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# What is pole pitch?

Suppose we have an N-pole electrical machine, then the angular distance between the consecutive poles when expressed in degrees is POLE PITCH. eg. For a two pole machine (one north and one South Pole), the pole pitch is 180 degrees, and for a 4-pole machine: it is 90 degrees. Note that this is so when expressed in Mechanical degrees, whereas in Electrical degrees it is always 180 degrees. Therefore: POLE PITCH (mechanical)=180/(n/2): n=no pf poles.

LinearInductionMotor(SpecialTypeMotor)
Synchronous speed of the field ns =2fs / p, Where, fs/is supply frequency in Hz, and p = number of poles Velocity of a linear traveling field vs = 2 t fs m/sec. where, vs is velocity of the linear traveling field, and t is the pole pitch . For a slip of s, the speed of the LIM is given by v = (1-s) vs What is cogging effect? The cogging effect is the attraction between the magnets and the stator poles when at rest; this attraction and cogging is easily felt when trying to turn an electric motor by hand. A common misconception is that cogging is caused by the copper coils; however, this is not the case. An unequal attraction between the magnets and the stator results in the rotors reluctance to turn. The magnets sit comfortably at rest over a pole, and when the rotor is turned, they must move over an air gap before reaching the next pole. The rotor resists the turning, the magnets attempting to stay bonded to the current poles, until just over halfway through the air gap, where the attraction to the next pole is stronger than that of the previous pole, resulting in a "clunking" or jumping effect at low RPM (such as when trying to turn by hand). This is the cogging effect, resulting in a large torque required to begin rotation. The cogging effect is the attraction between the magnets and the stator poles when at rest; this attraction and cogging is easily felt when trying to turn an electric motor by hand. A common misconception is that cogging is caused by the copper coils; however, this is not the case. An unequal attraction between the magnets and the stator results in the rotors reluctance to turn. The magnets sit comfortably at rest over a pole, and when the rotor is turned, they must move over an air gap before reaching the next pole. The rotor resists the turning, the magnets attempting to stay bonded to the current poles, until just over halfway through the air gap, where the attraction to the next pole is stronger than that of the previous pole, resulting in a "clunking" or jumping effect at low RPM (such as when trying to turn by hand). This is the cogging effect, resulting in a large torque required to begin rotation A Metadyne is a direct current electrical machine with two pairs of brushes. It can be used as an amplifier or rotary transformer. It is similar to a third brush dynamo but has additional regulator or "variator" windings. It is also similar to an amplidyne except that the latter has a compensating winding which fully counteracts the effect of the flux produced by the load current. The technical description is "a cross-field direct current machine designed to utilize armature reaction". A metadyne can convert a constantvoltage input into a constant current, variable voltage, output. Application: Traction control, Gun control An amplidyne is an electromechanical amplifier invented during World War II by Ernst Alexanderson. It is usually an AC motor driving a DC generator with modifications to increase the power gain available. A small electrical signal can control the position of a large motor using this approach. Application: Amplidynes were initially used for electric elevators, moving sidewalks (Paris 1900), to point naval guns, and antiaircraft artillery radar such as SCR-584 in 1942. Later used to control processes in steelworks. Used to remotely operate the control rods in early nuclear submarine designs (S3G Triton) Diesel-electric locomotive control systems. Early ALCO road-switcher locomotives used this technology