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Table of Contents
Section 1: Introduction .......................................................................................................................5 Intro........................................................................................................................................................... 5 Ways to Cut Your Electric Bills Today...................................................................................................... 10 Section 2- Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor .................................................................................. 17 Science and Mechanics 1980 Spring Edition........................................................................................... 17 "Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor" ....................................................................................................... 19 The Permanent Magnet Motor ............................................................................................................... 39 Notes for those building Howards Magnetic Motor ............................................................................... 65 Blueprints ................................................................................................................................................ 69 Parts you’ll need ..................................................................................................................................... 78 Notes on Parts......................................................................................................................................... 83 Dimension of Parts .................................................................................................................................. 85 Using Howard’s Designs to Build Your Own: Tips and Suggestions ........................................................ 89 Cautions .................................................................................................................................................. 92 Operation of the Motor .......................................................................................................................... 93 Howard Johnson’s Patents...................................................................................................................... 96 US Patent # 4,151,431............................................................................................................................ 96 United States Patent 4,877,983 ........................................................................................................... 120 US Patent # 5,402,021........................................................................................................................... 135 Section 3: Modern/Simplified Motor .............................................................................................. 148 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 148 Terms/Theories ..................................................................................................................................... 150 Preface .................................................................................................................................................. 151 Materials List ......................................................................................................................................... 152 Tools Needed ........................................................................................................................................ 177 Recommended Instrumentation........................................................................................................... 178 Schematic .............................................................................................................................................. 182 Schematic Drawing ............................................................................................................................... 184 Schematic Diagram ............................................................................................................................... 185 Analogous Circuit Drawing: ................................................................................................................... 186

Simplified Schematic ............................................................................................................................. 189 Assembly ............................................................................................................................................... 190 Building the Frame ................................................................................................................................ 190 Fastening Magnets to Wheel ................................................................................................................ 190 Winding the Coils .................................................................................................................................. 191 Filling Core ............................................................................................................................................ 192 Soldering the Circuit.............................................................................................................................. 193 Battery Tips ........................................................................................................................................... 193 Connecting the Batteries ...................................................................................................................... 194 Adjusting Resistance ............................................................................................................................. 194 Cautions ................................................................................................................................................ 196 Simplified Motor Designs: ..................................................................................................................... 197 Transistor and Arrangement Diagram .................................................................................................. 198 Dual Battery Motor Diagram ................................................................................................................ 199 Operation Instructions .......................................................................................................................... 200 Procedures ............................................................................................................................................ 200 Turning the Motor On ........................................................................................................................... 200 Characterizing the Window of Operation ............................................................................................. 200 One Input, Four Output, Rotate One .................................................................................................... 201 *Note On How to Rotate the Batteries without Disconnecting the Circuit .......................................... 201 What Will You Do Now?........................................................................................................................ 204

Section 1: Introduction Intro An energy revolution is coming. But luckily. the world’s energy companies and governments have been suppressing this technology for many years. the technology to produce free energy on a household to household basis already exists! And the device that makes this all possible is called a magnetic motor. progress in the world is always delayed by those that oppose progress or by those that have self interest as their priority. The world will one day be able to produce free energy from just magnets for every household and every person. However. . Why? Well. many brilliant people through the years have seen the potential of these devices and have dedicated their lives to building and creating their own magnetic motors. In the case of magnetic motors. But while the world tries to cope with this and it learns how to implement this technology on a large scale…you can be ahead of this revolution and start producing your own free energy in your home with a HoJo Motor…today! However. the energy companies and government run utility companies wouldn’t turn much of a profit if everyone could make their own energy.

Howard Johnson created the model that has and will revolutionize the world in our opinion. Howard Johnson was a revolutionary when it came to his work with magnets. he is known as the “Father of Spintronics” (meaning spin transport electronics or magnetoelectronics. which exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment. So this man knew what he was doing! And this is why we are fascinated with his work…and why many others are too. Because of Howard’s verified working magnetic motor and because he was a genius when it came to his work with magnets…we have always wanted to build a magnetic motor after his design. Many have tried…and some have succeeded…but one thing that we known is that Howard’s magnetic motor did work! He was required by the “United States Patent and Trademark Office” to have 3 working units to get his patents (you’ll see them in this report)! And not just that. In fact. not enough detail was known about how Howard Johnson built his device so only experienced electrical engineers could replicate his design. However. we didn’t know enough until now… . in solid-state devices). And up until we released this report. in addition to its fundamental electronic charge.

articles.…But just recently we got our hands on Howard’s exclusive magnetic motor plans. Some of Howard’s designs were quite extravagant (and pricey). and our instructions for building his motor. and new theories about energy and electrical engineering…we were able to create a magnetic motor that is both pretty easy to build and not very expensive. Section 1 is a quick guide to help you save energy (and money) starting today! Even before you build your magnetic motor. with Howard’s original plans. Some of this section may seem confusing at first but read through the entire section before you start building and with each . however. We don’t want you to be without any information however…so we wrote this guide in three main sections: 1. blueprints. blueprints. modern tools. We know a lot of you wanted the HoJo Motor guide to save money on your electric bills. so we wanted to give you a very fast way to recoup the initial cost of this guide with these tips! 2. Section 2 is Howard Johnson’s plans. articles. and building supplies and now have enough detail to piece together all of this information so we and anybody else can build a magnetic motor just like Howard did.

additional piece of information you read. advice. others use the simplified motor as practice before they build the larger scale model in Section 2. and articles and we will add our commentary. plans. Whatever you choose…we encourage you to not just read this guide but implement what you learn because with the energy you will produce and the money you will save on your electric bills. simplified version. you will understand more and more! 3. This section will simplify things and show you how to build a motor for cheap! We included this section because we want to assure you’ll have a motor built by the end of this guide! Some of our readers build several simplified versions instead of the full version and just use them together to produce their desired energy needs. However. Section 3 shows how to build a modern. and suggestions where we feel it is appropriate to help you follow his design and build your own. instructions. we know it can provide life changing results! Throughout this report we will guide you through Howard’s blueprints. We hope that the HoJo Motor guide is truly life changing for you! .

you can lower your bills and energy consumption by 50% Continue to the next page to learn how! . Good luck to you…and enjoy this exclusive and life changing information! *Before we get into the meat of this report and show you Howard’s designs. plans.By the end of this guide you will know how to produce free energy and how to live a green lifestyle. blueprints. and our modern HoJo Motor…we know many of you want to learn how to save on your electric bills immediately… …So we wanted to start this report off with some very practical and easy to follow tips to lower your electricity bills by 50% starting today! Even before you build your magnetic generator.

Also don’t forget to turn of the light when it’s not needed!  . you can conserve energy in major ways. I’d like to give you some tips and tricks that will help you conserve energy and potentially eliminate about half of your electric bill each month. An LED light bulb is 12 times as energy efficient as a tungsten bulb. And if for some reason you cannot find these types of light bulbs in your area. here are some quick tips that are easy to implement…but can save you a lot right away: • Change your regular light bulbs with LED light bulbs (Lightemitting diode bulb . you can use fluorescent light bulbs which are also more efficient compared to the regular light bulbs.figure 1). and lasts for 100. I recommend you read this section! It will save you money starting today! So with that said. however. This way you can start experiencing major energy savings today! *if you only want to learn how to build a magnetic motor…skip ahead.000 hours.Ways to Cut Your Electric Bills Today Even if you haven’t built your magnetic motor yet.

. Keep your home at a comfortable level and don’t overuse it. And if you want the house air-conditioned or heated during certain parts of the day and not others (like when at work or when sleeping)…get a programmable thermostat (these can save you huge amounts of money)! Otherwise. but so few people pay attention to this. it most likely comprises a big chunk of your energy bill. …and the warmer you make it when you’re heating…the more energy you’ll use. the colder you want the inside to be the more energy you use.• Use your AC responsibly. if the AC is used regularly in your home. Also make sure the windows and doors in your home are well sealed so no cold or warm air escapes or enters. This is obvious.

it saves money to cook things in bulk and freeze them for later (so you don’t have to use the oven twice). you don't need to have the entire room brightly lit. such as your desk or workbench. Use an LED task light or some similar small fixture to put light only where you need it. . Also. and you'll reap the savings. For many cooking tasks. since the dryer is an “energy vampire. If all you're doing is heating up some fish sticks. Save heating that big space for something that won't fit in the toaster oven. don't heat the huge oven…just use the toaster oven. If you're doing something at a fixed location. consider washing dishes by hand instead of using the dishwasher…this way you save energy and water. A 25 or 40 watt CFL can provide ambient light in the room. a microwave oven will do what you want and save a lot of energy doing it. • Use appliances that are efficient and no larger than what you need to do a job.” Also. • Use task lighting instead of area lighting. *You can save even more money by not preheating your oven and just let the food bake a little longer.• Consider air drying clothes as much as you can.

• Try occupancy sensors that shut on or off automatically if a person enters or leaves a room. These provide low light levels when bright lights are not necessary. newer and more energy efficient model. consider dimmer switches and three-way lamps. Also.  Maintain a consistent temperature in the refrigerator and freezer. it is important to know that new models are more efficient and use as little as half the electricity of older units. or an additional freezer.  Full refrigerators run more efficiently than ones that are only partially full. Recommended temperatures are 37 to 40F for the . decide if the extra expense is really worth it. So buy more food and save some and if you have two refrigerators. Although rushing out to buy a new refrigerator may not be in your budget. Get as much food in as you can get into your main refrigerator or consider getting rid of any older refrigerator by replacing them with one larger. • Refrigerators use more power than any other appliance in the home and deserve special attention. Refrigerators will run for shorter periods with clean coils as dirty coils make them work harder.  Move the refrigerator away from the wall and vacuum its condenser coils yearly unless you have a no-clean condenser model. so more electricity is used up.

So if you just start implementing some of the tips I talked about. Also. standby power use is roughly responsible for 1% of global CO2 emissions. it should be kept at 0F. you can either unplug the appliance or use a switchable power strip for clusters of computer or video products. • When you turn off your TV. That way you can switch everything to zero with one action. or DVD. • In order to eliminate energy consumption for devices you are not using. since it comprises from 10% to 15% of your power bill. . you can save roughly 50% of the energy you use! And with a magnetic motor you can easily eliminate the other 50% of your power bills! *You can even start thinking about producing energy and selling it back to the power company because you are producing excess of what you need. PC. If you have a separate freezer for longterm storage. Standby power consumption should be taken very seriously. it still consumes energy (just because they are in standby mode does not mean it they don’t consume energy).fresh food compartment of the refrigerator and 5F for the freezer section.

Using the heating thermostat responsibly will save you as much as 50% of the energy spent on heating. don’t forget that you are saving the environment also. The steps above are easy to follow so we recommend you start implementing them today! Just changing your regular light bulbs with LED or Fluorescent light bulbs will lower the amount of energy you consume from lighting by as much as 12 times. Even though your magnetic motor will not take that long to make…you can start saving now with these tips! . and the same goes for the AC.Besides the economical benefits of the said advice. And finally eliminating the stand by energy consumption will reduce your power bill by another 10% at least. Using the dish/cloth washer and dryer will drastically lower you energy consumption.

So with that said. It may seem confusing at first but it’s actually not necessary to understand all of the information in the next section to successfully build your motor. We wanted to include all of this information so both someone interested in the theory behind the motor and also the person who just wants to build the motor will have everything they need to do so (there just may be a little extra information for the person just interested in building the motor… but we’d rather give you too much information then too little)  So read the whole section (and also section 3) and everything will tie together.Now that you know how to lower your electric bill and energy consumption with those practical tips… Let’s take a look at how Howard Johnson built his Magnetic Motor in Section 2 of this Guide… *Note: we’re going throw a lot of information at you in this section so read through the whole section to make sense of it all. the first thing we’ll look at is his “Science and Mechanics article from 1980… .

Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor *note: much of this section may seem very technical. However. We included this section because it provides very valuable information regarding the motor.Section 2. our instructions and diagrams later in this guide will extract everything you need from this section to build your own motor. Do not worry if you do not understand it all. Just try to read this section and get as much as you can from it but if you don’t understand something don’t worry because you’ll know everything you need to know by the end of this guide. Science and Mechanics 1980 Spring Edition .

Spring 1980 *Below is the transcribed content from the “Science and Mechanics” Magazine about the Howard Johnson Magnetic Motor… .*source of images: Science and Mechanics Magazine.

Johnson.151. who has been coping with disbelievers for decades. he can demonstrate . "It won't work because it violates the law of Conservation of Energy. especially in a world facing an alarming. he now owns U.000-watt electric power generator already in the building.wide energy problems. 4. His second and perhaps more difficult major challenge: persuade a host of skeptics that his ideas are indeed practical. as in a motor. Yet inventor Johnson is not rushing to peddle his creation as the end-all solution to world. That's right. can be very persuasive in a face-to-face encounter because he cannot do more than merely theorize. Patent No." said the examiners at the U."Amazing Magnet-Powered Motor" "We don't grant patents on perpetual motion machines.S." said one physicist after another.S. inventor Howard Johnson is not the sort of man to be intimidated by such seemingly authoritative pronouncements. Patent Office. escalating energy shortage.431 which describes how it is possible to generate motive power. Johnson has discovered how to build motors that run without an input of electricity or any other kind of external energy! The monumental nature of the invention is obvious. using only the energy contained in the atoms of permanent magnets. there's the need to refine his laboratory prototypes into workable practical devices -in particular a 5. First. But because. He has more important work to do.

Thus the physicists become game wardens who tell us what laws' we can't violate. Johnson explains the persistent opposition he experiences from the established scientific community this way: "Physics is a measurement science and physicists are especially determined to protect the ‘Law’ of Conservation of Energy. Doing the Unthinkable Howard Johnson refuses to view the "laws" of science as somehow sacred. In this case they don't even know what the game is. But they are so scared that I and my associates are going to violate some of these laws. Here's why. Virginia. to meet with the inventor. he went there as an "open-minded skeptic" and as a former research Scientist determined not to be fooled. this former skeptic had become a believer. and that there can be no such thing. He also points gut that no one talks about a "free lunch" when discussing extraction of enormous amounts of atomic power by means of . that they have to get to the pass to head us off!" The critics say Johnson offers a "free lunch" solution to energy problems. Johnson demurs.working models that unquestionably create motion using only permanent magnets. If a particular law gets in the way. so doing the unthinkable and succeeding is second nature to him. reminding repeatedly that he has never suggested that his invention provides something for nothing. Within two days. he sees no harm in going around it for a while to see if there's something on the other side. When this writer was urged by the editor of Science & Mechanics to make a thousand mile pilgrimage to Blacksburg.

But he postulates that the energy may be associated with spinning electrons." On the other hand. we might all view his claims with open minds. we need to face up to another question that undoubtedly nags in the minds of many readers: Is Johnson a bona fide researcher. in fairness to the inventor." How do other physicists react to Johnson's suggestion that there may be an atomic particle so far overlooked by nuclear physicists? Says Johnson: "I guess it’s fair to say that most of them are revolted. are intrigued enough to suggest that there should be a hunt for the answer. it's much the same thing. be it a "particle" or some other as yet unsuspected characteristic of atomic structure. or merely a "garage mechanic" mad inventor? As the following brief summary suggests. Johnson is the first to admit he doesn't actually know where the power be has tapped derives. the inventor's credentials appear to be impeccable. The main question to be answered here and now is this: Does Johnson permanent magnet motor work? Before providing the answer. perhaps in the form of a "presently unnamed atomic particle. even if it means temporary setting aside of cherished scientific concepts until more complete explanations are forthcoming. including some who are associated with large and prestigious research laboratories. This article is prefaced with the foregoing brief summary of the ongoing controversy so that. a few converted scientists. .nuclear reactors and atom bombs. In his mind.

did magnetics research for Burroughs company. a super charger.skid application. He has participated in the development of medical electrical products. Johnson worked on atomic energy projects at Oak Ridge. this has been in production for the past 18 years. that last item reduced the cost to one-eighth of the cost of an earlier design by utilizing metal-filled plastics for the armature and field. and a method of dissolving asbestos fibers. In all.Following seven years of college and university training. including injection devices. . For the military he invented a ceramic muffler that makes a portable motor generator silent at 50 feet. His contributions to the motor industry include: a hysteresis brake. new methods of curing brake linings. and has perfected a 92-pole no-brush generator to go in the wheel of Lincoln automobiles as a skid control. and served as scientific consultant to Lukens Steel. Johnson is connected with more than 30 patents in the fields of chemistry and physics. non-locking brake materials for anti. He has also worked on silencers for small motors.

Figures 2, 3 & 4: Magnet Motor Models ~ pictured here are three of the inventor's early models. Top left is a linear motor which propels a magnetic vehicle at high speeds through a series of rings. Top right is rotary motor upon which the prototype will be built. The 8-ounce magnet, hand held to the large ring weighing 40 pounds, provides enough force to spin the entire assembly. In the third assembly above, the vehicle is propelled, in either direction, by the force of the large magnets arranged below tracks.

Sticky Tape Scientist Despite his impressive credentials, this amiable and unpretentious inventor likes to characterize himself as a "Sticky tape" scientist. He sees no virtue in wasting time building fancy; elaborate equipment when more simple assemblies serve as well to test new ideas. The prototype devices shown in the photographs in this article were assembled with sticky tape and aluminum foil, the later material being used mainly to keep individual, permanent magnets packaged together so that they do not fly apart.

Perhaps the best way to describe what these three gadgets do is by reciting this writer's personal experiences during the interview demonstration. That way I will not merely be telling what the inventor says they do, but I will reveal what happened when I tried the experiments myself. When we start talking about how and why the things work as they do, well have to rely on the inventor’s explanations. The first item consists of more than a dozen foil-wrapped magnets assembled to form a broad arc. Each magnet is extended upward slightly at each end to form a low U-shape, the better to concentrate magnetic fields where they are needed. The overall curvature of the mass of magnets apparently has no particular significance except to show that the distance between these stator magnets and the moving vehicle is not critical. A transparent plastic sheet atop this magnet assembly supports a length of plastic model railroad track. The vehicle, basically a model railroad flatcar, supports a foil-wrapped pair of curved magnets, plus some sort of weight, in some cases merely a rock. The weight is needed to keep the vehicle down on the track, against the powerful magnetic forces that would otherwise push it askew. That 'is all there is to the construction of this representation of a "linear motor." I was prepared to develop eye strain in an effort to detect some sort of motion in the vehicle. I need not have been concerned. The moment the inventor let go of the vehicle be carefully placed at one end of the track, it accelerated and literally zipped from one end to the other and flew onto the floor! Wow!

I tried the experiment myself, and could feel the powerful magnetic forces at work as I placed the vehicle on the track. I gently eased the vehicle to the critical starting point, taking great care not to exert any kind of forward push, even inadvertently. I let go, Zip! It was on the floor again, at the other end of the track. Knowing that I would be asked if the track might have had a slant, I reversed the vehicle and started it from the opposite end of the track. It worked just as effectively in the reverse direction. In fact, the vehicle can even navigate a respectable upgrade. In light of these tests, and considering the remarkable speed of the vehicle, you can discount any notion that this was a simple "coasting" effect. Incidentally, the photograph shows the vehicle about half ways along the track. It was "frozen" there by the electronic flash used to make the picture; there is no way of "posing" the vehicle in that position short of tying it down. The second device has the U-shaped magnets standing on end in a rough circular arrangement oddly reminiscent of England's Stonehenge. This assembly is mounted on a transparent plastic sheet supported on a plywood panel pivoted, underneath, on a free turning wheel obtained from a skateboard. As instructed, I eased the 8-ounce focusing magnet into the ring of larger magnets, keeping it at least four inches away from the ring. The 40 pound magnet assembly immediately began to turn and accelerated to a very respectable rotating speed which it maintained for as long as the focusing magnet was held in the magnetic field. When the focusing magnet was reversed, the large assembly turned in the opposite direction.

Since this assembly is clearly a crude sort of motor, there's no doubt that it is indeed possible to construct a motor powered solely by permanent magnets. The third assembly, which looks like the bones of some prehistoric sea creature, consists of a tunnel constructed of rubber magnet material that can be easily bent to form rings. This was one of the demonstration models Johnson took to the U.S. Patent Office during his appeal proceedings. Normally the patent examiners spend only a few minutes with each patent applicant, but played with Johnson’s devices for the better part of an hour. As the inventor was leaving, he overheard one sideline observer remark: "How would you like to follow that act?!" It took Johnson about six years of legal hassling to finally obtain his patent, and he has been congratulated for his ultimate victory over patent office bureaucracy as well as for his inventiveness. One sign that he left the patent office more than a little shaken by the experience was the inclusion of diagrammatic material in the printed patent that does not belong there. So if you look up the patent, pay no attention to the "ferrite" graph on the first page; it belongs in some other patent! The tunnel device of course worked very well in the inventor's office during my visit although Johnson observed that the rubber magnets are perhaps a thousand times weaker than the cobalt samarium magnets used the other assemblies. There's just one big problem with the more powerful magnets: they

cost too much. According to the inventor, the magnets used to construct the Stonehenge rotating model are collectively worth more than one thousand dollars. But there's no need to depend solely on mass-production economies to bring the cost down to competitive levels. Johnson and U.S. Magnets and Alloy Co. are in the process of developing alternative, relatively low cost magnetic materials that perform very well. How do they work? The drawing that shows a curved "arcuate" armature magnet in three successive positions over a line of fixed stator magnets provides at least highly simplified insights into the theory of permanent magnet motive power generation. Johnson says curved magnets with sharp leading and trailing edges are important because they focus and concentrate the magnetic energy much more effectively than do blunt-end magnets. These arcuate magnets are made slightly longer than the lengths of two stator magnets plus the intervening space, in Johnson's setups about 3-1/8 inches long.

Note that the stator magnets all have their North faces upward, and that they are resting on a high magnetic permeability support plate that helps concentrate the force fields. The best gap between the end poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets appears to be about 3/8 inch. As the armature north pole passes over a magnet, it is repelled by the stator north pole; and there's an attraction when the

north pole is passing over a space between the stator magnets. The exact opposite is of course true with respect to the armature South pole. It is attracted when passing over a stator magnet, repelled when passing over a space. The various magnetic forces that come into play are extremely complex, but the drawing shows some of the fundamental relationships. Solid lines represent attraction forces, dashed lines represent repulsion forces, and double lines in each case indicate the more dominant forces. As the top drawing indicates, the leading (N) pole of the armature is repelled by the north poles of the two adjacent magnets. But, at the indicated position of the armature magnet, these two repulsive forces (which obviously work against each other), are not identical; the stronger of the two forces (double dashed line) overpowers the other force and tends to move the armature to the left. This left movement is enhanced by the attraction force between the armature north pole and the stator south pole at the bottom of the space between the stator magnets. But that's not all! Let's see what is happening simultaneously at the other end (S) of the armature magnet. The length of this magnet (about 3-1/8 inches) is chosen, in relation to the pairs of stator in magnets plus the space between them, so that once again the attraction/repulsion forces work to move the armature magnet to the left. In this case the armature pole (S) is attracted by the north surfaces of the adjacent stator magnets but, because of the critical armature dimensioning,

it would behave in exactly the same manner except that it would. it could achieve an undesirable equilibrium condition that would stall movement. If it is either too long or too short. Complex Forces Some very complex magnetic forces are obviously at play in this deceptively simple magnetic system. However. provide vital feedback . VA). and at this time it is impossible to develop a mathematical model of what actually occurs. computer analysis of the system. Here also there is the added advantage of. if the armature is rotated 180 degrees and started at the opposite end of the track. in this example. The objective is to optimize all force conditions to develop the greatest possible off-balance condition. However. but always' in the same direction as the armature magnet moves along the row of stator magnets. and additional momentum. move from left to right. The importance of correct dimensioning of the armature magnet cannot be over-emphasized.more strongly by the magnet (double solid line) that tends to "pull" the armature to the left. in this case. It overpowers the lesser "drag" effect of the stator magnet to the right. Also note that once the armature is in motion. conducted by Professor William Harrison and his associates at Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Blacksburg. repulsion force between the south pole of the armature and the south pole in the space between the stator magnets. it has momentum that helps carry it into the sphere of influence of the next pair of magnets where it gets another push and pull.

We shall call this the "Zero" level although there is a very tiny gap between the probe and the tops of the stator magnets. Magnet distances and their strengths vary despite best efforts of manufacturers to exercise quality controls. These measurements in effect indicate what each pole of the armature magnet "sees" below as it passes over. As changes are made in the physical design. It's a kind of information feedback system. the stator magnets. The stator magnets affect each other and the support plate. . the researchers first passed the probe of an instrument used to measure magnetic field strengths over the stator magnets and the intervening spaces. The 'new computer data is then used to develop new changes in the design of the experimental model. many other interactions are in play. All these interrelated factors must be optimized. To obtain this information. As Professor Harrison points out. there are inevitable differences between horizontal and vertical air spaces. in addition to the obvious interaction between the two poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets. fast dynamic measurements are made to see whether the expected results have actually been achieved. That very different magnetic conditions exist at the two ends of the armature is shown by the actual experimental data displayed in the table and associated graph. which is why computer analysis in this refinement stage is vital. and on. And so on. In the assembly of the working model.information that greatly helps in the effort to optimize these complex forces to achieve the most efficient possible operating design.

that the flux measurements at the top and bottom of the air gap will differ. The procedure is repeated with the probe positioned just beneath the other armature pole.Next the probe is moved to a position just beneath one of the armature poles. Another set of magnetic flux measurements is made. and correctly so. Now "Instinct" might suggest. you would be very much in error! . at the top of the 3/8-inch armature-to-stator air gap. But if "instinct" also suggests that these differences are pretty much the same at the two armature pole positions.

700 Gauss when the probe was moved to the top of the 3/8-inch air gap. and a total of 28.First study the two tables that show actual flux density measurements. The difference between these total 'measurements is 2. Note that in this particular experiment the total magnetic flux amounted to 30.700 Gauss (the unit of magnetic strength) when the probe was held at the "Zero" level under the north pole of the magnet.000 Gauss. .

The second graph shows that the changes are much less dramatic at the north pole of the armature. of repulsion when the armature north pole passes over the stator magnets.725 Gauss. This time the difference is a much larger 9. or four and one half times greater than for the north pole! Clearly. the magnetic force conditions are far from identical at the two ends of the armature magnet.025 Gauss.Similar readings made at the air gap between the south pole of the armature and the stator magnets indicates a total flux at "Zero" level of 33. . In this case there's an average 11. In the top "South Pole" graph the dashed line connects. It is easy to see that there is an average 43% reduction of the attraction between the armature and stator magnets created by the air gap. and 24. Points along the solid line indicate comparable readings made with the probe just beneath the armature south pole. but perhaps not so obvious. is the fact that there is an average 36% increase of repulsion when the south pole of the armature passes over the spaces between the stator magnets.4% increase. Equally true. the "Zero" level readings made over the stator magnets and over the intervening air spaces. and a 2.7% decrease of attraction over the spaces. The middle five pairs of figures from each table hive been plotted in graphic form to make these differences more obvious.700 Gauss at the top of the air gap. The percentage increase only seems smaller because it applies to a much smaller "Zero" level value.

the stator/base unit would contain a ring of spaced magnets backed by a high magnetic permeability sleeve. by simply using two or more staggered armature magnets as shown in another drawing. The armature is supported on ball bearings on a shaft that either screws or slides into the stator unit.As you study the data. When the south pole passes over a magnet. there is repulsion. The Ultimate Motor A motor based on Johnson's findings would be of extremely simple design compared to conventional motors. the inventor believes. Speed control and start/stop action would be achieved by the simple means of moving the armature toward and away from the stator section. There is a noticeable pulsing action in the simple prototype units that may be undesirable in a practical motor. there is strong attraction. As shown in the diagrams developed from Johnson’s patent literature. when it passes over a space. In the case of the north pole data. What’s Ahead? . the stator magnet areas repulse the armature north pole while the spaces between the stator magnets attract. be sure to note that the columns are labeled differently. The movement can be smoothed. Three arcuate armature magnets would be mounted in the armature which has a belt groove for power transmission. The conditions are exactly the opposite for the south pole of the armature magnet.

Johnson argues that the magnetic forces in a permanent magnet represent superconductance that is akin to phenomena normally associated only with extremely cold superconducting systems. and Johnson has firm licensing agreements with at least four companies at this writing. Johnson has an answer: "You come along with a magnet and pick up a piece of iron. Right? That's work that requires energy. certainly. Will we see permanent magnet motors in automobiles in the near future? Johnson wants nothing to do with Detroit at this time because. Or you can hold one magnet in the air indefinitely by positioning it over another magnet with like poles facing. And for those who pooh. get the scientific establishment to at least consider his unorthodox ideas with a more open mind. The physicist will argue that because it . He argues that a magnet is a room temperature superconducting system because the electron flow does not cease. then some physicist says you didn't do any work because you used that magnet. For example. But you moved a mass through a distance. mainly because he just wants time to perfect his ideas and. but also progress. hopefully.For inventor Howard Johnson and his permanent magnet power source there's bound to be plenty of controversy. as he puts it: "It’s too emotional – we’d get smashed into the earth!" The inventor is equally reluctant to make predictions about other applications as well.pooh the idea that permanent magnets do work. and because this electron flow can be made to do work. A 5000 watt electric generator powered by a permanent magnet motor is already on the way.

and I don't know any way to stop them . For all our sakes let’s not dismiss it outright but take the time to understand the complex forces at work here. Yet if you support the same object with air. they will agree in a minute that work is done!" There's no doubt in Johnson's mind that he has succeeded in extracting usable energy from the atoms of permanent magnets." Johnson still has many practical problems to solve to perfect his invention. but that is not my problem. But his greater challenge may be to win general acceptance of his ideas by an obviously nervous scientific community in which many physicists remain compulsive about defending the law of Conservation of Energy without ever wondering whether that "law" really needs defending. The devices obviously do work. The dilemma facing Johnson is not really his dilemma but rather that of other scientists who have observed his prototypes.involves magnetic repulsion. And all that Johnson is really saying to the scientific community is this: here is a phenomenon which seems to contradict some of our traditional beliefs. . no work is done.do you? They may eventually stop. But the textbooks say it shouldn’t work. But does that imply that the electron spins and associated phenomena that he thinks provide this power will eventually be used up? Johnson makes no pretense of knowing the answer: I didn't start the electron spins.

…Now let’s take a look at Howard’s exclusive writings about “The Permanent Magnetic Motor” .

Do not worry if you do not understand it all. We were somewhat satisfied and convinced that we had the main sources of energy in view. However. (1979 paper by Johnson) I. Just try to read this section and get as much as you can from it but if you don’t understand something don’t worry because you’ll know everything you need to know by the end of this guide. It took faith to spend time on it. it is not hard to drum up interest for most any avenue that offers a breath of hope or a way of escape. our instructions and diagrams later in this guide will extract everything you need from this section to build your own motor.The Permanent Magnet Motor *note: much of this section may seem very technical. in 1942 using the Bohr model of the atom. And it took faith to consider facing the opposition later when I made my work known and faced all the status quopeople. and knowing that unpaired electron spins created a permanent magnet dipole. Introductory remarks (by Mr. Johnson) Today when energy is so expensive. It took faith to spend money on it. So. So it took a pure act of faith to try to develop a new un-named source. but this was not necessarily so in 1942. I kept wondering why we couldn't use these fields to drive . We included this section because it provides very valuable information regarding the motor.

Not only that. So I kept checking magnetic materials while I worked on designs that I thought should be implemented. My self-imposed security would not permit it. It was also expensive.S. and I knew of few people who would be interested anyway. I began to . In the fifties. Navy later made such a compound using bismuth and good magnetic materials.something. so I decided to try to work out a method to use them. they would not give the thrust that I desired. The U. I thought it would be nice to use the best magnetic materials I could find in combination with an interstitial material that was highly diamagnetic to force the electron spin to stay in place. as ceramic magnets became better and harder. sometimes lonely job over the years. for I didn't share my plans with my associates. materials that could be opposed with strong magnetic fields and not be demagnetized enough to damage them. At the same time there were no good hard magnetic materials that I knew of. but the internal coercive forces were so great that this strong magnet would fall apart if not encased in glass. I had no knowledge of electron spins stopping and knew no method that I could exert to stop them. I was sure that the magnetic effect of the spins was similar enough to the field of a current in a wire to do the same thing. It was a quiet. and long-field metal magnets appeared on the scene. Having a chemical background.

It said: "Hast thou entered into the treasures of the snow? Or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail? Which I have reserved against the time of trouble.freeze some designs and to have magnets custom made to fit them. maybe this is more important than I thought. I didn't know that. I found a wonderful book there by Dr. I went to the Library of Congress and looked up snowflakes. He has spend many years making these studies. the sixsided spokes." My comment was. The dean of the school where I was teaching said. This higher concentration of oxygen also interested me because oxygen is more attracted to a magnetic field than other gases. "Well. I told him. . against the day of battle and war." So I went ahead and worked on it another ten years. "Maybe so" and ask me if I knew that snowflakes were mentioned in the Bible as being important." but I looked it up. "No. I also believed that they were responsible for the 60° angles in the structure of snowflakes giving the six-spoked wheel. as well as turning out one of the world's most beautiful books. Bentley of New Hampshire. and he had learned a lot. etc. He had found that snowflakes have gas pockets oriented on 60° angles and that the gas has a higher percentage of oxygen than air. It was about this time that I mentioned the fact that just as I believed electron spins made permanent magnets. That's one reason why snow water rusts so well.

. They even begged me to content myself with half an order. The stator would be laid out as if it were unwound from around a motor. you will apply for and receive patent rights in your own country and perhaps throughout the rest of the world. despite the objections of magnet manufacturers who said it was a bad design. Believe it or not. I did not agree --. Dies were made for the curved armature magnets.Finally. They wanted to make horseshoe magnets. showing that the focusing and timing of the interactions was not too bad. using the best ceramic magnets I could find and the best metal magnets. faith to believe that your work is good and that someday. The little toy car on which I fastened the armature magnets for support ran in both directions over the stator. faith that you can resist being smashed into dust by industrial giants and/or being robbed by others who know only how to steal. but they were sure it was a bad design. They didn't know what it was for. and finally. I worked out a scheme for a linear motor. despite all the hazards. faith to buck the recognized authorities and manufacturers in the field.and once again you have that little matter of faith. my first motor assembly showed about two pounds of thrust. and an order was placed for these shapes. faith to try to implement a new theory. The parts of the armature would ride just above the stator and have the same beveled angular orientations I have just mentioned. faith to spend your own limited funds when you have a a family and other financial responsibilities staring you in the face.

faith saved the day as we battled for many years to gain a rather complete victory. We were correct. the permanent magnet motor has not received much consideration. first. For a number of reasons. After much testing of linear and circular designs. Now the work requires different kinds of faith: faith in those who have taken cut licenses and who will license.This was the first light at the end of a rather dark tunnel I had been traveling for many years. and looking for an attorney for years suited to securing a patent on the new theoretical work. the belief that it violates the conservation of . faith to continue the research to replace scarce materials in the magnets. It took some time to prepare the patent. Finally. But again. I breathed a real sign of relief as my young son played with this "new toy. the two greatest obstacles to using a permanent magnet motor are. Today. Michigan. This work of his largely influenced the thinking of Clerk Maxwell and others who followed. nothing too radical has been done since Faraday took some very crude materials and showed the world that it was possible to make a motor. The attorney built some models himself to check certain parameters. and faith that this work will continue to progress and that it will eventually fulfill its goal. we entered the case in the patent office expecting a lot of opposition." and was able to operate it as easily as I could. I was led to Dunkan Beaman of Beaman & Beamon in Jackson. In fact. We got it.

In the wound motor. despite examples of this type. This has been shown for many years in the rating of magnets as high or low energy sources for many applications over long usage. the size and shape of the wound fields and poles gives the focusing. both contentions are quite wrong because they are based on wrong considerations. and the motor case and kind of iron used help to limit the leakage. many hesitate to apply the same principles to motors and extend them even further by using permanent magnets for both the stator and armature. and. and spacing of the magnets in the stator and armature. and magnetic leakage must be controlled. In fact. The permanent magnet is a long time energy source.energy law. the fields must be focused and timed. brushes and contact rings give the timing. that the magnetic fields of attraction and repulsion decrease according to the inverse square law then the air gap is increased. The elements of all electric and permanent magnet motors are similar. secondly. shape. A loudspeaker composed entirely of electromagnets would be unreal in size and energy consumption. The focusing is controlled by the shape of . A field imbalance must be created. In our permanent magnet motors the timing is built into the motors by the size. Yet.

When the air gap of the permanent magnet motor is increased. The attracting field is minimized and will not produce a locking force. such as a battery. I believe that super conductors are simply large wound magnets. In fact. the field decreases inversely as the square. Usually when a magnetic air gap is increased. a curious but definite change takes place. in order to determine how much current may be flowing in the super conductor coil. No longer do these lines flow at right angles to the . while the repulsion of the crescent magnet is great enough to generate a thrust vector component that will drive the armature. I believe that the permanent magnet is the first room temperature super conductor. pole length. through which magnets oppose and attract each other. The current in a super conductor is not initiated by a strong emf. is a rare phenomenon.the magnets. Another rather unique feature of super conductors is the fact that their magnetic lines of force experience a change in direction. This helps explain why the thrust is better with a larger air gap than a smaller one. As I tried to explain in the patent. and the width of the air gap. Then. but is instead actually induced into existence by a magnetic field. we measure its magnetic field. Thus. This appears to be something like going out the door and coming back in the window. a Hall-effect sensing probe will give a higher gauss reading at the north pole and a decreasing count at the south pole. This air gap. There is a large decrease in the reading at south pole of the armature and an increase in the reading at the north pole.

1). Harrison. . Isn't it interesting that the finer the wire the less the resistance until eventually there is no resistance at all? II. Introduction Despite the fact that the linear version of the permanent magnet motor (Johnson. but they now exist parallel to the conductor. Jr. the complex interactions of the fields alone place it in a class with other quite sophisticated motive systems. Theoretical Analysis (presented by William P. 1979) may appear conceptually simple (see Fig. the heavy conductor currents exist in the fine filaments of niobium within each small wire of niobium tin from which such super conductors are made.conductor.) 1. Theoretically.

stator element air gap spacing. Johnson's motors are presently under development. Mathematical models for both the linear and circular versions of Mr. magnet . armature pole length. A number of these variables relate directly to the geometry of the system and its components. stator magnet dimensions.Figure 1: Partial Front and Plan Views of a Linear Model of the Howard Johnson Permanent Magnet Motor Many parameters play an important part in making possible the successful design of a permanent magnet motor. and include such controllable parameters as stator-to-armature air gap.

magnetic permeability and geometry of backing metals. Coulomb's Law in vector form is recalled as (1) where M and M' are the pole strengths (positive if north. Describing the interaction between two magnetic monopoles. r is the straight-line separation distance between the two poles. as often is true with simple models. negative if south). u [mu] is the permeability of the medium in which the poles are located. Also. considerable insight into the mechanisms that might prove predominant was gained. Even though Coulomb's Law. and even at this level some remarkable revelations resulted. much of the early work involved quit simple mathematical investigations. may yet prove suspect. and f [ f with line over top] is the vector of force (see Fig. it is our intention to share with you some of those early analytical investigations and findings. embodying the inverse square relationship as it does.material variations. it nevertheless provides an exceedingly simple yet viable form upon which to base an elementary model of the linear version of the permanent magnet motor. Figure 2: Coulomb's Law . 2) acting at each pole (positive in magnitude for repulsion and negative for attraction). to mention only a few. and multiple armature couplings. However. Therefore.

Eq. and its restriction to static systems fixes in space are all well known conditions on Eq. its superposition properties when applied to multiple poles. (1). rectangular in cross section. It should be noted that the horizontal stator "track" of H. Figure 3: Positional Locations of Two Opposing North monopoles in X-Y Space ~ . Johnson's linear model comprises a plurality of flat magnets. the fact that f's line of action is colinear with the straight-line distance r between poles. each having an aspect ratio (length-to-thickness ratio) of 16. This high value contributes to the two-dimensional nature of the model and helps to minimize and effects in the z direction. 2. (1). However. restricted to the vertical x-y plane. Thus there is some justification for a two-dimensional analysis. We will use the superposition property of Eq.The vector nature of Eq. (1) to extend its application to a spatial domain containing many more poles than the two shown in Fig. Our analysis will be two-dimensional and coplanar. at least in the case of the linear model we are considering here.R. (1) will first be resolved into scalar components so that analytical expressions can be more easily developed.

3. respectively. located on the x-axis at (x.As shown in Fig. The Attractive Sheet . acting on the monopole at (E. (2) and (3) 2. we consider first a north pole of strength M located at coordinates (E [epsilon]. when resolved into its horizontal and vertical components yields.n). n [nu]) with a second north pole of strength M'. Force f.0).

of finite length L. with north facing downward on the underside of the sheet. F. 4). The sheet. the simple example of a magnetic sheet lying along the x-axis will be considered first (see Fig. Magnetized Sheet having high aspect ratio and with S side face up To illustrate some of the assumptions and extensions of Coulomb’s Law that will be made.Figure 4: Spatial Orientation of Thin. acting on an isolated north monopole of strength M situated somewhere within the upper half of the x-y plane. Underside effects will be ignored as though the sheet represented a continuous distribution of only south monopoles along the x-axis. (1) we replace M’ with the differential dM’ and introduce the function B(x) so that (4) dM’ = B(x) dx Then the magnitude of the total force vector. The southpole face will be oriented up. is a permanent magnet magnetized across its y-direction thickness and having a high aspect ratio (to eliminate z-direction edge effects). To incorporate such distributions into Eq. becomes (5) .

and p is the ratio r/L.where x is the ratio x/L. Figure 5: North Monopole Positioned Symmetrically above the center of a magnetized. Eq (5) reduces to (6) where (7) the strength parameter M’ having been determined by integrating Eq (4) over the sheet length L. and neglecting end effects at x = 0 and x = L. attracting sheet Figure 6: Force Imbalance Acting on a North Monopole above a magnetized sheet tending to restore the pole to sheet . Assuming that the magnetic density along the sheet can be represented by the southern constant B.

n) will appear as shown in Fig. with E = L/2 and the vertical air-gap separation distance n taken as arbitrary. as shown in Fig. the symmetrical distribution of incremental force vectors acting at (E. n).center If the north monopole is placed directly above the center of the sheet. So considering now only the x-component of F. 5. similar to Eq (2) we write (8) where X and Y are the dimensionless ratios (9) . at coordinates (E. Note that a shift of the north monopole to the left results in a force imbalance which tends to pull the pole back to the right. 6.

and (10) For any fixed position (X. Eq (8) can be integrated to give (11) Figure 7: X-Direction Distribution of the X-Component of attractive force exerted on a north monopole by a thin. magnetized sheet This ratio is shown in Fig (7) as a continuous function of X locations with Y treated parametrically. The Y = 1 curve represents the field influence on the north monopole situated .Y) of the north monopole in the upper half plane.

In order to trace some trajectories through this field. we now observe that the y-component of force F will be (12) This function is shown in Fig (8) with a Y value of 0.20 Figure 8: [Missing] In dimensionless form the equations of motion for trajectory paths of the monopole above the sheet in planar X-Y space become (13) and (14) where . Reversal of the force component through its zero value at mid-sheet (X = ½) is clearly shown. whereas at Y = 0.1 the monopole is located much closer to the x axis.at a constant air-gap separation (n = L) quite some vertical distance above the sheet.

even when the G term may be omitted (as it was in the trajectories of Fig. respectively. regardless of the initial drop-point location. They all exhibit the expected behavior. the function (rx)mag given by Eq (11) has a stable point of equilibrium at X = ½ and therefore drives the free-falling monopole towards the sheet center. Actually. Several of the trajectories resulting from the integration of Eq (13) and Eq (14) are shown in Fig. whereas. The function (ry)mag from Eq (12) is equally persuasive in pulling the monopole down towards the sheet itself. As previously noted. L is the length of the sheet. the computer integration procedure will not carry the monopole all the way to surface contact with the sheet at Y = 0 . As already implied in the discussion of Fig. For magnetic force terms (rx)mag and (ry)mag we substitute directly Eq (11) and Eq (12). g is the gravitational acceleration constant and W is the downward weight force of the moving monopole above the sheet. 9). and manifests that attraction quite pervasively throughout the integration of Eq (14).(15) (16) and (17) In these expression t is real time and T is simply a time constant chosen arbitrarily.9. 7.

Thus. magnetized sheet lying in the Xinterval 0-1 As we would anticipate in working with this type of central field. with its . Also.because of the infinite condition which exists there as reflected by Eq (12). 3. tailings of these trajectories (Fig 9) have been completed by manually overriding the plotter. where B in Eq (4) is a simple constant. confirms that the energy integral for this function will vanish without any appropriate limit pairs of X. as seen in Fig. The Repulsive Sheet By substituting +B instead of -B for B in Eq (4). Figure 9: Trajectories of a North Monopole in an attractive field generated by the thin. the field is conservative with curl of F vanishing. the sheet of length L lying along the x-axis becomes repulsive. 7. the reverse symmetry of (rx)mag about X = ½.

10.northern face directed upward. magnetized sheet acting on a moving north monopole Figure 11: Trajectories of a North Monopole in a repulsive field generated by a thin. Several paths are shown in Fig 11 with different values used for the W/J trajectory in Eq (17). but now it is destabilizing. Parameter G was included.2) with zero initial velocity.n). as illustrated in Fig. As a consequence. Of course the sign in Eq (6) becomes positive and the functions (rx)mag and (ry)mag reverse their behavior accordingly.9. opposing the north monopole above it at location (E. and in each example the trajectories commenced at (0. Again (rx)mag will have an equilibrium point at X = ½. 0. magnetized sheet lying in the X- . Figure 10: X-Direction Distributions of (rx)mag and (ry)mag for the repulsive field of a thin. resulting trajectories for the north monopole are much more interesting in this case than they were with the attractive sheet.

such as those sold by the Permag Corp. M'. of Jamaica. NY. Figure 12: Pole Strength Influence Factor. x . It may also be interesting to note that with slight modifications this first simple analytical sheet model can be used to gain some insight into operation of the so-called "magnetic Wankel" reported on by Scott (1979). as a cosine function of linear displacement distance.interval 0-1 The attractive and repulsive sheet results are easily demonstrated since rubberized flexible sheet magnets are commercially available.

Figure 13: Experimentally Determined Magnetic Flux Density. to any mathematical analysis of the permanent magnet motor adopted a cosine function (Fig 12) to simulate the distribution of influence parameter M’ generated by the flat stator track of Mr Johnson’s linear model. was obtained by moving a Halleffect probe over the stator track of one of Mr Johnson’s early linear models having seven flat ceramic magnet elements. Ordinate values on the graph are magnetic flux density in gauss measured relative to a predetermined background value. An experimentally determined distribution. along a linear model of the Johnson permanent magnet motor 4. indirectly. The figure shown was produced by a plotter connected directly to the monitor computer controlling positioning of the Hall probe and processing its output signal. 1979) relating. B. shown in Fig 13. These direct-reading experimental results suggest that the function (18) . The Sinusoidal Model The first paper (Harrison.

Using Eq (18). It should be noted that one of the important differences between the function (18) and that shown in Fig 12 is that in Eq (18) the period length parameter xp is double that shown in Figure 12. Also. Now we plan to hold Y constant while investigating linear motion of the monopole along this track in the X-direction only. So we need consider only the X-component of F from Eq (19) which yields (20) Figure 14: Oscillatory Path of a North Monopole restrained to x-direction motion over a three-element linear stator . then in that expression one must substitute the product BL for M’. if Eq (7) is used for J in Eq (19).substituted into Eq (4) should prove interesting to pursue as a more challenging test of what might be gleaned from this simple Coulomb model we have been discussing. x = x/L. and xp = xp/L. the total force magnitude expression Eq (5) becomes (19) where a total track length distance of L has been used to form the dimensionless ratios p = r/L.

1). 14. the focusing armature magnet of his linear model will start at either end of the stator track simply by insuring that the north end of this bipoled crescent is leading the south (see Fig. since Vx is defined as (21) It will be noted in Fig 14 that the north monopole has been allowed to self-start its motion at the origin with Vx initially zero. Also. Vx. it becomes easy to follow the behavior of dimensionless velocity. we are showing the X-direction motion from right to left instead of from left to right as in our previous examples. So.assembly With this expression substituted into Eq (13). . by simply rotating the figure clockwise through 90 degrees. As Mr Johnson has brought out. in Fig. in Fig 11. integration becomes straightforward and yields the typical oscillatory type of trajectory path shown in Fig 14.

Introducing this type of variation into a two-dimensional model. provided the charge is nonuniform. as the monopole advanced along its trajectory path from one X position to another. during the motion).We now discuss out final adjustment which proved to be an exciting revelation at the time it was first investigated several months ago. line 39) states that the horizontal air-gap spacing between the magnet elements which the stator track comprises should vary slightly from normal in order to smooth out movement of the armature. With these thoughts in mind. Johnson (1979.e. The results are shown in Fig 15. 5. sufficient control over the moving pole could be exercised to carry it over the full length of the stator and beyond. col. an attempt was made to drive the armature monopole of Fig 14 on to the second stator magnet and beyond by varying the horizontal gap parameter xp during the integration process (i. would certainly transform the field from conservative to nonconservative.. Figure 15: Continuus Path of a North Monopole restrained to x-direction motion shown traversing a linear stator assembly . It was found that through small variations in xp in Eq (20). It should by now be apparent that only a nonconservative model has any chance at all of even partially explaining the phenomena of the permanent magnet motor.

May 8-11. Johnson. 1979). Howard R: US Patent # 4.comprised of seven permanent magnet elements III. Virginia Academy of Science.. Jr. paper presented to the Engineering Section. "Magnetic.431 (April 24. "Permanent Magnet Motor". 80. Wankel’ for Electric Cars".: "A Solution for the Optimal Gap of a Monopole Element Moving in a Sinusoidally Distributed Magnetic Field". June 1979. 57th Annual Meeting. Richmond VA. p. . Popular Science. 1979. References Harrison.151. Scott. William P. David.

. whom I very much admire. i. Howard employs a two-particle theory of magnetism. much less duplicating that feat several times for each necessary part.e.Notes for those building Howards Magnetic Motor There are a few critical things that anyone who wants to successfully build a working HoJo Permanent Magnetic Motor needs to know. Howard has continued to work quietly and patiently upon his patented permanent magnet motor. including patenting various magnetic gates. Someone with a diamond saw. each magnetic flux line is envisioned as having a particle traveling . One slight misalignment and the motor will not run continuously. that are necessary to make such a motor work in a rotary configuration. etc. 2) Alignment of the parts is highly important too. From The Archives: An Excerpt by Tom Bearden Howard Johnson is also a respected colleague. cutting his own magnets by hand has little chance of succeeding in shaping the magnets to the aerospace-critical specs that are the minimum necessary. some of which are probably obvious to the more experienced builders: 1) The most critical element is the precise machining of the magnets.

We will also explain how and why the physicists missed that antiparticle in the magnetic field's flux lines. one curls in one direction and the other curls in the opposite direction. The paths of the two "curl particles" are different. Johnson splits the flux lines themselves. and also a particle traveling from the south pole to the north pole. and thereby failed to advance the theory of magnetism to a deeper level. In short. Johnson may well be awarded a Nobel Prize for his epochal discovery of a deeper structure of magnetism. the component lines are now curls. so their paths curve.from the north pole to the south pole. Tom’s Notes: . Further. a predominance of one form of curl particle gives a "time-forward" aspect. into two different pieces. He demonstrates that a "spin-altered" magnetic assembly exhibiting (to a compass or other such detector) a north polarity can attract another unaltered magnetic assembly exhibiting a north polarity. Howard then slightly separates the two particle flows. We will give you further insight into Johnson's two-particle theory in a future article. Make no mistake. and the antiparticle spins in the other direction. the forward-time particle spins in one direction. Johnson is thus able to employ a deeper kind of magnetism than the textbooks presently contain. while a predominance of the other form of curl particle gives a "timereversed" aspect. The particles are spinning. In other words. When so separated. one day when the new theory is done. he can make a north pole attract a north pole.

I personally saw and closely examined one demonstration rotary Johnson permanent magnet motor some years ago, and toyed with it for about one hour. It would definitely self- rotate as long as you wished to permit it to turn. As I have pointed out repeatedly in the past, photons also carry time, not just energy. We have previously shown the process and the photon interaction mechanism that creates the flow of time itself; we will discuss this mechanism in the future. So when Johnson separates the particles and antiparticles, not only does he partially separate them according to spin, but he also alters the local character of time flow during which the resulting magnetic field forces must appear. In other words, he accomplishes a partial separation of time-forward and timereversed polar interactions. A south pole is just a timereversed magnetic north pole, in the first place! So a north pole of a bar magnet that is slightly time reversed on one side will partially act on that side just like a south pole. On the other side it will continue to act like a normal north pole. By partially timereversing (phase conjugating) one side of the north magnetic pole piece, Johnson makes that side look and act like a south pole. that way Howard is able to create two north poles, one on a stator and the other on a rotor, and time-reverse part of one face of the stator's north magnetic pole-piece. Therefore when the proper sides of the stator and rotor north poles are facing, they attract each other, contrary to the conventional textbook. The two poles then repel each other normally as soon as the north rotor poles passes the north stator pole. Hence Johnson can make a surrounding north pole stator assembly "draw in"

an approaching north pole rotor assembly, and then kick it on out the other side, because he has broken the local magnetic symmetry. In short, Johnson's magnetic gate can provide a legitimate component of unidirectional magnetic thrust, which means that he can indeed make a rotary permanent motor. Simply put, this "partially separating the spin particles," and thereby partially phase conjugating one face of a magnet, is what Johnson calls a "gate," and this is the patented secret by which his magnet assemblies can be made self-powering. The entire process is still very meticulous, and assembly and adjustments are extremely critical. With Johnson's blessings we hope to shed more light on this subject in coming articles.

Blueprints Below you will see blueprints for the magnetic motor. You will first see the originals then modern renderings below the originals (we’ve also included links to enlarged modern renderings so you can see all of the details in these diagrams).

Modern Rendering Below:

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Modern Rendering Below: .

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Parts you’ll need Quick Overview: Motor Chassis .

Endplate Magnet Motor Rotor and Magnet Rotors .

Shield Rotor Magnet Stator Stator Rotor .

As long as the parts are in decent condition. it is also wise to try to get them used. if you are having trouble finding magnets. Moreover. look to one of the magnet retailers on the internet that solely sells magnets (just do a Google search for “magnet retailer”). We can assure you that every part you need in this motor can be found online but we want to be careful to not recommend any particular retailer because prices are constantly changing and we want you to find the current lowest prices on the internet for each part to keep the cost of your motor low (instead of us just recommending a retailer that may not be the cheapest for you).Rotor Magnet Spacing Tool *We will talk more about the parts in the motor and where to get the parts later in this guide but we typically recommend that people try to find as many of the parts as you can on Amazon and Ebay. .

**Click Here To Search For Cheap Parts On Amazon . we built our motor for a very low price! *many of the parts in the motor can also be found at your local hardware store so check there as well. Because we used this method while we searched for parts.When we built our motor we first tried to get everything we needed used on Amazon or Ebay but if we couldn’t find it there we would search for an individual retailers online that specialized in whatever we were looking for.

Magnet Ratios One of the crucial aspects is the relationship between the size of the rotor magnets and the size of the stator magnets. it will lose power if it is stored improperly (poles repelling each other). A suggested ratio is: R + R + S = T. parallel to the stator bar (S) is the small gap between the two stator magnets (~1/2 the width of the rotor magnet) (T) is the length of the rotor magnet. Also. For best results. or with a steel keeper. . store magnetized alnico so that pieces are attracting each other. where: (R) is the width of the stator magnet (as viewed from the top.Notes on Parts *Parts and assembly will depend on how you want to build your Magnetic Motor Magnets in general *note: Care should be taken when handling alnico material (HS811N) since it is brittle and can chip or break if dropped on a hard surface. because it has a low resistance to demagnetization.

(Wikipedia) Hence. the one attracted to the Earth's North Magnetic Pole). And if the "S"pointing end of a compass points to a magnetic pole. all magnets have two poles that are distinguished by the direction of the magnetic flux. Because opposite poles attract. these are “block” magnets. . Keep in mind. for example. Conversely. the Earth's North Magnetic Pole is therefore. as "+" and "-". "N". "S". and the "south pole" (or "south-seeking pole"). In principle these poles could be labeled in any way. 60 magnets will give you the option to fully populate (minus one spot) the rotor disc. or "A" and "B". with the polarity through the thickness.e.Rotor Magnets We recommend that you get around 60 magnets to give you flexibility in your design. if the "N"-pointing end of a compass points to a magnetic pole. then you know that pole is "S". based on the early use of magnets in compasses they were named the "north pole" (or more explicitly "northseeking pole"). Note on Magnet Polarity In physics. However. with the north pole being the pole that pointed north (i. and to have some left over in case some are damaged or have the rounded edge along the length. by this definition. then you know that pole is "N". the Earth's South Magnetic Pole is physically a magnetic field north pole. physically a magnetic field south pole.

9. These are the most common grades and are available anywhere.2mm thick.6mm OD. 452mm (Cut from a 18 x 18 aluminum plate from the local sheet metal shop). (Hobby town) Polycarbonate plate holding the bearings is bolteds to Aluminum Disc. 9.2mm  Grade suggested is 1100 or 3003. 3.  Shaft is 6. 12.  Thickness. 2 Flange ball bearing.5mm polycarbonate from US Plastic)  Nylon sleeve.5mm brass rod.5mm x 127mm dia. (Local hardware store)  Bearings. Bearing Assembly  Polycarbonate disc 9. (Home Depot) .  Another identical Poly disc is drilled to receive the shaft.  A dozen 1/4 inch nylon or aluminum bolts.5mm ID 3. we suggest these dimensions if you decide to try to build Howard’s original motor (and not our simplified motor in section 3)… Aluminum Disc  Diameter. (Hobby town)  Poly plate holding the shaft is bolted to the base.Dimension of Parts *the dimension you use will be dependent on how you decide to build your magnetic motor. However.4mm OD 6. Drilled to receive a Nylon sleeve (Cut from a 12 inch square sheet of 9.4mm ID A bearing is inserted in each end of sleeve. 28mm long.

cast acrylic rod. (Home Depot)  Vertically adjustable Stator Mechanism was built to slide along the bar using trimmings from the aluminum rotor.)  Two 1/4 inch wing nuts. Stator Assembly  Two inch x 2 feet aluminum bar drilled on each end to allow a 1/4 inch bolt to slip into it. We suggest the gap between the two stator magnets should be greater than the largest gap between adjoining rotor magnets at the perimeter of the disc. . as well as the gap between the magnets perpendicular to tangent.375 Dia.  1. There needs to be a space between these. There is more to building this than just having the parts. (Cut off the head of the top bolts to allow the bar to be attached. but this should be most everything… Magnet Adjustment You will need some way to adjust the stator magnet spacing both relative to the circumference of the rotor. (US Plastic) drilled and threaded on both ends to receive 2 inch by 1/4 inch threaded Nylon or aluminum bolt. Bolted to the base.Base A slab of anything large enough to accommodate the rotor with a little extra to hold the stator supports.

relative to the circumference of the rotor disc. One direction will yield rotation in direction. Screws All screws in the assembly should be non-magnetic. The N-S orientation of the two stator magnets will be the same. position the trailing lip of one so it’s ahead of the trailing lip of the other.There can also be an overlap between the two stator magnets as relative to the circumference of the rotor disc.  Super Glue for gluing the rubber feet to the bearing base and the stator assembly feet.  Crazy Glue for gluing the magnets to the aluminum. Glue It’s an important principle that the magnets should touch the aluminum if possible. Hence the use of hot glue is probably not a good idea as it creates too much of an insulating factor between the magnets and the aluminum. So. Swapping them 180-degrees will yield rotation in the opposite direction. and 4-10 to fasten stator assembly. Razor Blades . You will need 3 to fasten bearing assembly to rotor disc.

or when they fall off for some reason.You will need something like a razor blade to scrape off the Crazy Glue when you remove magnets to adjust them. .

which are suspended by an aluminum stator assembly. *Think chaos theory and the variance of nature.  The second key ingredient for this motor is a set of two offset stator (stationary) magnets.  Use magnets all the way around except for one spot. but stay away from exact measurements.  The polarity of these magnets is through the thickness.Using Howard’s Designs to Build Your Own: Tips and Suggestions If you want to build the Howard Johnson’s Magnetic Motor but want to simplify his design try these recommendations:  Use an aluminum rotor disc lined around the circumference with bar magnets arranged like railroad ties.  The rotor magnets are nominally evenly spaced. not the length.  You can experiment with a set of 6 magnets or more (some successful simplified versions of Johnson’s motor use two sets of 18 magnets). and N is up. These are polarized N-S across the two legs. . which can be necessary for the flux effect to work.

 The horizontal width of the two offset stator magnets. including the gap between them (positioned pointing down at the rotor bar magnets) is approximately the same as the horizontal length of the rotor bar magnets  Some have also successfully used the bottom of the stator magnet and positioned it level with the bottom of the top lip of the rotor magnet. or from being pulled into the stator magnet. and S on the other side. S-N in their relationship.  The speed of operation is apparently in proportional to the magnet strength and perhaps to the distance between the stator and the rotor magnets (though the latter may be more a matter of going in/out of sync). The stator magnets are arranged such that they point down to the rotor magnets. and that they are not N-S.  Your magnets must be secure but when you are building and testing you can use his Crazy Glue to attach them. to make it easy to adjust things in the process of finding an optimal arrangement. you’ll need to build your assembly more sturdy. If you are going to use stronger magnets. They will come unglued fairly easy. whether from banging into something. with one polarity leading and the other trailing.  The polarity of the two off-set stator magnets have N on the same side. . or from the centripetal force of high rotation speeds.

. The higher elevation apparently works better from tests. While others nearly put it level with the rotor magnet.

 The methods for removing magnets and glue can be hazardous: razor blades.  Because the stator and rotor assembly are positioned by hand in this set-up. causing things to come unglued and to bunch together. you will need to guard/protect against rotor magnets becoming detached and flying off. be aware of the likelihood of pinching your skin with the magnets. one should always wear safety goggles when using strong magnets. acetone. . etc. it will be fairly easy to accidentally cause the rotating rotor magnets to collide with the stationary stator magnet.Cautions  Generally speaking.  If you chose stronger magnets. If you modify this design and end up with a device that has higher rotation speed.

Make sure you have some non-symmetry there. . you are ready to operate the motor! Position the rotor assembly on a nominally flat surface with at least 6 inches of free space around it. If your generator doesn’t work for some reason:  Try changing the distance between individual magnets. with enough flywheel and small enough cog to make it to the next set of magnets. Bring the stator assembly into place so that the stator magnets are situated directly over the center of a rotor magnet length. where the effect is repeated.Operation of the Motor Once you have completed the assembly steps. gradually accelerating until an equilibrium speed is reached.  Try changing the numbers of magnets per set. Make sure there are not any magnetic objects in the vicinity. Turn the rotor so it is at the beginning of a row of magnets. Give yourself plenty of room. The stator should pull the rotor magnets by.

Stronger magnets will require better engineering to prevent detachment of the rotor magnets. the disc diameter is probably not a highly crucial component. non-symmetry is a key here. *Remember.Moreover. . You could try tighter circumferences just by scribing a line on your rotating disc as a reference point. You do not want to seek uniformly magnetized magnets for the rotor magnet. You should try to go with weaker magnets for this replication. but changing it will require finding the proper spacing of magnets to work with the different circumference.

…Note: To help clarify theories and the instructions further we have included Howard Johnson’s patents in the next section. If after reading the patents section. and aspects of the motor plans. They are pretty technical but they may clarify certain ideas. take a look at our next section (Section 3) because that is where the cheaper and simplified magnetic motor plans are…. theories. . you want to try building a more simplified magnetic motor.

such as the displacement of a rotor with respect to a stator. Johnson Abstract --.Howard Johnson’s Patents US Patent # 4. The timing and orientation of magnetic forces at the rotor and stator components produced by permanent magnets to produce a motor is accomplished with the proper geometrical relationship of these components. In the practice of the invention the unpaired electron spins occurring within permanent magnets are utilized to produce a motive power source solely through the superconducting characteristics of a permanent magnet and the magnetic flux created by the magnets are controlled and concentrated to orient the magnetic forces generated in such a manner to do useful continuous work. 1979 ) Howard R.151. .The invention is directed to the method of utilizing the unpaired electron spins in ferro magnetic and other materials as a source of magnetic fields for producing power without any electron flow as occurs in normal conductors.431 Permanent Magnet Motor ( April 24. and to permanent magnet motors for utilizing this method to produce a power source.

Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION The invention pertains to the field of permanent magnet motor devices solely using the magnetic fields created thereby to product motive power. Howard R. 505/877 Intern'l Class: H02K 041/00. Grass Lake.138 A 273/118 A.. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Conventional electric motors employ magnetic forces to produce either rotative or linear motion. 415/916.131 AD References Cited: U. 2 46/236 .136 B. .153 (Feb.120 A. 126 A. et al.S.134 A. 416/3. (3300 Mt.: 422306 ~ Filed: December 6. Class: 310/12. Patent Documents 4..125 A.Inventors: Johnson.124. Hope Rd.123 A. 310/152.135 A. 9 415/DIG.137 AE. 1973 Current U. No. 1978) Baker. 415/10.S.121 A.130 A. 310/12.119 A. MI 49240) Appl. Electric motors operate on the principle that when a conductor is located in a magnetic field which carries current a magnetic force is exerted upon it.074. H02N 011/00 Field of Search: 24/DIG.131 A.122 A.

to produce the motive power. or both types of magnetic forces. are so wired that magnetic fields created by electromagnetics may employ attraction. and switching means are employed to control the energization of the electromagnets and the orientation of the magnetic fields. This small particle is believed to be opposite in charge and to be located at right angles to the moving electron. Conventional electric motors may employ permanent magnets either in the armature or stator components. but in the art heretofore known the use of permanent magnets in either the stator or armature require the creation of an electromagnetic field to act upon the field produced by the permanent magnets. in their various states as well as their known compounds. in a conventional electric motor. The unpaired electron flow is similar in both situations. repulsion. or to cause the armature to be displaced in a linear path. or both. It is my belief that the full potential of magnetic forces existing in permanent magnets has not been recognized or utilized because of incomplete information and theory with respect to the atomic motion occurring within a permanent magnet. unless they have unpaired electrons . the rotor.Normally. to impose a force upon the armature to cause rotation. and the particle would be very small as to penetrate all known elements. It is my belief that a presently unnamed atomic particle is associated with the electron movement of a superconducting electromagnet and the lossless current flow of Amperian currents in permanent magnets. or stator.

and in a permanent magnet the grain orientation . However. and being unpaired they spin around the nucleus in such a way that they respond to magnetic fields as well as creating one themselves. Under cryogenic superconduction conditions the freezing of the crystals in place makes it possible for the spins to continue. This change must be due to establishing the required conditions for unpaired electronic spins instead of electron flow in the conductor. In niobium superconductors at a critical state. the magnetic lines of force cease to be at right angles. wherein the electrical resistance becomes greater in the metal than the proton resistance. The spins are at right angles to their magnetic fields. being unpaired they create a measurable magnetic field if their spins have been oriented in one direction. the flow turns to electron spins and the positive particles flow parallel in the metal in the manner occurring in a permanent magnet where a powerful flow of magnetic positive particles or magnetic flux causes the unpaired electrons to spin at right angles. Ferro electrons differ from those of most elements in that they are unpaired. their magnetic fields would cancel out. and the fact that very powerful electromagnets that can be formed with superconductors illustrates the tremendous advantage of producing the magnetic field by unpaired electron spins rather than conventional electron flow.which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass therethrough. If they were paired. In a superconducting metal.

or other known means. i. In a conventional electric motor. The best method to accomplish this is to use the superconductor of magnetic flux and concentrate it to the place where it will be the most effective. In a superconductor. alternating current. Previously. switching is accomplished by the use of brushes. In order to accomplish the switching function in a permanent magnet motor. it is necessary to shield the magnetic leakage so that it will not appear as too great a loss factor at the wrong places. the electron is spinning and the positive particle is flowing at right angles. and this electron flow can be made to do work because of the magnetic field it supplies. a permanent magnet may be considered the only room temperature superconductor. In a sense. when critical.e. at first the electron is flowing and the positive particle is spinning. commutators. Such switching functions are common in a conventional electric motor where electrical current is employed to align the much greater electron current in the iron pole pieces and concentrate the magnetic field at the proper places to give the thrust necessary to move the motor armature. this source of power has not been used because it was not possible to modify the electron flow to accomplish the switching functions of the magnetic field. These positive particles will thread or work their way through the electron spins present in the metal.. It is a superconductor because the electron flow does not cease. the reverse occurs. Timing and switching can be . later.of the magnetized material results in the spins permitting them to continue and for the flux to flow parallel to the metal.

motors of either linear or rotative types may be produced. capable of producing a continuous motive force. greater than 100 to 1. To my knowledge. previous work done with permanent magnets. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the invention to utilize the magnetic spinning phenomenon of unpaired electrons occurring in ferro magnetic material to produce the movement of a mass in a unidirectional manner as to permit a motor to be driven solely by magnetic forces as occurring within permanent magnets. geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the force generated by unpaired electron spins existing in permanent magnets to power a . By the proper combination of materials. geometry and magnetic concentration. In the practice of the inventive concepts. and motive devices utilizing permanent magnets. it is possible to achieve a mechanical advantage of high ratio. geometry and magnetic concentration that the presence of the magnetic spins within a permanent magnet may be utilized as a motive force.achieved in a permanent magnet motor by concentrating the flux and using the proper geometry of the motor rotor and stator to make most effective use of the magnetic fields generated by the electron spins. have not achieved the result desired in the practice of the inventive concept. and it is with the proper combination of materials. It is an object of the invention to provide the proper combination of materials.

An armature magnet is located in spaced relationship to such track defined by the stator magnets wherein an air gap exists therebetween. in each instance the "stator" may consist of a plurality of permanent magnets fixed relative to each other in space relationship to define a track. will produce a . This ratio of magnet and magnet spacings. in the direction of the path of armature magnet movement. or a rotary embodiment. The length of the armature magnet is defined by poles of opposite polarity. both attraction and repulsion forces act upon the armature magnet to produce the relative displacement between the armature and stator magnets. linear in form in the linear embodiment. The stator magnets are so mounted that poles of like polarity are disposed toward the armature magnet and as the armature magnet has poles which are both attracted to and repelled by the adjacent pole of the stator magnets. and circular in form in the rotary embodiment. and the spacing therebetween. and the length of the armature magnet is disposed relative to the track defined by the stator magnets in the direction of the path of movement of the armature magnet as displaced by the magnetic forces. and with an acceptable air gap spacing between the stator and armature magnets.motor. The continuing motive force producing displacement between the armature and stator magnets results from the relationship of the length of the armature magnet in the direction of its path of movement as related to the dimension of the stator magnets. Whether the motor constitutes a linear embodiment.

By concentrating the magnetic fields of the stator and armature magnets the motive force imposed upon the armature magnet is intensified. and the magnetic field may further be concentrated by shaping the pole ends of the armature magnet to concentrate the magnet field at a relatively limited surface at the armature magnet pole ends. This high permeability material is thus disposed adjacent poles of like polarity of the stator magnets. The magnetic field of the armature magnet may be concentrated and directionally oriented by bowing the armature magnet. a plurality of armature magnets are used which are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of armature magnet movement.resultant force upon the armature magnet which displaces the armature magnet across the stator magnet along its path of movement. The disclosed magnetic field concentrating means comprise a plate of high magnetic field permeability disposed adjacent one side of the stator magnets in substantial engagement therewith. and in the disclosed embodiments such magnetic field concentration means are disclosed. Preferably. Such an offsetting or staggering of the armature magnets distributes the impulses of force imposed upon the armature magnets and results in a smoother . In the practice of the invention movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets results from a combination of attraction and repulsion forces existing between the stator and armature magnets.

In the rotary embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention the stator magnets are arranged in a circle. and thereby regulate the magnitude of the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature magnets. and the armature magnets rotate about the stator magnets. In this manner the speed of rotation of the rotary embodiment may be regulated. Means are disclosed for producing relative axial displacement between the stator and armature magnets to adjust the axial alignment thereof. . 1 is a schematic view of electron flow in a superconductor indicating the unpaired electron spins.application of forces to the armature magnet producing a smoother and more uniform movement of the armature component. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The aforementioned objects and advantages of the invention will be appreciated from the following description and accompanying drawings wherein: FIG.

3 is a view of a permanent magnet illustrating the flux movement therethrough. FIG. . 2 is a cross-sectional view of a superconductor under a critical state illustrating the electron spins.FIG.

3. FIG. . and indicating the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnet. 4 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the diameter of the magnet of FIG.FIG. 5 is an elevational representation of a linear motor embodiment of the permanent magnet motor of the invention illustrating one position of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets.

8 is a top plan view of a linear embodiment of the inventive concept illustrating a pair of armature magnets in linked relationship disposed above the stator magnets. FIG. 7 is a further elevational view similar to FIGS. FIG. 5 illustrating displacement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. 5 and 6 illustrating further displacement of the armature magnet to the left.FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. and the influence of the magnetic forces thereon. . and the influence of magnetic forces thereon at this location.

10 is an elevational view of the rotary motor embodiment as taken along section X--X of FIG. 9. elevational. sectional view of a rotary motor embodiment in accord with the invention as taken along section IX--IX of FIG. . and FIG. 10. 9 is a diametrical.FIG.

reference is made to FIGS. In accord with the theory of the invention the spinning of the ferrous unpaired electrons results from the atomic structure of ferrous materials and this spinning atomic particle is believed to be opposite in charge and located at right angles to the moving electrons. 1 a superconductor 1 is illustrated having a positive particle flow as represented by arrow 2. 1 through 4. . the unpaired electrons of the ferrous conducting material 1 spin at right angles to the proton flow in the conductor as represented by the spiral line and arrow 3.DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In order to better understand the theory of the inventive concept. In FIG. It is assumed to be very small in size capable of penetrating other elements and their compounds unless they have unpaired electrons which capture these particles as they endeavor to pass there through.

The accumulated electron spins occurring about the diameter of the magnet 5 are represented at 6 in FIG. FIG. and the spinning electron particles spin at right angles in the iron as the flux travels through the magnet material.The lack of electrical resistance of conductors at a critical superconductor state has long been recognized. thereby resulting in a motor capable of doing work. By utilizing the electron spinning theory of ferrous material electrons. are utilized to produce motor force. the magnetic flow being from the south pole to the north pole and through the magnetic material. 4. it is possible with the proper ferromagnetic materials. geometry and magnetic concentration to utilize the spinning electrons to produce a motive force in a continuous direction. and unpaired electric spinning particles exist which. 3 illustrates a horseshoe shaped permanent magnet at 4 and the magnetic flux there through is indicated by arrows 5. in the practice of the invention. FIG. It is appreciated that the embodiments of motors utilizing the concepts of the invention may take many forms. A permanent magnet may be considered a superconductor as the electron flow therein does not cease. and in the illustrated forms the basic relationships of components are . 2 represents a cross section of a critical superconductor and the electron spins are indicated by the arrows 3. and superconductors have been utilized to produce very high magnetic flux density electromagnets. and is without resistance.

which is preferably of a metal material having a high permeability to magnetic fields and magnetic flux such as that available under the trademark Netic CoNetic sold by the Perfection Mica Company of Chicago. FIG. although a bonding material may be interposed between the magnets and the plate in order to accurately locate and fix the magnets on the plate. and so magnetized that the poles exist at the large surfaces of the magnets. 5 through 8. The stator magnets are mounted upon a supporting plate 20. The stator magnets 12 are preferably of a rectangular configuration. Preferably.illustrated in order to disclose the inventive concepts and principles. as will be appreciated from the N (North) and S (South) designations. and preferably in direct engagement therewith. the spacing between the stator magnets 12 slightly differs between adjacent stator magnets as such a variation in spacing varies the forces being imposed upon the armature magnet at its ends. and position the stator magnets with respect to each other. . 8. The stator magnets include side edges 14 and 16 and end edges 18. Illinois. Thus. at any given time. Thus. 5 through 8. the plate 20 will be disposed toward the south pole of the stator magnets 12. The relationships of the plurality of magnets defining the stator 10 are best appreciated from FIGS. and thus results in a smoother movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets. the stator magnets so positioned relative to each other define a track 22 having a longitudinal direction left to right as viewed in FIGS.

or the armature magnet could be mounted upon a wheeled vehicle carriage or slide supported upon a nonmagnetic surface or guideway disposed between the stator magnets and the armature magnet. To clarify the illustration. and may be of a rectangular transverse cross-sectional shape. and the poles are defined at the ends of the magnet as will be appreciated from FIG.In FIGS. In like manner the magnetic fields of the stator magnets 12 are indicated by the light dotted lines. 5. while in FIG. 5 through 7. 5. This spacing may be accomplished by mounting the armature magnet upon a slide. For magnetic field concentrating and orientation purposes the magnet 24 is formed in an arcuate bowed configuration as defined by concave surfaces 26 and convex surfaces 28. the means for supporting the armature magnet 24 is not illustrated and such means form no part of . guide or track located above the stator magnets. FIG. The armature magnet is of an elongated configuration wherein the length extends from left to right. For further magnetic field concentrating purposes the ends of the armature magnet are shaped by beveled surfaces 30 to minimize the cross-sectional area at the magnet ends at 32. The armature magnet 24 is maintained in a spaced relationship above the stator track 22. 8 a pair of armature magnets are shown. and the magnetic flux existing between the poles of the armature magnet are as indicated by the light dotted lines. 5 through 7 only a single armature magnet 24 is disclosed. For purposes of understanding the concepts of the invention the description herein will be limited to the use of single armature magnet as shown in FIGS.

While the forces 34 constitute repulsion forces tending to move the north pole of the armature magnet away from the stator magnets. FIG. The relative strength of this force is represented by the thickness of the force line. The magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet when in the position of FIG. or moving closer thereto. and the north pole field of the sector magnets. 5 produce a primary force vector 38 toward the left.invention. 5. The resultant of the force vectors imposed upon the armature magnet as shown in FIG. displacing the armature magnet 24 toward the left. but permits free movement of the armature magnet to the left or right in a direction parallel to the track 22 defined by the stator magnets. 5 will be repulsion forces 34 due to the proximity of like polarity forces and attraction forces at 36 because of the opposite polarity of the south pole of the armature magnet. and it is to be understood that the means supporting the armature magnet prevents the armature magnet from moving away from the stator magnets. 6 the magnetic forces acting upon the armature magnet are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIG. the attraction forces imposed upon the south pole of the armature magnet and some of the repulsion forces. . tend to move the armature magnet further to the left. It will be noted that the length of the armature magnet 24 is slightly greater than the width of two of the stator magnets 12 and the spacing there between. In FIG. 5. and as the resultant force 38 continues to be toward the left the armature magnet continues to be forced to the left.

5.FIG. and the south pole is positioned at the left. The armature magnets are of a shape and configuration identical to that of the embodiment of FIG. the direction of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. Upon the armature magnet being reversed such that the north pole is positioned at the right as viewed in FIG. and the stator magnet will continue to move to the left. the direction of movement of the armature magnet relative to the stator magnets is toward the right. In FIG. and the theory of movement is identical to that described above. The use of several armature magnets tends to "smooth out" the application of forces imposed upon linked armature magnets. 5 and 6. Of . 6. 8 a plurality of armature magnets 40 and 42 are illustrated which are connected by links 44. i. By so staggering a plurality of armature magnets a smoother movement of the interconnected armature magnets is produced as compared when using a single armature magnet as there is variation in the forces acting upon each armature magnet as it moves above the track 22 due to the change in magnetic forces imposed thereon. and such movement continues the length of the track 22 defined by the stator magnets 12. 7 represents further displacement of the armature magnet 24 to the left with respect to the position of FIG. but the magnets are staggered with respect to each other in the direction of magnet movement. and the magnetic forces acting thereon are represented by the same reference numerals as in FIGS.. resulting in a smoother movement of the armature magnet assembly. 5.e.

Preferably. and a convex outer pole surface 60. The armature 62 is formed of a nonmagnetic material. and an axially extending portion 64. 10. and a threaded bore 52 is concentrically defined in the stator. The stator member 48 is made of a nonmagnetic material. but the orientation of the stator and armature magnets is such that rotation of the armature magnets is produced about an axis.course. is of a dished configuration having a radial web portion. rather than a linear movement being achieved. The stator includes an annular groove 54 receiving an annular sleeve 56 of high magnetic field permeability material such as Netic Co-Netic and a plurality of stator magnets 58 are affixed upon the sleeve 56 in spaced circumferential relationship as will be apparent in FIG. In FIGS. 9 and 10 a rotary embodiment embracing the inventive concepts is illustrated. In this embodiment the principle of operation is identical to that described above. aluminum. In FIGS. limited only by the width of the stator magnet track 22. 9 and 10 a base is represented at 46 serving as a support for a stator member 48. in the illustrated embodiment. such as synthetic plastic. the stator magnets 58 are formed with converging radial sides as to be of a wedge configuration having a curved inner surface engaging sleeve 56. any number of armature magnets may be interconnected. or the like. The stator includes a cylindrical surface 50 having an axis. The armature 62. and an annular belt receiving groove 66 is defined therein for receiving a belt for transmitting power .

The staggering of the armature magnets 68 in a circumferential direction produces the same effect as the staggering of the armature magnets 40 and 42 as shown in FIG. an air gap exists between the armature magnet or magnets and the stator magnets and the dimension of this spacing. a slight angular staggering of the armature magnets is desirable to "smooth out" the magnetic forces being imposed upon the armature as a result of the magnetic forces being simultaneously imposed upon each of the armature magnets. axially displaces the armature 62 with respect to the stator magnets 58.degree. 8. and shaft 70. 5 through 7. and may be rotated by the knob 74. and the shaft 70 is threaded into the stator threaded bore 52. The armature 62 is mounted upon a threaded shaft 70 by antifriction bearings 72. effects the magnitude of the forces imposed upon the armature magnet or magnets. and such axial displacement will vary the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets 68 by the stator magnets thereby controlling the speed of rotation of the armature. If the distance between the armature magents.from the armature to a generator. Rather. Circumferential relationships to each other. and . In this manner rotation of the knob 74. 4-7 and 9 and 10. The magnets 68 are staggered with respect to each other in a circumferential direction wherein the magnets are not disposed as 120. As will be noted from FIGS. or other power consuming device. and such magnets are of a configuration similar to the armature magnet configuration of FIGS. Three armature magnets 68 are mounted on the armature portion 64.

with a minimum creation of objectionable pulsation. While such magnetic field concentration means result in higher forces imposed upon the armature magnets for given magnet intensities. the movement of the armature magnet or magnets . but also reduces the magnitude of the magnetic forces imposed upon the armature magnets. and the armature magnets are bowed and have shaped ends for magnetic field concentration purposes. Thus. Thus. to some extent. it is not intended that the inventive concepts be limited to the use of such magnetic field concentrating means.the stator magnets is reduced the forces imposed upon the armature magnets by the stator magnets are increased. the most effective spacing between the armature magnets. However. and the resultant force vector tending to displace the armature magnets in their path of movement increases. As will be appreciated from the above description of the invention. The increasing of the distance between the armature and stator magnets reduces the pulsation tendency of the armature magnet. In the disclosed embodiments the high permeability plate 20 and sleeve 56 are disclosed for concentrating the magnetic field of the stator magnets. the decreasing of the spacing between the armature and stator magnets creates a "pulsation" in the movement of the armature magnets which is objectionable. minimized by using a plurality of armature magnets. the most effective spacing between the armature and stator magnets is that spacing which produces the maximum force vector in the direction of armature magnet movement. but can be.

The inventive concepts may be practiced even though these relationships may be varied within limits not yet defined and the invention is intended to encompass all dimensional relationships which achieve the desired goal of armature movement. with respect to FIGS. the stator magnets define a magnetic field track of a single polarity transversely interrupted at spaced locations by the magnetic fields produced by the lines of force existing between the poles of the stator magnets and the unidirectional force exerted on the armature magnet is a result of the repulsion and attraction forces existing as the armature magnet traverses this magnetic field track. produce the desired result and motion. By way of example. The air gap between the poles of the armature magnet and the stator magnets is approximately 11/2" and the spacing between the stator magnets is approximately 1/2" inch. 1/4" thick and 4" long and grain oriented. In effect. the stator magnets 12 are 1" wide. It is to be understood that the inventive concept embraces an arrangement wherein the armature magnet component is stationary and the stator assembly is supported for movement and constitutes the moving component. combined. and other variations of . the following dimensions were used in an operating prototype: The length of armature magnet 24 is 31/8". the dimension of the air gap and the configuration of the magnetic field. The length of the armature magnets as related to the width of the stator magnets and spacing there between. 4-7.results from the described relationship of components.

the inventive concept will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope thereof. . As used herein the term "track" is intended to include both linear and circular arrangements of the static magnets. and the "direction" or "length" of the track is that direction parallel or concentric to the intended direction of armature magnet movement.

Johnson ( October 31. Patent Documents USP # 4. R. 1978) Baker..12. USP # 4. (Box 199.153 (Feb.S. et al. 310/12). Blacksburg.: 799618 ~ Filed: November 19. ~ Attorney. Primary Examiner: Skudy. 310/152 ~ Intern'l Class: H02K 041/00 Field of Search: 310/152. 1985 Current U. 1989 ) Abstract --.46 References Cited: U. 1979) Johnson (Cl. Agent or Firm: Fleit. Inventors: Johnson.S. (Cl. No..United States Patent 4.877. Class: 310/12.151.074.A permanent magnet armature is magnetically propelled along a guided path by interaction with the field within a flux zone limited on either side of the path by an arrangement of permanent stator magnets.983 Magnetic Force Generating Method & Apparatus Howard R.431 (Apr. 310/12). Howard R. Price. 314 N. Jacobson. VA 24060) Appl. Holman & Stern Claims . Main. Cohn.

In combination with a movable armature. . said magnetic stator means including a plurality of magnetic gate assemblies fixedly spaced from each other along said path and respectively establishing stationary magnetic fields.What is claimed as new is as follows: 1. and magnetic means connected to said interconnected bar magnets exposing one of the flux emitting surfaces of said one polarity perpendicular to said parallel planes for magnetic interaction of the stationary magnetic fields. the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path. each of said gate assemblies including a plurality of interconnected bar magnets substantially bordering said limited flux zone exposing pole faces of opposite polarity in parallel spaced planes intersected by said path.

In combination with a movable armature. 3. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of . said armature magnet being curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located. the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means. The combination of claim 1 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located. the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in converging relation to each other toward the guiding means. the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles faces thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone.2. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path. 4. In combination with a movable armature.

The combination of claim 4 wherein said armature magnet is curved between end faces at which said poles of opposite polarity are located. the improvement comprising flux emitting surfaces of one polarity mounted on the stator means on opposite sides of said path for limiting said flux zone through which said path extends and means mounting the permanent armature magnet on the armature with the poles thereof orientated relative to said flux emitting surfaces on the stator means for unidirectionally propelling the armature along said path through the limited zone in response to magnetic interaction between the movable magnetic field and the limited flux zone. means for guiding movement of the armature along a predetermined path and a permanent armature magnet mounted on the armature having magnetic poles of opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path. said magnetic stator means including a pair of permanent magnet assemblies having continuous. 5. 6. each of said assemblies having means for varying magnetic field intensity in the flux zone along said path. the end faces being orientated by the mounting means in a plane parallel to said path. the improvement comprising a plurality of .opposite polarity spaced from each other along said path to establish a magnetic field of limited extent movable with the armature and magnetic stator means for establishing a stationary magnetic flux zone along said path. In combination with a movable armature. confronting pole faces of said one polarity bordering said limited zone. and a second armature magnet connected to the first mentioned armature magnet in mirror image relation thereto.

Nos. respectively. such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity . each of said assemblies including stator magnets interconnected in surrounding relation to said path and having pole faces of opposite polarity aligned with parallel planes intersected by said path and magnetic means fixed to the pole faces aligned with one of the parallel planes for interaction of the armature magnet with said stationary magnetic fields for unidirectional propulsion of the armature along said path. No.431. According to applicant's own prior Pat.431 and 4.330 to Johnson and Hartmen. said magnetic means being an annular magnet having a radially inner pole surface of one polarity enclosing a magnetic flux zone through which said path extends. 4.215.S.151. The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U.151. Pat.permanent magnet gate assemblies mounted in spaced relation to each other along said path establishing interacting stationary magnetic fields along said path. by way of example. Description BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates in general to the use of permanent magnets to generate unidirectional propelling forces. 4.

facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement. . It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide certain improved stator arrangements of permanent magnets interacting with a permanent magnet armature for unidirectional propulsion thereof in a novel manner believed to be more efficient. the armature magnet is guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets. the flux zone is formed between continuous confronting pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets arranged to produce a magnetic field of varying intensity along the armature path. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention. with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces. According to another embodiment. the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity. According to one embodiment.

. reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof.In yet another embodiment. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 2--2 in FIG. These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed. 1 is a somewhat schematic side elevational view showing an installation of the present invention in accordance with one embodiment. 1. wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout. FIG. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. at least two curved bar magnets are interconnected to form the armature with two pairs of pole faces spaced along the armature path. with parts broken away and shown in section.

FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 3--3 in FIG. 1. .

4 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with another embodiment of the invention. .FIG.

FIG. 4. 6 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG. 5.FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially through a plane indicated by section line 5--5 in FIG. .

8. 8 is a top plan view of an installation in accordance with yet another embodiment. 4. . 7 is a simplified side view through the flux zone shown in FIGS.FIG. FIG. 9 is an enlarged partial sectional view through a plane indicated by section line 9--9 in FIG. FIG. 5 and 6 with the armature bar magnet positioned therein.

The armature 10 in the illustrated example includes a wheeled vehicle mount 24 to which the armature magnet 22 is fixedly secured with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the guiding track 12. The path is represented by a line 16 extending through pole faces 18 and 20 of opposite polarity at the longitudinal ends of a curved armature bar magnet 22.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to the drawings in detail. 1 illustrates one embodiment of the invention in which a magnetic armature generally referred to by reference numeral 10 is unidirectionally propelled along a predetermined path established by a motion guiding track 12 fixed to a frame or support 14. The pole faces 18 and 20 are furthermore orientated so that the magnetic field extending between pole faces 18 and 20 is movable therewith within a flux zone 26 limited in surrounding relation to the guided path at spaced locations by stator gate assemblies 28 formed by permanent magnets fixed to the frame support 14. FIG. includes four bar magnets 30 interconnected at corners by nonmagnetic elements 32. 1-3. such as triangular wooden blocks as . Each of the stator gate assemblies 28 as shown in FIGS.

The obvious effect of said arrangement is to exert a net magnetic force on the armature magnet 22 causing the observed continuous. Pole faces 34 and 36 between which a stationary magnetic field extends are formed on the bar magnets substantially aligned with parallel spaced planes in perpendicular intersecting relation to the path line 16. Such assemblies 28 are spaced apart distance dependent on the magnetic field intensity or strength of the permanent magnets 30 and 38 which dictate the effective axial extent of the aforementioned magnetic fields associated with the assemblies 28 and the armature magnet 22. Such magnetic interaction is obviously influenced by the pole face 36 of opposite polarity (south) abutting and fixed to an annular or circular ring magnet 38 magnets 30. 3.more clearly seen in FIG. FIGS. unidirectional propulsion thereof through the gate assemblies 28. The pole face 34 of one polarity (north) is effective through its magnetic field to magnetically interact with the magnetic field of the armature magnet 22 causing unidirectional propulsion of the armature 10 as actually observed during tests. The interconnected and 38 may be held in assembled relation by an outer skin or sheathing 40 as shown in FIG. to form a rectangular enclosure in surrounding relation to the track 12. to the exclusion of the radially outer pole surface 44. The ring magnet 38 has a radially inner pole surface 42 of the same polarity (north) as that of the pole faces 34 to interact with the other pole faces 36 as aforementioned. 4-7 illustrate another embodiment of the invention utilizing the same type of movable armature 10 guided along a . 3.

for example. 4 and 6 to thereby vary the magnetic field intensity along the guided armature path within the limited flux zone 46 in which the magnetic fields of the stator assembly 48 interact with the magnetic field of bar magnet 22. opposite to the polarity of the pole surface of magnetic layer sections 56 and 58 made of Samarium Cobalt. with the pole faces 18 and 20 converging toward the track 12 as previously described in connection with FIGS. The stator 48 includes a pair of permanent magnet assemblies 50 extending in parallel spaced relation to each other on opposite sides of the armature path established by the track 12. mounted on interconnected ceramic bodies 54. and carried on the ceramic bodies 54. Each assembly 50 is a mirror image of the other so as to expose continuous confronting pole surfaces formed by a magnetic layer material 52 such as Neodynium. 7. generally referred to by reference numeral 48.predetermined path by a frame mounted track 12 extending through a flux zone 46 established by another type of permanent magnet stator arrangement. 1-3. The bodies 54 have transversely extending flange portions 60 at the abutting ends so as to mount the layer sections sections 58 laterally outwardly of layer sections 56 as more clearly seen in FIGS. However. it was found that maximum propelling thrust is produced by optimum location of the path line 16 through the pole faces 18 and 20 a distance 62 closer to the . The curved armature magnet 22 is orientated within the flux zone 46 between the confronting pole surfaces on 52 as depicted in FIG. The confronting pole surfaces of the magnetic layers 52 are of like polarity (north).

With the number of pole faces thereby doubled for the armature. a higher and more efficient propelling thrust may be achieved. including two curved armature magnets 64 that are mirror images of each other with respect to an intermediate abutting portion 66. The end pole faces 68 and 70 for each magnet 64. 8 and 9. and accordingly. since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art. falling within the scope of the invention. 4-7. The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. 8 and 9 illustrate yet another embodiment of the invention involving the same type of permanent magnet stator arrangement 50 as described with respect to FIGS. .upper edge of surface layer 52 than the lower edge on the frame support 14. Further. are aligned with a plane in parallel spaced relation between the path line 16 and the pole surface on 52. a modified form of armature 10' is featured in FIGS. The magnets 64 are interconnected at the abutting portion 66 in alignment with a plane containing the path line 16 centrally between the confronting pole surfaces on 52. FIGS. it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described. all suitable modifications and equivalents may be restorted to.

Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet. The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets.402. A first wall. 1995 ) Abstract --.021 Magnetic Propulsion System Howard R. which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets.US Patent # 5. The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets.A magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets. Johnson ( March 28. The propulsion system further includes two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. Preferably. for example. each magnet arranged with a North-to-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel. the walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall. includes a series of generally rectangular magnets. except that the .

. 310/152 Intern'l Class: B65G 035/06. In addition. the propulsion system includes several spin accelerators.805 References Cited [Referenced By] U..North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall. Blacksburg. Jan. Class: 310/12. Other References: Advances in Permanent Magnetism.S. pp. VA 24060) Appl. Applications of Magnetism. 44-57 date unknown. 1989.431 ~ Aug. 4.151.152.215.983 ~ Oct.46 198/619. 198/619. 129-135 date unknown. 1989 ~ Johnson (310/12). (1440 Harding Rd.877. 310/12). pp. Scientific American. 1980 ~ Hartman (335/306).S. Description FIELD OF THE INVENTION ..330 ~ Jun. 1979 ~ Johnson (Cl. pp. 90-97. Inventors: Johnson. pp.: 064930 ~ Filed: May 24. 1993 Current U.. Howard R. Introduction to Magnetic Materials. Patent Documents: 4. H02K 041/00 Field of Search: 310/12. 4. No. 42-47 date unknown.

Nos. and U.S. Pat.877.983). with a radially inner pole surface of the same polarity producing a magnetic field perpendicular to the first mentioned .877.151. No. 4. 4.431 and 4.330 to Hartmen.431).The present invention relates to a magnetic propulsion system including a plurality of specifically arranged permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets. No.S. Pat. According to one embodiment of the second patent. the armature magnet is mounted on a vehicle and guided along a path through a magnetic flux zone limited on opposite sides of the path by an arrangement of magnetic pole surfaces of one polarity on stator magnets.151. According to applicant's first patent (U. According to the applicants second patent (U. 4. Pat. by way of example.S.983 to Johnson. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The generation of unidirectional propelling forces by permanent magnets is already known and recognized in U. such forces are generated by magnetic interaction between a curved magnet bar of an armature guided for movement along a circular path and an arrangement of spaced stator magnets having pole faces of one polarity facing the armature on one side thereof parallel to the path of movement. 4. No.S. the flux zone is formed by spaced gate assemblies of magnets having exposed pole faces of one polarity in a plane perpendicular to the armature path from which a magnetic field extends to the opposite pole faces and a ring magnet fixed to such opposite pole faces of the other polarity. Pat.215.

however. The walls are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall. wherein the permanent magnets need not encircle the path of the magnetic vehicle. which thinner magnet is arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing laterally toward the opposite wall and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets. Several other embodiments are illustrated including variations in the armature structure and in the stator structure.field to their opposite radially outer pole surfaces. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved magnetic propulsion system having a plurality of permanent magnets and a magnetic vehicle propelled thereby along a path defined by the permanent magnets. all of the embodiments teach use of an annular stator assembly. In order to achieve this and other objects. for example. includes a series of generally rectangular magnets. . A first wall. each magnet arranged with a North-toSouth axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel. the present invention comprises two parallel walls of permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path. Each of the rectangular magnets is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet by a thinner magnet.

a gap on the inside surface of the wall is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet. except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets is in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel and the North-toSouth axis of the thinner magnets points away from the first wall. Accordingly. The spin accelerators project laterally outward from each of the walls at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall. the propulsion system of the present invention includes several spin accelerators for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls. . Each spin accelerator further includes a shorter magnet having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet and a wedge separating the generally rectangular magnet of the spin accelerator from the shorter magnet. In addition. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle's armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators.The pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets. The opposite (or second) wall includes the same general arrangement of magnets. Each spin accelerator comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet which is preferably identical to that of the first and second walls.

the angle of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet in the spin accelerator and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall. Accordingly. but here.The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator is determined by which pole of the wall's thinner magnet is facing outwardly. Each curved magnet is arranged on the vehicle such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets. however. In particular. an acute angular tilt away from the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet is established by the wedge. the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets in each wall. The magnetic vehicle which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system includes a rigidly attached armature comprising several curved magnets. The shorter magnet in the spin accelerator is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet in the wall. it is understood . In particular. The rectangular magnet's orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator and the thinner magnet in the wall. The vehicle itself is preferably a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track. the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet in the spin accelerator points in the same direction as the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet in the wall.

except for the thinner magnets. The thinner magnets are preferably made of rubber or plastic. Although the present invention has been described with regard to generally rectangular magnets. In operation. The magnets which constitute the walls and spin accelerators are preferably made of neodymium and ceramic material. and each can comprise a plurality of magnetic rubber or plastic layers. the curved magnets of the vehicle armature are "Alnico 8" magnets tipped with neodymium magnets. it is understood that other permanent magnet shapes will suffice.that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls of the propulsion system. Preferably. the magnetic fields created by the two walls exert a propelling force on the armature of the vehicle in the desired direction of travel. Since the armature of the vehicle is rigidly attached to the vehicle. . 1 is a schematic plan view of a magnetic propulsion system in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. the vehicle itself begins to accelerate and is hence set in motion by the propulsion system. including but not limited to generally cylindrical shapes. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG.

14 are identical to one another except that the polarities of the magnets which define one wall 12 are opposite from the polarities of the corresponding magnets in the opposite wall 14. The two parallel walls 12. FIG. 1. The two walls 12. includes a series of generally . and an armature 16 rigidly attached to a vehicle 18.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT With reference to FIG.14 which are stationary. 1. 1 schematically illustrates a propulsion system 10 comprising two parallel magnetic walls 12. for example. A first wall 12. a preferred embodiment of the inventive magnetic propulsion system and vehicle propelled thereby will now be described. The desired direction of vehicle travel is indicated by an arrow A in FIG.14 are formed from several permanent magnets arranged so as to define the lateral sides of a vehicle path.

there is a pole shading effect on the magnets 20 of the walls 12.22. each magnet arranged with a Northto-South axis pointing longitudinally down the wall in the intended direction of vehicle travel (indicated by arrow A). Each thinner magnet 22 is preferably made from rubber or plastic permanently magnetic material.rectangular magnets 20. Each of the magnets 20 preferably comprises a ceramic magnet with a neodymium north pole. Consequently. while the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 point away from the first wall 12.14. the pole-to-pole length of each thinner magnet 22 is preferably no more than half the width of the generally rectangular magnets 20. a gap 24 on the inside surface of the wall 12 is defined by the presence of each thinner magnet 22. In addition. By arranging the thinner magnets 22 between the generally rectangular magnets 20 in the foregoing manner. The thinner magnets 22 are arranged with their North-to-South axes pointing laterally toward the opposite wall 14 and therefore perpendicular with respect to the North-to-South axis of the rectangular magnets 20. Also. each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 is separated from the next successive rectangular magnet 20 by a thinner magnet 22. except that the North-to-South axis for each of the generally rectangular magnets 20 points in a direction opposite from the direction of vehicle travel. . The opposite (or second) wall 14 includes the same general arrangement of magnets 20.

The spin accelerators 26 project laterally outward from each of the walls 12.In addition.14.14 at predetermined positions along the longitudinal length of each wall 12.14. According to the preferred embodiment. Each spin accelerator 26 comprises a generally rectangular permanent magnet 28 which is preferably identical or very similar to that of the first and second walls 12. the spin accelerators 26 are positioned along the walls 12. The rectangular magnet's orientation is such that face-to-face contact is established between opposite poles of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 and the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. the propulsion system 10 of the preferred embodiment includes several spin accelerators 26 for crowding the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the length of the walls 12. Accordingly.14. This crowding of the magnetic fields serves to intensify the fields and causes the vehicle's armature to be accelerated faster than would otherwise be the case without the spin accelerators. Each spin accelerator 26 further includes a shorter magnet 30 having a smaller pole-to-pole length than that of the generally rectangular magnet 28 and a wedge 32 separating the generally rectangular magnet 28 of the spin accelerator 26 from the shorter magnet 30. the North-to-South axis of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 points in the same direction as the . The orientation of the generally rectangular magnet 28 in the spin accelerator 26 is determined by which pole of the wall's thinner magnet 22 is facing outwardly.14.14 at every other thinner magnet 22 (as is shown in the middle of FIG. 1).

In operation. The magnetic vehicle 18 which is to be propelled by the instant propulsion system 10 includes a rigidly attached armature 16 comprising several curved magnets 34. Since the armature 16 is . but here. In particular. however. the angle . 1.14. The vehicle 18 itself.14 of the propulsion system 10. Each curved magnet 34 is arranged on the vehicle 18 such that its North-to-South axis is parallel with respect to that of the other curved magnets 34.14 exert a propelling force on the armature 16 of the vehicle 18 in the desired direction of travel (arrow A). an acute angular tilt away from the North-toSouth axis of the thinner magnet 22 is established by the wedge 32. according to the preferred embodiment.alpha.North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. of the wedge determines the acute angle which exists between the North-to-South axis of the shorter magnet 30 and the North-to-South axis of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12. that other vehicle structures will suffice so long as the vehicle is maintained between the walls 12. is a wheeled vehicle mounted on a track 36. It is understood. the magnetic fields created by the two walls 12.14. The shorter magnet 30 preferably consists of neodymium. In particular.14. the North-to-South axes of all the curved magnets 34 point in the same direction as the North-to-South axes of the thinner magnets 22 in each wall 12. when the vehicle 18 is positioned as is shown in FIG. The shorter magnet 30 in the spin accelerator 26 is likewise arranged with its North-to-South axis pointing in the same general direction as that of the thinner magnet 22 in the wall 12.14.

rigidly attached to the vehicle 18. height. Reversing of the spin accelerators 26 can be accomplished by rotating the spin accelerators 26 so that the shorter magnets 30 tilt away from the intended direction of vehicle travel. the curved magnets 34 of the vehicle armature 16 are "Alnico 8" magnets tipped with neodymium magnets.sub.20 of the generally rectangular magnets. and pole-to-pole length 1. and 1.25 inches to 1.20 of the generally rectangular magnets 20 in each wall 12.75 inches.22. height. of 45 to 90 degrees. while the wedges 32 comprise wood or similar material and an angle . and no more than one half the width w. The width w. The spin accelerators 26 can be reversed in order to lessen their effectiveness at crowding the magnetic fields.25 inches. respectively. Furthermore.alpha.75 to 4.25 inches. The width w.sub. In the spin accelerators 26.13 are 0.75 inches to 4.22 of the thinner magnets 22 in the walls 12.sub. and pole-to-pole length 1. 3. 3. Preferably.5 inches. since the spin accelerators 26 serve to crowd and thereby intensify the magnetic fields at predetermined positions along the walls 12.25 inches.14 are 1 inch to 1. the acceleration of the vehicle is enhanced as the vehicle passes these predetermined positions.20. respectively. .75 inches to 1.14.sub. the vehicle 18 itself begins to accelerate and hence is set in motion by the propulsion system 10. rather than in the direction of travel as is the case for the illustrated embodiment.sub.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment.75 to 4. Also.125 inch to 0.5 inch to 1.75 inches to 4.25 inches. and 0.sub.14. the curved magnets 34 of the armature 16 are preferably 0.125 to 1.sub.32 of the shorter magnets 30 are 0. 3. 3. the scope of the invention is limited only by the claims appended hereto.625 inches.32. and pole-to-pole length 1. it is understood that various modifications to this embodiment will become subsequently apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art.875 inches to 1. Preferably.28.14 is 0.sub. and not by the illustrated embodiment.75 inch to 1. height.14 being equidistant from the tips of the armature 16. both walls 12.the width w. Testing of the foregoing prototype propulsion system resulted in the vehicle moving 2 feet in one second.25 inches away from the tips of the armature magnets 34. respectively. while the width w. respectively.375 inch to 0. height.sub. In this regard. and pole-to-pole length 1.375 inch.25 inches.28 of the generally rectangular magnets 28 are 1. . the distance separating the walls 12. is such that each wall 12.375 inches. and 0.625 inch apart from one another.25 inches.

We wanted to include this section to ensure that absolutely everyone would be able to build a magnetic motor who read this guide. So if you get the building process down. Another reason we included this section is because by building and understanding how this more simplified motor works…it will clarify how the more advanced Howard Johnson Motor . And while 1 simplified motor will not provide enough power to significantly lower your bills …building several of these may! There is no limit to how many of these you can build. you may want to just keep building more of these simplified motors instead of the full HoJo Motor. The choice is yours though! All of our readers are different and have different energy needs so we wanted to give you this option. Many people who have gotten this guide have chosen to build numerous simplified versions instead of the full motor to provide their energy needs.Section 3: Modern/Simplified Motor Overview In this section you will learn how to build a simplified (cheaper and easier to build) magnetic motor.

So we recommend you try to build this motor first and then the Howard Johnson motor.works as well. Good luck! .

depending on how many parts can be rummaged from junk or spare parts.00. Input / Output Electrical output is not the product of gain here. . S). Purchased new. the input battery performance v. Estimated Cost of Materials Could be as cheap as free. "Monopole" Refers to the fact that the magnets just face one direction (in contrast to being alternate N. and is an inexhaustible fuel source. output battery is roughly 1:3 to 1:4.Terms/Theories Radiant Energy …is free. 3) do not heat upon charging. 4) are refurbished. the components might run around $110. is present everywhere. 2) output their energy for a longer period of time. Batteries conditioned with the methods we show (by the charging array we present) 1) last longer. The coil nominally sees just one polarity. Measured electrical output is about 30% of input. However.

Yet he hardly gets a footnote in our children's textbooks. and inexhaustible fuel source.C. ranging from cell phone charging to municipal power generation -. These times will vary widely. But hopefully that will turn around soon and Tesla will become known as the "Father of Free Energy" in the 21st century. to hold the wheel in position is the most time-consuming part of the project (roughly 2-8 hours. Affixing magnets takes between 1-2 hours. depending on the person's skills and resources. who invented A. the logical next step will be to build a scaled version for practical applications.Sourcing Materials Components are ubiquitous. Estimated Time of Assembly Building the frame from scratch. Preface Ramifications for Practical Electricity Generation Once you have successfully built this simple motor and understand the principle behind the technology. has been called the "inventor of the 20th century. depending on skill and adequacy of tools). everywhere present. Telsa. Most everything can be obtained from here. Winding coil may take about an hour. power. radar and X-ray.with radiant energy as the free." because his inventions have been so integral to the infrastructure of modern society. radio. Soldering the circuit may take 1-2 hours. .

NOBODY'S PERFECT! …continued on next page  . *BE SURE TO GET EXTRA OF EVERYTHING.Materials List The following is the list of materials required to build the circuit and motor we will show you. listed alphabetically. Parts. YOU WILL PROBABLY NEED IT.

A dozen recommended for experimental variations (e. clips need to be rated for at least 5 Amps.g. Quantity At least four. Sourcing Click here to search for Alligator Clips on Amazon Estimated price less than $7. especially the wire and clip ratings. with the above minimums in mind. at least 12" recommended. Tolerance Wide range. hooking up output batteries in parallel).Alligator Clips Purpose To connect batteries to circuit. .00 for set of five. Specifications Wires need to be larger than #20.

Batteries. Tolerance .g. Quantity At least two: one for input. (2) Additional batteries of the same voltage and impedance can be added to the output in parallel (e. Rechargeable Purpose Running the circuit-motor. An identical battery to the input battery should be obtained for a control -. More recommended for experimental options. one for receiving charge. gel cell recommended. and receiving a charge from the circuit (input and output need to be from/to different batteries. closed loop will not work). (1) Control. Plan ahead the experiment you want to run before purchasing. Specifications 6 to 24-volt batteries.to test the discharge parameters of a battery independent of the circuit under the same discharge parameters being put to the input battery for characterization. 12-volt lead acid. to graphically demonstrate more output than input). This is the widest and most crucial variable in the system.

Lead acid recommended. you will want to use new batteries so that bad batteries will not be a possible reasons for malfunction of the circuit. depending on make/source/size. For your first replication of this . There can be more than one battery on the receiving end. Battery Care It will be important for you to know your batteries' optimal operating parameters form their manufacturer or other . and can be somewhere in the range of 6 to 24 volts for this particular circuit/motor. Not all rechargeables are suitable for receiving charge from this set-up. of a matched voltage and impedance (size) of the input battery. However. Sourcing For Good Prices on Batteries we recommend… Click Here For Low Priced Batteries Estimated Cost $5 (or even free if you rummage) to $75 USD each. the input and output batteries need to be matched in their voltage and impedance (size). connected in parallel.The voltage of the batteries is not crucial.

If your input and output batteries are matched in voltage rating and impedance (size) the circuit inherently balances the charging rate to a level that is not only safe but even beneficial to the receiving battery. As long as you are using the circuit we show you to charge your batteries. Batteries actually perform better under frequent use with circuit we will show you. But if you use another apparatus to charge your battery.competent rating service so that you do not damage them by charging or discharging too fast or too high/low. . Overcharge is not nearly the concern with the circuit as it is with other chargers. you will not need to worry about speed or level of charging. than if you let a few days pass between uses. you will need to know your batteries' charging parameters.

Bicycle Wheel Rim -.) Take a magnet of some kind with you to make sure the rim is non-magnetic. etc. bike repair shop. Rotation should be fairly straight. Bearings should be in good shape.10 inches in the diameter (not crucial at all). If you go smaller or large than this. you will need to configure an alternative bearing system. Any non-magnetic rotating wheel of similar size and weight should work. Tolerance + / .Or Other Rotor Device *get a non-magnetic wheel rim Purpose To cycle the magnets past the coil in repeated motion. Make sure the rim is non-magnetic. . yard sale. thrift store. Specifications 24-inch diameter would be fine. You might want to source your wheel before purchasing magnets so you know how many magnets to get. Source & Price Free (should be able to rummage one from junk. These plans are for a 24-inch rim. Also. if you want to have your shaft coming from the wheel to convey the torque of the wheel. you will need to adjust the number of magnets accordingly so that the spacing is approximately the same distance as on the 24-inch specified plans. Doesn't have to be bicycle wheel.

. ball bearing bore to fit 1/2 in. this wheel might not have the same smooth bearings that can be found in a mountain bike wheel. Note.Child's bike wheel (plastic). Aluminum alloy hub has 1/2in. impactresistant white polypropylene. axle. .at a good price: click here Variants Other rotor devices used successfully: . . For a good wheel. Use your imagination .Or… If you buy one…popular specs for tires used in our design are as follows: 20 inch wheel with 5 spokes and rim of rugged.target board..CD ROM drive mechanism.

Quantity one Tolerance opening needs to be +/.00 for spool with speaker wire. Material needs to be non-metallic. Sourcing Radio Shack spool for speaker or soldering wire will work. Specifications plastic. by 3 inches long.20%. Remove wire from spool. ~$3. Or Click Here To Get Coil Spool . and adequately sturdy. non-magnetic. with 3/4 inch center opening.Coil Spool Purpose To wind the parallel lengths of magnetic wire around to (1) create an electromagnet to pump the magnets on the wheel and (2) receive pulses of energy from the magnets for the receiving battery. Length of spool can be +/40%. 3 inch diam.

fast silicon diode Estimated cost Less than $0. low power.Diode Specifications Recommended: 1N4001.50 each . 1 A. 50 V (some models have used the 1N914) Parameters 50-300 volt range.

Diode. 1 Amp) [A sister component to resistor 1N4001] Tolerances High volt rating very important. 1000 Volt Purpose Assure one-way flow of energy from circuit to receiving battery. a lower Amp rating may work. Specifications 1N4007 (1000 Volt.50 each . Quantity One Estimated cost Less than $0.

and should work just fine. NAPA part number BK 735-4369 is a fuel pump block-off plate made of aluminum. $4. or nominal. Sourcing local recycler or junk yard. Estimated Price free. probably shouldn't be too much smaller than the above dimensions.) Specifications 4" x 4" x 1/16" aluminum plate Quantity One Tolerance Size not crucial. approx. This is a precautionary measure. (Ratings of transistor should be adequate for circuit. and is about of the dimensions above.Heat Sink Purpose Dissipate heat from transistor. .99. and no heating result.

042" inch diameter copper coated steel rod. 3 foot lengths. (will be cut to length of the coil spool Quantity Get 3-5 lbs. Try also an auto parts store. Sourcing Available at your local welding supply store (such as Oxyarc) or hardware store (such as True Value or Ace). (around 10 rods of 3 feet each). 0. Tolerances Rough cut okay.Magnet Core (Welding Rod) Purpose Electromagnet core material to propel magnets along as it is pulsed by the circuit. could be smaller by 50% or larger by 100%. Diameter not crucial. Specifications Welding rod. Welding Rods Are Also Available Here… Estimated Price .

Consideration The thicker the rod. You're going to be cutting a lot to fill the spool hole. . the harder it is to cut.$0.60 per rod.

Quantity one length (900 turns is about 350 feet.Magnet Wire for Coil Winding Purpose Is wound parallel to the #23 magnet wire. Don't go smaller than #20. Can't have splices. or more than 100% larger. The purpose of the #20 gauge is to pass current from the input battery into the coil to create an electromagnet to pump the magnets on the wheel. coated. Specifications #20 wire.) Sourcing Our favorite place to buy this is at Amazon – Click Here . Tolerance #20 gauge or larger (smaller number).

or more than 100% larger. coated.) Sourcing Click Here To Find Lowest Deals… . Quantity One length (900 turns is about 350 feet. Specifications #23 wire. Can't have splices. The #23 gauge magnet wire receives pulses of energy from the magnets for the receiving battery.Magnet Wire for Trigger Coil Winding Purpose Is wound parallel to the #20 magnet wire. #20 gauge will work fine. Don't go smaller than #23. Copper with high voltage coating. Tolerance #23 gauge or larger.

Specifications Ceramic 5.Magnets Purpose Affixed to wheel to pass by the coil to both (1) receive a magnetic pulse from the input battery to propel it along and (2) infuse a pulse into the receiving winding to pass energy into the receiving battery. Get some extra in case of breakage.875 x . though an even number and even spacing will be necessary if you wish to try and add more coil/circuits later. Quantity 16 for a 24-inch wheel. to measure Gauss before and after experimental runs.875 x . You also might consider one or two for a control. Source We typically use standard dimensions: 1. Tolerance Must be ceramic (strontium ferrite).387 inches Radio shack has these but the lowest price we found here . Number of magnets is not essential. dimensions: 1" x 2" x 3/8" inches.

& 1 have become the most widely specified magnetic materials. light weight. Low cost.co. and good resistance to demagnetization account for the widespread use of ceramic magnets.Also. . a relatively high energy product. for International shipping try here: http://magnetsales.uk About *CERAMIC GRADES 5. 8.

Neon Lamps

Purpose The lamp provides a path for the output energy in case the receiving battery is disconnected while the motor is running. This prevents burn-out of the transistor. The light should not go on unless the output battery is disconnected. Specifications Chicago Miniature Neon Base Wire Terminal T-2 65VAC .6mA NE-2 (??) 90 Volt DC neon bulb (??) Quantity One Make & Model A1A by Chicago Miniature (definite) See also Lumex P/N GT-NE3S1025T

Estimated Price $0.38 USD each.

Resistor

Purpose Varying the resistance is the "volume/speed" control for this device. Specifications 680 Ohms should work well for this particular arrangement. Tolerance 47 ohms to 20k ohms; 1/2 W to 2 W. Quantity One, for bare minimum, but if you want to be able to tune your device, you should get one 47 ohms resistor and one 10k ohms potentiometer to connect in series. Sourcing Radio Shack has a wide range of resistors and potentiometers. Also, a large selection can be found here  Click Here

Estimated Price $0.23 USD each. Usually come packaged in 5 or 10. Potentiometers run around $3.00.

Super Glue

Purposes (1) for attaching the transistor to the aluminum heat sink; (2) for securing the welding rods inside the spool to serve as a core. Specifications standard super glue Quantity will need quite a bit to secure all the welding rods (e.g. four tubes of 3 gm) Tolerance Any adequate glue will do. Tape can be used in some placed. Sourcing Most hardware stores and grocery stores should have it.

preferably electric tape or duct tape. Tolerances Any tape that is adequately sticky and non-magnetic. Also to maintain wires to prevent snagging.Tape Purpose For second level of adhesion of magnets to wheel (beyond just glue). Specifications One-sided. Quantity Enough for the circumference of your wheel plus a little for overlap and do-over. . Sourcing Most stores carry tape.

Quantity One. Get the exact component called. fully metal Tolerance Don't monkey with this one. 100V.Transistor Specifications 2N3055 Transistor. TO-3 case.10 USD each . Several extra in case you burn one up. for the circuit. Sourcing Click Here To See If It’s Still Available At Amazon Estimated Cost $2.

or junk yard. Last resort. Estimated Price . try lumber yard or hardware store. try any construction site or do-ityourself friend's garage. and to fasten the circuit and hold the coil. Specifications Plywood or solid wood Quantity one sheet approximately 3' x 2' feet square by ~3/4" inch thick (to be cut into three pieces -.Wood (Stand) Purpose to hold the wheel steady.two for uprights and one for base) two lengths of 2" x 6" or larger of about 6 inches long (to hold coil and stabilize uprights) Tolerance any non-magnetic material of size and thickness adequate to hold the wheel Sourcing available anywhere.

**Note about parts described above: All the parts you need for your motor can be found online. so you can check there first for convenience.00 for new 4' x 8' sheet of particle board. if you cannot find some of the parts you need on Amazon and Ebay we encourage you to search for individual retailers online that specialize in selling the part you are looking for. $3. from scrap pile (any construction site). or $17. many of the parts can be found at your local hardware store. Also. when we built our motor we typically found the lowest prices online (namely at Amazon and Ebay).free. . However. However. We recommend you search Ebay and Amazon for cheap (possibly used) parts to keep your costs low.00 for new six-foot 2" x 4".

jig saw to cut wood). Something to fabricate the stand for the wheel. Soldering gun and solder. . (e. Skill Saw. to cut boards. Metal drill to put hole in aluminum heat sink to fasten circuit to device.Tools Needed          Wire cutter. to wind wires on coil. Screw driver and 2-4 screws to screw heat sink to stand.g. Paintbrush and paint or sealant. to apply paint or sealant to wood. Drill. Something to cut the welding rods to length (may want to use cutter available where you purchased the rods).

The purpose to quantify the discharging of a charged battery.4) Multimeter For measurement of voltage and amperage.g. Volts: 12.44. Ancor mini lamp #1142. Possible source: auto parts store. Watts: 18. Be sure that the discharge rate is within the battery's factoryspecified recommended rate (not discharing faster than recommended). Amps: 1.Recommended Instrumentation 10-40 Watt Light Bulb Wattage needs to be accurate. (e. Click Here To Get a Multimeter Online . local auto mechanic's shop.

Nontest load.Battery Capacity Analyzer We used the “BK Precision Battery Capacity Analyzer. Whatever model you get make sure it measures the storage capacity of 12V Lead Acid Batteries and displays the batteries capacity as a percentage. which may be defective or deteriorated. for digital display is 100 mA. This can help identify batteries. Other makes and models will be fine though Click here to see if the same “Battery Capacity Analyzer” We Used is still available at Amazon . Model 600…but other models will work too. Our model pulls just over 5 amps for less than a second.

a safe maximum discharge current and recommends a minimum safe cutoff voltage Plug-and-play USB interface to the computer. may be compared or overlaid. Multiple graphs of the same battery. May be printed on a color or black and white printer. Graphs may be displayed. supplied with the CBA. is easy and intuitive Graphically displays and charts voltage versus time Constant current load is controlled both with software and electronically. CBA will even measure the temperature of a battery using the optional external temperature probe. saved and printed. Software. *Click Here to See The Model We Used and Highly Recommend .Computerized Battery Analyzer          Software provides automatic sensing of the battery cell count. or multiple batteries.

Need a compass? You can get yours here Gauss Meter Would be good for documenting that any effect is not coming as a result of the degaussing of the magnets. makeshift oscilloscope. Compass To be able to detect the North pole of the magnets. multimeter option.optical tach. etc.Odometer Tools for measuring rpm (revolutions per minute) of a rotating device . …Click Here To Get Your Gauss Meter .

have other business inquiries based on these plans. So. We will use diagrams and have explanations… *note/disclaimer: We do not manufacture and sell units based on these simplified designs because they are based on designs that are patented. or want to commercially sell working units based on these plans…be sure to contact the owner of the patented designs. You however can build your own unit for personal use and we are able to show you how to do it! So here’s how… .Schematic Now we will go over the schematics of the design. if you are interested in buying a working magnetic motor (based on these designs).

D1 can be 1N914. You can charge the batteries in parallel or otherwise. Do not worry about paralleling the diodes. Build as below but add the small bulb (LP1) and 1K pot (R1) in series with the resistor (R2 which is now a 100 Ohm resistor or you can use 10 Ohm). Try and get 10 new or used Interstate 6v golf cart batteries. For these smaller size wires you can have 6 or more twists per inch. One additional update is on the coil (T1). The neon bulb (NE-2) is simply one neon bulb. You can use two #18 size wire at 150 feet instead. just make D2 3W 1000V 1N5408. Just don't twist too much or they will .*Instructions are not totally accurate about tweeking with the bulb but useful. twist the two wires like litz wires. Cut 150 to 350 feet of each wire (same length). Instead of winding two wires in parallel.

Schematic Drawing .break. Then wind it as you would have the other wires. Use the parts listed below and on this site.

Schematic Diagram .

Analogous Circuit Drawing: .

5 Insulated wire coming from (+) battery "in" 6 #20 magnetic wire from (+) battery "in" to coil and then to collector 7 Insulated wire coming from (-) battery "in" 8 #23 magnet wire coming from emitter to coil to resistor. 9 Wire connecting 1N4001 diode to junction {2} 10 Transistor emitter. 13 Transistor base: connected to resistor and diode 1N4001 . connected to junction {2} 12 Wire connecting 1N4001 diode to (a) base and (b) resistor {3}. 4 Solder junction joining (a) diode {19} (1N4007) and (b) wire to battery receiving charge.3. 3 Resistor 680 Ohms. between (a) Base/Diode1N4001 and (b) #23 magnet wire going to coil then emitter.KEY 1 Solder junction (insulated base [same for 2.4]) joining (a) wire coming from (+) battery "in" and (b) #20 magnetic wire to coil and then to collector 2 Solder junction joining (a) wire coming from (-) battery "in" and (b) emitter and (c) Diode 1N4001 and (e) #23 magnetic wire going to coil then resistor then base.

15 from resistor to #23 magnet wire to coil to emitter 16 #20 magnet wire from transistor's "collector" lead 17 connection of transistor's "collector" lead to wire to Diode 19 and to #20 magnet wire 16 to coil to input battery's positive lead 18 wire from transistor's "collector" lead to Diode 19 19 1N4007 Diode 1000V 20 Insulated wire to positive terminal of battery receiving charge 21 Transistor (Different one in this photo than is called in these plans) 22 Aluminum plate heat sink 23 Neon bulb. between collector and emitter. and that is where it is situated on the motor). but that is where it goes.14 Resistor connected to #23 magnet wire going to coil then to emitter. nor schematic. (not shown in picture. .

and neon bulb in a line for easy access and soldering. resistor. *source: Public Domain . especially the diode between the base and the emitter of the transistor. *source: Public Domain Lay out the diodes. we have since learned to make the connections as short as possible.Simplified Schematic *Note: While this schematic is functional.

Plan for ~1/8 inch gap or less between the coil spool and the wheel with magnets glued and taped. but some metal can be present. left-right.Assembly Building the Frame       Stand needs to have stability front-back. but can be at 90 degrees as well. All magnets face the same direction (north out). Frame material should be non-magnetic. You may want to be able to increase or decrease the distance between the wheel and the spool. Fastening Magnets to Wheel    Use a compass to determine "N" the north end of your magnets. for experimental variable purposes. . North faces out -. so the "north" end of your compass will be attracted to the "south" end of your magnet. Rotor shouldn't have much resistance in its turning. and needs to be made of non-magnetic material. Direction of rotation does not have to be perpendicular to coil.toward the coil. The Earth's North Pole is magnetically south. Label your magnets.

Symmetry is not required. Winding the Coils "Fill the spool. Use super glue and/or tape (or rubber bands. Think fishing . so the magnet spacing will need to be uniform. or .5 . each coil will need its own complete circuit..2 magnet widths (whichever way you have them oriented). adjust the number of magnets accordingly to be within the same range of spacing between magnets. Determine an equal spacing for the magnets about the perimeter of the wheel and mark where they should go. Spacing between magnets should not be less than 1." Approximately 900 turns.. You don't want to get your magnets much closer than 1. There is no pattern required. If your wheel diameter is more or less than the ~24 inches called in these plans. symmetrical spacing will be important for symmetrical firing.    Wind the two wires on the coil together. This is not crucial to proper operation with one coil. It is very important that the two wires be next to each other the entire distance of the winding.5 .    Magnet spacing does not need to be uniform unless you are going to attempt more than one coil. but if you want to later add more coils (each with a separate circuit).2 widths apart. If you wish to use more than one coil. All coils will need to fire in unison. Arrangement of the winding is not crucial.) to affix the magnets.

However. and you'll be fine. helping you to count turns. a clacker on the spool). an exact count will be necessary for scientific rigor in documenting and reproducing. A cordless drill generally can turn slower. You might drill a 1" inch hole in your base around 1/2 inch deep for the other side of the core to protrude into. The window of tolerance is quite wide here. Keep track of input output pairs. The Exact number of turns on the coil is not crucial. This will hit your hand as the spool turns. protruding outward around 1/2 inch. Close is adequate. making it easier to count turns and to make sure the two wires are wound parallel the whole distance. Filling Core   Be sure to have the side that will be facing the magnets flush with the top of the spool so you can spin your magnets close to the spool without hitting a rod in the core. You might use a drill to spin the spool.   spool or kite spool. The window of tolerance is very wide here. . Tips Counting visually is nerve-wracking and prone to error. you might affix tape to both ends of spool. Use an audible trigger in winding (e. so you don't have to cut your rods short. Alternatively.g.

Tap the last few rods in with some light object until you can't fit any more. and another for discharge. or transistor when soldering. Alligator clips can be used to hold things in place until you solidify them. but it works better when they are short. Soldering the Circuit        Try to keep all wires as short as possible.  Use glue on each rod to keep it from moving. you should not draw power from the same battery that is presently being charged. You should have one bank of batteries under charge. Battery Tips  In functional application. Keep the wires in the circuit as short as possible. Make sure the circuit works before soldering the connections. Also. be sure to use a heavy gauge wire when connecting your batteries in parallel or series. The circuit will work with the wires being longer. . resistor. Don't overheat your diodes. If you don't know how to solder. you could use wire nuts or even nuts/bolts to secure your connections. A little 9-V battery can be used to test the circuit. and then switch between them. go nearly to the quick when fastening his diodes to the transistor.

you should consider hard wiring the .Connecting the Batteries Once your system is confirmed running. Use a set-up for rotation of batteries from the back end to the front. Adjusting Resistance Adjust the resistance on the circuit. If you wish to lock into a particular resistance. the circuit is interrupted for maybe one or two seconds using this method. The arrangement we used while doing this includes a switch to enable meter readings without extended disconnection of the circuit. The 25 Ohm resistors give a fine-tuning capability. Depending on how responsive the meter is. The bread board enables hard resistor plug-in to the appropriate range desired. the 5k ohm potentiometer tends to be unstable in how it holds the resistance. Note. allowing for single battery charging (fresh from the front) while that battery comes up the same voltage as the bank of batteries. so they can then be connected in parallel. Use a heavy gauge wire and terminal connectors with crimping. The 5k Ohm potentiometer enables a wide berth of tuning. you will want to beef up your connections to optimize the effect.

Ramifications    The worst battery in the set does not become the weak link in the chain. no need to stop the circuit when rotating batteries no need to have the bank standing idle discharging while the battery from the input comes up to charge . Method in addition to the 1N4007 diode coming from the circuit to the batteries positive terminal. One 1N4007 to Each Battery in Bank It’s recommend that we set up our 1:4 battery arrangements as follows: Purpose to isolate each of the batteries in the back-end charging bank. branch off to each battery with a 1N4007 diode so that they see the circuit independently.hard resistors into the bread board and bypassing the 5K potentiometer.

the battery with the highest charge from the bank (not necessarily the one that has been there the longest). the transistor is likely to burn out if the device is run without a receptacle for the radiant energy (e. If the neon bulb is not in place. can be brought to the front end to run the circuit Cautions    Dangers associated with this project are mainly with the batteries. but also with wheel rotation and soldering. While this design can deliver some good shocks. when the input battery discharges. The neon bulb absorbs the excess output energy and serves similar to a shock absorber or fuse (though nothing is "tripped" and has to be reset). .g. a receiving battery). they are not of a dangerous level. Be sure you understand the risks and that you take necessary precautions.

Simplified Motor Designs: .

Transistor and Arrangement Diagram .

Dual Battery Motor Diagram .

. It will then accelerate or decelerate to a point of equilibrium. while high resistance results in lower rotation speed. At some resistances in the circuit. Turning the Motor On To run the motor. Also in the higher resistances you will find solid state resonance either with or without rotation. In some cases they co-exist. Higher than a certain resistance you will find that only solid state exists.Operation Instructions Procedures A list of methods pertinent to the operation of the motor. Generally. In some cases only one or the other will exist. low resistance produces high rotation speed. there is more than one stable rate of rotation. connect circuit and give the rotor a spin (by hand or some other external mechanical input). Characterizing the Window of Operation You will want to modify the resistor of the circuit from low to high to find various idea windows of operation.

One Input. Next. Take a long enough jumper cable with alligator clip and hook the last battery (going to front end). place four batteries on the back end (charging). *Note On How to Rotate the Batteries without Disconnecting the Circuit *if you have four batteries (each "battery" = 2x 6V in series) on the back end. and disconnect from back end bank. . keeping electrical connect with temporary jumper cables while disconnecting and reconnecting one position over on the 4x parallel clips. Four Output. move the wire with clips one battery set down. Once that battery has gone down to its 20% from full level. and physically move it to the front end next to the battery presently there. The sequence of rotation should be one of taking turns so that the one on the back side that has been there the longest goes to the front side. rotate one of the four batteries on the back end into the front. And you constructed clips with short wires between to connect the batteries in parallel on the back side. with one on the front end running the circuit. and one on the front. Rotate One Once the batteries are supercharged. Bear in mind that your success in achieving this may be determined first by finding the optimal window of performance for your particular set-up. while keeping it connected via jumper cable.

) Now you’re ready to quickly disconnect the battery in queue for input and then quickly connect it in parallel to the battery presently on input. . As long as the positive end isn't connected. and hook it to the new battery coming from input to output. Remember. while disconnecting the hard clip and inserting the diode. You can do this because the arrangement has two ways to connect (Y connection): alligator clip and hard clip. connect a 1N4007 diode into the (+) wire coming from the circuit to the back end. so the new battery is providing input power (needs to be quick because of the voltage differential between them). on the positive end you can use the diode inserted on one of the two Y connections. Keep the alligator clip in place. (Probably a detail I need not mention. it's still electrically isolated. physically move the disconnected input battery into the output row and connect the negative lead from the 4x jumper set you can make for this experiment. Now. Now disconnect the alligator clip. Make room for the battery presently on input to be placed last in line on the back side. which has been providing the direct electrical connection. Next.Next. which has the male/female clips fastened to it for insertion. and then quickly disconnect that battery. Then physically move the new input battery into position to hook the hard terminals into place and remove the jumper cables.

we average the two sums obtained by reading individual 6Vs and by measuring the group of batteries. too. Then repeat the same procedure once the next rotation is called. remove the diode insert and hook the connection direct. as well as immediately after merger of the recent input with the back end bank.Once the previous input battery comes up to the same voltage level as the bank on the back end. We should mention. . that we take voltage readings of each individual battery just before rotation. That's it. In as much as in my set-up. the 12V is made up of two 6Vs in series. An average is going to provide greater accuracy than going from one or the other reading alone. They are almost never the same total. These are two stable times that give a benchmark indication of overall charge level over time.

…But one thing you should NOT do is just sit on the information you have learned and do nothing. And you know the tools and materials you need… …So what will you do with this information? . You even know the theories behind the information. You have the information you need.What Will You Do Now? Congratulations! You have made it through the HoJo Motor guide and you now have all the information you will ever need to produce your own energy! So what will you do now? If you’re feeling confident about building the full HoJo Motor then start right away! Don’t delay!  If you want to try to build the simplified motor first and then try to build the full HoJo Motor we encourage you to do that as well. you can also build numerous simplified motors to provide some of your energy needs while you work on the full motor. However.

Will you sit and continue to pay the greedy energy companies for energy you can now have for free? Will you waste your money.99% of all people because you have read this guide. and continue living the same way you were before this report? …Or will you seize the day and decide you will be one of the pioneers in the new alternative energy era? You can drastically lower your energy bills. you can help do your part in cleaning up the environment. Make the decision today! Save your money…and save the environment! …We want to thank you for reading our guide! You now know more about producing free energy than 99. continue to harm the environment. But knowledge alone will not produce free energy… …What you do with that information will! So start implementing what you learned today and join all the other people who have already built their HoJo Motors and are already producing free energy for their homes! . and you can live a “green lifestyle!” Even if you just implement the tips at the beginning of this report (in Section 1) you can start seeing large savings in your energy bills starting today! But why not completely eliminate your energy bills by creating a magnetic motor.

if you need further clarification on something. here is an exclusive deal for HoJo Motor Readers that you may be interested in: …Want to build a solar panel or wind turbine? Click here and check this out! . Also. you are potentially only days away from building this revolutionary motor! Good luck to you and thank you again for your interest in the HoJo Motor. you can always go back and re-read the sections you need further information about.*And remember. Just think.