1.

Sunum Introduction to Biophysics

Physics: a science which investigates the nature. Creatures that compose the nature are divided into two main groups: 1) the livings (alive) 2) the non-livings (not alive

PHYSICS investigates non-livings. BIOPHYSICS deals with the livings. Because alive creatures have a dynamic structure, topics of biophysics are more complicated than those of physics.

Basic positive sciences such as mathematics and physics always include definite information. e.g. 2+2=4 F = m.a (Newton’s Second Law) Engineering, where mathematics and physics come acoss in application, is also positive in character MEDICINE ? Also one of positive Definitely positive Unfortunately, not. sciences... ??? Sometimes, a patient may be lost due to a simple mistake made by a doctor. e.g. Anestesiology faults during an operation. Descartes, a French Philoshopher, had said to his patients: “I am trying to establish a medicine based on mathematics and physics. Take care of yourself, well till that time”.

Medical information rather relays on observations and experiments, not definite as 100%. It is an art as well as science.

At this point, the importance of Biophysics appears: Biophysics aims to explain biological and medical events in accordance with the rules of To learn Biophysics is necessary mathematics and physics. for better understanding of clinical sciences such as neurology, neurosurgery, cardiology, cardiovascular surgery, orthopedics, anesthesiology, physical medicine and rehabilitation

From the second half of twentieth century, science and technology, especially electrical engineering and electronics, developed very fast. Electronics and computers are now widely used in medical applications. e.g. Ultrasonography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), CT (Computed On the other hand, Tomography). a With multidisciplinary co-ordination between the use of these medical imaging technics, objective scientific data instead biophysics and clinical sciences is are of doctors’ subjective comments essential applied in modern medicine. for effective usage of modern medical tools.

Introduction to Biological and Medical Physics Physical Measurements Unit Standards Biomechanics Biomaterials Bioelectronics Biooptics Bioacustics

Systematic of the Creatures Bioenergenitcs Laser Beams and their Use in Medicine Infrared Beams and their Use in Medicine Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Biophysics of The Respiratory System Biophysics of The Vascular System

Biophysics of The Neurological System Scientific Basis of Pain Scientific Basis of Pain Management Neurostimulation Neuroimplantation Acupuncture Technics Biofeedback

2.Sunum Systematic of Creatures

3.Sunum Biomechanics

Scaler Measurement Meaningful with number and unit, only. e.g. 1 kg sugar, 500 g tomatoe (mass), 3 m2 carpet (surface), 50 m3 wood, 2 lt milk (volume), 4 h, 5 min, 10 s (time), 18 ˚C, 300 ˚K (temperature).

acceleration. • • Scaler Quantities Vectorel Quantities Vectorel Measurement To describe some quantities. its direction depending on win. but their directions are opposite. and their directions and amplitudes are the same. number and unit are not enough. its line and its lenght must be known for a complete description Physical quantities such as force.Physical Measurement A concept that is necessary for physical evaluation of measurements related to creatures in the nature.g. i and j: unit vectors V = Vx i + Vy j V = Vx2 + Vy2 Vx = VCosθ Vy = VSinθ • . Its starting point where it locates on earth. speed. moment. amplitude •If the lines of certain vectors are in parallel. then these vectors will be called as “equal vectors”. Wheat in a land. In three dimension co-ordinate system. line direction. •If the lines and amplitudes of certain vectors are the same. e. other specifications have to be determined. then these vectors will be called as “opposite vectors” Components of a Vector In two dimension co-ordinate system. impulse can only be explained with vectors • This example shows that a vectorel measurement necessitates the determination of four parameters: starting point (application point).

A Cosθ 7. • Solution: A = Ax2 + Ay2 = (25)2 + (40)2 = 47. S. Problem 2 Horizontal component of a vector is –25 unit.Addition of Vectors Total vector is a vector that is equal to addition of more than one vector. then to north by 4 cm starting Ax a = point.9 unit.= Calculate the = total Ay = A Sinθ = 7.3 Cos 70˚ -2. • Addition of vectors which are on the same plane and in the different direction.3 Sin 70˚ = -6. Find the components of this vector. Find amplitude and angel made with the horizontal axis of this vector. Addition of vectors which are on the same line and in the same direction.3 unit and it makes 250º with the positive horizontal axis in the direction of counter clockwise.1 tg α = 25/40 ===> α = arc tg 25/40 = 32˚ θ = 32˚ + 90˚ = 122˚ . transposition (replacement) of the bistoury regarding to starting point. and its vertical component is 40 unit.5 unit from S.3 birim The bistoury of a surgeon goes to east by θ = 250˚ 3 cm first. Addition of vectors which are on the same line and in the opposite direction. Solution: Problem 4 A= 7. Total of the opposite vectors is equal to zero Problem 1 Lenght of a vector is 7.

So.g. e. . England.UNIT STANDARDS After all. it may be necessary to convert the units each other: 1 “ = 2.54 cm 1 pound = 454 g 1 mile = 1609 m 1 feet = 0. sometimes.3 m 1 galon = 231 inch3 Force: effect that changes shape or movement of the matter. some countries still insist on to use their traditional units.

Newton’s Laws three laws – explain relation between force and movement. Second Law Law • Newton’s Newton’s First • Newton’s Second Law “A force effecting on a matter is proportional • with acceleration Newton’s resulting Third Law from this force”. “deformation”. Gravitation that effects a matter at the point where it is located on the earth is called as its weight. in moon: 1. Newton’s First Law “Unless a force does not effect on a matter.g G: weight m: mass g: gravitation accelaration (9. slowing or stopping. e. tennis ball.81 N. Gravitation is not the same everywhere. force and acceleration are vectorel measurement. speeding up.g. Gravitation effect pulling all matters down to center of the earth. Weight of a matter of which mass is 1 kg is. Newton’s second law explain the concept of mass. “braking” effect. Mass and Weight Gravitation depends on the location of the matter on the earth. if it is standing it will continue to stand.81 m/s2) e. Special circumstance. F=m. cotton. in the celecitals: 9. The first Newton’s law “effect = reaction ” explain the concept of inertia or inactivity. in equator: 9. •Effect on the movement style of matter. and Newton’s Third Law if it is moving (linear movement with at a constant speed) “If a matter apply a force to another matter.g. Any how. it is the lowest in equator. whereas Newton’s third . no acceleration will occur”. in Ankara: 9. “acceleration” effect. F: force m: mass (proportionality constant) a: acceleration In this equation.79 N. in opposite direction”.6 N. explain First and second laws of Newton are related to force affecting a matter. weight G=m. that matter also applies a force with the same intensity it will go on to move in the same way”.There are. iron. but mass is scaler. The reason for such a force is not clear. The first Newton’s law the concept of inertia or inactivity. and the highest in the celestial. it has been suggested that gravitation results from an electromagnetic wave due to movement of internal layer of the earth. two kinds of effect of force on the matter: •Effect on the shape of matter. F = 0 ====> a = 0 which has the same meaning with the first Newton’s law. therefore. deformative effect is less on solid matters than that of elastic ones.a where.78 N.

a •in CGS standards. v = dl/dt units.= ----. Gravitation affecting each differential piece can be thought as forces in parallel. [dyne] = [g] [cm/s2] •in MKS standards. according to first and second Newton’s laws. lenght and velocity are all related concepts. When a force is applied to a matter. There are two sorts of energy Energy Protection Principle Energy cannot be created from the absence. Combining force of these forces are called as weightiness of that matter. m/s2 or cm/s2 Velocity Force. Acceleration is also a vectoral quantity. combining of these forces behaves like a force in the center of mass. acceleration. that matter will accelerate. cm/s.[-----] = -----dt dt dl dt 2 units. Energy ability of the matter to do work. “differential piece: the smallest piece we can imagine”. •Combining of the forces effecting on the matter crossing over the center of mass makes the matter move to change its location. km/h . and present energy cannot be made absent. that is a vectoral quantity. In a closed system. and its application point as center of gravitation or center of mass. [N] = [kg][m/s2] Since Center of Mass A solid matter can be considered as a composition of differential pieces. [m/s] = [m]/[s] m/s. Velocity. sum of the potential and kinetic energy is constant: Ep + Ek = constant Closed system is a system that is Acceleration independant of outside medium. and take lenght with a velocity. or is second derivation of lenght to time: dv d dl d 2l a = ----.Units of Force F=m. It is first derivation of velocity to time. is first derivation of lenght to time. Universe is also a closed system. •If there is more than one force effecting on the matter.

Also the human body. •Friction force of the ground.a + F2. is affected by the gravity force. εM = 0 F1.8 m/s2 . an effecting force is balanced by a reverse reaction force with the same amplitude. . 9. total moment is equal to zero. Effective Forces in Physical Therapy the forces effecting on the patient during physical therapy.b Effect and Reaction Forces in Human Body According to Newton’s third law.Moment Moment is the rotating effect of force.a = .g = 80 kg . e. Force applied by the physiotherapist. will be under the effect of gravity of: G = m.g. where the gravity acceleration is 9. •Gravity. According to moment saving principle. M = F ^d Moment of same directional parallel forces. and there is an opposite directional reaction force with the same amplitude to keep the position of body in balance.F2. A 80 kg person who is standing up.8 m/s2 = 784 N and there is an opposite reaction force of 784 N. depending on the gravity acceleration. •Muscle force.b = 0 F1.

Sunum Biomaterials The force has two types of effect on the substances: •changing the form of the substance (deformative effect). 10800x1011 / 1609 = 6. •Plastic substances.5 kg/m2 < BMI < 25 kg/m2 “normal weighted” •25 kg/m2 < BMI < 30 kg/m2 “over weighted” •30 kg/m2 < BMI < 40 kg/m2 “obes” •BMI > 40 kg/m2 “morbid obes” >> life threatining In this section. substances These are the substances that can be deformed by the effect of an external force.70 m)2 •BMI < 18.= 20. substances These are the substances that can be deformed by the effect of an external force. 1 mile = 1609 m)? Solution: v = l/t l = v. and they cannot get back to their initial form when the force exerting on them is removed 4.= ------------.t = 3x1011 m/s . but they return their initial form when the force exerting on them is removed. •Elastic substances.7 kg/m2 h2 (1.70 m and mass 60 kg? Solution: m 60 kg BMI = ------. to specify the biomaterials we are going to examine the deformative effect of the force: force •Solide substances.712x1011 mile Body Mass Index m BMI = ------h2 (mass) [kg] -----------------(height)2 [m]2 Problem: Calculate body mass index (BMI) of a man whose height is 1.5 kg/m2 “low weighted” •18. 1 mile = 1609 m then.Problem 3 What is the distance a laser beam pulse can take in an hour in miles (velocity of light beam in space = 3x1011 m/s. substances These are the substances that are accepted free from the deformative effect of the external forces. •effecting the manner of the movement (accelerative or decelerative effect).1x60x60 s = 10800x1011 m Since. .

width and related altering to the gender ofin the substance. the elasticity is provided by 10 μm in Young’s Module According to the Hooke Law. normally. σ: poisson ratio . ΔV P = B ------V In this statement. This change in volume. Y: the Young’s module which a coefficient Relative ratios height. atomic linkages do not break down as they are very powerful. Experimental data shows that quantity of elasticity is proportional with the force exerting on the object. e. For exemple.= . Rubber As a substance elongates in lenght. In soft (loose) (e. lenght: Δh Δw Δl -----.----Poisson Law A l can be written.When elastomers are heated. the atoms and molecules In solids. Some rubber can elongate and reach 10-15 folds of its original lenght. and it should alter to 0. it means that the deviation is only 1/1000.k. going through the pressure concept which is determined as the force exerting on an unit surface.g. Elastomers Elastomers are substances with weak interractions (links) between atoms.= Y.0002 nm under the influence of an external force. the distance between atoms is approximately equal to 0. the elongation in lenght is proportional with the force applied on the object. and this situation is given by F α Δl Now. Caoutchuc and rubber. F Δl ---.x Pulling and compressing compulsions of an object can be different. their resistance towards elongation increases. ). ΔV/V: Volumetric deformation. alveolar) tissues. Young’s modules of some substances: Substance Bone -16x109 N/m2 Steel Young’s module 9x109 N/m2 200x109 N/m2 0. That’s why Hooke Law Hooke Law indicates the rule of elongation event.g. it compresses from height and is width.σ -----h w l here. but during these position disturbance in solids. F α Δl +F/-x = tgθ = k: constant ===> F = . which form a substance change their initial position in a small number when facing to an external force. this is the case for bone.003x109 N/m2 Volumetric Deformation (Compression) Wood 3x109 N/m2 The volume of an object under the pressure is applied in every direction changes.Actually. B: Compression elasticity module.= -----.2 nm. P: Pressure.

because of rheumatic prob. As most of the biological processes depend on water. Bone is made of collagen fibers and hydroxiapatit (Ca+PO4) crystals. mechanical support.g. Beside. dental implants •Active Implants Operational in the body e.) •Platinum (platinum – irridium) •Tantalum •Titanium •Stainless-steel (316L) Medical Grade Titanium (Grade 4) •Sheet •Wire •Rod •Powder Implantable Forms •Cases (implant housing) •Wires (electrodes) •Sheets (contacts) Active Implantable Devices •Semi-implantable •Fully implantable Implantable Materials •Temporarily implantable •Permanently implantable Dental Implants •Silver ??? (just in history) •Gold ??? (just in history) •Porcelaine •Titanium Other Body Compitable Materials (medical grade) •Silicones •Polyurethane •Teflon •Bioceramics •Bioglass •Medical adhesives •Medical markers . Cardiac pacemakers.g. biological substances are generally found in watery mediums (71% or 3/4 of human body is water). only) •Gold ??? (not advised.Elasticity of biological substances The structure of heterogen quality biologic materials is rather complex. there are semi-rigid (solid) biological substances like bone and cartillage tissues. Ortopedic implants. solid and rigid biological substances like tooth. neuroimplants Body Compitable Metals (medical grade ) •Silver ??? (maybe applied in animal studies. only e. Implantable Devices •Passive implants No operation in the body.

liver. autonomic work harmoniously in human body. They are electrically active as long as they are alive. sensory system helps us defend ourselves fromlike thedigestive. robotics.Sunum Bioelectronics Electrical Activity as a Sign of Life All of the livings have an ongoing electrical activity along their life. Each creature. but the nervous system is of special importance. nervous. respiratory and vascular systems In addition to this. electronics. nervous All of these systems carry out life functions. within all kind of creatures. kidney. has been equiped with the best anatomical construction and physiological function. but speciality of the cells of nervous system –neurons . it is the administrator one. etc. is a miracle. . otomatic control. bone. the presence of electrical activity in a living creature indicates the presence of life on it. surrounding hazards. there is electrical activity in every single cell. ect. mechanical. stomach. system is responsible for working of some very important organs like heart. even a simple one. a lot of systems muscular. Human. thermodynamics. In other words.is to conduct their electrical signal to neighboring cells under certain conditions. All these activities are controlled by electrical activity in nervous system. Therefore. exist and work perfectly in human body. All kinds of engineering systems such as electrical. It has the task of coordination within all other systems. The human body may be resembeled to an extraordinarialy good electronic device which of any similar thing is not possible to be made. In actual fact. In order to survive such a transaction happens in the body which connot be simulated in industry. statics.Quality Assurance of Implants •FDA (essential in USA) •CE (essential in Europe) •ISO 13485 •ISO 9001 5. Thanks to feed-back controlling systems which are more excellent than the most excelent The one.

it is first of all converted into miniature electrical signals. inside of the cell being more negative than the outside.Shock effect: stopping of heart by excessive current. operating like an “osiloskop” display bioactive signals on the screen or it give print outs. namely synapse. seeing. mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. . e. 2. thus the second transmission way starts. the part of nerve between these two synapses is called interneuron. in order to record electrical activity of heart ECG (electrocardiography) is used. warm-cold. some devices in order to record Human Body biopotentials have been developed. formed this way. During recording. for electrical activity of brain EEG (electroancephelography). Physiologically speaking. for electrical activity of muscle EMG (electromyography).g. the different chemical concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell causes a potential difference across the membrane. in neurons. there are contact points. in case of touching. For instance. Tissue and Skin devices show very small potentials as a sign of life. At the entrance of the spinal cord. In medical for Current the purpose The Effectsapplications. where two neurons get in touch. Nerve impulses. the first synaptic contact happens. By means of interneuron. and goes up to the thalamus where a new synapse is created to form the third transmission way for the impulses to reache the sensory cortex. nerve impulses pass across the cord.Chemical effect: degeneration of the nervous system. a straight line will be shown on the zero axis. these Impedance of theifCell. Brain demodulates action potentials arriving in the sensory cortex by evaluating the patterns of the signals.Anatomically speaking. tasting). •1. hearing. a kind of “biopotentials”. e. work just like energy transformers – transducers – in technology. because these ions have electrical charges. When a receptor percept any kind of physical stimulant (touching. On the cellular basis. Peripheral nerves come out of the spinal cord as thirtyone pairs just like branches of a tree. and they spread all over the body. When patient dies. 3.Thermic effect: burning of the body because of excessive current. the patient is alive. namely receptors. located very close to skin. the brain and spinal cord form central nervous system. Within the nervous system.g. Nerve impulses carrying various sensations is called “action potentials”. soon after that another synapse occurs. are conducted to the spinal cord by peripheral nerves. All these devices. bare nerve endings. . and recognises what the sense is. of Electrical on of diognosis.

42 V A. e. .5 kV or 15 kV that is Solution: by wet hands. depending on f.Because the blood and other body fluids are in motion. in different parts of the same body. and 70V D. compared with D. changes according to time and place. kills the person involved I = V / Z = 220 V / 1000 Ω = 0. and we must use it. there is also capacitive current. Otherwise we can face with results which are unrecoverable. So. the voltage is lowered to 34. with the same amplitude is more effective in harming the living tissue. by wet hands? electrical current Comment of 220 mA. ground.C. We know that impedance of the living tissue is frequency dependant.C.C. That’s parents their children not to without why electricity the warn life would reflect a Middle touch the electrical ligth switches and plug Age life style vision.V As seen from the equations of capacitive reactance and current. we mustfrom look at example the table of safe and That is the voltage of energy coming to our electrical current can cause a dangerous current values.).g. fatal effect on houses or work places. Different Effects of Direct and Alternating Currents Both direct and alternating current will be harmful when they flow through the body over safety limits. Even if we only think about the importance of light. We need with electricity. and 600 folds. The electricity pruduced in a power station is first raised to 380 kV that is “very high voltage” by a raiser transformator. A. educational purposes.C. voltage is accepted as 65V safe touching Electricity is. The values differ from person to person.. sockets wet hands.C. but the degree of effect is different to type of current. f i This mathematical analysis shows that A. human body.C. in accordance with technical rules. then?” In networks that connected to the In case of alternating current (A. one of thedown best products but in wet skin this value falls to 1kΩ. of technology. when the frequency increases current increases. In case of direct current (D. one may ask a question that “why do we use electricity and take such a risk. XC =1/ωC=1/2πfC iC = V / XC = V / 1/ωC = V / 1/2πfC = 2πfC. because of its capacitive future. districts. the cell.C. in this accident. and we need to use it at homes. the impedence of the living tissue is variable. The impedence ofnot dry skin between 100 “Wouldn’t be better to use is electricity?” kΩ and 600 kΩ. in medicine and other fields. even in the same part of the same body at different times. and when it decreases the current decreases.4 kV by a last mA step transformer located in certain places in the To answer the second part of the question.).C.C. can cause the same effect with 70V D. f = 0 then iC = 0 in fact. by the Ministry of Energy. i = iR 42 V A.22 A = 220 Whatever it is finally lowered to 0. athat person center. safely. it is lowered 166 kVthrough or 66 kV is who touches the electrical network system “high voltage”. in industry. “ intermediate voltage ”. and it is then given to the national network. tissue and skin has two components of current: resistive component and capacitive component. We also know that electrical conductivity is proportional to the frequency for the same reason. As Problem: seen from the table of safe and When energy arrives in a main distribution How dangerous much currentto passes values. are legally allowed current limits. As seen the given. It is not a fixed value.C. in thus the impedence decreases between 100 offices. on passing the result through of this accident? a person who touches the electrical network In the distribution centers in cities. certainly. i = iR + iC In labs during experiments for during D.

P. we have the standart voltage of 380 kV that is called “interphasal voltage”. technical and economical aspects must be considered.“in 1-phase system” k.U² P.l %Δv = --------------k. So one question may come “why do we still insist on using 220/380 V network system in cities since it is so dangerous?’ To prepare the answer to this question.q.4 kV = 400 V 400 V x 0. V 380 V = √3 x 220 V to minds.After substraction of the line loses which is 5%.q. There is a √3 coefficeint beetwen these voltages: We know that U: interphasal “65 V A. U = √3 . P: power (W) l: distance (m) k: selfconductivity (m/Ω-mm2) q: cross section of the energy transmission line (mm2) U: interphasal voltage (V) V: phase-neutr voltage (V) Line Looses.05 = 20 V 400 V . 0.C. is accepted as safe voltage touching V: phase-neutr voltage voltage” by the Ministry of Energy.l %Δu = ---------------.20 V = 380 V The phase neutr voltage is 220 volt.V² “in 3-phase system” .

There are three types of grounding: 1) Protection grounding. • Wrong electrical connections to devices. • Wrong temporary electrical applications. electrical devices. So. for protecting people who touch metallic parts of a machine on which there is no current in normal operational conditions. smaller resistance to flow”. •Allowing of only licenced technical personnel to use electric instruments. “Curent always follows short circuit‘”. very high (380 kV) and high voltages (166 kV or 66 kV) are to be used in the national network. 3) Special grounding (not our concern). steel armour of underground cables. • Useage of materials which are out of standard. metallic parts of transformers. Factors Which Increase the Risk of Electrical Accident • Broken instruments and tools. connection of condutive metallic parts to ground is called grounding. •Application of standard fuses and other protective circuit elements. 2) Operational grounding (related to TEAŞ and TEDAŞ).5 kV or 15 kV) in intercity distribution system. and bodies of steel buildings are . Because a short circuit has the lowest resistance. Precautions Against Electric Accidents •Handling and repair of electrical equipment. zero. Grounding of the metallic parts of machines that work with electricity. Electrical Security Systems Grounding Systems In the places where electricity is used. In long distances. •Application of complete and appropriate “Electrical current prefers a pathway with grounding. seconder windings of measurement transformers. • Excessive current. Protection Grounding Protection grounding is applied to send escaped current.These formulas for calculating line losses reveal that thick wires should be used to decrease the looses. •Inter-vocational trainning of personnel against electric accidents. intermediate voltages (34. and low voltages (220/380 V) in houses and working places. • Humidity. to the ground. These are major rules of electrical engineering. •Control and check. resulting from a breakdown in the system. • Incompatible network voltage. this is impossible for both technical and economical reasons.

The grounding line between the main panel and the subpanels should be half of the phase 6. the atom is in unstable form. there are 70 cm×70 cm copper plates available in markets.5 m². Neutrons are neutral. and they have a unit load (+ 1). The pool should be at least 1.Sunum Radiation Biophysics conductor in thickness not being less than 4 mm². this atom is said to be in stable state. Neutrons exist in nuclei that have 2 or more protons. The number of protons may be same with the number of neutrons. forming the nucleus. •Grounding Conductors. . The surface of the grounding should be A nucleus is formed by two pool components: arranged in a pool like shape in order to make protons and neutrons. The same type of wire which is of minimum 16 mm² should be used between the main energy distribution panel and the energy enterance of the building. On the other hand galvanized steel plates must be minimum 3 mm thickness and 0. In order to provide this surface area.5 m² surface Grounding Conductors The grounding line which connects the grounding plate to the main energy enterance of the building should be bare. If the number of proton is less or more than the number of neutron. If the number of proton is equal or close to the number of neutron.5 mm² grounding line is suitable for the plugs. 2. If the soil which has been digged is not clear. The grounding plate should be put into the hole with a right angle and the upper end of the plate should be 50 cm below the surface of the soil. Grounding Plates and Pipes Usually copper plates or galvanized steel plates are used as grounding plates.Grounding Equipments •Grounding Plates and Pipes. If the soil is dry. For this purpose. Inside the building. full copper wire with 50 mm². Protons and neutrons. the rain water accumulate there.5 m in deep. it should be sieved before it is used for stuffing. the deep of the hole may be increased in order to reach a humid soil. The soil which is pressed by knocking on after Protons are positively charged. the destruction or deterioration occurs in nucleus and spreads radiation. and it tries to pass the resolute state. Grounding Pits A humid place which can take rain continously is suitable for a grounding pit. the copper plates must be minimum 2 mm in thickness and must have a surface of 0. According to the relevant regulating rules. •Grounding Pools. are together called nucleon.

some others artificial. The partition criteria for a nucleus: 45 < A2/M < 53. it was understood that a (alfa) radiation was similar to 42He nucleus. it was observed that the films got darken. These elements. the nucleus emits b beam. were drunk If it is positive (+). Atoms can be in two different forms: Stable Form (Stable Atoms) PN ~ NN Unstable Form (Unstable Atoms) (Radioactive Atom) (Radioisotope) PN > veya < NN These group of atoms try to pass to stable form. and thus it losses 2 protons and 2 neutrons. and to achieve this. even more darken. . radioiodine. and b (beta) radiation looked like e. 1 neutron is converted into 1 e+ and 1 e.. they emit radiation. generally. The strong Coulomb repelling effect between protons of elements with high atomic number makes these elements unstable. in steady state. were called as “radioisotopes”. there are some experimental data about the criteria of radioactivity: Atoms with nucleus having double number of electrons are. and this way it could be converted into another elements. If the sign of b particule is negative. and its charge is ± 1. After all. There is not an exact rule to determine if an isotope is radioactive or not. revealed that most of elements with atomic number between 81 and 92 are radioisotopes. Later on. The mass of b particule is the same with that of electron.55 = 82 N >>> P “That’s why 137 Cesium is radioactive”. The ratio of number of neutrons and protons in nucleus give an idea about the radioactivity. it will be First calledradioactivity “electron”. Until 1912.. During this procedure. after removing the upper skin. Studies by Ernest RUTHERTFORT (1898) showed that uranium emited two kinds of radiation: α (alfa) and β (beta).5 Experimental studies. tests on the livings were undertaken on frogs. employing natural radioactive series. When the frogs. . The reason for this. placed on photograph films including carbon. To decrease the effect of Coulomb repelling.Problem: What is the reason for 137 Cesium to be radioactive (its atomic number is 55)? 137 Cs 55 M = 137 A = P = 55 M=P+N 137 = 55 + N N = 137 . the nucleus undergoes a action. which it will be called “positron”. 30 more radioactive elements were found. some of which were natural. Sometimes.

which is expected to emit α. they emit radiation. elements composed of stable atoms fall into steady state region. Atoms can be in two different forms: Stable Form (Stable Atoms) PN ~ NN Unstable Form (Unstable Atoms) (Radioactive Atom) (Radioisotope) PN > veya < NN These group of atoms try to pass to stable form. Atom ic Bomb The explosion of atomic bomb based on the principle that combine specific amount of radioactive elements(236U or 233Th) which is called critical mass. A nucleus that is out of stable state region can emit either β or α particule to reach to stable state. are out of steady state region. of which the ratio of number of neutrons and protons are less or greater than 1. But. Critical mass of uranium is estimated to be mcritic @ 2.When neutron and proton numbers is represened by a graphic. Radioactive elements. and to achieve this. e. there is not a certain rule to reach stable state region. and how close it to a stable element.6 kg When the atomic bomb is explosed temperature will be 4x106 oK . prefers β activity.g. A few isotopes within stable state region are still radioactive. How a radioactive element will reach to the stable state depends on the ratio of number of neutrons and protons. The nucleus of torium 233.

1/8. Solution: after 1 s.05x10000 = 500 (divided) 10000 . N = N0. (-) sign shows that the number of radioactive atoms decreases in time. fusion reaction is a potential from fusion reaction is much less than those candidate as an alternative energy from fission. it can be talked about the probability of disintegration. The amount of nuclear waste remaining For this reason. t1/2 = 0.25 curve that shows change after 3curve s. As partition constant increases physical half-life gets shorten. But. half of the radioactive atoms get lost. 1/4.500 = 9500 (the rest) after 2 s. second and third second. 0. in consistent with the equation 1/2. . light). it is not directly used.iode Findatom the nucleus will be divided in 1 s. instead the vapor. Generally uranium 236 is used as a substance. slowed or accelerated. t = t1/2 N = N0/2 By taking natural logarithm. 1/2n patition continues.05x9500 = 475 (divided) Decay Curve 9500 .λN can be written...475 = 9025 (the rest) Decay which is= a 451. and partition constant 0. Decay constant is independant from chemical and physical conditions (pressure. So. 0. By the end of physical half-lie. This mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy by alternators If in Δt time interval only ΔN number of radioactive atom is broken into pieces from N number of radioactive atom. is provided from explosion of atomic bomb. radioactive decay cannot be stopped. ΔN / Δt = . By integration. taken from another water depot. 0. The equation of reaction that is a fission reaction. and thus. 236U 92Kr + 144Ba + enerji Paraphine wall prevents the radiation to escape the environment. Because water.75 (the rest) logaritmic graphic paper. The line connecting these two points determines decay curve.693/λ Physical half-life is inversily proportional to partition constant. that’s why hydrogen bombsource has in the future. pumped through the water channels.g. . At the time of physical halflife 50 % DF is marked (2nd point).A fission (partition) reaction. In this equation. number of atoms being divided and the remainings by the end of first. been called clean bomb.25 = 8573. original value at the beginning. it cannot be exactly known which one will be divided and when.05. e. The reaction in a nuclear powerstation is based upon the disintegration of substances by partition. H y dremaining r o g e n product B o m b resulting from fusion The The heat which is necessary making reaction is much less than for those from hydrogen bomb that is a kind of fusion reaction fission. results in movement of the turbine. λ: Partition constant (probability of disintegration per unit time). λI-131 = 10-6 s-1 Problem: This means that The number of atoms of a radioactive material is only 1 out of 1000000 radioactive 10000.718 (base of natural logarithme) -λt = is N/N Factor 0 = e : Decay Time DF that necessary for the number of (%radioactive how many left from the atoms the eginning) atoms to decrease at down to half of its The Law of Radioactive Decay Partition of radioactive nucleuses is a random process. temperature. At the beginning (t=0)100 % decay factor (DF) is marked (1st point).e-λt N0: the number of radioactive atoms at the beginning N: the number of radioactive atoms by the end of time t Physical Half Life e: 2. involves in radioactivity.05x9025 (divided) of decay factor9025 according to time on a half – 451. then half of the rest.

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