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Terpenes (/trpin/ TUR-peen) are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers,[1]

though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeteria. They are often strong smelling and thus may have had a protective function. They are the major components of resin, and of turpentine produced from resin. The name "terpene" is derived from the word "turpentine". In addition to their roles as end-products in many organisms, terpenes are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature. Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene. When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation or rearrangement of the carbon skeleton, the resulting compounds are generally referred to as terpenoids. Some authors will use the term terpene to include all terpenoids. Terpenoids are also known as isoprenoids. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. Essential oils are used widely as natural flavor additives for food, as fragrances in perfumery, and in traditional and alternative medicines such as aromatherapy. Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used in food additives. Vitamin A is an example of a terpene. Terpenes are released by trees more actively in warmer weather, acting as a natural form of cloud seeding. The clouds reflect sunlight, allowing the forest to regulate its temperature.[2] The aroma and flavor of hops, highly desirable in some beers, comes from terpenes. Of the terpenes in hops myrcene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and a-humulene are found in the largest quantities.[3]

In chemistry, a glycoside /laksad/ is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. These can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis,[1] which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. In animals and humans, poisons are often bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body. In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides can be linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic bond. The given definition is the one used by IUPAC, which recommends the Haworth projection to correctly assign stereochemical configurations.[2] Many authors require in addition that the sugar be bonded to a non-sugar for the molecule to qualify as a glycoside, thus excluding polysaccharides. The sugar group is then known as the glycone and the non-sugar group as the

aglycone or genin part of the glycoside. The glycone can consist of a single sugar group (monosaccharide) or several sugar groups (oligosaccharide). The first glycoside ever identified was amygdalin, by the French chemists Pierre Robiquet and Antoine Boutron-Charlard, in 1830.[3]

Glycosides can be classified by the glycone, by the type of glycosidic bond, and by the aglycone.
By glycone/presence of sugar[edit]

If the glycone group of a glycoside is glucose, then the molecule is a glucoside; if it is fructose, then the molecule is a fructoside; if it is glucuronic acid, then the molecule is a glucuronide; etc. In the body, toxic substances are often bonded to glucuronic acid to increase their water solubility; the resulting glucuronides are then excreted.
By type of glycosidic bond[edit]

Depending on whether the glycosidic bond lies "below" or "above" the plane of the cyclic sugar molecule, glycosides are classified as -glycosides or -glycosides. Some enzymes such as amylase can only hydrolyze -linkages; others, such as emulsin, can only affect -linkages. There are four type of linkages present between glycone and aglycone:

C-linkage/glycosidic bond, "nonhydrolysable by acids or enzymes" O-linkage/glycosidic bond N-linkage/glycosidic bond S-linkage/glycosidic bond

By aglycone[edit]

Glycosides are also classified according to the chemical nature of the aglycone. For purposes of biochemistry and pharmacology, this is the most useful classification.
Alcoholic glycosides[edit]

An example of an alcoholic glycoside is salicin, which is found in the genus salix. Salicin is converted in the body into salicylic acid, which is closely related to aspirin and has analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory effects.
Anthraquinone glycosides[edit]

These glycosides contain an aglycone group that is a derivative of anthraquinone. They have a laxative effect. They are mainly found in dicot plants except the Liliaceae family which are

monocots. They are present in senna, rhubarb and Aloe species. Antron and anthranol are reduced forms of anthraquinone.
Coumarin glycosides[edit]

Here the aglycone is coumarin or a derivative. An example is apterin which is reported to dilate the coronary arteries as well as block calcium channels. Other coumarin glycosides are obtained from dried leaves of Psoralea corylifolia.
Chromone glycosides[edit]


In this case, the aglycone contains a cyanide group. All of these plants have these glycosides stored in the vacuole, but, if the plant is attacked, they are released and become activated by enzymes in the cytoplasm. These remove the sugar part of the molecule and release toxic hydrogen cyanide. Storing them in inactive forms in the cytoplasm prevents them from damaging on was found to double the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides in the leaves.[4][5] Dhurrin, linamarin, lotaustralin, and prunasin are also classified as cyanogenic glycosides.
Flavonoid glycosides[edit]

Hesperidin (aglycone: Hesperetin, glycone: Rutinose) Naringin (aglycone: Naringenin, glycone: Rutinose) Rutin (aglycone: Quercetin, glycone: Rutinose) Quercitrin (aglycone: Quercetin, glycone: Rhamnose)

Among the important effects of flavonoids are their antioxidant effect. They are also known to decrease capillary fragility.
Phenolic glycosides (simple)[edit]

Here the aglycone is a simple phenolic structure. An example is arbutin found in the Common Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. It has a urinary antiseptic effect.
Saponins[edit] Main article: Saponin

These compounds give a permanent froth when shaken with water. They also cause hemolysis of red blood cells. Saponin glycosides are found in liquorice. Their medicinal value is due to their expectorant, and corticoid and anti-inflammatory effects. Steroid saponins, for example, in Dioscorea wild yam the sapogenin diosgeninin form of its glycoside dioscinis an important

starting material for production of semi-synthetic glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones such as progesterone. The ginsenosides are triterpene glycosides and Ginseng saponins from Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer, (Chinese ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng). In general, the use of the term saponin in organic chemistry is discouraged, because many plant constituents can produce foam, and many triterpene-glycosides are amphipolar under certain conditions, acting as a surfactant. More modern uses of saponins in biotechnology are as adjuvants in vaccines: Quil A and its derivative QS-21, isolated from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, to stimulate both the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) against exogenous antigens make them ideal for use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as for therapeutic cancer vaccines but with the aforementioned side-effects of hemolysis Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture.[1][2] In gas chromatography, the mobile phase (or "moving phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (a homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator"). The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with a stationary phase. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness. Gas chromatography is in principle similar to column chromatography (as well as other forms of chromatography, such as HPLC, TLC), but has several notable differences. Firstly, the process of separating the compounds in a mixture is carried out between a liquid stationary phase and a gas mobile phase, whereas in column chromatography the stationary phase is a solid and the mobile phase is a liquid. (Hence the full name of the procedure is "Gasliquid chromatography", referring to the mobile and stationary phases, respectively.) Secondly, the column through which the gas phase passes is located in an oven where the temperature of the gas can be controlled, whereas column chromatography (typically) has no such temperature control. Thirdly, the concentration of a compound in the gas phase is solely a function of the vapor pressure of the gas.[1] Gas chromatography is also similar to fractional distillation, since both processes separate the components of a mixture primarily based on boiling point (or vapor pressure) differences. However, fractional distillation is typically used to separate components of a mixture on a large scale, whereas GC can be used on a much smaller scale (i.e. microscale).[1]

Gas chromatography is also sometimes known as vapor-phase chromatography (VPC), or gas liquid partition chromatography (GLPC). These alternative names, as well as their respective abbreviations, are frequently used in scientific literature. Strictly speaking, GLPC is the most correct terminology, and is thus preferred by many authors.[1] Column chromatography in chemistry is a method used to purify individual chemical compounds from mixtures of compounds. It is often used for preparative applications on scales from micrograms up to kilograms. The main advantage of column chromatography is the relatively low cost and disposability of the stationary phase used in the process. The latter prevents cross-contamination and stationary phase degradation due to recycling. The classical preparative chromatography column, is a glass tube with a diameter from 5 mm to 50 mm and a height of 5 cm to 1 m with a tap and some kind of a filter (a glass frit or glass wool plug to prevent the loss of the stationary phase) at the bottom. Two methods are generally used to prepare a column: the dry method, and the wet method.

For the dry method, the column is first filled with dry stationary phase powder, followed by the addition of mobile phase, which is flushed through the column until it is completely wet, and from this point is never allowed to run dry. For the wet method, a slurry is prepared of the eluent with the stationary phase powder and then carefully poured into the column. Care must be taken to avoid air bubbles. A solution of the organic material is pipetted on top of the stationary phase. This layer is usually topped with a small layer of sand or with cotton or glass wool to protect the shape of the organic layer from the velocity of newly added eluent. Eluent is slowly passed through the column to advance the organic material. Often a spherical eluent reservoir or an eluent-filled and stoppered separating funnel is put on top of the column.

The individual components are retained by the stationary phase differently and separate from each other while they are running at different speeds through the column with the eluent. At the end of the column they elute one at a time. During the entire chromatography process the eluent is collected in a series of fractions. The composition of the eluent flow can be monitored and each fraction is analyzed for dissolved compounds, e.g. by analytical chromatography, UV absorption, or fluorescence. Colored compounds (or fluorescent compounds with the aid of an UV lamp) can be seen through the glass wall as moving bands.

Biological pest control[edit] Main article: Biological pest control

Biological pest control is the control of one through the control and management of natural predators and parasites. For example: mosquitoes are often controlled by putting Bt Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, a bacterium that infects and kills mosquito larvae, in local water sources. The treatment has no known negative consequences on the remaining ecology and is safe for humans to drink. The point of biological pest control, or any natural pest control, is to eliminate a pest with minimal harm to the ecological balance of the environment in its present form.[1]
Mechanical pest control[edit] Main article: Mechanical pest control

Mechanical pest control is the use of hands-on techniques as well as simple equipment, devices, and natural ingredients that provide a protective barrier between plants and insects. For example: weeds can be controlled by being physically removed from the ground. This is referred to as tillage and is one of the oldest methods of weed control.
Elimination of breeding grounds[edit]

Proper waste management and drainage of still water, eliminates the breeding ground of many pests. Garbage provides food and shelter for many unwanted organisms, as well as an area where still water might collect and be used as a breeding ground by mosquitoes. Communities that have proper garbage collection and disposal, have far less of a problem with rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, flies and other pests than those that don't. Open air sewers are ample breeding ground for various pests as well. By building and maintaining a proper sewer system, this problem is eliminated. Certain spectrums of LED light can "disrupt insects breeding."[2]
Poisoned bait[edit]

Poisoned bait is a common method for controlling rat populations, however is not as effective when there are other food sources around, such as garbage. Poisoned meats have been used for centuries for killing off wolves, birds that were seen to threaten crops, and against other creatures. This can be a problem, since a carcass which has been poisoned will kill not only the targeted animal, but also every other animal which feeds on the carcass. Humans have also been killed by coming in contact with poisoned meat, or by eating an animal which had fed on a poisoned carcass. this tool is also used to manage several caterpillars e.g.Spodoptera litura,fruit flies,snails and slugs,crabs etc..

Field burning[edit]

Traditionally, after a sugar cane harvest, the fields are all burned, to kill off any insects or eggs that might be in the fields.

Historically, in some European countries, when stray dogs and cats became too numerous, local populations gathered together to round up all animals that did not appear to have an owner and kill them. In some nations, teams of rat catchers work at chasing rats from the field, and killing them with dogs and simple hand tools. Some communities have in the past employed a bounty system, where a town clerk will pay a set fee for every rat head brought in as proof of a rat killing.

With the many traps available on the market today you can easily remove mice and rats from homes. You must first know what rodent needs to be removed, you can then decide what type of trap is the best suited to your needs. The snap trap is the most widely used, it utilizes a trigger (sometimes shaped like cheese) to hold bait, and kills the rodent by striking it behind the head with a wire rod or jaw. In some instances you may wish to use glue traps also called glue boards. This type of trap requires the mouse or rat to attempt to cross the trap so the glue can hold the rodent. After a catch is made you can euthanize the rodent and dispose of it trap and all, or some glue boards will release the catch when you pour vegetable oil on them, as the oil reacts with the glue to lose its grip. The last type of trap are live catch traps, this type of trap is typically a repeating style so more than one animal can be caught at a time, they can also be released from this trap in a new location if desired.

Spraying pesticides by planes, handheld units, or trucks that carry the spraying equipment, is a common method of pest control. Crop dusters commonly fly over farmland and spray pesticides to kill off pests that would threaten the crops. However, some pesticides may cause cancer and other health problems, as well as harming wildlife.[3]
Space fumigation[edit]

A project that involves a structure be covered or sealed airtight followed by the introduction of a penetrating, deadly gas at a killing concentration a long period of time (24-72hrs.). Although expensive, space fumigation targets all life stages of pests.[4] A long term project involving fogging or misting type applicators. Liquid insecticide is dispersed in the atmosphere within a structure. Treatments do not require the evacuation or airtight sealing of a building, allowing most work within the building to continue but at the cost of the penetrating effects. Contact insecticides are generally used, minimizing the long lasting residual effects. On August 10, 1973,

the dispersal of insecticides into the air by foggers, misters, aerosol devices or vapor dispensers for control of flying insects and exposed crawling insects

Destruction of infected plants[edit]

Forest services sometimes destroy all the trees in an area where some are infected with insects, if seen as necessary to prevent the insect species from spreading. Farms infested with certain insects, have been burned entirely, to prevent the pest from spreading elsewhere.
Natural rodent control[edit]

Several wildlife rehabilitation organizations encourage natural form of rodent control through exclusion and predator support and preventing secondary poisoning altogether.[6] The United States Environmental Protection Agency agrees, noting in its Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision for Nine Rodenticides that without habitat modification to make areas less attractive to commensal rodents, even eradication will not prevent new populations from recolonizing the habitat.[7] Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control. Organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides but excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured (synthetic) fertilizers, pesticides (which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides), plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, genetically modified organisms,[1] human sewage sludge, and nanomaterials.[2] Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations, based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972.[3] IFOAM defines the overarching goal of organic farming as:
"Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved..."