hassis and mount the 175-mm (6 89- self-propelled grun and de- :arls of its development are Enven in the entry for the M107. AUS All American Ml10s have now been upgnaded to MII0AI or MlI0A2 standard.760 yards). The former has a longer barrel and fires an HE projectile to a maximum range of 21300 m (23.679 m (12 ft 0 in) (-. Jordan. In addition to being used by the US Army and US Marines. Elevation and traverse are hydraulic.: . This differs {rom previous M I I 0 versions in having a Iong. and from 1965 to l9B0 a rrnoured recovery vehicles (ARVs) .300 yards) Specification Crew:5+B Weight:26536 ks (58. muzzle-braked barrel AII of the Ml10 series in theUS Armywill eventually be fitted with a crew shelter and NBC system. the HE M437A1 or M437A2 which with a charge three propellant had a maximum range of 32700 m (35. resulted in the T235 beinq stan:ardzed as the M107 and the T236 as -:e M110. Saudi Arabia.of whom 29100m (31.. Sparn.erght of about 45 tons they were ::: heavy for atr transport and their an operating . I 1. At later date production was also under:aken by FMC. 1-in) self-propelled gnrn -ci .rodels remain in current production. be air-portable.

The weapc:s :=engage static targets such as kro'vvn bra.1-17 r-.a:-: East war. whilst in the other conflicts their fire'and'move abilities have been *itizedtothe fiilL. reason in any future conflict it is expected:a: artitlery weapons will fire just a few rou::is before they move off to a newfire position.:--. .5 lb) lncluding the sabot. of course. When these weac'::. although from all accounts the hasproved to be one of the most effective MI07 not used by any other country. and the battery is engaged.:r. This was developed in Canada by the now defunct Space Research Corporation (SRC) and is called the I75-mm (6 89-in) Extended-Range Sub- ior sustained periods. for High Explosive P.ference between the MI07 and Mil0A2. rocket-launchers :l aircraft.l0A1A4l I0A2 standard.:. major road ju::r::s and airfields. At such long ranqe the weapor= :-- copters (bul often only when air super::r-:'. lb been establlshed and ground-basei =-:defence systems neutralized). as they are normally ThklsraeliMI0T recoilforces.short period. or more with a rocket-assisted projectile. I6800 m (18. The Israeli army has a special round for the accuracy as is possible at shorter ranges ::-=.: :i ]75-mm (6 89-in) M109 and 203-mm (8-in) :c-:'fre =5 cf eight r:r. including the 180-mm (7 09-in) S-23 with a maximum range of30400 m (33.375 yards).:Jall 1973 Middle East war (on southern and northern fronts) and dur-ire invasion of the Lebanon in the summer -383 It is also believed that lran took deliv- (i47.:cket Assist) to a range of 29100m (31.and ar-iery-locating radars (for example the Ar::erican AN/TPQ-36 mortar-locating and ANTTFQ37 artillery-locating radars) has meant that:: = L: ordnance before the projectile has e-ie:possibte to pinpoint the exact position oi reached its target.l. AQIent (GB or VX). the -1. The MI07 was used by the i==:-' army to keep Damascus airport closei ::. has justfired. sites. were originaily developed in the I950s -:e-. which have a devastating eflect on lictht vehicles and unprotected troops. In addition. minute for a the M509 Improved Conventional Munition (iCM) that carries no fewer than 195 M42 grenades. T-:c: is aiso why more recent artillery systems. Few details of the -'rsapons'uses in the latter campaign are avail= rrr3apons in the lranian arsenal. command centres.3 lb) of hlgh explosive compared with 13 6 kg (30 lb) in the normal M437Al HE round. Igael took delivery of about 80 M107s and 48 1.2 lb) for the M107's projectile. so far as is knovrn -<"ael intends to retain ali its MI07s as they are. or one round a trt. suc. souni ra:-.1-l0s rr the early 1970s. This leaves only a 10 per cent range i. the recoil spade digging into the earth to absorb ffie lremendous :actor balanced in some respects by the :eavier round of the Mll0Az: this weighs 33. In Vietnan they tended to be used as fixed pieces fraing ftom prepated pcitions. binary or not hit the target with the same pir-p:-:-: ing a low rate of fire of about two ror'u::i. so outranging al1 the Soviet artiliery weapons supplied to Syria. The targets are normally detected by drones (RPVs) aircraft and heli- the designated target. the M110AZ can flre specialized rounds such as tacticai nuclear.72k9 (200lb) compared with 66 78 kg well beyond the visual range of forward observation officers.e at present.245 yards) and the old but highly effective 130-mm (5 I2-in) M-46 with a range of 27150 m (29 690 yards). and while almost :.-'::€ M107s and 38 Ml10s before the : of the Shah and that these have been :-+gC ui the recent Gulf War.67 kg (10. and is therefore more powetful.ery country is now updating its MI07s to the l. This information is then pas- sed to friendly artlllery. also sulfer from the major disadvantage c::ra. a lhe basic MIl0 fires an HE projectile to a projectlle weighs 56 kg (i23.825 Frds).VIOT/||O inAcfion I 7 5 -mn M 1 0 7 and 2 0 3 -mm M I I 0 sertes were desigmed as complementary artillety pieces and have seen extensive sewice in the Middle East' Vietnam and Oufnrir. even b1 sound ranging. The rapid lntroduction of lugll accurate and sophisticated mortar.= number of occasions during the i973 Na. and carries 4. but has a range of about 40000 m (43 750 yards).23 300 yards) or a rocket-assisted projectile iafrcially called HERA. . or other electr'onic systems. For :. The main problem with artillery weapons such as the M107 and Mll0A2 is that of locating Calibre Projectile Mk I Mod 7 (ERSC) This line that they were difficult to locate.6'=plopelled weapons were used by the r=:e-r army in the lle '. normally remained in a static fire posiSc: ::: some time as they were so far behind t}te fr:r-'- :iaximum range of I'i107 an HE projectile to a maximum range of 32700 m (35 760 yards) and the MI10A2 an HE crcjectile to a maximum range of 21300m .

They were also used as decoys for SAMs.Above:FiringHE shells. l-in). and Tadiran Israel Electronics Industries the Mastiff. This information is then transferred to the gun by the gun dispiay system. and ammunition a:-: placed a great deal of emphasis on the design. battery computers and other command and communrcations equipment. Both could have a range of4000O m (43 750 yards) or more. Israelt aircralt did pinpoint the position of the pontoon bridges across the canal and attacked them with healry losses.vith the French. Once the informatlon has been transmitted to the ql1n. will be deployed by the US Army and US I. \\rherever possible the fire bases wer= located where they could also support anothe: the Extended-Range Guided Projectile variety of roles: Israei Aircraft Industries has produced the Scout. The most common wea!'. the actual display mounted expected that similar projectiles will be :veloped for 155-mm (6. When a target ls detected the warhead launches a self-forging fragment whlch strikes and penetrates the target on tts upper surface. and number of projectiles remaining for completion of mission). the communications system and the messaQle centre for generating and receivrng messages ln the DAVID. It is called Killer Junior. l-rn) ammunitionforthe L-33and MIO9 self-propelled howitzers. The technique was often . which consists of three main parts. the 105-mm (4 l3-in) MlOE r-. the qun display unrt can start transmittrng reports and rnformatron back to the command centre (for example ready to fire. shell splinters and NBC agents. but one of the more recent projectiles is the M509 Improved Con- the static fire role. the enemy car. including relatively s:-numbers of 175-mm (689-rn) MIOZs and Z-:mm (8-in) MllOs. which has no armour protectron at all. The former is used at battery level and is normally mounted in an M577 command post vehicle to calculate all of the fire information for up to six gmns or howitzers (for example. armies). Much work has also been carrred out in the areas ofprojectiles and their associated fuses. 14 m (30 ft) above the ground at ranQres of 200 to 1000 m (220 to range of 25000 to 30000m (27. and these were used ornumerous occasions in Vietnam. the weakest part of a tank. as often a particular fire base could not engage the forces attackinq it with artillery. breastwork to their front. For many years the high explosive round was the standard projecttle for the 203-mm (8-in) howitzer. acknowledgementof new command. typically a concentration of tanks or other armoured vehicles. but once the east bank ofthe Suez Canal had been secured by the Egyptran army and the Bar Lev Line neutralized. The SADARM is now in advanced develop- flre base. in most cases these were usej -- New 203-mm projectiles It is only withln recent years that the full potentlal of artiilery has been realized with the introductlon of locating radars. RPVs. rockets and mor:flre. but a standard hrgh explosive projectile was fitted with a mechanical time fuze set to burst about 9. Each of the sub-munitions has a sensor that scans the target area as it descends on its parachute.f -in) weapons suc:. a 203-mm (8-in) projectrle will contain three SADARMs. so that the crew co*: be under cover when the fire base came unie: attack from Viet Cong and North Vietnames= Army artillery projectiles. More advanced projectiles are now under development for the Mll0A2 including crew shelters to the rear. to have a it can differentrate between a these stopped the bases from being overrun the l05-mm (4 l3-in) M546 projectile contained no fewer than 8. and it now probably makes ammunrtion for the Ml10 As the Space Research Corporatron is no longer in existence. (ERGP) and the Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM) projectrle. hit back.-i were the l05-mm (4 13-in) M101 and N1--towed howitzers.: just had two guns. As soon as one section of the Sovret-supplied PMP ribbon bridge was damaged by artillery fire or bombs the Egyptians sLmply took out the damaged section and replaced it with a new one.095 yards). Almost all the artillery fire-control systems Lrsed ment by Honeywell and Aerojet Electrosystems. The smallerhowitzers were always provtded wrth the deadly beehive rounds for use against mass infantry attacks. wrth a sandi:. Two ERGPs are being developed: one that wtll home onto enemy radars (for example radars that operate as part of an air-defence system) and the other a semi- active laser (SAL) homing type. Both of these were used during the 1982 invasion of the Lebanon for a variety of roies including target acquisition. f -in) M109 self-propelled howitze:. as the .-: the towed MI98 and self-propelled MlCy:- SP artillery in Vietnam Another drawbackof the M107and MI l0isthat *]re crew have no protectlon at all against bad -'rreather. Left: In spite of their long range. Iraqi and Saudi Arablan French 155-mm (6 I-1n) GCT (in service until on-board ammunitron is expended.800 yards). thisUS ArmyMl0T was 1 used to support grround forces during an Aprl 968 offensive in the A Shau ialley region of Sax:" Vietnam. On the Srnai (southern) front. Basically. Most of the artillery was well to the rear of the Bar Lev Line. In many cases Israel Military Industries is known to make the 155-mm(6. the 155-mm (6. while some of the smaller cair-:. each camp having one -: two batteries of guns (105-mm/4 13-in and -. Srnce the 1973 Mlddle East War Israel has The US Army used a wide ranqe of arr-::tr weapons rn Vretnam. Israeli artillery nre in 1973 achieved some early success. projectile type and charge. which are ejected over the target area. so allowing the following strike aircraft to be given the exact position of the SAM systems. An IsraeliMI0T battery d. small arms flre. electronic warlare and post-strike analysis. the Israeli artillery lost most of its forward observers.340 t0 32. mwzle velocity and so on). including the Rafael DAVID battery computer systems and the Rafael gnrn dlsplay systems. rt is most probable that ERSC ammunition is also now made rn Israel. and the twin 40-mm M42 self-propelled a:-:aircraft gun. deveiopment and production of RPVs for a ventional Munition (lCM) which carries 195 M42 dual-purpose grenades and the M404 which carries 104 M43AI antt-personnel grenades. The sensor is so soph- calibre 105-mm (4 I3-1n) and 155-mm (6 :. There was no anti-personnel round for the 203-mm (8-in) M1 10. This was known as the Killer Senior. l-tn) Nl--= towed howitzer.: i55-mm (6. have an automatic loading system that allows them to fire up to eight rounds a minute target bearing in azrmuth and elevation.000 needle-like flechettes quite devastating in the anti-personnel role. This proved very useful. and attack only the latter. Only two projectiles can be car- on the weapon. mis-fire. ried on the MI07 the remainder of the crew and ammunition being carried ln the FMC M548 tracked cargo carrter. When inthe static fire positionthe Ml07s a::: Ml10s were heavily protected. weapon flre. and couid qruckly be moved from one part of the front to the required area as a wide road had been burlt parattel to the canal and to its rear. s:J.uring the )9i: war has been hit by an Eryptian air strike.:mm/6. 2BB isticated that truck and an armoured vehtcle. by the Israeli Army are now produced loca]ly. The SADARM prolectlle. while the same technique with the 105mm (4 l3-in) or 155-mm (6 I-1n) projectiles was Marine Corps at the end of the decade.

iiff. I 0 A2.". but all of the +7cr'inoot V'Ji"icH "#.ot" . iimv in rurope' It is capabte or ind conventionat ammunition' #' Y*i#r...munitlon holst and -:jino mechanism '11 Coo ingfan 12 Fueltank 13 Radiator l:3-m"m (8-in) shell :amunition boxes 14 Driver'sseat 15 Steeringcontrols 16 Gearshift 17 Transmission 18 405-bhP (302-lW) Detroil 1 ::coi1 spade :Jnner's seat -'iraulic s cwing motor S :rving ring 20 Track I DreselBVTlTenqine Muzzle brake lnf ra-red driving lights 21 -l .... -. . riaulrc rdms (elevation) : ...on f.i"ili =..i"i r-^-.ulvi"q flat on the ground --rri-itton resupply was a major proolem .:rcved oi]rr5iitil"tv I :-:i in small numbers A..te to weaoon success:jwttn with prove very = charges.ane -erisased. charses' not and dld -'--.ilt..n pow'er artillery was to engage *ii rfre main role of the but.l't.::: *'ade in un ur"u saturated b1. ni* massive air strikes by Boeing B-52s we..-' = 1fi p"it."tt"opt"rs being earmarked. aircraft and fors-l .t t[.t-:c r. s ee n her e in a camoufl age h iaviest cannon artillery currentlv .1..^:.i.e:e (5 I2-in) M-46 provtng a cllncurl oni"iuition offic6rs) eactr 203-mm (8 in) batterv l3O-mm neutralize as it ouuanged-almosl all iaOari ana AN/MPQ-4 locating radars .-'n1 rn as a result of bad weather' enemy iiS-il* io eg ft.onlinnal ::. 600 rounds and batterv 200 rounds on:c --:-= was a major problem ..e : Th e M 1 =. purins offensive operations used in Vietnam with the excep- used. The last nl R00 nroiectiles !ui" =.tid*q.ri"*"-*Eit...Yf i{.:::i.#t. : =.. --: fresh suppires could not be -- The towed weapons were very often redeni" positions bv the Boeins helicopter.pecte d VIet Cong tar gets' eno.for the Soviet-supiJlied addilion to helicopters.nl' *iiitnt ^wft n.- i.:f.ample' ea::- before H-how eac: .iC batterv fired I'000 rounds. e=::*) ". ---i..".-:- $ 8d0"ptq""tl"t . = --.mm (B in) ::^ion ::: .re io proviOe suppressive fire before a he':::.'iS .i:i.1:: -:.t1". Mrrnitions also supConventional Murutrons .lir{:Y. i"i" self-propelled weapons had to be moveo In the earlv part of the ..ilJt il..!able crew seat -.:.:i nitire -So firebases couldbe suppliedonly immunitron had to be stock. =:-diit :--: . . a-tso i:il'ilt surveilia::: .:'.. oT manv occasions' especially lor i ards tne the war...i':'t'f beehwe :: be mole effective than the beehive effects the enemy could *f.. Viet Cong and North Vtetnamese arlll- ffi r& Tit-rirm1o.sensors.^.'. d.':-.f iil IUt0z.i in) batierv Ianding zone.2-rT 203. inb utu t"t"It new systems were develcp'a: i key M11OA2 SP howitzer Gutaway drawing .i.:A....ire-control A.*9!]oJ^e. -..

consisted of four battalions of artillery. but these suffered heavy iosses during the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese offensive of April 1972. one with 105-mm (4. 13:n) or l55-mm (6. including the B r iti s h army. one with l55-mm (6. and these artillery was more normally organized in pair of the artittery allocated to the First Field Force Artillery.The US originalModelMl l0 has been superseded in Army service by more capable developments. the 52nd Artiliery Group. I ntroduced in I 9 6 2. . it is known that the Vietnamese took over some of the MI07s and M]lOs. and have entered service wrth the US Army more recently. i3-in) towed M108s. 1JU may well have been used during the Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea in the I970s. The MI07 was also issued to two battalions of the South Vietnamese army. The Groups: for example. the M I 10 was essentially a self-propelled cgunterpart to the W orld W ar I I -vin tage M I I 5 towed howitzer. the majority of them equipped with 105-mm (4. l-in) towed Ml I4s. but remains in the front line with several armies. At the peak there were just over 60 American artillery battalions in South Vietnam. ]n July 1969 there were nine battalions with the M]10 and M107. l-in) towed howitzers. and two wrth a mix of 203-mm (8-in) and 175mm (6 B9-in) self-propelled guns. Following the collapse of the South Vietnamese forces.

t'iri . the versatile MJ IAAZ has now replaeed the it4l07 t.Modern $elf-Frepelled. 1t:.l t .l ..i . . { .i.1.. i ! { .i.. It.-i .''. rr-f'1 .r .rj!i '.t 41. € ' .. .r :. *q' Si r' 'i* r_...' :.. : :i 1€: i*^. .. Designed t* lire a wide range ofnucJeer. . i:nproved cr:nvendona I munjtion rounds..'r{.-. ' *t:.: . i.t: 'r. i. .! a! !. _ r..}i: .\::i 1: ... Guns and b{ovsitrers FIE and in providing long-range heavy artil:erf support the tlS Army and Marlne Carps. . .4ir':i .:$ . .'h i .'|1 ..li j -"!' j" '! t r ..rr3Ja .il ' 1. . chemica.x \\.1:.r.:: ....: ..& . :9. '..ii .

-icaded. Maximum elevatton of . loadrng the ordnance at any -: --r:inelevation --:-=< :::stalled a pneumatic ramThe weapon flres an -:: ---:::. from shell splinters and small fue.::-. I -in) L-33 man their vehicle during an extensively used in combat during the exercise.--:m.:d :-:: ard weighs 3lO00kg The M-50 a crew of eight seli-propelled artrliery weapons selvtce tn --'.'. which was used for the :::.62-mm (0.'hich was developed in France by -:.3in) self.. ican supplied M109A1 and M109A2 As a private venture Soltam has also developed the 155-mm (6.-:e 1950s the Israelis used a wide I + fired.'.l machine-gmn is mounted on the roof for loaded via these doors when the weapon is firing..propelled mortars. Unlke the earLer M-50 conversron.:: -:wed weapon and is mounted in -:-: first :r:.-:S. maxrmum ranqe 260 lcn ( 162 miles)..' The 155-mm (6.ectrle weiqhing 43 kq (95 lb) to : :--i-num range of 21000 (22.-. l973war- Below: Oldest of the self-propelled guns inlsraeli service is the 155-mm (6. ---J sem-automatic breech block. r:.:--al Volute Spring Suspension -.revealingT horizontal ammunitron :::ks and a tailgate folded down to .. lengrth (hull) 6 47 m (21 fI23/4 in). ammunltion can be strl. 16 ofwhich are for local and anti-aircraft defence..rde space for the crew to operate :: nounted in an open-topped com- 50 confign_raIsrael at that trme) to two-part propeller shaft.250 +69' but lraverse js vely Lras the -::-. The ordnance has a -=-:.ard part of the superstructure . trench 2 30 m(7 ft6Vz tn) Below:The IsraeliArmy is theonly Western nation to use 160-mm (6.. ::r. and gives a much -:. width 3.-rde fire support for their mecha--. that the 155-mm : --rn) projectile was much more r--ge of towed artillery Israeli Self-Propelled Artillery illumrnating projectiles can also -:.:uch has Horizontal Volute Spring -r-. !::Tnent :-: -:-: ho-ritzer.'-d to the right of the driver to enable --r:-. The high angle of fire proved extremely useful in the mountain fighting against Syrian troops during the 1982 invasion of Lebanon.. When vehicle is deployed rn action.8 krn/h (23 mph). the L-33 has its engine at the rear.490 lb) Dimensions: length (gmlr forward) B 47 m (27 ft9Yz rn). So far this turret system has not been adopted by the Israeli army as it already has some 200 Amer. The orit-:-:i. qnadient 60%.laxrmum chargte. fume ex- :::-:d -:-: i55-mm (6. Israel there. l-in) howitzer fires -::age :-:Jt -- space is provided under the cluding the M60 and M4B.: doors open to each side of the hull ::.ed ricle across country. The driver is sea :::ctrve than the '. but it was soon realtzed -:::: such artillery could not keep up -. thrs allowinq a 43-kg (95-tb) projectile to be flred to a ranQre of23500 m (25. and French 105-mm (4.::ls are provided tn each side ofthe :.. The L-33 was first :.-:-batle muzzle brake.. The prototype has a 33-calibre barrel but a 39-calibre barrel can be fitted.700 yards).'. -:' and a traverse of 30'left and :--.\ATO at that trme.:::rsron (HVSS) rather than the .3-in) charges is carried. where ::::is were nonexistent.340 Ib) The main drawback of the Specification Soltam L-33 l55-mm Self-Propelled Gun&Iowitzer Crew:B Weisht: 41500 ks (91. lhe first self-propelled weapon of -::-mm (6. the anti of these crew members is provrded with a roof hatch and bulletproof winobsewation. vertical obstacle 0..:: -::. power being transmitted to the transmission at the front of the hull bye position on the opposiie side and each dows to their front and side for -r.45 m(11 ft33la ln) Powerplant: one Cummins dresel developing460 hp (343 kW) Performance: maximum road speed 36. Entry doors are provided on each side ofthe hull. a: r.' a Cummins diesel for a much inoperational range.----:-:: elevation of +52".3 n the 1967 Mrddle East War.:-::i was developed in lsraei by Sol:=::.: : naj{1murn range of 17600 m (i9.91 m (3 ft). (68. which entailed movrng the engine forward.-^.r :.-:e 1973 Middle East War This is on the M4A3EB Sherman chas--. deployed to the desert.:::.:'. a depression -. :f the M-50. as did most members :. 13-in) Mk 6l s:i:-propelied howttzers despite the -a:: rhat they felt.i these hiqhly mobile forces when ::-:. A 7.SBAEL weapons to p::'.!'as used by . World War II Priest 105-mm (4. the :r.965 .= Etablissement d'Etudes et Fabrica- s:-:ii because of the former's gffeater :::-:ent of higrh explosive. :i:::r 3un travel lock and a horrzontal . 13:.-ed unrts.This entered service in 1963 and is still in service today with reserve units.7eT rs :IE projectrle weighing 43 kg (95 lb) . -.'-:er ls almost tdentical to the stanr. This system was :ssentrally a rebuilt Sherman tank ::--sis with the engine moved for- :::s cl'Armement de Bourges and en- Above: The crew of a I 55-mm (6.::: purchased quantities of the Amer-:-.'-. The prototype has already been frtted onto a Centurion tank chassis for trials purposes. This is a rur. The hull is of all-welded steel construction and provrdes the crew with complete protectlon from small arms flre and shell spltnters. ret that weighs 14000 kq (30 865 lb) complete with antmunition and can be fitted onto a variety of tank chassis in- . l-in) setfpropelled howuzer M72. 13-in) aircrafl machrne-qmnner is rn a srmtlar ted at the front on the left wrth the commander to his rear. 1-in) M-68 gun/ :r:-.etrol engine has been replaced :-. iVeapon elevation and traverse =-:= :::anual. A total of 60 projectrles and be ready use. smoke and a' -^ :-ssat in maintainingta higrh rate of .1-in) M-50.rtzer (which in its towed - french 155-mm (6 l-in) Mcdele at the rear of the hull. -.ard this saw aclion for the flrst trme :.50 m ( I I ft 6 in). l:e M-50 was followed in Israeli serby the L-33 (named after the of the ordnance in cahbres) r'. Additional ammunition and exlernal stowage compartr:.::ds).-. and ammunition resupply doors are fitted in the hull rear.l-in) calibre to enter ser- 105-mm (4. :.:i heiqht3. is the -::k :f any overhead protection for the ::='.::ed sewice in 1963.--r3 wrth the Israeli army was the M50 '.

and shares :::any conmon components with the p:opelled howitzer has been deSpecifically developed to export.3 m (4 ft 3 in) without preparation. the pumps and an automatic fireextinguishing system. f -in) sys- . and the turret can traverse 360".i3-in) =::d 155-mm (6. The hull and turret construcaluminium -e of all-welded --:: provides twns to an angle of +6'for reloadinq. and the rocket-asslsted projectile has a range of 30000 m (32. l. two loaders and :::-ro operator in the turret. and Japan lron Works/ :li. With the latter.62-mm (0. rear. a further seven projectiles are stowed elsewhere in the hull. 7. 1-in) 4l-calibre bar:e1 rs fltted with a fume extractor and a inulti-baffle muzzle-brake. although the latter order has not r-e1 been officially confirmed.6lb) compared with 11. in). One of the prototypes of the OTO M elara Palmaria. So far about 50 Type 75s have been opened. thus conservingr fuel for ihe main engnne.50 m (B ft 2r/z in) m f"m"ria l55-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer . the projectile is then charge loaded with the aid of closed. however. turret in the centre and the :ngrne and transmissron at the rear. and the ::--ier at the front. The extra range ofthe RAP has a penalty. Before fire rs ::::1. it automatically re- =j The sx-man crew consists of the ::ar. based on the chassis of theOF-40 MBT but fitted with a smaller diesel engine.pe 74 and the latter as the Type 75. The hiqh explosive. Once the gun has flred. The .00 m (3 ft 3 in). helght (without MG) 2.800 yards).-lpanese Ground Self-Defense Force 3:ipects to have 200 Type 75s in ser- mth Mitsubishi Heavy industries :. the breech is closed and the ordnance can be fued agrain.J-. each of which weighs 45. vertical obstacle 0. The Palmaria is available with a normal manual loadinqsystem or a semi-automatic loading sys- been developed for the Palmarra by rent rounds. rncluding passive nighl vision equrpment and an NBC system Standard equipment on all vehicles in- Specification Grew:5 arter an Italian rsland) is similar to that :i a tank with the driver at the front of re hull. vertical obstacle 1. cludes a hull escape hatch. a fire extingmishing system. the drive sprocket is at the front.79 m(25 ft62/s heisht (without MG) 2. tem.:ed 30 -i5-mm 105-mm (4. ::nmander. When the Type 75 is travelhng the barrel is normally held in a travel lock mounted on the glacis plate.-sponsible for the hull and final ::sembly.64 m (21fi9y. The ordnance has an elevation of +65" and a depression of -5'. two spades are manually lowered to the qround at the rear of the hull to provide a more stable firing platform. Weapon elevation and turret traverse are hydraulic. With :-creased mechanization takrng place J its artillery was of tolved types and -:: the 1960s. an NBC pack. trench 3. The Type 75 can flre 18 rounds in three minutes such a rate berng achieved by the use of two drum-type maqazines (one on each side of the turret and contarmng nine projectiles '. An amphibious kit was developed but not adopted.:e by the late l980s. The type has so far been ::dered by Libya (200) and Nigerra .775 Ib) Dimensions: lenqth (qxn forward) n).d e s igned and built counterpart to the AmericanMl09._. Standard equipment includes infrared night-vision lights. An additional 25 turrets are being supplied toArgentina for fitting on theTAM tankchassis.1-in) self-propelled :-:witzers started in Japan.l-in) self- -:r the exporl lF-40 MBT which is already in servrce rith Dubai. In action the Tlpe 75 would probably fire l2 or lB rounds before moving off to a new frre position before the enemy could return flre. The drum magazines are rotated electrically or manually and can be reloaded from outsrde the vehicle via two doors/hatches in the turret the hydraulic rammer. the United States also sup- :. and there are no return rollers. l.8 1b) in the normal projectile. and conslsts = :::rplete protection from small arms which the crew wlth ventilator and a crew compartment heater. 13-in) M52 and (6. the loading tray retumed to normal position and the weapon fired again.entually being standardized as the rupted screw type breech block.propel led howi tzer is es s e n ti ally a J ap anese .5k9 (100 lb). The first prototype was :cmpleted in l9Bl. Mounted externally at the commander's station is a standard 12.40 m(24 ft 3/s in). with manual controls for emergency use.:e OF-40 has a V-10 dresel develop-ng 830 hp (619 kW) The 155-mm (6.7mm (0. the extendrng loading tray positioned.09 m(10 ft 13lq ut).S-in) M2HB machine-gn-rn with a shield.3-rn) machine-gnrn is mounted at the commander's stationon the right side of the turet rool and four electrically-operated smoke dischargers can be fitted to each stde of the oo ) . The 3O-calibre barrel has an inter- the Japanese Ground Selflefense force was formed in the 1950s s:cplied by the United States. Nigeria and Oman. gradient 60%. but the Tlpe 75 can ford to a depth of 1.=loped by OTO Melara speciflcally market. width 2. the Palmaria has now been bought by Libya.C -. layer. An unusual feature of 'he Palmaria is the installation of an auxiliary power unit to provide power ior the turret. Specification Crew: 6 Weisht 25300 ks (55.545 m (B ft 4 in) Powerplant: one Mitsubishi 6-cylinder diesel developing4S0 hp (336 kW) Performance: maximum road speed 47 krn/h(z9 mph). The suspension '. -:-e Palmaria 155-mm (6. the charge is loaded rnanually.25). and production '.00 m (9 ft 10 in) A complete range of ammunitron has . bilge Weisht 46000 ks (i01. with manual controls provided --:-e 3dy 20 of the Type 74 were built ds a ::clsion was taken to concentrate on more effective 155-mm (6. smoke and rlluminatinq projectiles have a range of 24000 m (26.me and transmission at the front the fully enclosed turet at the 75 is each. the breech opens. lensth (hull) 7. The turret :as 360" traverse and the ordnance :an be elevated from -4" to +70" hydlaulically. -r many respects the Type sr:rlar to the American M]09.874 m (9 ft 57+ rn) MBT is that the former has thinner :rmow and is powered by a V-B diesel Ceveloping 750 hp (559 kW) whereas Powerplant: B-cylinder diesel developins 750 hp (559 kW) Performance: maxrmum road speed 60 kndh (37 mph). a two-part extending loading tray and an hydraulii'rammer.Yhen Type 75 155-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer of sx road wheels on each side.7 kg (25. gnadient 60%. The layout of the Palmaria (named be maintained until the 23 ready-use projectiles have been fired. a turret T h e W pe 7 5 self. Once the ordnance has fired. range 300 km (1BS miles). The breech rs opened. for emergency use. the breech -: and shell splinters.410 lb) Dimensions: lenqth (qun forward) 1L474 m(37 fi7% in). with the ::r. width3.lenqth (hull) 6. :f the torsion-bar type. Srmmel: the range consists of four diffe- turret if required. maxmum rangre 400 lcn (250 miles). A wide range of optional equipment can be fltted.70 m (2 ft 3 in). the former :. it automatrcally returns to an projectrle is loaded wrth power assisl ance.245 yards). a fume extractor and a double-baffle muzzle-brake. -he major difference beteen the chasss of the Palmaria and that of the OF-40 elevation of +2".-ehicles were completed in the follow- r-g year.:on Seiko for the gmn and turret. which is B kg (17. 10 1-in) M44 self-propelled In the later 1960s develop::-ent of indigenous 105-mm (4. rnasmuch as it rs achieved only at the expense of HE content.35 m (7 fl B7z in). trench 2. a three-round burst can be fired in 30 seconds and then one round every 15 seconds can A 7. In addition to the lB projectiles in the two magazines a further 10 projectiles are carrred internally as are 56 fuzes and 28 bagqed charges. the rearmost serving the idler. Track skirts help to keep down dust when the vehtcle is travellinq across country.rintzers.

each with . ih iance surface-to-surface missiles fitted with a tactical nuclear warhead.'ecnanical Engineers workshbp.l ?AF'airi.89-in) M'1 09 self-propelled guns The M109s ::r f rre only an HE projectile.: .-e iorces of other NIATO countrres equipped with-Faytheon HAWK or Nike .les. The Sound Ranging Troop is equlpped with the Plessey No.-kerSiddeleyDynami'csinfr-a-redLinescansystem.r air-defence battery. : D.inne trui< and flies a predetermined course over enerny lines. : Forward Area Support Team (FAST) vehicle wh ch carries a relief crew. . s g. ihe artillery drvrsion has one Missile Regrment of four batteries.. one missile regiment .r Corps . regirent'or transport s'rpplies.-: ground. 3rd and 4th Armoured Divisions. West . Tne Rovat A:r Force Reg ment deploys the Rap.ined atmsarrny. the launcher being O ::srgnated M752 and the resupply vehicle M668.) ca'red oJt t-e target rnavwelr have rroved.'. The CL-89 is launched from the rear of a Bedford 4x4 --. The artillery group has two field regiments.e 3ased on the FMC M54B tracked cargo-carrier chassis.titrdes w l1 have to be engaged by f igrter aircra+t or by .':e Locatrng"Batt5ries with the Cym beline mortar-locating radar.750 yards). two field batteries with slx 155-mm (6. Enemy aircraft ' --q ar -edium 1o righ a.:d Ranging Trcop.13-in) Abbot self-propelled guns and an HO battery that also controls the mortar-locating group with four CYmbelines. and f or this reason theY are protected by inf antry at all times. enable n-reohanized units rn Germany to have mobile SAM protection. -"e Locating Regiment is the eyes and ears of the artillery division. it then flies back to its predetermined recov:-. to a maximunr range of :2700 i'n (35.'cse efficiency was amply shown tn the Falklands. The Ml 07s are lo be reiitted with the new long::-'e Jled 203-mm (B-in) howjtzer and will then be designated M110A2. Royal Electrical and '. Tracked Rapier will be supported : . | {British) Jcrps in West Germany consists of the 1st. f l.^ the Canadian CL-89 reconnatssance RPV.'c a r-defence regiments wrth towed Britisl-r Aerospace Rapier surface-to-air -^ ss les and one locating regrment with EMI Electronics locating ladqp i-. At present the Birtish army rs one of the few countries in NATO that ::es noi have a self-propelled anti-a rcraft gun system: Belgium. and any target informatlon -:. One of these has four field batieries each with six 105-mm (4. an optical tracker.Regiments r-rbots and tvt i OgRt s). while :-: United States is now introducing the Sgt York DIVAD twin 40-mm system . all have the twin 35-mm Gepard. The introduction of Tracked Rapier will at . The computer can provide eight types of metebrological message that can be fed directly into the Field al system.rnder the revised strudture of the Brit sh Army of the Rhine (BAO R). but tne Royal Anillery does not'ssue :. the latter carries a hydraulrc foi' lifting the missiles.e a"ri-a rcraft weapon 'n serv ce w tt' tne Boyal Ani rery.rnents.s1. the balloon is automatically tracked by the Plessey WF3M radar while the radio sonde transmits a signal giving the temperature back to the ground. which is normally carried in modified FV432 APCs. a stores vehicle.n parachute :::rs.^l the French army has lhe twin 30-mmaystem on an AMX-13 chassis Rapier will be introduced into service in the British of the Rhine with the reorganization of each air-defence regimerrt. --es oac< slra gnt awav. For tnis reason future RPVs ned rs relayed to the-command centre so that the target can be engaged ) orawbac< of tnis svstem.. information f rom the tratking radar is then fed into the computer. a Land-Rover reconnaissance vehicle that tows the radar trailer.'. weighing 67 kgi147 .. a heavy battery with 203and two troops each of three sections of four Alvis Spartan APCs that carry teams armed with the Blowpipe SAM system. Royal Army Ordnance Corps stores section and four Heavy Regiment has an HO battery. . West Ger^-: ny and the Netherlands. a balloon{illing shelter and the balloons themselves. one artillery division and the usual corps troops (including . wnich is also used by Canada. and has : . the signal is passed through a special converter that transforms the received signals into a form suitable for input into the computer. for example. nuclear fallout message and a civil forecasting message. reatne' capab.th Belowright:Thecrewofa Mobile SAM cover i the near future Tracked -'r^y generator.1-in) M109A1/M10942 self-propelled howitzers. and attached to this are a radar reflector and the radio sonde transmitier. Arrbags are then in{lated to keep the drone from damage as rt arrives on . But these have now been returned by the Royal Artillery to the Royal Armoured Corps. The eight types of message are standard computer message. hydrogen trailers. Above:BasicMl09softhe4.' . The other field regiment has the HO battery.r'ty. The sensor package includes a Carl Zeiss camera system and a Medium regiment operating in West camouflaged 42 nd Regiment M I 07 race Germany during the mid-1970s. . the lrd lnfantry Divrsion. Royal Army Ordnance Corps stores platoon :-c three battelies of British Aerospace towed Rapier surface-to-air missiles. area wheie it is slowed by a drogue parachute until the mai. anti-tank battery equipped with Striker or FV43B AGTW carrier vehicles. 20 -: :aC missiles and ready-use stoi'es. sound ranging message.:. weapon locating radar message. All these :. rave a real-time serisor pabkage that transmits information (including TV . and is wrdely used in NATO as well as by lsrael In time of war .lals ano Army A. one locating Tent and a weapon supipon grolp tha: includes an h{antry battalion and a :=.y neers.- rrrs of the Royal Artillery deployed to West Germany are n ne Field.as-bythetrrr. Follow-g ire wrthdraurai of the Thunderbird SAM in the 1970s. mm (B-in) l\41 10A2s and an Each of the four divisions has an artillery group that until recently contained an -i-:-nc the sensor packaEe is removed for analysis. The -::::r will have two batteries of towed Rapier and two batteries of Tracked ::c:er wrth a total of 10 firinq units per battery. but when used in : r: junction wrth the Marconi Space a'nd Def ence Systems BIindf ire radar has an . which are also used to carry the FACE in the battery command role. a Meteorological Troop and a ::. ro a. The artillery .. i: -|neCorps o'Ttanspo't :rgin6srs workshop.-e Lance units w'ould be some of the frrst to be attacked by Soviet special ':'ces. one heavv regiment with M 1 07s.Arffllterg flnfhe Brifish Anng ef fhe Rhine Included in the British Atmy of the Rhine I (British) Cotps to support its three Armowed Divisions is ptactically the whole afthe tlK's inventory of setrf'ptopelled artillery pieces' Althaugh considered a large foree hy Brttish standatds' it k stitl ouigwned by the missiles and artillery pieces availahle to a single Soviettankor canl&.-rn ts).etos n Wesr Germany. s on has one heavy reg menl.$lin6' ' -. . a drone troop '.. which consists ol a command post vehicle that also tows the The Meteorological Troop is equipped with the AM ETS artillery meteorologic- Artillery Computer Equipment deployed at battery level throughout the Royal artillery. 2 Mk 1 sound ranging link.-:cps each with four Fapier launchers towed by 1-tonne Land Rovers. standard ballistic message. -r:. biological/chemical message.::cules missiles.. -. or will be irted witn a laser des:gnator to cnable .:ry Rapler launcher with a Blind{ire radar as many of the Soviet aircraft and -: copters it expects to engage in time of war do nol as yet have an all-weather :::abii ty.7 lb).--:^yanollaly.. where its -=^sor package starts to operate. The basic Rapier s a clearweather syslern. surveillance drone message.oncethedroneisonthe -::: -: .-'ee Lance mrssile-launchers arrd their associated resupply vehicles. Each battery has three ...ojecr lei 'CLGpst or r{erlf ire rnrss. The troop's activities are basically simple: a small balloon is sent aloft. Royal Electrical and Mechanical :--tieries each with six'i75-mm (6. and pressure is calculated by the computer from the surface pressure and radar height using standard ICAO atmosphere figures corrected for temperature. theirgrun into action during an exercise.e . The Lance missile has a maxtmum range of about :'an6 -' km (68 mrTes).to oe e^qjled with MarLir MarietLa Copocrnead Canron-Launcned . . lach of the Air-Defence Regiments has an HO battery.istnerimetakentoprocessthelnformation. The last consists of a battery HQ . two air-deience reg. Rapier rs the longest.

::4.buil t I 5 5 ..t..' ::... Belaw : The American.::".i: .... Li.y ground.:i. ::*rii n.. : ::'.t. ..:4.:.:s another out of a patch oi *. rii. '1.au:::a ..:.:aa. .:-.::... t:. :j ':: . the British Army uses the MI l0 self-propelled howitzer in its heavy batteries. ::::r::i=i '' . . a.'1 .' .:::: "= -..:a:::aa:..=..a'.. -.::ai: . |. !:- '. :..c.i:sf.::::::aG=:::= .::: .. . . an M I07 af the 42nd lTeaty Ar tillery ReEiment ( now dis banded).:.::."' t'l :::.ie: The versatility of the Abbot is Below: Firing the heaviest HE shells and providing nuclear tube attillery support. /:. Abave: The heavyweight'sniper' of the British Army.ianstrated here as onevehicle : :.:.1..:.:.=i34i: :a:.-_ ttf .i: i1.. :..mrr' M 109 howitzer is the mainstay of the tsAOR artillery units" 'i I ::i .i1:.a..:?.:4 . i... ... ' t:l.'':. . r.t .

powered traverse. transmisston and suspension of the FV432 senes of APC. l3-in) self-propelled supported by the amphibious 6x6 Alvis Stalwart High Mobility Load C ar rier wi th pre p ac ke d ammunition pallets. a 7. When travelling. infra-red drivinq lights and. reducing to 15'left and 4'right when the ordnance is below 0' Elevation is er and 7. no fumeextractor and a semi-automatic wedge breech block that opens dov.3-in) Bren liqht machinegun at the commander's station for use in the antr-aircraft role. the Abbo t is inanNBC environment. Repiacement of the Abbot by the I55-mm (6. The gnrn has a maxrmum range of 17000m (18. The Value Engineered Abbot. 1-1n) SP-70 is introduced. the Bandkanon IA was only procured in small quantities by the Swedish army because of size and lack of mobility. The ammunition of the Abbot is also used rn the Royal Ordnance Factory ble-baffle muzzle-brake.5-in) qun. the ordnance is held in position by a lock pivoted at the front ofthe hull. while rn the dght part are the load- machine gunner. Vickers of Elswick was awarded a contract to build 12 prototypes. which was standardizing on 105-mm (4. including the powerpack and 296 . This work was put to good use in lhe development ofthe Bandkanon IA 155-mm (6. The Abbot rs deployed in West Germany wrth the Britrsh Army of the Rhine. smoke (three types) and illuminating. Prototypes of various selfpropelled guns were burlt on a modrfied Centurion tank chassis.62-mm (0.600 yards) and flres the following types of separateloading ammunition: HE. I -in) gun. while elevatlon rs manual from -5" to +70'. when odginally introduced into der's cupola and loader's roof hatches a large door is provided in the hull rear recently. with the ddve sprocket at the front and the last road wheel actinq as the idler.057m(6ft9in) Eventually to be replaced in the late I 980s by the SP-70 I 55-mm (6. An unusual feature of the ordnance rs that it has a replacable liner.nwards. suspension. which is the Wiltshire. with the driver seated to the immediate front of the turret. NBC system and night-vision equrp- ment. maxmumrange 390 kn (240 miles). The hull and turret of the Abbot are of all-welded steel which provides the breech. Powerplant: one Rolls-Royce 6cylinder diesel developing 240 hp (179 kW) a petrol engnne and sx by a diesel the Brrtish army. which was designed and built in Canada. motive components of the Bofors Stank. The turret rs mounted at the rear of i:1ly automatic self-propelled gmn to enter sennce wrth any army.13-in) gmn has a dou- trench2. theAbbotis no longer fitted with a flotation screen- the British army the FV433 Abbot 105mm (4. with the commander aad gnrnner on the right and the loader Nottingham 105-mm (4. and after exrensive trrals and some modificatrons ihe equrpment was placed in produc. 13-in) self-propelled gmn is used by the Royal Artillery in regiments of three batteries. when the l55-mm (6. of which srxwere powered by gn-n which rs also used for ammunition supply. l-in) self-propelled gnrn for ihe Swedish army. with the engine to his right.4 in) to 20 mm (0. SFV PMCT. By the I95Os these calibres were not stan- Usedin the FieldRegimenls o{the R oyal dard within NATO. Eun layer and radio operator.rd their associated ammunition sysiems for both army and naval applicaions. The 155-mm (6. 13-in) and 155mm (6. Performance: maxrmum road speed engnne. width2.62-mm (0. A total of 40 projectiles is carried. l-in) rounds. in addition to the comman- which used the englne. Canada. T?aining Area in Suffield. Main armament consists of a 105-mm (4.489 m (8 ft 2 in) 47. l3-in) Light Gun. To meet the Royal Artillery's rmmediate requirements for SP weapons ofthe latter calibre.641 m (8 ft 8 rn). Turret traverse is manual.84 m (19 ft 2 in). was produced for India although the British army also has a few.ffi iruuot 105-mm Self-Propelled Gun After the end of World War II the standard self-propelled enrn of the British Royal Artillery was the 2S-pounder Sexton.lon from 1966 to 1968. HESH. lenqrth (hull) 5. The engine and transmission are at the front of the hull. Followingtrialswiththese prototypes the company was awarded a production contract. The dnver is seated at the foont on the left. In screenj the last has now been removed. In the left part are the commander. The 105-mm (4.500 lb) Dimensions: lengrth (gun forward) 5. vertical obstacle 0.5 kn/ir(30 mph). erradient 60%. and manual from -3" to *40". quantrties of American M44 self-propeiled howitzers were supplied while development concentrated in Enqland on the 105-mm (4. f -in) ordnance has a pepperpot muzzle-brake. but rt rs expected that the Abbot will not be retired from the Royal Artrllery until the late 1980s. The Abbot is fltted with an NBC system. 13-in) gun manufactured by the Royal Ordnance Factory Nottinqham. and one bank of three electrically-operated smoke dischargers on each srde of the turret. a fumeextractor and a semi-automatic four-man crew with complete protec- tion from small arms fire and shell splinters. each battery havingr erght Abbots. It is also -he heaviest and slowest.709 m (lB ft 83/+ in).3-rn) anti-aircraft electnc from f 2" to +38'. The hull and turret are of all-welded steel constructron that varies from 10 mm (0. and is in tlvo parts with the 155-mm (6. Traverse rs powered through 360'. The turet is mounted at the very rear of the hull. ]-in) M109A2 has started ffi ii""an"non lA 155-mm Self-Propelled Gun For many years Bofors has been well hrown for its expertrse in the design. l-in) ordnance mounted between them. and at the British Army basic vehicle without such luxwies as flotation screen. and is capable of operating Artillery. The first prototype rvas completed in 1960. To provide a more stable flrinq platform the suspension can be locked.609 m (2 ft 0 in).8 in) in tluckness. The Bandkanon 1A has the distrnction of being the first Although the first fully automatic self- propelled gun. on the left. with a flotation Specification Crew:4 Weisht: 16556 kg (36. height (without armament) 2. series vehicles being burlt behveen 1964 and 1967. Suspension is ofthe hydropneumatic type and consists ofsx road wheels. factors which make the equipment very difficult to conceal and of limited mobility. whose ordnance has been developed from the L13A1 gmn of the Abbot. 15' left and right when the ordnance is above 0" in elevation. development and production of guns a. including one wrth a Z5-pounder gnrn and the other with a 140-mm (5. while a few serve wlth the Royal School of Artiliery at Larkhill. The vehrcle uses many auto- the hull.

Modern Self-Propelled Guns and Howitzers The ammunition is fed from a 14round clip carried externally in an armoured magazine at the rear of the rull. 257 I .. The armour is of all-. l. A hydraulic crane is fitted on the roof and it is believed that this is used to hoist ammunition into the turret. Specifi cation (provisional) Crew:4 lo 5 Weight:23000 kq (50. trench 1.705 lb) Dimensions: length qun forward 6 in) Powerplant: V- 10.s fftax tr4ominutesfrom a resupply truck. fuIl details and its exact role =:e still uncertain.6 m (B ft 12 diesel developing 345 hp (257 kW) The DANA can ford to a depth of about but has no amphibrous capabilrty.ey have a much gfteater sLraregic ::cbility as almost without exception neeled armoured vehicles are much than their tracked counterparts =::d have a greater operational range.'.37 m(11 ft0% in). entering the ::rret only when coming into actron.800 yards). It is almost certain that the DANA.405 and 21. :lrrrmon tracked counterparts.ilitary parade held in 1980. secondly.845 lb) Dimensions: length (gmn forward) I 1.00 m (6 ft 6% in) El -:e Czech fiHifH^l52-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 152-mm (6-in) DANA is the ::st wheeled self-propelled -: enter servrce ln modern howitzer trmes.'. I'in) . but this has -. and quite possible that the ordnance has been designed and built there to fire Soviet ammunition.8 m (9 ft 2 in). ':. So far the DANA has not been exported.+t to enter production or service. and it is compartment and one on each srde between the second and third axles) are lowered to the ground for extra stabilrty.4 m (4 ft 7 in) equipment is provrded for the driver and commander.870 yards).4 m (4 ft 7 in) . each of which contain two :cunds of ammunition these being led -c the breech by a loading tray before reing rammed into the breech by a minutes raJnmer. It is be:eved that the crew normally travel in . The DANA is based on the 8 x I Tatra I I 5 high m obili ty tru ck cfi assjs. is based :r the BxB Tatra 815 truck. The Czech Skoda works Before firing commences three hydrauhcally-operated stabilizers (one at the rear of the hull under the engdne have a long history of successful artillery design and production. Once the clip of ammunition has been expended a :esh clip is brought up by truck.BS m ( 12 ft 7Vz :: the magazine are opened vertically. l-in) projectile has a ranqe of 25600 (28. lenqth (hull) 6.55 m (21 ft6 in). The flrst velopment that wrll have a ranqe of about 30000 m (32. and the armoured engdne compart:rent at the rear. The loading tray and rammer are operated by spdngs that are cock- The 155-mm (6. height (includinq AA MG) 3. Iensth hull 9 m (34 ft 6 in).lcre recently South Africa has de'.:srtlon. '.Bandkanon lA 155-mm Self-Propelled Gun (continued) The Bandkanon lA prepares to fire.83 mrles). re fully enclosed tufiet in the centre '. It is not thought to be Performance: maximum road speed B0 km/h(49. width3.-eloped the 6x6 G6 155-mm (6. covers ed by the run-out of the gnrn. or perhaps forms part of an elevation of + 60' for a maximum range ofbetween 15000 and 20000 m (16.'. verticalobstacle 1.5 m(4 ft 1i in). Steering is powerassisted on the front four wheels. the doors are then closed =d the horst is returned to travelling .000 yards). gradient 60%. The maximum rate of fire for a short perrod is four to five rounds per minute. it is believed that the ordnance is based on that installed in the the Soviet M1973 self-propelled tracked howitzer. Frre can then be resumed -::s whole sequence takes just hvo Powerplant: one Rolls-Royce dtesel developing 240 hp ( 179 kW) and Boerng gas rwbrne developing 300 shp (224 kW) Performance: maximum road speed 28 kn/h (17 4 mph).71 mph). vertical obstacle 0. About 40 projectiles and charges are carried. which probably has the best off-road per- ::rmance of any truck rn existence.00 m (36 ft I in).ne front compartment. Specification Crew:5 Weight:53000 kq (116. Infra-red nigrht-vision 1. reducing to one round per minute rn the sustained-fire role. although the Czech weapon is lon- ance has a depression of -3" and an ger and does not have a fumeextractor. maximumrange 600 km (372. whLch in Iurn lransmrts power to a hvo-speed transfer box. Below: The DANA is a cheaper but more roadworthy alternative to the tr ac ke d s e lf. trench 2.'. The unique )4-round armoured magazine is at the rear of the hull. the ::ilance is elevated to +38'. This clip consists of seven compartments. The turret has a limited traverse of between 30" and 40'left and right.-rth llle crew compartment is at the front. maximumrange 230 lcn (143 mrles). heisht 2. Firsily. automatic or semi-automatic loading system It is believed that the ordn- fitted with an NBC system. and a 3entral tyre-pressure requlation sys:em allows the driver to adjust the tyre -oressure to suit the type of gnound being crossed. Wheeled self-::cpelled artillery systems have a =--nougrh :'-mber of advantages over their more Right: Only Czechoslovakia among theWarsaw Pact armies uses the DANA wheeled gun.5 m (34 ft 5 in). width 2. For some time it has been repofied that a rocket-assrsted projectile is under de- :cund has to be manually loaded but aler thrs the sequence is fully automa:c and the qunner can select single sjrots or fully automatic. --ter howitzer. 1 ]o1st on the upper part of the turret ::ies along the slide bar before pick- rJ tn) up the clip and placrng it in the :-agazine.hich was first observed durrng a :.elf-propelled '. The engine is coupled to a manual gearbox with l0 forward and two re'.prope lled guns now entering the W ar s aw P act inventories.'erse qears. gradient 60%. The empty :artridge cases are ejected from the :reech to the rear.95 m (3 ft IVz tn). once expended it can be reloaded in Ies.-elded steel and provides the crew complete protection from small arms fire and shell splinters. j:ey are cheaper and easier to manu:=cture and to maintain and. so .nving a total of 20 forward and four reverse gears.

ce howitzer battalions tt*o'irnn .ffu"ie ment ro carry our its m.ilplo rifle rea... tnree surveillance radars and extens \e . .fit..e:.ti.o"i.1:g''l.._ towed nnwiizers There is also a ."i"ci. B 122-mm e-inl rlqi.[.i. riii"di*" comn'and vehicles - by towed artillery. -t '.uns' and "'ih. ..8-in) M 1974s.i ." eq.'- :'..iirt'*it"" "J across country T!:-9iu9: ators..-.communications' meleorological survev' reconnaissance rno have a battalion 1B trucks including one that .'..ssi#inif o'equ'pnas an irrnressive arrav 'u931ul-d radarsetiibns.:a.r oi t e_ Ml 973 self-nrooelled howttzers.r-lji"p-t'rt"o hor'iitzers' 1B M1973 and 18 BM-21s and four FROGs' ti ..sio"niJs one JrtiiferV tugimentwith 1B ihree r.ttuni" B\ir tr.1 ! zg''. +...:nv'{i'Tii{ii""dawavtuomthewarldwar inntery barrases.-- Regiments' ini'i"oJr..ie-snvtheDivisionatArtiltery - than off icers and men.E' b.r.ves the 36 D 30 towed -"".i .']o*i[bi oaitbrie_s lisht vehicles plus eishr AC. : :.d.iil:.+":Sfu$.ilt""f' sound-ranQing .."".8-in) M1974 self-propelled howitzer battalion that o' -'s 3.." i..'fi.r...i.5O. communications totr'l svstems and a FRoG : .: :-. -:-:r..|.... .ne drvision gs self-piopelled anti-tank g. .less nuiiution consists of a baltalion and Arrerican counterparts. self-propelledweaponstoprovideadequatesuppott.= :owed howitzers .:m (6-in) M1973 t"ft-p'i"p"ifJOiowitze''s inO two Lrattalions 1B slngte tank regiment has one battalion of howitzJrs.iiiti"tt..Anatorng of o Soviet Self-Propelled Artillerg Unit firepowet' recent years the USSn nZ sffi*ea b the-'mobile In -.}it. =i.."i..'mainienance andplatoon The targel-acqu's tror nuti"rv uno u irpptv ind serv.. The battery jr. .'..h motorized oI 122-mm -:l-.. tr ._ i. . i* a supplv and rnainlenance Pl-{oon 2: 'il".'J. 'I .i'."the towed D-30 3'nr motorized rille (4.'r. ern_oo or'oiie.. " =.i "..i!"i'iiir""iirrion" u it.. .i i.li ". . @.:i-:' :'.::).ments whicn =. crornoin"uitirZ'i'riii.rito ""u tutgii-L-uiing 'radar' fou'r rangefinders and a genera which is fitted with rifle' tank --= Soviet Union has three main types of divislon: motorized artillery units' the self-prol?elled 'D-i0 howitzers and B5-mm : -:J'1e.l.ii H"o biiioL" tzo aiitanr'sj. tf-l" J"rnprt"i forih!-coilation of all information obtained.". .ent-nas a battalior of 1B M1974s ritte lhg^lT: n'otorized ooed lank drvrsron a =:: . Asu one battalion of rifle O.'ipp"O *itf' ti'" SN/p infantry combat vehicle " (+ vi"97it"rt-i'[p't"ri!a it"*'tzer's =. *".i.:.it.i..YJ."uied baseo topog|. two generD-SO-iowed S-ln) i22-mm(+ -' APCs w6ereas thev cannot d rection-find.v.s .t*u"J-t"i"n.'.i' o{ :.."i .-."."tiriizeo are issued i*"." t*"i'.r."r..:'..iiii' ii"iii"" while the s'nqle BM Ptno. :3 taster-movrrig arrroured ygfrlc.r. on ot 'iB 'l 22-mm . Onlv the tirst tw"o li if'"s" hauee-in) r'aving tot. ..liiltil surveillance radar. . howiizers The reasonino behind this is that .ti."'i-ii i"itr."" i:"#..3TR-60 or BrR-70 te*ei...ng radar' one ....ijtitn." ....v'i!..*"i9?+'= each ' '3 on the BTR..1i .ainlJ'p"l.i" li.rsls..".i... il19?..# i'i"z:tt i+ ..th '1 52-rnm t?199ta medical-companies' weaoons). whictican be supported battle Jni"r! intuntry soviet the of much need :=arrcal ro that ot the moto.les two the radar. .iz"ed.".aa .ffi." i.Ttct il<'..E'i'uini Ju*ion itch of the three tank reaiments "ilri!tv in wheeled vehicles.. ir'" regiment' althoush information can con'e 6!i?.i."t*"u.r-.'jiit"nJ'"0 vihicles' based on the M" 9l- has a:c:: := ill A122-mm(4. 22-mm {4....l.8-in) M1974 t"i1-oi'gpef reO"nowitzersl and the single n^ ---* in gM"P."iv r''rJt u uuii"ty r'"uaq'utters'.' 374 selr-propelled "rn'rrip-r" equiPment. howi'tiiJ'"'tjzz b-30 '.:F-'.one radars (probablv .JtJt]".eiq r19O' i.'ir. BM ii or :. u p"rronnuilt'Enfrh consiOerably. motor transport.lz):tt"i+ di" and one w.' 1r...7s6 intaniry comhat also nas a battalron ...*J-vi"g-i"luntrv ne artillery urr"t. each with six M 1974s pl-s l: ranks) and tnree self-prop"ri"i r.. "rit[T * a'Ycraft' helicopters and RPVs The targel from otner sources u. The direct consequences f iai'i-"i-iii"ia n iie's row rli l: e quipm e nt with s elr.4 .r.iq... tiiiL nJt.fi ..t.. with Jo meLeorolooical "_'J""..'.i . on" Jo'nOliung'ng set'..-e1 .l.giment has a headquarters-and neaclouarters batlery' 6. iri" eM-21-#a FRoG battalions This o. toiir.=e Foc\er ov"r.7e .BiR-i.i]o ho r' 0 c ='-= .lo Mr LA inassist. ndJiouilaun"nitrt ior the FRoG-7 elemerit in any Soviet offensive requires thatthe '-: more recent and longer-ranged ss-zt consist of an artillery regiment 1 The powerf ul armoured 6" iutu to l""p up with ihe tank columns' While una .ttery and 1wo at Ho)and one S. Lwo rangef inders."oriui-uilii6tvl*iing .. . .

'!/een the two points s also measured. - ^iciec b'..waro lnils r nclud ng ATCW teams and in'antry posit onsr and 'orward observers. -:.i:-. Soviet mobile battlefield launch systems ra nge f rom the 60-km (37-m ile) range u ngu ided FROG to the guided SS-1 2 and SS 22. r at any time. the . : .. rroorTant oi all. meteorological section.However. transport. one anti-tank i. the time taken for the shell to pass :. .j _*i' . With a range of M 1 973 can engage enemy HO and reserve positions. . and the computer uses this rnforma--mand post. = i+. . -:a s te is surveyed --:':ctor-Launcher '--- well before the arnval of the missiles) and two Transpor(TEL) sections. bearing information is produced to provide the target :^ s system is not of great use n a fast-moving battie because of the '.:-' '::r-as tre t me differences of gun sounds reaching adjacent mic:-:-:s-: :. each wrth one FROG-7 or SS-2'1 wlth its itsHO.1974) normally carry HEAT rounds to enable them to engage tanks tn the direct-fire role should such be required. -^.' -:1. . most.:m this. .: the world. plus tarqet acquisition. This information is normally passed on to the launcherl s best pos troned to deal with rt.:':ocket -re sound-ra^g ng set is believed to be similar in functlon to the Britrsh r :ssev solni-:ang rg ink. although normally these would be engaged by other units with tanks and ATGWs. which can fire warheads over hundreds of kilometres.. these unguided missiles can provide massive suppressive power by saturating an area with high explosive.: " .oneresultthatcomesfromoperatingsoclosebehindtheassaultis that the a rtillery must be prepared to meet enemy armou howitzers carry and can fire HFAT rounds. The radar measures the slant range and bearing of two points in -: mortar or artiilery shell trajectory. and can provide counter-battery fire.: : trn before the incoming artillery fire arrives..much ::.-tj:.33oed to sei it up and the amount of trme it takes to establish the positron The artiliery of the division can be used for both offensrve and defensive opera:ions.Modern Self-Fropelled Guns and Howitzers 'Big Fred' radar rs believed to have a sirnilar function to the British --::n-EM I Cymbelrne radar used by the RoyalArtillery and many other armies all . A logicalextension of this philosophywould be the introduction oftactical nuclear weapons. -^. This : ta rget: if it is a self-propelled weapon it will probably have moved to a new .4'lgT4howitzerwouldbe :-:sent in largest numbers. 4 2 Soviettacticaldoctrineplacestheartilleryveryclosebehindtheadvance. iROG battalion has a battalion HO. of which one is in East Germany.-_ j.3. a -aCio daia ink to a data recording and process no centre. HO battery and two firing batteries. Behindtheconventionalartillery. .8-in)l\.. This consrsts of a number of microphone posrtions - . and ail self-propelied weapons (for example the M1973 and M.-. Each drvision has between three and six artillery iegiments. Artlllery fjre will then lrft and switch to the next Itne of def ence or on possible reinforcement..rcgether with the pre-set elevation angles to establish the exact position of ': :nerny mortar or artrllery prece. -. 3 Heavy support is provided bythe 1 52-mm (6-in) M 1 973 howitzer. The Soviets use their artillery well lorward.n the'ormer role t w lr be used to engage enemy HO and reserve positions. as directed bythe spotting radar each battery has at up to 1 8500 m (60695 ft).:i the latter has a battery HO.attalion and one air-defence battalion. signals and other supporting units. to deal with enemy artillery units that h-ave already opsned fire and. where t is dec ded which system (seif-propelled gun cr multi- *re ' . mo[o.errhanwouldbeNATOpractice. :.. . -.-. survey seciion (the - ' = - . All Soviet cal or tactical nuclear warhead. The Soviet Unron also has some 14 artillery divisions.-+.fhel22 mm(4..thesovietsmakegreatuseofmultiplerocket systems. providing suppressive fire against enemy observation : : s:s and forward positions as little as 250 m (820 ft) ahead ofthe tank spearhead. .s frre w ll c6 maintained until the Soviet tank and infantry units are only 250 or 300 m (275 or 330 Vards) f rom their objectrve._ro provide slopressive f ire aginsl lo.:-i.

Although the latter are much more expensive to build. Located at the rear of the hull is a larqe spade.. In the Soviet army the M1974 rs employed on the scale of 36 per motorized rifle division and 72 per tank divrSION.:: krorm to be used by East Ger:::=. The last is used to engage tanks and wrll penetrate 460 mm (18. This is the only hatch in the lcoi but there rs also a hatch in the rcht side of the turret..610 yards). being propelled in the water by its tracks at a speed of 4. '. The torsion-bar sus- :ension consrsts of sx road wheels. transmission and driver at the front and the fully enclosed turretat the rear..1 'Ganef surface-to-air missile sys- standard cfi assr's design u s e d for other purposes. and for a new chemicalwarfare reconn ai ss anc e ve hic I e. The equipment is .275 lb) Dimensions: lenqrth 7. verticalobstacle Two of the 25 SO- trench 3. although it can ford to a depth of 1.BS m (9 ft 4 in). the last being slightly ::r-ward ofthe very rear as rt has such a -a:Ere overhang. and when travelling is clamped in position.evacuator.245 yards). carried. East Germany. The ordnance has an elevation of *60'and a depressron of -4".4-rn) wide tracks are fitted to reduce the vehicle's gnound pressure as much as possible.Bin of armour at 1000m/ 1. NATO calls this 122-mm (4. A total of 40 projectiles and charges is a claimed ranqe of :atch. Por normal use 4OO-mm (15. smoke and HEAT-FS projectiles. Turret traverse and weapon elevation are ported that an HE RAP is available. Standard equipment rncludes an NBC system anci a full suite of nrght-vision equipment for the driver and commander. The ordnance is not fitted with a fume extractor.. gradient 60%. illuminating. and with nrght-vision equipment for the commander and :e front with the rdler at the rear.75300 trle weighing 2I 72kg (47. illuminating.00 m (9 ft 1. Syria and Yugroslavia. The layout of the M1974 is similar to emerqency use. a 152-mm (6-in) self-propelled gmn.230 yards). but when operating in the snow or swampy areas 670-mm (26. and the two square :penings ln the turet rear. the possibility of an NBC system. this vehicle forms the basis for a ::n and GMZ armoured minelayer. It is believed that a power rammer rs fitted to permit a higher rate of fire Specification Crew:4 Weight: 16000 kg(35. lengrth (hu11) 7.5 m (4 ft 11 in). this being the year when it was first seen. The turret is fltted wrth a modrfled version ofthe standard 122-mm (4. ammunition. The system is also used by in) wide tracks are fitted.20 m ( 10 ft 6 in)..80 m (9 fIZVq in) Powerplant: one V-12 diesel developing 520 hp (3BB kW) Performance: maximum road speed 55 kdh (34 mph). sx smoke and two HEATFS. The suspension is adjustable. The howitzer fires an HE projec- that of the American M109 wrth the engine.3-in) nachine-qnrn for local and anti-aircraft iefence. Ethiopia. on the left side.5 kq (95. Other projecttles that can be fired include HEAT (thrs wtll penetrate 300mm/l1. gnadient 60%.4S-Ln) self-propelledmortar.8 mph). which has an elevation of +70" and depression of -3".-. full armour protectron for the crew and velop specialized tank destroyers such as the ASU-57 and ASU-85. including the SA-4 'Ganef launcher and theGMZ minelayer. The ordnance flres an HE Pro- Unlike the 122-mm (4. 2 /z tn) re ifrrgz+ rul-mmself-Propelled Howitzer *.30 m (23 ft I 172 in). but it was not until 1974 that the first 122-mm (4 B-in) self-propelled howitzer made tts appearance during a parade tn Poland. width 2. there are no track-return rollers.8-in) M1974 self-propelled howitzer. The Soviet Union did continue to de- creased cross-country mobility.465 yards). (five rounds per minute) and also to enable the ordnance to be loaded at any angle of elevatron. :e for the drrver at the front. land. the M1973 does not have amphibious capabrlity.::pelled '--= ivrrgzg l52-mm Self-Propelled Gun/Howitzer M1973 152-mm (6-in) selignro4rowrtzer is known as . PhotoeEaphs of the 152-mm (6-in) gn:n were developed and placed in production at Specification Crew:6 Weisht yards). It is also re- of a .10 m (3 ft 7 in).I 2 2 Gvozdika (Carnation) and is fully amphibious. In the hull rear is a large hatch that opens downwards. It is beLieved that the last is probably an updated version of the 240-mm (9.095 yards). although it had doubtless already entered sewice with the Soviet Union by thrs date. smoke and 2-kiloton tactical nuclear. are bel'eved to be used for the rapid loading four rounds per minute.8-in) D-30 towed howitzer. maximumrange 500 km (3 i0 miles). with manual control for credited with being in sewice with the Hungarian army.ch have both been in servtce with -:: Sonet Unton for many years. HE extended range (wrth 24000rn/26. and :rLs is fltted with a 7.rth a distinct gap between the first rnd second and the third and fourth r:ad wheels. and consists of seven road wheels with the drive sprocket at the front and the idler at the rear.40 m (7 ft I)Vz in) Powerplant: one YaMZ-238V V-8 water-cooled diesel developing 240 hp (179 kw) Performance: maximum road speed 60 kmih(37 mph).F#{ The M1974 hasthe Soviet ry ir the period after World War II the Sonet Union placed its main emphasis :n the continuing development of :cwed artrllery whereas NATO emphasized self-propelled weapons.9Ib) to a maximum range of 18500m (20. including in- designation SO. The commander's cupola is on the r:of of the turret.8-in) self-propelled howitzer the MI974. and for a specialized mine-clearing vehicles. and )22 guns currently electric. heiqht 2. and is per tank divl-.40 m(27 ft62/e in). 1. The latter is similar in concept to the British Giant Viper. Hungary.:-: 2S3 in the Soviet Union. and can also fire chemical. I in) of armour at an incidence of0" at a range of 1000m (1. width 3. maintain ard operate ::rey do have many advantages over -letr towed counterparts.950 yards). NBC system. These. to the rear of the double-baffle mrlzzlebrake. an ordnance travel lock rs mounted on top of the hull. and maximum rate of flre :s 25000 kq (55.45in) M240 towed weapon which fires a chemrcal. . Angola. In recent years the Soviet Union has ieast three new weapons. The chassis is also used for theTT-LB (orACRV inNATO circles). Iraq and Libya. 10 in) Algeria. The ordnance is based on the 152mm (6-in) D-20 gudhowitzer but wrth a bore. Its chassis is a ::-::tened version of that used for the Known as the SO-152 Akatsiya (Acacia) in Soviet army service.50 m (8 a_! and showed a chassis similar to that of fr. the drive sprocket is at of projectiles and fuses. a mine-clearing vehicle.095 driver. Czechoslovakia. and a sLmrlar number motor'-:d nie division. and a reduction rn the trme necessary for the equipment to be brougtht into and taken out of action. :ar The M1973 has three compartments. unlike the SO-l52. helsht 2. turret traverse is 360". and .730 yards). which helps stop fumes from entering the crew compartment when the breech is opened.91b) to maximum rangTe 15300m (16.s:eC on the scale of lB per :::. The ordnance has a double-baffle muzzle-brake.:ere are four track-return rollers. A notmal ammunition load consists of 40 projecttles: 32 HE.. while the Sonet designation ls 2S1. a 203-mm (Bin) seU-propelled howitzer and a 240mm (9. turret traverse is 360". a fumeextractor and a seml-automatic vertical slidrng breech block. The chassis of the M1974 is also used for a number of armoured command and reconnaissance vehicles (ACRVs) fitted with the 'Big Fred'artillery/mortar-locating radar.80 m (25 ft 7 in). and that this has a maxrmum range of 21900m (23. released by the United States in 1982 verticalobstacle trench 2. HE RAP (with a claimed range of 37000 m/40.5 km/h (2.10 m (3 ft 7 rn). The M1973 rs fitted with an the M1973 but wrth the ordnance in an unprotected mount on the top rear of the chassis. and on each side ofthis is one circular jectrle weighing 43. The M1974 is tully amphibious.62-mm (0. licensed production may well take place ln Czechoslovakia and. Libya. maximumrange 300 krn (186 miles). that for enq-ine to its right and that for the --irret at the rear./or PoIraq. S-r.:. high explosive fragmentation or nuclear projectile to a maximum range of9700 m (10. 115 lb) Dimensions: lengrth (gmn forward) 8.I .

Headquar- -. 2 FTS for 75 hours on the 46rospatrale Gazelle and 50 hours on the Westland Wessex rn 28 weeks.-:e f rom the repair and modification of a l13 = beginning in many cases with the appllcant being sponsored for a unrversity course. 4 FTS to f ly BAe HawkT Mk'1 s in the advanced course of 85 hours. Graduate studies at an end.Mk 1s during a three-year period. First of the CFS elements to move in.nting formation can operate for long without a Command to maintain their acknowledged --' : ency. Here. w th a frve-minute familiarization flight in a . he becomes a member of one of the 16 University Air Squadrons and flies some 70 hours on BAe Bulldog T. the prospective pilot transfers to the world-renowned RAF Colleqe at Cranwell to make his acquaintance wtth the standard RAF basic jet trainer. The Central Flying School s the oldest military rts equipment and traln . and so 'streaming' is introduced. in which case the first step is a 15-hour grading course on the venerable de Havilland Chipmunk at the Flying Selection Squadron to weed out those who obvious{y lack the aptrtude for flying duties. and is also flown by the CFS and the University Air Squadrons. 77 hours are f lown in 3'l weeks on the T. the new entrant undertakes flying training establishment :n the world. there to fly 45 hours on the BAe Jetstream in eiqht weeks.':rm The tra r ng cf p lots and aircrew is one of process = command's f oren'ost f unctions.ngdon. :p force to maintarn -::crt .Mk 5A version of the aircraft. From headquarters at Brampton. the basic stage on the unpressurzed Jet Provost T Mk 34 at either No. 6 FTS. which has provedwell-liked. the BAe (BAC) Jet Provost.^Js. where lt is expected that some of the diverse elements of the school will again be collected at a single base. and those planntng a f lying - . and within the Royal Air : -::. the :-:er rnav make ti. Helicopter personnel go straight f rom streaming to No. a prelude to attending the Multi-Engine Training Squadron within No. near ---. By the time the f reshly-qualified pilot reports to h s f rst squaoron. Tech. About half the RAF's pilots corne from direct entry. Those chosen for f ront-line {ast jets remain with their unlts for 58 hours in '1 5 weeks on the Jet Provost T. the unit lodginc at several bases to share aircraft with FTSs for econonry reasons. Maintenance of high standards of train ng is of critical importance to the front line. performing a wide variety of f unctions that .: Trarn ng.r s contact even before donn ng Support Command's most f amous aircraft are the'Red Arrows' aerobatic team. at which point the student joins compatriots from the alternative 'direct entry' stream. in the form of 97 hours' flying in 37 weeks Specialist training By this time. Once past this hurdle. After this. 1 or No. T he aircraft used is the Bulldog T-Mk I . h s training "epre5ents an invest ment of f2 milllon by the taxpayer.:nnel forthe front line. Strike Command takes over for courses of tactical weapons training and operational conversron. during 1983.'.. but a move is in prospect to Scampton.Mk 5As.M k 5A and then go to No. ^ rg duties of the former Flytng Train ng. Maintenance and Reserve Com' . and is responsible for providing Support Command instructors. 4 * r 3 t' k f . the UK's most famous aerobatic team. At Cranwell.' .::r :n Panavia Tornado to providing a 14-year old a r ters of the CFS are at Leeming.Armed Forces of the World Below left: RAF Support Command supp/i'esbasrc flying training for the Royal Navy at Topcliffe. Support Command combines the re .:. and these are best achieved by ensuring that instructors are competent to teach: there is llttle value in having the world's best pilot on the staff of an FTS lf he is incapable of communicating hls skllls to others or differentiating between a slow learner and a 'nohoper'.t:' :-ppori Comn and is the f irst stop for all person= :nter ng iAF serv ce. Strike Command and RAF Germany ook to : . were the Red Arrows. aspirants and their instructors will know which branch of flying is best suited to their talents. 7 Flying Training School. Future transport pilots have another 27 hours (eight weeks) on Jet Provost T.

Turboprop purchase is complicated by the fact that such an aircraft would be unsuitable for Jet Provost replacement in the first part of the advanced course and for the Refresher Fying Squadron.Mk 2 powered sailplanes.Mk'1 s. even though the more intimate.Mk 1 Chipmunk T. Carlisle. 16. Air Cadets have been providing some 25 per cent of the annual RAF intake and 40 per cent of ai rcrew./T.Mk 3A.Mk 4s at its disposal for students to control for added realism during the latter stages of their course. Whllst this can be accomplished largely in the classroom. St Athan is the home of the RAF Engineering and became a USAF support depot. the school has a fleet of Jet Provost T. operating units normally only undertaking routine tasks. for without its vital services. environment of the Jet Provost is considered by some to be better suited to pupil-instructor communication during the .Mk 5A Jet Provos] T. although SEPECAT Jaguars. Hawker Hunters and Hawks are handled by Nos 1 and 2 Aircraft Maintenance Squadrons at Abingdon. Off icers destined for a variety of ground postings receive instruction at Cranwell or at the RAF Technical College.Mk.th the Turbo Firecracker in the face of intense foreign competition. it will be seen that Support Command comprises all the parts of the RAF not immediately concerned with fighting the enemy. a wide variety of options present'ng themselves.6 FTS FTS Valley Finningley Jetstream T. On a smaller scale. and airmen gain skills at the two Schools of FourJet ProvostT. 2 at Cosford. Overhauls. are undertaken at what were formerly named Maintenance Units. Ouedgeley.l/lk Dominie T. BAe has accordingly changed the seating in its P. f Wing with wide-ranging responsibilities for almost all types.Mk Hawk T. 48and25 hours respectivelv in BAe (HS) Dominie T. conversions.Mk 1 Hawk T.4 No.Mk 3 Wessox HC. the f irst-mentioned both schools and supply organizations.Mk 1 '1 No. No. ai r electronics off icers and air engineers fly 85. 14. Stafford.Mk 10 The Red Arrows student assessment .Mk 3A/T.Mk 5A Bulldog T. NDN Aircraft making a strong bid w. 3 FTS 1 No.Mk 3A/T. the two last-mentioned being replaced from 1983 onwards by ASK 21 Vanguards.Mk 1As against the sunsel. plus general supply units No. ln addition. Support Command iv maintains FSS Gazelle HT.Mk 5A Jet Provost T.Mk 3s. from bombs to furniture. 25.Mk 1 No.Aircrew instruction Support Command additionally trains aircrew at F.Mk 2 Jet Provost T. ffiese a ircraft belong to the 'Poachers' aerobatic team from the RAF College at Cranwell. 1 at Halton and No. The Air Cadet organization is mainly staffed by officers of the RAF Volunteer Reserve (Trainlng) who come under Supporl Command for their parttime duties. where navigators. and include No 11 MU at Chilmark (ordnance). 5A Gazelle HT. 7 MU.lvlk 5A Jet Provost"T. the 'sharp end' of the RAF would rapidly become blunted. Hawk T. also receiving 30 hours of low-level experience in iet Provost T. Storage is malnly at Shawbury since No. The RAF was the first air force to adopt ab initio jet training with the side-by-side twoseat Jet Provost and first thoughts on a follow-on type embraced this concept. although further cost-saving may be achieved by adoption of a turboprop for the baslc stage. Consideration currently is being given to Jet Provost replacement. Now. Support Command's flying responsibilities further include the Air Cadets' organizations (Air Training Corps and RAF section of the Cbmbined Cadet Force) which have 13 Air Experience Flights (most with Chipmunks) and 27 Volunteer Gliding Schools f lying Slingsby Venture T. where there is also a battle damage repair flight and an Aircraft Salvage and Repair Flight.nningley.Mk 1 .Mk 1 advanced training Multi-Engine Training Squadron aircrew training navigator training basrc tralning basic training instructor training their direction represents sound reasoning. Slingsby Sedbergh TX. Henlow. together with storage.Mk 5As. so the effort expended in Technical Training: No. RAF SUPPORT COMMAND FLYING UNITS Flying Training Schools Unit No. but soon to move to Linton-on-Ouse.164 project (a turbofan-powered aircraft more economical to operate than the Jet Provost). '1 FTS Base Linton-on-Ouse Shawbury Leeming Topcliff e Aircraft Jet Provost T. the RFS re-orientates officers returning to flying after a desk appointment or transferring from large to small aircraft. Air Traffic control staff receive their trainlng at the Central AirTraffic Control School.mportant early stages of learning. tandem seating has found favour as a logical lead-in to the Hawk. 5 M U at Kemble closed in 1 983 The major operations necessary to keep aircraft in ull operational conditions are mainly the domain of Support Command. No. but now have individual titles. Based at Leeming.Mk 5A Bulldog T. principal modifications and resprays. However.2 FTS Role basic training helicopter training Refresher Flying Squadron Royal NanT Elementary FTS No. 2i3 at Cardington (oxygen). the temptation must be resisted to regard it as a mere hodge-podge of left-overs.Mk 1s and Slingsby Cadet TX. Sgpport and supply "'On the ground. 30 at Sealand (avionics) and No. No. other Maintenance Units hold and distrlbute an unimaginably wide variety of items. 7 FTS RAFC CFS Church Fenton Cranwell Leeming Shawbury Valley Scampton Swinderby Jet Provost T. Shawbury. Hartlebury From the foregoing. Methods of maintaining existing and prospective aircraft with the maximum of efficiency are researched at the Central Servicing Development establishment at Swanton MorleY. speedy repair of aircraft battle damage is now receiving high prlorlty with the re- cent addition of a training school at Scampton. and No.Mk 3A/T. ln recent years.

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