PART I

Panchito M. Labay chitobutterfly@yahoo.com

Balanacan Port, Mogpog, Marinduque

The Philippines is one of the (now 34) megadiverse countries with exceptional level of endemism (Myers, 1988; Wildlife Conservation Society of the
Philippines, 1997; Heaney & Regalado, 1998; Mittermeier et al., 1999; Holloway, 2003; Mey, 2003).

“Philippines is the Galapagos Islands ten times”
--Lawrence Heaney

The Philippines has: • 15 Biogeographical Areas • 3 Biodiversity-Rich Corridors: Sierra Madre Biodiversity Corridor (D), Eastern Mindanao Corridor (L) and Palawan Biodiversity Corridor (K) including the Calamian Area (G) (DENR-UNEP, 1997) • High level of endemism • 409 species of endangered, extinct & vulnerable species flora and fauna (CI, 2009)

Each of the oceanic island of the Philippines is a ‘theatre’ for biodiversity research
--Heaney, Walsh & Peterson (2005)

• The Philippines has 70-80% of global biodiversity (Heaney & Mittermeier, 1998) • The biogeographical separation of 7,107 islands makes it with diverse flora and fauna • Isolation of islands has led to speciation of flora and fauna and habitat heterogeniety. • Even a few hundreds sq. kilometres island has apparent endemism (Heaney, Walsh & Peterson, 2005)

Percent distribution of the nearly 21,000 inventoried Philippine insects from 27 orders, 499 families and 6,185 genera

Source: Baltazar & Gapud (2001)

Scientific Classification

SUPERFAMILY Hesperioidea

FAMILY Hesperiidae FAMILY Lycaenidae FAMILY Nymphalidae

DIVISION Ditrysia

CLASS Insecta

ORDER Lepidoptera

INFRA-ORDER Rhopalocera

SUPERFAMILY Papilionoidea

FAMILY Papilionidae FAMILY Pieridae FAMILY Riodinidae

Butterflies and moths are both classified under Division Ditrysia, Class Insecta and Order Lepidoptera. Order Lepidoptera is considered as one of the most ‘speciose orders (Wikipedia, 2009). The existing number of ‘scientifically described’ butterfly species in the world is confusing. Some estimated it to be 13,700 (Robbins, 1982), 17,116 (Hoskins, 2007), 17,500 (Lepidoptera Taxome Project, 2004; Robbins & Opler, 1997).

SUPERFAMILY Hedyloidea

FAMILY Hedylidae

The study, search and reclassification of butterflies worldwide is still going on. The number of Philippine butterfly species is so confusing. Some reported 1,615 species and subspecies (Baltazar, 1993); 890 species and 900 subspecies (Gapud, 2005), 910 species (CI, 2008) and 915 species; 910 subspecies (Danielsen & Treadaway, 2004) and 2,109 (Pangga, 2002). Of the known species, one-third of them are found endemic (Ballentes, Mohagan, Gapud, et al., 2006; Cl, 2008).

BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION MAP The Philippines is divided into 14 Terrestrial Conservation Priority Areas (red circles) and 29 additional areas for butterfly conservation, because of their high level of endemism and ‘irreplaceability’ (Danielsen & Treadaway, 2004). According to IUCN (2006), the country has… • 18 species of butterflies in the Red List, 9 red lister papilionids and 9 nymphalids: 4 endangered, 8 vulnerable, 1 critically endangered and 4 lower risk species Danielsen & Treadaway (2004) reported 11 critically endangered and 13 endangered butterflies

IUCN Red List
Papilio chikae Igarashi, 1965 STATUS: endangered

IUCN Red List
Papilio (xuthus) bengetanus Joicey & Talbot, 1923 STATUS: endangered

IUCN Red List
Papilio osmana Jumalon, 1967 STATUS: vulnerable

IUCN Red List
Graphium megaera Staudinger, 1888 STATUS: vulnerable

Graphium (Papilio) carolinensis Jumalon, 1967 STATUS: vulnerable

IUCN Red List
Pachliopta (Atrophaneura) schadenbergi Semper, 1891 STATUS: vulnerable

IUCN Red List
Graphium (Arisbe) idaeoides Hewitson, 1855 STATUS: vulnerable

IUCN Red List
Graphium sandawanum Yamamoto, 1977 STATUS: endangered

IUCN Red List
Idea electra Semper, 1878 STATUS: vulnerable

IUCN Red List
Euploea blossomae blossomae Schaus, 1929 & Euploea blossomae tamaraw Nuyda & Morimoto, 1991 STATUS: near threatened

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
Appendix I—Rare and endangered species. Trade of such species is prohibited. Proper export / re-export permit needed. Appendix II—Neither rare or endangered species, but can become endangered if trade is not regulated. Appropriate CITES permit is needed. Appendix III—Not rare or endangered species, but are subject to special management in their natural habitat. Appropriate CITES permit is needed.

The Philippines has one species classified under Appendix I, the Papilio chikae. The rest are the ‘birdwings’, under Appendix II category, such as Troides spp. and Trogonoptera spp.

Trogonoptera brookiana Wallace, 1855 Neither rare nor endangered

Trogonoptera trojana Honrath, 1886 Neither rare nor endangered

CITES Protected
Troides magellanus magellanus Felder & Felder, 1862 Neither rare nor endangered

Troides magellanus apoensis Wallace, 1855 Neither rare nor endangered

Troides rhadamantus plateni Staudinger, 1888 Neither rare nor endangered

Troides rhadamantus plateni Staudinger, 1888 Neither rare nor endangered

Papilio luzviae Schröder & Treadaway, 1889 Critically Endangered

Tanaecia susoni Jumalon, 1975 Critically Endangered

Tanaecia lupina lupina Druce, 1874 Critically Endangered

Tanaecia dodong Schröder & Treadaway, 1978 Critically Endangered

Cynitia godartii laetitae (?) Endangered

Pachliopta antiphus elioti Page & Treadaway, 1995 Endangered

Appias aegis sibutana Schröder & Treadaway, 1989 Endangered

Liphyra brassolis hermelnuydae Schröder & Treadaway, 1988 Endangered

Celaenorrhinus treadawayi samarensis de Jong, 1981 Endangered

Papilio hermeli Nuyda, 1992 Presumed threatened

Green form

Blue form

Graphium codrus melanthus Felder & Felder, 1862 Presumed threatened

Graphium (Arisbe) delesserti palawanus Staudinger, 1889 Presumed threatened

ZOOMING-IN IN MARINDUQUE
Biogeographically, Marinduque is classified under the Greater Luzon Area together with Bicol Region. But, I do believe that through years of its long isolation as an island has led to species speciation. It is included as part of country’s conservation area for anthropds (DENR-UNEP, 1997), especially on butterflies and beetles (Baltazar & Gapud, 2001; Danielsen & Treadaway, 2004).

BUTTERFLY ECOLOGICAL ZONES of Marinduque

Bayute-Sabong-KitayTumagabok Area
Hesperiidae (36), Lycaenidae(161), Nymphalidae (125), Papilionidae(30), Pieridae (20), Riodinidae (1)

Cawit-Tugos-Duyay Area
Hesperiidae (18), Lycaenidae(58), Nymphalidae (65), Papilionidae(25), Pieridae (11)

Bagtingon-Balagbag Mt. Range
Hesperiidae (45), Lycaenidae(165), Nymphalidae (126), Papilionidae(30), Pieridae (30), Riodinidae (1)

Mt. Malindig Area
Hesperiidae (24), Lycaenidae(149), Nymphalidae (92), Papilionidae(25), Pieridae (18), Riodinidae (1)

Habitat & Seasonal Distribution in Bagtingon-Balagbag Mt. Range

Heperiids (45)

Habitat & Seasonal Distribution in Bagtingon-Balagbag Mt. Range

Lycaenids (165)

Habitat Distribution in BagtingonBalagbag Mt. Range

Nymphalids (126)

Habitat Distribution in BagtingonBalagbag Mt. Range

Pierids (30)

Habitat Distribution in BagtingonBalagbag Mt. Range

Papilionids (30)

Taxonomic Classification of Butterflies of Marinduque

Marinduque’s Endemic Species
Dacalana monsapona marinduquensis Hayashi, Schröder & Treadaway, 1983 Not seen in the wild since 1993

Marinduque’s Endemic Species

Euripus nyctelius marinduquanus Treadaway, 1995 Not seen in the wild since 1993

Marinduque’s Endemic Species
Arophala anthelus marinduquensis Hayashi, Schröder & Treadaway, 1983

Marinduque’s Endemic Species

Pachliopta strandi marinduquensis Page & Treadaway, 1997
Not seen in the wild since 1993, but in 2006 some were spotted in Bagtingon-Balagbag Range

Marinduque’s Endemic Species
Paruparo lumawigi Schröder, 1976 Not seen in the wild since 1993

Some species with declining number on the wild

Lexias dertia Moore, 1897 Lexias pardalis Fruhstorfer,
1890

Some species with declining number on the wild

Polyura schreiberi Rothschild, 1899

Some species with declining number on the wild

Amblypodia narada erichsonii Felder, 1865

Poritia philota

INTRODUCED SPECIES in Marinduque
Progenies from Quezon Province were introduced in Cawit, Boac in 1975

Idea leuconoe gordita

Fruhstorfer, 1911

Idea leuconoe solyma

Fruhstorfer, 1910

INTRODUCED SPECIES in Marinduque
Progenies from Mindoro were introduced in Cawit, Boac in 1995

Papilio memnon Linneaus, 1758

INTRODUCED SPECIES in Marinduque
Progenies from Palawan were introduced in Cawit, Boac in 1989

Papilio lowi Druce, 1873

RE-INTRODUCED SPECIES in Marinduque
Generally present in Marinduque, but during the 80s they were not seen in the wild anymore. Progenies from Aurora and Babuyan Islands were re-introduced in Cawit, Boac and Bagtingon, Buenavista in 1990

Troides magellanus Linneaus, 1758

RE-INTRODUCED SPECIES in Marinduque
Generally present in Marinduque, but during the 80s they were not seen in the wild anymore. Progenies from Mindoro were re-introduced in Bagtingon, Buenavista in 1990

Hebomoia glucippe philippinensis Wallace, 1863

CAUSES OF DECLINING NUMBER OF BUTTERFLY SPECIES Natural Causes 1. Typhoon and related disasters 2. Infestation 3. Climate Change (El Niño, Global warming) Man-Made Causes 1. Agriculture and related activities 2. Logging 3. Mining

…end of PART I

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