You are on page 1of 10

Pump Piping

Introd uction
We all know that piping is integral to the pump system. Because it is connected to the suction and discharge, the piping affects the health and well being of the pump. Incorrect pipe installation prejudices the pumps useful life. In this chapter, we present graphic information on inadequate and correct piping arrangements.

Piping design t o drain tanks and sumps


When draining a tank with two pumps, you should not use a T with two connections. The dominant pump may asphyxiate the other pump. Each pump needs its own supply pipe (Figure 17-1).
INCORRECT CORRECT

Figure 17-1

PUMP

FMp E
PUMP PUMP

238

Pump Piping

Fiaure 17-2

eMp
INCORRECT CORRECT
P U M P P

The in-flow pipe should not cause interference with the drain pipe (Figure 17-2).
INCORRECT CORRECT

Figure 17-3

Drain pipe design must respect proper submergence (Figure 17-3). The submergence laws appear later in this chapter.
INCORRECT CORRECT

Figure 17-4

Use vortex breakers (Figure 1 7 4 ) .

239

Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps


INCORRECT CORRECT

\t7

PUMP

&

PUMP

Design the level indicators to respect the proper submergence (Figure 17-5).

BUIBBLES
Figure 17-6

Inadequate sump design leads to entrained air bubbles and turbulence. This will damage the pump (Figure 17-6).

240

Pump Piping

PREFERRED DISCHARGE POSITION

BAFFLE STOPS TURBULENCE AND BUBBLES

BU~BLES

Figure 17-7

A submerged in-flow pipe and tank baffles prevent turbulence and bubbles frgm entering thhe suction piping (Figuk 17-7).

f
-

Figure 17-8

The suction bell reduces entrance losses and helps to prevent vortices. If you use a basket strainer, the screen area should be four times the area of the entrance pipe. Avoid tight mesh screens because they clog quickly (Figure 17-8).

241

Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps


AIR ASPIRATES THROUGHTHE PACKING PUMP DISCHARGE

1 -

SUCTION BY-PASS

Figure 17-9

Avoid high speed suction flow (Figure 17-9). This causes air entrainment. Also, a high suction lifi produces the same effect.

Figure 17-10
~~

These are the dimensions to respect for proper sump design (Figure 17-10). The submergence laws are independent of the pumps NPSHr. The submergence laws are presented later in this chapter.

242

Pump Piping

Finlire 17-11

This aspirated air vortex is the result of not respecting adequate submergence (Figure 17-1 1). The submergence laws follow.

The Submergence Laws


16

12

Fluid Velocity in Suction Pipe In Feet per Second.

Minumum Submergence in Feet

Figure 17-12 -

243

Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps

50

40

30

20

100 200
400

10

0600 800 1000 2000 4000


6000

Figure 17-13

Figure 17-14

Use a Y branch and not a T branch. This will reduce turbulence.

244

Pump Piping
Slight incline toward the

DRY

Eccentric

Straight Pipe toward Pump

Figure 17-15

Correct suction piping leading to the pump (Figure 17-15).

1 ' 1

10 DIAMETERS

STRAIGHT PIPE

Figure 17-16
~ ~~~

You should respect 10 pipe diameters before the first elbow in the suction piping (Figure 17-16). Example: If the pump has a 6 inch suction nozzle, you should have 60 inches of straight pipe before the first elbow.

245

Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps


INCORRECT

Concentric reducer

"J

CORRECT

Figure 17-17

Use an eccentric pipe reducer to connect to the pump suction nozzle (Figure 17-1 7).
Don't use flange bolts to unite misaligned piping to the pump. This damages the flange faces and stresses the pump casing (Figure 17-18).

INCORRECT

CORRECT

Fiaure 17-18

246

Pump Piping

CORRECT DISCHARGE PIPING


Discharge pipe diameter larger than pump discharge nozzle

Instrumentation is 8 diameters fromthelast obstruction (valve)

pipe upport.

Reducer

Fiaure 17-19