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By: Ella Yulaelawati, PhD Director of Equivalency Education Directorate General of Out of School Education The Ministry of National Education Republic of Indonesia Jl. Jenderal Sudirman Building C, 18th Floor, Senayan Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract Natural disaster has been a significant issue for sustainable development. Natural disaster in Indonesia is inclining these years. This is due to geological setting of the country which is controlled by three plates i.e. Indo-Australia, Eurasia, and the Pacific, where the three put Indonesia is potentially exposed to natural disaster. To overcome natural disaster, the country develops management system covering 5 schemes, they are a) Warning Systems, b) Dissemination of Information, c) Preparedness and Awareness, d) Institution Development, and e) Human Resources Development. Among the five, the programs underlying education improvement and public participation are significant elements within the management system. Furthermore, a program on community disaster preparedness has been produced that cover three terms i.e. short term (2005), mid term (2006-2008), and long term (2009-2012). In relation to the implementation of disaster preparedness, special service for discontinued student whose schools are unuseable due to natural disaster is conducted. An example has been enacted in Aceh by implementing a program called OPA (Non-formal Education Service in Aceh), i.e. non-formal education service consist of Equivalency education, mobile classroom, public library, mobile training and live survival training. As a part of OPA, equivalency education is already presented as a part of emergency response. Keywords: Indonesia, education, disaster preparedness, tsunami, special service education.
INTRODUCTION Disaster in one way is a phenomenon about the potential treat of human life,
livelihood, prosperity and assets (Smith, 1992; Carter, 1991). Some treat carry higher potential to become a case. On the other side, community contains a fragileness, that is
a situation that magnifies a treat to become destructive when it turns out to be a case. Commingle of treat and fragileness is then named as disaster. On the other word, the universe and its containment is neutral (Cuny,1983), in way when treat turns into case that brings negative impact to human it is called disaster. Several authors including Lyons (1999) classify disaster into natural disaster as a result of natural occurrence such as earth quake and volcano eruption and man made disaster as a direct or indirect impact of human activity such as war, conflict between communities, terrorism and technology failure. Rice (1999) adds one category that is technology disaster. The inclination of disaster cases in the world is an indicator of non sustainable development (Chan et al., 1996; United Nations, 1994; Burton, 1993). Environmental disaster within sustainable development is hence a significant case to be resolving to diminish its impact. In developing countries, the magnitude of life loss related to disaster reach 90% within the occurrence. World statistic shows that the number of disaster inclines with less life loss, but inclines the victims as well as the economy. Economical loss resulting from 20 big natural disasters from 1950-1959 reach US$ 35 billion, but between 1990-1999, there are 82 big natural disasters with loss reaching US$ 535. In other words, disaster increase 4 folds with economical loss of 14 times higher eng.htm#2). Similar trend occurs in Indonesia. Disaster inclines through years. With geological settings of three moving plates i.e. Indo-Australia, Eurasia, and the Pacific put most place the country archipelago exposed to disaster such as quakes, tsunami, volcano eruption, land slide and flood. The geological processes are naturally pertinent that cycle few yearly up to several centuries or even millions yearly. With human sharing the same place, the geological processes turn into natural disaster since its negative impact to humanity. In Indonesia, earth quakes is a normal occurrence either those recorded by measurer or by human senses. Destructive quakes are generally those exceeding the value of 5,6-6,0 on Richter scale (RS). Within beginning of 21 century, has already been experiencing 20 destructive quakes some are followed by tsunamies. They are Flores quakes (1992), Banyuwangi quakes (1994), Liwa quakes (1994), Biak quakes (http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/basic_docs/LwR2003/lwr-03-ch2-2-
(1996), Pandeglang quakes (1999), Banggai quakes (2000), Sukabumi quakes (2000), Bengkulu quakes (2000), Nabire quakes (2004), etc. During the past two years, in Indonesia has already been experiencing 3 destructive quakes. Firstly, tectonic quake followed by tsunami in Aceh on Sunday, 26 December 2004 at 9 RS. The quake produced tsunami disrupting all infrastructure in Aceh, North Sumatera, Thailand, Srilanka, India, Maldives, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Eastern Africa. Total live loss reached 170.000 individuals with economical loss reach US$ 4.5 billion. Secondly, tectonic quake in Nias, North Sumatera Province on 28 March 2005 at 8,7 RS. Human loss reach 732 with 2.576 wounds and 60.498 displaced into refugees or live in impermanent house. Thirdly, Yogyakarta and Central Java quake on Saturday 27 Mei 2006 at 05.53 on 6,3 RS. Epicenter is predicted on land at less than 17,1 km under ground as shown by the destruction effect
(http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/eqinthenews/2006/ usneb6/index.php). Death toll reach 5.500 lives, tens of thousand wounds and destructed houses, and economical loss reach US$ 2.5 billion.. In addition to that, floods and land slides have been persistent in different places of Indonesia. The persistence tends to increase every year. Between 1998 up to early 2006, human loss caused by the case reach 3.000 lives with hundreds of thousands suffer. Table 1. Natural disaster in Indonesia 1997–2004
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Disaster Volcanic eruption Tsunami Earth quakes Tornado Land slide Flood Tally 45 23 52 136 219 299 Deaths 8 22.170 7.574 5.047 435 285 Refugees 39.484 1.592 17.774 3.328 82.311 390.356 Loss (Rp) 1.084.900.000 798.064.435.000 81.380.464.142 31.286.047.682 888.476.296.592
Source: Bakornas PB, 2004 Notes: Data excludes tsunami in Aceh on 26 December 2004
The above cases reflect significance on response plan, either prior to or following disaster. In line with the goal to decrease or diminish victim or loss that may caused attention should be concentrated before disaster occur, particularly in the form
of disaster mitigation. In addition to that are disaster prevention and awareness. Prevention is aimed to omit disaster, concentrated on the enforcement of regulations related to prevent victim/loss when disaster occurs. Awareness is aimed at strengthening public response to disaster, achieved through training the publics exposed to potential disaster as well as educate and train public servants. Mitigation is aimed to diminish, decrease and soften the impact of disaster. Public involvement and education are important part in diminish loss resulted by disaster. For example, Minutes before tsunami hit Aceh, people in coastal area go to the sea to collect stranded fishes following an unusual ebb soon after earth quake. They were not informed that that was sign of tsunami since the minutes after, ocean mass returned to the shore at high speed. That was one example how poor the inhabitants was informed about the potential of tsunami instead of the magnitude of victims suffered by the disaster. The case is strongly related to poor information among the inhabitant, education on disasters, and lack of basic information on the potential disaster and natural phenomenon in the sea and coastal area. In conclusion, public education and awareness is an important part, particularly for inhabitants of predictable areas. Furthermore, education is required for children living in refugee camps as a result of destructed education infrastructure while rebuilding takes time. This comprehends the Law No. 20 year 2003 about the country education system, Chapter VI, Verse 32 Point (2) saying: “Special education service is education for those in remote area, remote tribal community, and or those experiencing natural disaster, social disaster, or economically inaccessible for education”. With the background, this paper is produced to display education improvement and public participation in the light of disaster awareness, including discussion on the special service education and the development as has been implemented in Aceh during 2004-2005.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster prevention as a part of disaster management is a dynamic process,
integrated and sustainable for achieve an efficient practices that covers prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, rehabilitation or evacuation and rebuilding.
In former time, disaster management is a cycle of four categories, i.e. preparation, response, rehabilitation and reconstruction. The categories form a framework on the management, however, the framework is not suitable for risk mitigation neither to anticipate disaster before it occurs. Several aspects that are needed to integrate disaster mitigation into disaster management is through better understanding on disaster potentials and its impacts, to minimize risk and loss at all management categories. The refinement of disaster management practices needs multidisciplinary approach covering science, technology, education, system and procedures, development and implementation on public policy. Disaster prevention planned on pre-disaster, while disaster is occurring and after the disaster that covers several stages : prevention, response, rehabilitation and reconstruction. • • • Prevention is aimed at minimizing destruction and lives when disaster occurs. Response is achieved through rescue, search and evacuation accompanied by emergency helps i.e. initial refugee shelter, food and medicals for disaster victims. Rehabilitation covers efforts to repair or restore physical and non physical infrastructures as well as empowering and recovering the life of the disaster victims. • Reconstruction covers efforts to return public infrastructure/system to support livelihood as previous days. Disaster management engages the whole community to be responsible, in spite of the government. The basic is secured to guarantee public participatory in disaster abatement. In addition, disaster abatement will better recognize community needs and ability to help their self (community based disaster management). In line with development in disaster management, five programs were initiated after tsunami case in Aceh for the disaster preparedness: a. Warning system : seismic station, ocean instruments (DART, tide gauge), land station (GPS), tsunami database modeling, decision support system, national and regional center. b. Dissemination of Information : sound and TV broadcasting, cellular phone, telephone and internet, satellite, siren
c. Preparedness and Awareness : hazard, risk and vulnerable assessment; evacuation map, public education and training; evacuation drilling and simulations (mitigation) d. Institution Development e. Human Resources Development
PUBLIC EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT Public education is expanded on to community preparedness towards early
warning system that will be developed by the government. Development strategy is divided into two major stages, i.e. short term and long term. 3.1. Short Term Education
Short term education covers intensive campaigns and non-formal education in sites with disaster potentials. A. Campaign Campaign is aimed at emerging community support on the importance of education on disaster awareness. Campaigning disaster such as earth quake and tsunami delivered in all times: before, during and after the disaster occurs. Campaign is presented by using media (printed or electronics) or as part of community gathering (religious preaches, RT/RW/village meeting, PKK meeting, youth meeting, etc.). Campaigning through the electronic media may be in the form of community service advertisement, serial and documentary film e.g. learning the Aceh and Nias cases, songs, talk show on TV and radio, etc. The recording may also be presented in special occasion such as seminars, exhibitions or trainings. Campaign contains basic knowledge on disaster in a simple presentation. For example, kinds of earth quake and tsunami, the signs of their accruals, and basic direction on how to survive the disaster (before and during disaster occur). Related knowledge on coasts, ocean and religious information related to disaster may also be contained to remind the public prevent the public being over reactive to disaster. Campaign presentation is designed in accordance to local culture and integrated into disaster warning system.. In common scale, presentation delivered in mass media e.g. radio and television by responsible agency such as the Bureau for Meteorology and Geophysics. In local scale, warns delivered through mosques, by using “kentongan” (traditional warns) or anything in accordance to the culture or local policy. To make the
campaign more acceptable, presentation designed in structural way with training and simulation.
Special course on disaster preparedness Course on disaster preparedness is abided in disaster areas. The goal is to make
inhabitants be ready when disaster occurs. Course material designed in accordance to local culture, covers: − Posters, pocket book, sticker, announcement board, − Games, − Story book and comics, − Cultural events, songs, stage, legends, − Religious book, − Scientific book − etc. 3.2. Long Term Education
Long term education delivered in formal, non-formal and in informal form.
Formal Education Adopting knowledge on disaster into school curriculum will raise understanding,
awareness and ability of students to act upon and adapt with disaster. The knowledge is formally taught in kindergarten (TK), Elementary School (SD), Junior High School (SMP) and Senior High School (SMA) or any school at the levels without adding special subjects into the curriculum. Knowledge on natural forces, earth science, coastal and ocean sciences are integrated with compulsory and optional subject in all school. For example, the knowledge on earth quake and tsunami is integrated with science subject with additional example on the surroundings. Similarly, the knowledge is integrated in subject of biology, geography, religion and social sciences in high schools. Knowledge on earth quake and tsunami for high school can also be added into all school levels within extra curriculum subjects together with environmental protection. The goal is to increase awareness on natural processes and the importance to sustain environmental resources. This can be achieved by developing school capacity on
knowledge as well as enforcing integration with central governmental bodies, local bureaus, private agencies and the community.
Non Formal Education Non formal education is education that delivered regularly but disregard formal
curriculum. For example, extra -curriculum subject such as scouts, youth red cross and youth naturalists. In addition to that, non formal education on disaster management can also be delivered in form of special program such as: − Training for trainers (ToT) for school students, university students and volunteers. − Community forums, organizations related to the nature, students, teachers, environmental interests and certain community members. − Special events (national and local) such as exhibition and expedition.
Informal Education Informal education is education that disregard curriculum such as teachings that
occur in daily life. Informal education started since childhood, delivered in folk stories, folk songs, child games, posters, books and films. Informal education can also be delivered in mass media, printed media or electronic media that spare schedule to discuss natural forces.
In line with development in disaster education and public participation, a program on community of disaster preparedness has been produced. The program was initiated after tsunami case in Aceh in form of community disaster preparedness. The program contain three terms, i.e. short term (2005), mid term (2006-2008), and long term (2009-2012) as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Community Disaster Preparedness Program
No 1 Activities Component Public Awareness Campaign 2005 (short term) Development of TV & radio spots, posters, billboards, signboards, standardized serene, localized evacuation maps/billboards Community radio setups Layout and Printing Formal Elementary School’s Education Books on Marine Ecosystem (Aceh & Padang) Dissemination on Education materials (Aceh, Padang, Alor, Nabire Reprinting Supporting Education materials in Tsunami and Earthquake (comic books, manuals, pocket books, posters) Training on Master Trainers series on CBDP and SBDP (Aceh, Padang, Alor, Nabire) TOT on Warning System Dissemination & communication system Integrated/General Simulations 2006 – 2008 (mid term) Development of TV cartoon animation, popup books, flip charts, localized supporting campaign materials, socialization on standardized serene, community radio setups National and local campaigns Development of Formal Education Books on All Hazards (SD, SMP, SMA) Layout and Printing Formal Education Books Dissemination of Educational Materials in all hazard areas TOT series on CBDP & SBDP Workshops on All Hazards Curriculum TOT series on Marine Education Curriculum 2009 – 2012 (long term) Nationwide National and local campaigns
• • • •
• • • • • •
• • •
Dissemination of Educational Materials in all hazard areas TOT series on CBDP & SBDP Workshops on All Hazards Curriculum TOT series on Marine Education Curriculum
• • •
Early Warning Dissemination
• • • • •
TOT on Warning System Dissemination & communication system Integrated/General Simulations
• • • • •
Community Based Livelihood Activities
Social Assessment. Community Based Resources Management (AIG, resources mapping, PRA) Mangrove and sea belts replanting
TOT on Warning System Dissemination & communication system Integrated/General Simulations Social Assessment Community Based Resources Management (AIG, resources mapping, PRA) Mangrove and sea belts replanting
Table 2. Community Disaster Preparedness Program (continued)
5 Capacity Building • • • Human Resources recruitments, office space, operational, maintenance Internships Participation in, and organizing national and international training, seminars, workshops, conferences • • • • Institutional Strengthening (integrating DP programs in existing local policies, strategies, programs and activities) Human Resources recruitments, office space, operational, maintenance Internships Participation in, and organizing national and international training, seminars, workshops, conferences Annually Fool Proof Contingency Plans Baseline and Beneficiary Survey on Education and Public Communication Exposures on Hazards Site assessment on provincial, district and village shelters establishment at safe zone in prone areas Services on lasting foods, medic and water supplies for shelters • Local government prioritizing DP programs in its Development Policy Programs & Implementation Internships Participation in, and organizing national and international training, seminars, workshops, conferences Annually Fool Proof Contingency Plans Baseline and Beneficiary Survey on Education and Public Communication Exposures on Hazards Site assessment on provincial, district and village shelters establishment at safe zone in prone areas Services on lasting foods, medic and water supplies for shelters
Monitoring and Evaluation
• • •
Warehouse & Logistics
SPECIAL SERVICE EDUCATION In accordance with Law No. 20 year 2003 about National Education System
Chapter VI, Verse 32 Point (2) stating: “Special education service is education for those in remote area, remote tribal community, and or those experiencing natural disaster, social disaster, or economically inaccessible for education”, the Directorate of Equivalency Education, Directorate General of Out of School Education, The Ministry of National Education, Republic of Indonesia delivered programs for Aceh, and Yogyakarta and Central Java disasters. Earth quake and tsunami that had hit Aceh on 26 December 2004 was a catastrophe for the country. The disaster had destroyed education infrastructures. It also had put teachers, students and all education workers as victims and education process disfunctioning. In respond to that, Directorate General of Out of School Education immediately deliver a program namely Operation of Extra School for Aceh (OPA), that implemented outside of school, containing Equivalency Education, PADU, mobile classroom, public library, mobile training and live survival training. Equivalency Education as part of OPA, implemented in the field as immediate action on education.
Equivalenc y Education
Live Survival Training
Figure 1. Components of OPA program.
The goal of OPA are: a) Construct OPA sites as service model for refugees at provincial and city/county levels. b) Provide PADU services for children between 7–18 years, equivalency education, course, and public library. c) Start a mobile classrom unit to serve as education recovery, interchange and continual placement into formal school. d) Create mobile training program that serve volunteers, teachers and tutors for refugees and schools that recieve students from abandoned schools. e) Provide training for tutors and voluntary tutors. Mobile classroom that provide additional subject to existing formal school is a transitional program that ends when school can suffice knowledge taught in the mobile unit in accordance to the school facility. Subsequently the mobile unit can be drawn to remote places when all school in disaster area already suffice the such. Mobile classroom equipped with mobile library in kit or trolley or moveable cabinets. Mobile classroom may use medium sized box truck. It should own folded chairs and desks, carpets, simple tent, book racks, moveable cabinet, books, pantry equipment, portable generator, stationary, writing board, etc. The unit may also function as training unit for schools receiving students from refugee camps. Function accompanying mobile unit is counselling, traumatic help, subject teaching for school need and live survival guide for school ages. Live survival training for adult may contain professional course such as cooking, carpentry, automotives, electronics, hair cut, etc. At certain place English and Computer course may also be provided.
Titik Binaan membentuk titik Inti Titik Inti membentuk titik imbas Titik Binaan & Titik Inti dilengkapi sarana lebih memadai Titik Imbas lebih swadaya atau mencari sarana dari sumber lain Titik Binaan PKBM sebagai model misalnya Mata’ie
Titik Posko Dinas Kota Banda Aceh
Titik Posko Provinsi
Titik Binaan forum PADU sebagai model
Titik Binaan TLD sebagai model misalnya Bueng Calang
Figure 2. Operational hierarchy of OPA implementation
OPA is implemented in hierarchical form that simultaneously addressed in a synergy between each operational spots (Figure 2) to gurantee that program accrues optimal. OPA model in Aceh is a good example for the implementation. The program owns 141 spots, 1 spot is under provincial supervision, 14 spots under county/city supervision, and 126 spots are core spots under direct supervision by TLD, PKBM, and PADU forum. There also exist extra spots that are formed by each core models. Special education service for Yogyakarta and Central Java disaster, the Directorate for Equivalency Education Department of Education Republic of Indonesia has deliver: 1. Tutorial for national exams for Package A, B, and C, 2. Teaching based on subjects, 3. Automotive course.
Field implementation are using 2 trucks (box truck and mini bus), 2 motorcycles, tents, study kits, books, recordings and player, etc. Subject accompanying the unit is stress control, disaster management, religious books with 5 experienced tutors. The units own visiting schedules to disaster places to serve immediate education. OPA implementation and program of special education service for Yogyakarta and Central Java disaster, gives many lessons and experience that will be beneficial for future implementation. The program needs to be further developed for future implementation, since many parts of Indonesia are potentials for disaster accruals. Upon recognition of procedures as a product of OPA implementation, education within disaster emergency response will be deliver faster, with regard to local typology, social structure, economy and cultures.
CONCLUSION Education development and public participation is important program within
disaster management. Student understanding, awareness and ability to respond and adat to disaster will bring disaster impact into its minimum level. The program delivered both before, during and after disaster take place in the formal, non-formal and informal forms. In case of Aceh tsunami, equivalency education play important role to suffice school children with education following disruption of school infrastructures and the process realated. Special service education delivered comprehending local typology and character as well as social, economy and local cultures.
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