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.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2232-2236

**Estimation of Primary Compression Index (Cc) Using Physical Properties of Pontianak Soft Clay
**

*Slamet Widodo, **Abdelazim Ibrahim

*Technische Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg Gustav Zeuner Strasse 1, 09599 Freiberg (SN),Germany **Technische Universitat Bergakademie Freiberg-Germany &Al Neelain University-Sudan

ABSTRACT

Primary compressibility parameters of the soil can be evaluated by laboratories tests for samples, which are time consuming and costly. Estimation of the Compression Index using the physical properties of the soil is fast and easy. Some researchers present a linear correlation between cc value and physical soil properties such water content, liquid limit and void ratio. In this paper linear regression method is used to correlate physical properties of Pontianak soil to obtain Compression Index. Correlation between compressibility index as dependent variable and void ratio, water content, liquid limit respectively as independent variables is presented. Empirical equations proposed by some researchers depending on the correlation between water content and liquid limit are under estimate the value of cc compare with the laboratory tests results.

:

index (cc) vary from different type of soils. Table 1 below indicates cc values of several kinds of soils. Table 1. Primary Compression Index (cc) for several kinds of soils Kind of Soil Cc Dense Sand Loose Sand Firm Clay Stiff Clay Medium – Soft Clay Organic Soil Rock 0.0005 – 0.01 0.025 – 0.05 0.03 – 0.06 0.06 – 0.15 0.15 – 1.0 1.0 – 4.5 0

Correlation Between Compression Index (cc) , Void Ratio(eo), Water content (Wn) and Liquid Limit (W L) There are some correlations between primary compression index (cc) and soil properties such as void ratio, water content and liquid limit. Nishida (1956) derives theoretically linear correlation for all kind of undisturbed clay as showed in equation below : cc = 0.54 (eo – 0.35) (1) cc = 0.0054 (2.6 Wn – 35 ) (2)

KEYWORDS: I.

Primary compression index, linear regression, soft clay

INTRODUCTION

Estimation compressibility parameter for undisturbed soil using soil properties such as water content, liquid limit and void ratio is possible to be done. This correlation can also be useful for checking of quality control which needs easy and faster ways. Compressibility index of Pontianak soil from field and then to be tested at laboratory will be compared with several existing equations suggested by some researchers.

and other :

From more than 700 clays located in USA and Greece , Azzouz (1976) presented correlation as follows : cc = 0.4 (eo – 0.25) (3) and other : cc = 0.01 (Wn – 5 ) (4) Hough (1957) derived equations for cohesive soil, silt, clay, silty clay and inorganic soil. This equation correlated with pore ratio (eo) and also water content. and other : cc = 0.4049 (eo – 0.3216) (5) cc = 0.0102 (Wn – 9.15 ) (6)

II.

LITERATURE RIVIEW

Primary Compression Index (Cc) The capability of soils to bear loading are differ depending on the soil types. Generally, fine-grained soils have a relatively smaller capacity in bearing of load than the coarser grained soil. Hence, fine grained soils therefore have a greater degree of compressibility. Values of primary compression

Rendon-Herrero (1980) collected around 94 samples of America's clay and present equation below.

2232 | P a g e

89 54.55 171.23 25.55 48.236 0.30 18.25 15.38 26.water content and liquid limit respectively.53 194.30 3. Azzouz (1976) and Hough (1957) gave two results for cc values.08 46.34 Table 2. another correlation for disturbed clay sample or remoulding.59 22.279 0.748 2.886 1.16 25.30 12.06 1.347 7.38 62. It Primary Compression Index (Cc) from Equations The results for primary compression index (cc) from laboratory testing and that from some equations above is shown in Table 3.97 22.79 23.279 0.19 27.96 24.013 0.30 20.30 3.884 7.811 0.34 56.30 6.511 1.30 18. 2.96 34.12 29. Indonesia.30 9.79 30.91 46.62 19.90 49. Ratio coefficient regression to standard error is T-value indicating validity of equation.08 26.30 6.45 68.97 102.71 156.30 9.0102 (Wn – 9.91 0.28 13. Practically. From each borehole two samples were taken hence there are 20 samples for testing at laboratory.87 2.755 For all parameters cc.88 66.829 0.663 1.24 19.30 11.87 16. Abdelazim Ibrahim / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www. There are 10 boreholes along at left and right of existing runway having 2.910 1.34 75.00 1.64 16. pp.52 26.38 49.653 0. By using spreadsheets program (Excel for windows) data base can be easily calculated.007 (WL– 7) (10) 2+400 2+550 Koppula (1981) and Wroth et al. Detail data from soil investigation results for the project is shown in Table 2. STA No.321 1.86 17.90 14.436 0.114 0.791 2.19 50.64 224.92 52.48 17.550 m length and 45 m width.31 23. Linear regression is a simple method to analyze data and take conclusion afterwards.93 21.30 12.73 27.178 1.66 14.82 2. cc = 0.10 14.28 35. In addition.17 1.02 20. Rendon-Herrero (1980) only give linear correlation between cc and void ratio and Seradjuddin (1987) uses water content to get cc value whereas only Terzhagi and Peck (1967) propose correlation of cc based on liquid limit.663 0.89 28.20 2.46 32. Skempton (1944) gave a linear correlation using liquid limit.33 15.79 48.850 1. Wn and WL is primary compression index.349 0.30 3.96 53.65 24.009 (WL– 10) (9) will be extended 2. Nishida (1956).85 g (kN/m3) 14.01 52.48 34.96 51.93 14.66 145.24 1.29 26.15 2.59 71.803 0. pore ratio. (1978) propose a correlation using plasticity index for primary compressive strength of remoulding clay.196 1.114 1.308 1.WL). of sample Depth (m) 9.85 49.29 20.67 0.67 17.62 297.27 28.72 83.10 14.ijera.08 90.30 20.46 25.0 hints a valid equation.55 149.87 297.11 90.250 m length and 30 m width.92 1.79 35.19 13.40 62.4 17.30 20.325 Ip (11) 18.347 1.09 1.14 46.43 18.48 0. Coefficient of determination (R2) indicates a correlation each other.54 14.88 1.866 0.452 0.444 1.10 51. DATA COLLECTING Main data for calculation and analysis came from soil investigation of expanded runway project of Supadio airport in Pontianak.96 86.663 1.73 188.96 66.42 5.64 242.556 0.64 15.23 317.86 26.82 17.898 0.13 29.81 1.44 29.33 15.64 81.58 26.54 339.83 46.93 29.79 2.02 0.Slamet Widodo.02 38.83 48. 2233 | P a g e . Wn. cc = 0.30 12.488 0. DISCUSSION FOR ANALYSIS RESULTS III.80 54.44 26.993 1.50 263.38 50.com Vol. cc ' = 0.42 54.258 0.30 15.54 4.23 16.2232-2236 cc = 0.15) (8) Terzhagi and Peck (1967) present a linear correlation between primary compression index (cc) and liquid limit (WL) as ilustrated in the following equation.03 18.62 9.00 49.738 0. September.66 15.44 199.30 12.92 69.59 55.62 19.872 0.511 0.82 16.21 14.October 2012.30 9.55 25.12 10.96 15.01 43.08 16.30 15.86 339. cc ' = 1.45 1. T-value more than 2.522 1. Left one of coulomb is based void ratio and other is based from water content.74 15.610 2.08 22. Data from soil investigation of expanded runway project at Supadio airport Linear Regression Method IV.14 62.93 s i Wn (%) WL (%) Wp (%) Ip (%) IL eo Cc kPa 0+072 0+303 0+639 1+054 1+435 1+773 2+106 2+250 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Max Min A vg 132.88 16.90 60.77 2.86 24.41 3.31 39.46 38.23 14.81 290.58 2.884 1.887 1.30 20.58 3.30 3. Issue 5.02 45.351 1. eo.27) (7) Serajuddin (1987) gave a linear equation for 130 alluvial clay and silt in Bangladesh as given in the following equation. Trend line linearly indicate between independent variable (cc) and dependent variables (eo.30 (eo – 0.57 1.28 90.17 48.02 18.390 1.

738 0.638 Hough Cc 0.456 0.642 0.580 0.000 1.299 0.803 0.2232-2236 Table 3.829 0.738 1.609 0.380 0. Com pres s ibility index.755 Nishida Cc 0.659 0.616 0.612 0.822 0.388 0.030 0.402 0.753 0.451 0.866 0.590 0. Furthermore.433 0.272 0. eo Figure 1.300 0.523 0.0 for medium-soft soil in grouping.423 0. it is based on void ratio.814 0.400 2.00 Water content. Linear Regression of Laboratory Data By using linear regression.653 0.52x .840 0.478 0.238 0.590 0. There are three kind of equations will be showed.114 0.640 0.543 Terzhagi Cc 0.415 0.633 0.511 0.624 0.306 0.415 0.418 0. Firstly.24 0.755 and classified as soft soil in ranging from 0.262 0.766 0.591 0.262 0.615 0.349 0.262 0.778 1.000 2. Terzhagi and Peck's equation based liquid limit gives the smallest of cc value.000 30.376 0.680 0.545 1.456 0.336 0.ijera.639 0.663 0.458 0.834 0. Issue 5.352 0.454 0.311 1.354 0.789 0.473 0. Cc 0+072 0+303 0+639 1+054 1+435 1+773 2+106 2+250 2+400 2+550 Max Min A verage 0.828 0.399 0.270 0.488 Seradjuddin Cc 0.400 1.595 0.860 0.439 0.472 0.184 2.374 0.800 2.254 2.311 0.053 0.43 0.609 0.612 0.347 0.755 1.663 1.639 0. The correlation between cc and different types of physical properties are shown in Figures 1.830 0.024 0.600 Void ratio.543 Herrero Cc 0.486 0.418 0.00 90.000 1.486 0.485 0.320 cc values from correlation using parameter of void ratio show higher than water content for three equations Nishida (1956).574 Cc 0.000 f(x) = 0.254 0.Slamet Widodo.668 0.013 0.462 0.653 0.01x + 0.511 1.788 0.000 1.0.746 0.800 1.262 0.1 R² = 0.328 0. Wn Figure 2.663 1.302 0.653 0.279 0.288 0.518 0. Azzouz (1976) and Hough (1957) whereas Rendon-Herrero (1980) and Seradjuddin (1987) gave different trend.562 0.088 0. 2. cc versus.October 2012.609 0.485 0. Secondly.654 0.836 Cc 0.00 60.227 0.325 0.538 0.391 0.447 0.956 0.00 50.872 0.449 0.064 0.000 f(x) = 0.404 0.788 0.860 0.474 0.680 0.750 0.571 0.00 70. pp.349 0.810 0.486 0.354 0.440 0. Wn 2234 | P a g e .687 A zzouz Cc 0.472 0.780 0.750 0.738 0.507 0.746 0.378 0.088 0.262 0.638 0.610 0.458 0.439 2.578 0. eo Com pres s ibility index.00 80.511 0. 2.655 0.323 2.440 0.053 0.751 0.396 0.415 2.371 0.515 0.624 0. From Table 1 above that average value of cc for Pontianak Soil is 0.829 0.352 0.680 1.12 R² = 0.288 3.192 0.517 0.300 0.834 0. September.446 0.406 0.com Vol.600 1.599 0.415 0.200 1. 3.228 0.819 0. Cc 2.993 1.659 Cc 0. it is based on water content and the last one is a correlation between cc values and liquid limits.753 0.523 0.596 0. Abdelazim Ibrahim / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.620 0.556 0.619 0.412 0.544 0.443 0.708 0.875 0.538 3.834 0.491 0.834 0.323 0.064 0.264 0.782 0.412 0.15 to 1.270 0.634 0.196 1.803 0.00 100.522 0. Values of cc from laboratory test using some equations RendonLocation Lab.200 2.738 0.279 0.810 0.976 0.00 40.554 0.354 0.349 0.064 0.436 0.081 0.488 0.784 0.000 0.777 0.452 0. Cc 2.236 0.633 0.509 0.228 2.134 0.603 0.426 0. analysis and validation for Pontianak soft soil is done and new equation for soil model is found. cc versus.184 0.580 0.345 0.299 0.

4049 (eo . (2002).0.b) Figure 3.5217 eo . USA.October 2012.01 (Wn – 5 ) cc = 0.B.ijera.23.02209 (14.0. liquid limit respectively.and Atkinson.a) (12.0.000 f(x) = 0.00 50. 2. R.3 (eo . Azzous.. Soils and Foundations.(1990). Coefficients of determination (R2) for three grouping from regression analysis are below 0. 19-29. Das..009 (WL . they indicate as low correlation between cc and independent variables void ratio. J.02 R² = 0.427 gives equation: cc = 0.. In addition. A.35) cc = 0. and Corotis.5. WL Azzouz (1976) cc = 0. 4.25) cc = 0.2) cc = 0. ‘’Consolidation Test’’.01706 ( WL. Hence.755 and the values ranging from 0.349 gives equation: cc = 0.0. 16(2).5217 ( eo . Furthermore.000 10. Krizek.com Vol. “Regression Analysis of Soil Compressibility”. with cofficient of determination R2 = 0.00 30.54 (eo – 0.0102 (Wn – 9.b) Terzhagi-Peck (1967) CONCLUSIONS Based on compression index (cc) at laboratory testing for Pontianak soil which average of cc value is 0.10) Hough (1957) Rendon-Herrero (1980) Figure 3.279 to 1.00 20.663 indicates as soft clay. Abdelazim Ibrahim / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www. pp. REFERENCES 1. B.27) cc = 0. R.H.0. ‘’Continous Loading Oedometer Testing of Soils’’. 1976. H.46) cc = 0.1.R. presents a linear correlation between compression index (cc) and Liquid limit taking coefficient of determination R2 = 0. Large number of sample is more needed for further analysis in other to present valid equations having high correlation.10428 = 0.00 60.000 1.15) cc = 0.00 40. ‘’Principles of Geotechnical Engineering’’. Davison. September.00 70.347-355.M.a) = 0. cc versus WL Seradjuddin (1987) Correlation between Compression index (cc) and Void ratio (eo) uses linear regression as depicted in Figure 1. Table 4 right column gives new equations as alternative equations using linear regression analysis.. London.01706 WL . in Figure 2. 2235 | P a g e . Comparison of equations 2. 3.20 ) (12.57 ) (13.30 ) (14.S.11807 (13.5217 (eo – 0. Issue 5. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.0102 (Wn +11. L.0102 ( Wn + 11.35 Researchers Nishida (1956) Existing equations Alternative equations 0. Cc Table 4. Dermawan. 2.4 (eo – 0.3216) cc = 0.0102 (Wn – 9.02x . constant or intercept for the equation between cc and Wn having positive value are different than other which are negative signs. University of Texas at El Paso. for coefficient of determination R2 = 0.01706 (WL – 1.238 gives equation: cc = 0.J..Slamet Widodo.01404(Wn-13.a) = 0.2232-2236 Com pres s ibility Index.29) cc = 0..57) cc = 0. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology.15) cc = 0. water content. Vol.00 Liquid limit. Compression index values using independent variables such as water content and liquid limit are under estimated compared laboratory testing whereas void ratio is shown better result. pp.0.(1985).b) From coefficient of determination (R2) above that all equations give low correlation and the worst is the correlation between cc and water content (Wn).0102 Wn + 0.

Worth. 2236 | P a g e . 8. Skempton. ASCE.D. Rendon-Herrero. 1944.Y. 82.ASCE. John Wiley & Sons Inc. “Universal Compression Index Equation”.W. 10.B. 1957. (1980).ijera.October 2012. and Wood. 5. Abdelazim Ibrahim / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www. Canadian Geotechnical J. 2.. (1944.15:137-145. 1956. and Peck.M.com Vol. September. SM3. Terzaghi. R. “Notes on the Compressibility of Clays”. Quarterly Journal of Geological Society of London..’’Basic Soils Engineering’’.1179-1199.P. pp.D. A. “Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice”. GT11. New York.(1957). Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. 6.Slamet Widodo. Geotechnical Testing J. 100.’’The Correlation of Index Equation with Some Basic Engineering Properties of Soils’’. (1978). New York. pp. Nishida. (1978).S. K. (1967). The Ronald Press Company. Koppula. 119135. Issue 5. “A Brief Note on Compression Index of Soils”.K. O. 9. (1956).). 1027-1-1027-14.’’Statistical Estimation of Compression Index’’. C.2232-2236 Hough. 114-115. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. 4(2):68-73. 7. B.

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