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RemarksAsPreparedforDeliveryfortheCenterforAmerican ProgressEventonNSASurveillance

Thankyouforhavingmethismorning.TheCenterforAmericanProgress andthenotedprivacyhawkJohnPodestahavelongbeenpursuing thoughtfulintelligencepolicy.Sinceopeningyourdoorsin2003youhave beenmakingthecasethatsecurityandlibertyarenotmutuallyexclusive, andyourworkiswellknowninmyofficeandthroughoutWashington.

WhenthePatriotActwaslastreauthorized,Istoodonthefloorofthe UnitedStatesSenateandsaidIwanttodeliverawarningthisafternoon. WhentheAmericanpeoplefindouthowtheirgovernmenthasinterpreted thePatriotAct,theyaregoingtobestunnedandtheyaregoingtobe angry.FrommypositionontheSenateIntelligenceCommittee,Ihadseen governmentactivitiesconductedundertheumbrellaofthePatriotActthat IknewwouldastonishmostAmericans.

Atthetime,Senaterulesaboutclassifiedinformationbarredmefrom givinganyspecificsofwhatIdseenexcepttodescribeitasSecretLawa secretinterpretationofthePatriotAct,issuedbyasecretcourt,that authorizessecretsurveillanceprogramsprogramsthatIandcolleagues thinkgofarbeyondtheintentofthestatute.

Ifthatisnotenoughtogiveyoupause,thenconsiderthatnotonlywerethe existenceofandthelegaljustificationfortheseprogramskeptcompletely secretfromtheAmericanpeople,seniorofficialsfromacrossthe governmentweremakingstatementstothepublicaboutdomestic surveillancethatwereclearlymisleadingandattimessimplyfalse.Senator MarkUdallandItriedagainandagaintogettheexecutivebranchtobe straightwiththepublic,butundertheclassificationrulesobservedbythe SenatewearenotevenallowedtotapthetruthoutinMorsecodeandwe triedjustabouteverythingelsewecouldthinkoftowarntheAmerican people.

ButasIvesaidbefore,onewayoranotherthetruthalwayswinsout.

Lastmonth,disclosuresmadebyanNSAcontractorlitthesurveillance worldonfire.Severalprovisionsofsecretlawwerenolongersecretand theAmericanpeoplewerefinallyabletoseesomeofthethingsIvebeen raisingthealarmaboutforyears.Andwhentheydid,boywerethey stunned,andboyaretheyangry.

Youhearitinthelunchrooms,townhallmeetings,andseniorcitizen centers.Thelatestpolling,thewellrespectedQuinnipiacpoll,foundthata pluralityofpeoplesaidthegovernmentisoverreachingandencroaching toomuchonAmericanscivilliberties.Thatsahugeswingfromwhat thatsamesurveysaidjustacoupleyearsago,andthatnumberistrending upward.Asmoreinformationaboutsweepinggovernmentsurveillanceof lawabidingAmericansismadepublicandtheAmericanpeoplecandiscuss itsimpacts,IbelievemoreAmericanswillspeakout.Theyregoingtosay, inAmerica,youdonthavetosettleforonepriorityortheother:lawscan bewrittentoprotectbothprivacyandsecurity,andlawsshouldneverbe secret.

After9/11,when3,000Americansweremurderedbyterrorists,therewasa consensusthatourgovernmentneededtotakedecisiveaction.Atatimeof understandablepanic,Congressgavethegovernmentnewsurveillance authorities,butattachedanexpirationdatetotheseauthoritiessothatthey couldbedeliberatedmorecarefullyoncetheimmediateemergencyhad passed.Yetinthedecadesince,thatlawhasbeenextendedseveraltimes withnopublicdiscussionabouthowthelawhasactuallybeeninterpreted. Theresult:thecreationofanalwaysexpanding,omnipresentsurveillance statethathourbyhourchipsneedlesslyawayatthelibertiesand freedomsourFoundersestablishedforus,withoutthebenefitofactually makingusanysafer.

So,todayImgoingtodeliveranotherwarning:Ifwedonotseizethis uniquemomentinourconstitutionalhistorytoreformoursurveillance lawsandpractices,wewillalllivetoregretit.Illhavemoretosayabout theconsequencesoftheomnipresentsurveillancestate,butasyoulistento thistalk,ponderthatmostofushaveacomputerinourpocketthat

potentiallycanbeusedtotrackandmonitorus24/7.

Thecombinationofincreasinglyadvancedtechnologywithabreakdownin thechecksandbalancesthatlimitgovernmentactioncouldleadustoa surveillancestatethatcannotbereversed.

Atthispoint,alittlebitofhistorymightbehelpful.IjoinedtheSenate IntelligenceCommitteeinJanuary2001,justbefore9/11.Likemost senatorsIvotedfortheoriginalPatriotAct,inpart,becauseIwas reassuredthatithadanexpirationdatethatwouldforceCongresstocome backandconsidertheseauthoritiesmorecarefullywhentheimmediate crisishadpassed.Astimewenton,frommyviewontheIntelligence Committeethereweredevelopmentsthatseemedfartherandfarther removedfromtheidealsofourFoundingFathers.Thisstartednotlong after9/11,withaPentagonprogramcalledTotalInformationAwareness, whichwasessentiallyanefforttodevelopanultralargescaledomestic dataminingsystem.Troubledbythiseffort,anditsnotexactlymodest logoofanallseeingeyeontheuniverse,Iworkedwithanumberof

senatorstoshutitdown.Unfortunately,thiswashardlythelastdomestic surveillanceoverreach.Infact,theNSAsinfamouswarrantless wiretappingprogramwasalreadyupandrunningatthatpoint,thoughI, andmostmembersoftheIntelligenceCommitteedidntlearnaboutituntil afewyearslater.Thiswaspartofapatternofwithholdinginformation fromCongressthatpersistedthroughouttheBushadministrationIjoined theIntelligenceCommitteein2001,butIlearnedaboutthewarrantless wiretappingprogramwhenyoureadaboutitintheNewYorkTimesinlate 2005.

TheBushadministrationspentmostof2006attemptingtodefendthe warrantlesswiretappingprogram.Onceagain,whenthetruthcameout,it producedasurgeofpublicpressureandtheBushadministration announcedthattheywouldsubmittooversightfromCongressandthe ForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceCourt,alsoknownastheFISACourt. Unfortunately,becausetheFISACourtsrulingsaresecret,most AmericanshadnoideathattheCourtwaspreparedtoissueincredibly broadrulings,permittingthemassivesurveillancethatfinallymade

headlineslastmonth.

Itsnowamatterofpublicrecordthatthebulkphonerecordsprogramhas beenoperatingsinceatleast2007.Itsnotacoincidencethatahandfulof senatorshavebeenworkingsincethentofindwaystoalertthepublicabout whathasbeengoingon.Monthsandyearswentintotryingtofindwaysto raisepublicawarenessaboutsecretsurveillanceauthoritieswithinthe confinesofclassificationrules.

Iandseveralofmycolleagueshavemadeitourmissiontoendtheuseof secretlaw.

WhenOregonianshearthewordssecretlaw,theyhavecomeuptomeand asked,Ron,howcanthelawbesecret?Whenyouguyspasslawsthatsa publicdeal.Imgoingtolookthemuponline.Inresponse,Itell OregoniansthatthereareeffectivelytwoPatriotActsthefirstistheone thattheycanreadontheirlaptopinMedfordorPortland,analyzeand understand.ThentherestherealPatriotActthesecretinterpretationof

thelawthatthegovernmentisactuallyrelyingupon.Thesecretrulingsof theForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceCourthaveinterpretedthePatriot Act,aswellassection702oftheFISAstatute,insomesurprisingways, andtheserulingsarekeptentirelysecretfromthepublic.Theserulingscan beastoundinglybroad.Theonethatauthorizesthebulkcollectionofphone recordsisasbroadasanyIhaveeverseen.

Thisrelianceofgovernmentagenciesonasecretbodyoflawhasreal consequences.MostAmericansdontexpecttoknowthedetailsabout ongoingsensitivemilitaryandintelligenceactivities,butasvotersthey absolutelyhaveaneedandarighttoknowwhattheirgovernmentthinksit ispermittedtodo,sothattheycanratifyorrejectdecisionsthatelected officialsmakeontheirbehalf.Toputitanotherway,Americansrecognize thatintelligenceagencieswillsometimesneedtoconductsecret operations,buttheydontthinkthoseagenciesshouldberelyingonsecret law.

Now,somearguethatkeepingthemeaningofsurveillancelawssecretis

necessary,becauseitmakesiteasiertogatherintelligenceonterrorist groupsandotherforeignpowers.Ifyoufollowthislogic,whenCongress passedtheoriginalForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceActbackinthe1970s, theycouldhavefoundawaytomakethewholethingsecret,sothatSoviet agentswouldntknowwhattheFBIssurveillanceauthoritieswere.But thatsnotthewayyoudoitinAmerica.

ItisafundamentalprincipleofAmericandemocracythatlawsshouldnot bepubliconlywhenitisconvenientforgovernmentofficialstomakethem public.Theyshouldbepublicallthetime,opentoreviewbyadversarial courts,andsubjecttochangebyanaccountablelegislatureguidedbyan informedpublic.IfAmericansarenotabletolearnhowtheirgovernment isinterpretingandexecutingthelawthenwehaveeffectivelyeliminated themostimportantbulwarkofourdemocracy.Thatswhy,evenatthe heightoftheColdWar,whentheargumentforabsolutesecrecywasatits zenith,CongresschosetomakeUSsurveillancelawspublic.

Withoutpubliclaws,andpubliccourtrulingsinterpretingthoselaws,itis

impossibletohaveinformedpublicdebate.AndwhentheAmericanpeople areinthedark,theycantmakefullyinformeddecisionsaboutwhoshould representthem,orprotestpoliciesthattheydisagreewith.Theseare fundamentals.ItsCivics101.Andsecretlawviolatesthosebasic principles.IthasnoplaceinAmerica.

NowletsturntothesecretcourttheForeignIntelligenceSurveillance Court,theonevirtuallynoonehadheardoftwomonthsagoandnowthe publicasksmeaboutatthebarber.

WhentheFISAcourtwascreatedaspartofthe1978FISAlawitswork wasprettyroutine.Itwasassignedtoreviewgovernmentapplicationsfor wiretapsanddecidewhetherthegovernmentwasabletoshowprobable cause.Soundslikethegardenvarietyfunctionofdistrictcourtjudges acrossAmerica.Infact,theirrolewassomuchlikeadistrictcourtthatthe judgeswhomakeuptheFISACourtareallcurrentfederaldistrictcourt judges.

After9/11,CongresspassedthePatriotActandtheFISAAmendmentsAct. Thisgavethegovernmentbroadnewsurveillancepowersthatdidntmuch resembleanythingineitherthecriminallawenforcementworldorthe originalFISAlaw.TheFISACourtgotthejobofinterpretingthesenew, unparalleledauthoritiesofthePatriotActandFISAAmendmentsAct. Theychosetoissuebindingsecretrulingsthatinterpretedthelawandthe Constitutioninthestartlingwaythathascometolightinthelastsix weeks.TheyweretoissuethedecisionthatthePatriotActcouldbeused fordragnet,bulksurveillanceoflawabidingAmericans.

OutsidethenamesoftheFISAcourtjudges,virtuallyeverythingelseis secretaboutthecourt.Theirrulingsaresecret,whichmakeschallenging theminanappealscourtalmostimpossible.Theirproceedingsaresecret too,butIcantellyouthattheyarealmostalwaysonesided.The governmentlawyerswalkinandlayoutanargumentforwhythe governmentshouldbeallowedtodosomething,andtheCourtdecides basedsolelyonthejudgesassessmentofthegovernmentsarguments. Thatsnotunusualifacourtisconsideringaroutinewarrantrequest,but

itsveryunusualifacourtisdoingmajorlegalorconstitutionalanalysis.I knowofabsolutelynoothercourtinthiscountrythatstrayssofarfromthe adversarialprocessthathasbeenpartofoursystemforcenturies.

ItmayalsosurpriseyoutoknowthatwhenPresidentObamacameto office,hisadministrationagreedwithmethattheserulingsneededtobe madepublic.Inthesummerof2009Ireceivedawrittencommitment fromtheJusticeDepartmentandtheOfficeoftheDirectorofNational Intelligencethataprocesswouldbecreatedtostartredactingand declassifyingFISACourtopinions,sothattheAmericanpeoplecouldhave someideaofwhatthegovernmentbelievesthelawallowsittodo.Inthe lastfouryearsexactlyzeroopinionshavebeenreleased.

Nowthatweknowabitaboutsecretlawandthecourtthatcreatedit,lets talkabouthowithasdiminishedtherightsofeveryAmericanman,woman andchild.

Despitetheeffortsoftheintelligencecommunityleadershiptodownplay

theprivacyimpactofthePatriotActcollection,thebulkcollectionof phonerecordssignificantlyimpactstheprivacyofmillionoflawabiding Americans.Ifyouknowwhosomeonecalled,whentheycalled,wherethey calledfrom,andhowlongtheytalked,youlaybarethepersonallivesof lawabidingAmericanstothescrutinyofgovernmentbureaucratsand outsidecontractors.

Thisisparticularlytrueifyourevacuumingupcellphonelocationdata, essentiallyturningeveryAmericanscellphoneintoatrackingdevice.We aretoldthisisnothappeningtoday,butintelligenceofficialshavetoldthe pressthattheycurrentlyhavethelegalauthoritytocollectAmericans locationinformationinbulk.

EspeciallytroublingisthefactthatthereisnothinginthePatriotActthat limitsthissweepingbulkcollectiontophonerecords.Thegovernmentcan usethePatriotActsbusinessrecordsauthoritytocollect,collateand retainallsortsofsensitiveinformation,includingmedicalrecords, financialrecords,orcreditcardpurchases.Theycouldusethisauthorityto

developadatabaseofgunownersorreadersofbooksandmagazines deemedsubversive.Thismeansthatthegovernmentsauthoritytocollect informationonlawabidingAmericancitizensisessentiallylimitless.Ifit isarecordheldbyabusiness,membershiporganization,doctor,orschool, oranyotherthirdparty,itcouldbesubjecttobulkcollectionunderthe PatriotAct.

Authoritiesthisbroadgivethenationalsecuritybureaucracythepowerto scrutinizethepersonallivesofeverylawabidingAmerican.Allowingthat tocontinueisagraveerrorthatdemonstratesawillfulignoranceofhuman nature.Moreover,itdemonstratesacompletedisregardforthe responsibilitiesentrustedtousbytheFoundingFatherstomaintainrobust checksandbalancesonthepowerofanyarmofthegovernment.

Thatobviouslyraisessomeveryseriousquestions.Whathappenstoour government,ourcivillibertiesandourbasicdemocracyifthesurveillance stateisallowedtogrowunchecked?

Aswehaveseeninrecentdays,theintelligenceleadershipisdeterminedto holdontothisauthority.Mergingtheabilitytoconductsurveillancethat revealseveryaspectofapersonslifewiththeabilitytoconjureupthe legalauthoritytoexecutethatsurveillance,andfinally,removingany accountablejudicialoversight,createstheopportunityforunprecedented influenceoveroursystemofgovernment.

Withoutadditionalprotectionsinthelaw,everysingleoneofusinthis roommaybeandcanbetrackedandmonitoredanywhereweareatany time.Thepieceoftechnologyweconsidervitaltotheconductofour everydaypersonalandprofessionallifehappenstobeacombinationphone bug,listeningdevice,locationtracker,andhiddencamera.Thereisntan Americanalivewhowouldconsenttobeingrequiredtocarryanyoneof thoseitemsandsowemustrejecttheideathatthegovernmentmayuseits powerstoarbitrarilybypassthatconsent.

Today,governmentofficialsareopenlytellingthepressthattheyhavethe authoritytoeffectivelyturnAmericanssmartphonesandcellphonesinto

locationenabledhomingbeacons.Compoundingtheproblemisthefact thatthecaselawisunsettledoncellphonetrackingandtheleadersofthe intelligencecommunityhaveconsistentlybeenunwillingtostatewhatthe rightsoflawabidingpeopleareonthisissue.Withoutadequate protectionsbuiltintothelawtheresnowaythatAmericanscaneverbe surethatthegovernmentisntgoingtointerpretitsauthoritiesmoreand morebroadly,yearafteryear,untiltheideaofatelescreenmonitoringyour everymoveturnsfromdystopiatoreality.

Somewouldsaythatcouldneverhappenbecausethereissecretoversight andsecretcourtsthatguardagainstit.Butthefactofthematteristhat seniorpolicymakersandfederaljudgeshavedeferredagainandagaintothe intelligenceagenciestodecidewhatsurveillanceauthoritiestheyneed.For thosewhobelieveexecutivebranchofficialswillvoluntarilyinterprettheir surveillanceauthoritieswithrestraint,IbelieveitismorelikelythatIwill achievemylifelongdreamofplayingintheNBA.

Butseriously,whenJamesMadisonwasattemptingtopersuadeAmericans

thattheConstitutioncontainedsufficientprotectionsagainstanypolitician orbureaucratseizingmorepowerthanthatgrantedtothembythepeople, hedidnotjustaskhisfellowAmericanstotrusthim.Hecarefullylaidout theprotectionscontainedintheConstitutionandhowthepeoplecould ensuretheywerenotbreached.Wearefailingourconstituents,weare failingourfounders,andwearefailingeverybravemanandwomanwho foughttoprotectAmericandemocracyifwearewilling,today,tojusttrust anyindividualoranyagencywithpowergreaterthanthecheckedand limitedauthoritythatservesasafirewallagainsttyranny.

NowIwanttospendafewminutestalkingaboutthosewhomakeupthe intelligencecommunityanddayinanddayoutworktoprotectusall.

Letmebeclear:Ihavefoundthemenandwomenwhoworkatour nationsintelligenceagenciestobehardworking,dedicatedprofessionals. Theyaregenuinepatriotswhomakerealsacrificestoservetheircountry. Theyshouldbeabletodotheirjobssecureintheknowledgethatthereis

publicsupportforeverythingthattheyaredoing.Unfortunately,thatcant happenwhenseniorofficialsfromacrossthegovernmentmisleadthe publicaboutthegovernmentssurveillanceauthorities.

Andletsbeclear:thepublicwasnotjustkeptinthedarkaboutthePatriot Actandothersecretauthorities.Thepublicwasactivelymisled.Ive pointedoutseveralinstancesinthepastwhereseniorofficialshavemade misleadingstatementstothepublicandtoCongressaboutthetypesof surveillancetheyareconductingontheAmericanpeople,andIllrecap someofthemostsignificantexamples.

Foryears,seniorJusticeDepartmentofficialshavetoldCongressandthe publicthatthePatriotActsbusinessrecordauthoritywhichisthe authoritythatisusedtocollectthephonerecordsofmillionsofordinary Americansisanalogoustoagrandjurysubpoena.Thisstatementis exceptionallymisleadingitstrainsthewordanalogouswellbeyondthe breakingpoint.Itscertainlytruethatbothauthoritiescanbeusedto

collectawidevarietyofrecords,butthePatriotActhasbeensecretly interpretedtopermitongoingbulkcollection,andthismakesthatauthority very,verydifferentfromregulargrandjurysubpoenaauthority.Any lawyersinhere?Afterthespeechisovercomeupandtellmeifyouve everseenagrandjurysubpoenathatallowedthegovernmentonan ongoingbasistocollecttherecordsofmillionsofordinaryAmericans.The factisthatnoonehasseenasubpoenalikethatisbecausetherearentany. Thisincrediblymisleadinganalogyhasbeenmadebymorethanoneofficial onmorethanoneoccasionandoftenaspartoftestimonytoCongress.The officialwhoservedforyearsastheJusticeDepartmentstopauthorityon criminalsurveillancelawrecentlytoldtheWallStreetJournalthatifa federalattorneyservedagrandjurysubpoenaforsuchabroadclassof recordsinacriminalinvestigation,heorshewouldbelaughedoutof court.

DefendersofthisdeceptionhavesaidthatmembersofCongresshavethe abilitytogetthefullstoryofwhatthegovernmentisdoingonaclassified basis,sotheyshouldntcomplainwhenofficialsmakemisleadingpublic

statements,evenincongressionalhearings.Thatisanabsurdargument. Sure,membersofCongressCOULDgetthefullstoryinaclassified setting,butthatdoesnotexcusethepracticeofhalftruthsandmisleading statementsbeingmadeonthepublicrecord.Whendiditbecomeallright forgovernmentofficialspublicstatementsandprivatestatementstodiffer sofundamentally?Theansweristhatitisnotallright,anditisindicative ofamuchlargercultureofmisinformationthatgoesbeyondthe congressionalhearingroomandintothepublicconversationwritlarge.

Forexample,lastspringtheDirectoroftheNationalSecurityAgency spokeoverattheAmericanEnterpriseInstitute,wherehesaidpubliclythat wedontholddataonU.S.citizens.Thatstatementsoundsreassuring, butofcoursetheAmericanpeoplenowknowthatitisfalse.Infact,its oneofthemostfalsestatementsevermadeaboutdomesticsurveillance. Laterthatsameyear,attheannualhackersconferenceknownasDefCon, thesameNSADirectorsaidthatthegovernmentdoesnotcollect dossiersonmillionsofAmericans.NowIveservedontheIntelligence CommitteeforadozenyearsandIdidntknowwhatdossiersmeantin

thiscontext.IdoknowthatAmericansnotfamiliarwiththeclassified detailswouldprobablyhearthatstatementandthinkthattherewasnobulk collectionofthepersonalinformationofhundredsofmillionsof Americanstakingplace.

AftertheDirectoroftheNSAmadethisstatementinpublic,SenatorUdall andIwrotetotheDirectoraskingforaclarification.Inourletterweasked whethertheNSAcollectsanytypeofdataatallonmillionsorhundredsof millionsofAmericans.EventhoughtheDirectoroftheNSAwastheone whohadraisedthisissuepublicly,intelligenceofficialsdeclinedtogiveus astraightanswer.

Afewmonthsago,ImadethejudgementthatIwouldnotberesponsibly carryingoutmyoversightpowersifIdidntpressintelligenceofficialsto clarifywhattheNSADirectortoldthepublicaboutdatacollection.SoI decideditwasnecessarytoputthequestiontotheDirectorofNational Intelligence.AndIhadmystaffsendthequestionoveradayinadvanceso thathewouldbepreparedtoanswer.TheDirectorunfortunatelysaidthat

theanswerwasno,theNSAdoesnotknowinglycollectdataonmillionsof Americans,whichisobviouslynotcorrect.Afterthehearing,Ihadmy staffcalltheDirectorsofficeonasecurelineandurgethemtocorrectthe record.Disappointingly,hisofficedecidedtoletthisinaccuratestatement stand.Mystaffmadeitclearthatthiswaswrongandthatitwas unacceptabletoleavetheAmericanpublicmisled.Icontinuedtowarnthe publicabouttheproblemofsecretsurveillancelawoverthefollowing weeks,untiltheJunedisclosures.

Evenafterthosedisclosures,therehasbeenaneffortbyofficialsto exaggeratetheeffectivenessofthebulkphonerecordscollectionprogram byconflatingitwiththecollectionofInternetcommunicationsunder section702oftheFISAstatute.Thiscollection,whichinvolvesthe PRISMcomputersystem,hasproducedsomeinformationofrealvalue.I willnotethatlastsummerIwasabletogettheexecutivebranchto declassifythefactthattheFISACourthasruledonatleastoneoccasion thatthiscollectionviolatedtheFourthAmendmentinawaythataffected anundisclosednumberofAmericans.AndtheCourtalsosaidthatthe

governmenthasviolatedthespiritofthelawaswell.So,Ithinksection 702clearlyneedsstrongerprotectionsfortheprivacyoflawabiding Americans,andIthinktheseprotectionscouldbeaddedwithoutlosingthe valueofthiscollection.ButIwontdenythatthisvalueexists. Meanwhile,Ihavenotseenanyindicationthatthebulkphonerecords programyieldedanyuniqueintelligencethatwasnotalsoavailabletothe governmentthroughlessintrusivemeans.Whengovernmentofficialsrefer totheseprogramscollectively,andsaythattheseprogramsprovided uniqueintelligencewithoutpointingoutthatoneprogramisdoingallthe workandtheotherisbasicallyjustalongfortheride,inmyjudgmentthat isalsoamisleadingstatement.

Andtherehavealsobeenanumberofmisleadingandinaccuratestatements madeaboutsection702collectionaswell.Lastmonth,SenatorUdalland IwrotetotheNSADirectortopointoutthattheNSAsofficialfactsheet containedsomemisleadinginformationandasignificantinaccuracythat madeprotectionsforAmericansprivacysoundmuchstrongerthanthey actuallyare.Thenextdaythatfactsheetwastakendownfromthefront

pageoftheNSAwebsite.Wouldthemisleadingfactsheetstillbeupthere ifSenatorUdallandIhadntpushedtotakeitdown?Givenwhatittookto correctthemisleadingstatementsoftheDirectorofNationalIntelligence andtheNationalSecurityAgencythatmaywellbethecase.

Sohavingwalkedyouthroughhowsecretlaw,interpretedbyasecret court,authorizedsecretsurveillance,theobviousquestioniswhatisnext? Ron,whatareyougoingtodoaboutit?

AfewweeksagomorethanaquarteroftheU.S.Senatewrotetothe DirectorofNationalIntelligencedemandingpublicanswerstoadditional questionsabouttheuseofthegovernmentssurveillanceauthorities.Its beentwomonthssincethedisclosuresbyMr.Snowden,andthesignersof thisletterincludingkeymembersofthesenateleadershipandcommittee chairswithdecadesofexperiencehavemadeitcleartheyarenotgoingto acceptmorestonewallingormisleadingstatements.

PatriotActreformlegislationhasalsobeenintroduced.Thecenterpieceof

thiseffortwouldrequirethatthegovernmentshowademonstratedlinkto terrorismorespionagebeforecollectingAmericanspersonalinformation.

Senatorshavealsoproposedlegislationthatwouldensurethatthelegal analysisofsecretcourtopinionsinterpretingsurveillancelawis declassifiedinaresponsiblemanner.AndIamcollaboratingwith colleaguestodevelopotherreformsthatwillbringopenness, accountability,andthebenefitsofanadversarialprocesstothe anachronisticoperationsofthemostsecretivecourtinAmerica.

Andmostimportantly,Iandmycolleaguesareworkingtokeepthepublic debatealive.Wehaveexposedmisleadingstatements.Weareholding officialsaccountable.Andweareshowingthatlibertyandsecurityarenot incompatible.

Thefactis,thesideoftransparencyandopennessisstartingtoputsome pointsontheboard.

Asmanyofyouarenowaware,theNSAalsohadabulkemailrecords programthatwassimilartothebulkphonerecordsprogram.Thisprogram operatedundersection214ofthePatriotAct,whichisknownasthepen registerprovision,untilfairlyrecently.MyIntelligenceCommittee colleagueSenatorUdallandIwereveryconcernedaboutthisprograms impactonAmericanscivillibertiesandprivacyrights,andwespenta significantportionof2011pressingintelligenceofficialstoprovide evidenceofitseffectiveness.Itturnedoutthattheywereunabletodoso, andthatstatementsthathadbeenmadeaboutthisprogramtoboth CongressandtheFISACourthadsignificantlyexaggeratedtheprograms effectiveness.Theprogramwasshutdownthatsameyear.Sothatwasa bigwinforeveryonewhocaresaboutAmericansprivacyandcivil liberties,eventhoughSenatorUdallandIwerentabletotellanyoneabout ituntiljustafewweeksago.

Morerecently,whentheannualIntelligenceAuthorizationbillwasgoing throughtheIntelligenceCommitteelatelastyearitincludedafew provisionsthatweremeanttostopintelligenceleaksbutthatwouldhave

beendisastroustothenewsmediasabilitytoreportonforeignpolicyand nationalsecurity.Amongotherthings,itwouldhaverestrictedtheability offormergovernmentofficialstotalktothepress,evenaboutunclassified foreignpolicymatters.Anditwouldhaveprohibitedintelligenceagencies frommakinganyoneoutsideofafewhighlevelofficialsavailablefor backgroundbriefings,evenonunclassifiedmatters.Theseprovisionswere intendedtostopleaks,butitscleartomethattheywouldhave significantlyencroachedupontheFirstAmendment,andledtoa lessinformedpublicdebateonforeignpolicyandnationalsecuritymatters.

Theseantileaksprovisionswentthroughthecommitteeprocessinsecret, andthebillwasagreedtobyavoteof141(Illletyouallguesswhothat nayvotewas).ThebillthenmadeitswaytotheSenatefloorandapublic debate.Oncethebillbecamepublic,ofcourse,itwaspromptlyeviscerated bymediaandfreespeechadvocates,whosawitasaterribleidea.Iputa holdonthebillsothatitcouldnotbequicklypassedwithoutthe discussionitdeservedandwithinweeks,alloftheantileaksprovisions wereremoved.

Afewmonthslater,mycolleaguesandIwerefinallyabletogettheofficial JusticeDepartmentopinionslayingoutwhatthegovernmentbelievesthe rulesareforthetargetedkillingsofAmericans.Youprobablyknowthisas thedronesissue.ThesedocumentsonkillingAmericanswerenteven beingsharedwithmembersofCongressonaclassifiedbasis,letalonewith theAmericanpeople.Youmayhaveheardmesaythisbefore,butIbelieve everyAmericanhastherighttoknowwhentheirgovernmentthinksitis allowedtokillthem.MycolleaguesandIfoughtpubliclyandprivatelyto getthesedocuments,usedwhateverproceduralopportunitieswere available,andeventuallygotthedocumentswehaddemanded.Sincethen wevebeenlookingthemoverandworkingoutastrategythatwouldallow forthepertinentportionsofthesedocumentstobemadepublic.Idont takeabackseattoanybodywhenitcomestoprotectinggenuinelysensitive nationalsecurityinformation,andIthinkmostAmericansexpectthat governmentagencieswillsometimesconductsecretoperations.Butthose agenciesshouldneverrelyonsecretlaworauthoritiesgrantedbysecret courts.

WefindourselvesatatrulyuniquetimeinourConstitutionalhistory.The growthofdigitaltechnology,dramaticchangesinthenatureofwarfareand thedefinitionofabattlefield,andnovelcourtsthatruncounterto everythingtheFoundingFathersimagined,makeforacombustiblemix. AtthispointinthespeechIwouldusuallyconcludewiththequotefrom BenFranklinaboutgivinguplibertyforsecurityandnotdeservingeither, butIthoughtadifferentfoundingfathermightbemorefittingtoday. JamesMadison,thefatherofourconstitution,saidthatthethe accumulationofexecutive,judicialandlegislativepowersintothehands ofanyfactionistheverydefinitionoftyranny.Hethenwentontoassure thenationthattheConstitutionprotectedusfromthatfate.So,my questiontoyouis:byallowingtheexecutivetosecretlyfollowasecret interpretationofthelawunderthesupervisionofasecret,nonadversarial courtandoccasionalsecretcongressionalhearings,howclosearewe comingtoJamesMadisonsverydefinitionoftyranny?Ibelieveweare allowingourcountrytodriftalotcloserthanweshould,andifwedont takethisopportunitytochangecoursenow,wewillalllivetoregretit.