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Green concrete and its demand on the cement industry

Mette Glavind Danish Technological Institute


Introduction Definition of sustainable concrete structures The Danish way Centre for Green concrete Evaluation of new supplementary cementing materials Future outlook and conclusions

An independent independent, , notnot-for for- profit institution. Approved as a technological service institute by the Danish Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation

The objective of the Danish Technological Institute is to address the needs of the industrial sector and society as a whole through the development and dissemination of technological innovation

Green Concrete activities at DTI

F DK project: Overview of impact and LCI F DK project: Guidelines in environmental management F DK project: Environmental assessment of sewer pipes F EU project TESCOP: LCA of 10 functional units & cleaner

F Danish Centre for Green Concrete F Evaluation of the use of green waste glass F Nordic network Concrete for the environment F DK project: List of action and selected activities F EU network ECO-SERVE F Nordic project: CO2 uptake

Definition of an environmentally sustainable concrete structure


Designed, built, operated or reused in a ressourceefficient manner F Utilising the inherently environmentally beneficial properties The right concrete for the F Tailor-made for the use right application F Total environmental impact during the entire life cycle reduced to a minimum
Source: Source : Concrete for the environment - a Nordic network



Use aggregate that is extracted in an environmentally sound manner Use cement manufactured using modern production technology, recycled raw materials and alternative energy sources. Be produced at concrete plants where environmental impact is minimised. Have an optimal clinker content according to the intended strength and durability. Not introduce environmental problems such as Source: Source : Concrete for the environment leaching of heavy metals etc.
a Nordic network

Cement consumption divided with concrete production for ready-mixed industry.

500 400 300 200 100
Sweden Spain Belgium Finland Netherlands Poland Ireland Switzerland Germany Denmark Norway Austrai Portugal UK Average France Italy

Source : ERMCO Source: 2001 statistics

Typical DK mix designs

Kg/m3 Cement, CEM I Fly ash Silica fume Aggregate Water Indoor concrete 148 51 12 1926 138 SCC indoor concrete 168 107 30 1801 152

The Green Concrete consortium

Industrial partners



Technological Service Institute



Overview of results
. The Centre has made it possible to document the technical
properties of green types of concrete and to describe the environmental impacts of choosing green solutions. The Centre has developed a number of solutions that can be put directly to use by the industry both for large civil structure as well as for housing.

Environmental targets


30% CO2 reduction 20% residual products as aggregate Concrete industry to use own waste New types of residual products used Waste as fuel in cement production Not introduce new environmental problems


Green strategies

Materials: FGreen cement FMinimize clinker content FOwn residual products FAlternative ashes

Structural design: FNo asphalt or moisture barrier FEasy to substitute part of construction Repair and maintenance strategies:
FStainless steel FIncreased cover FPermanent formwork

A green demonstration bridge

Green types of concrete Ref.concrete (CEM I 42.5) Green cement (CEM 1 52.5) 35-38% FA Sewage sludge incineration ash Stainless reinforcement No moisture barrier and asphalt

Mix design
A-REF A0 A1 A1 3 3 3 3 kg/m i VOT kg/m i VOT kg/m i VOT kg/m i VOT Low-alkali C (CEM I 42,5) 317 Rapid C (CEM I 52,5) 317 210 238 FA 32 32 142 135 SF 18 18 18 18 Water 153 153 125 133 W/c 0,42 0,42 0,41 0,41 FA in % of powder 9 9 38 35 CO2 reduction 33 51 45 Application Foundations Foundations Foundations Bridge deck Columns Columns Columns Bridge deck Bridge deck

CO2- emission - 74 years

3.500 3.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000 500 AR A0 A1 Br idg e3 4 A3

kg CO 2 per year

Asphalt Concrete Maintenance Construction Asphalt Reinforcement Concrete

Model in evaluation of supplementary cementing materials

The model is presented in a Danish publication from the Green Concrete project, see


1. Initial evaluation of suitability 2. Initial testing 3. Supplementary testing

Model phase 1

1. Initial evaluation 2. Initial testing

Which constituent does the by-product replace ?

SiO2, Al 2O 3, Fe 2O3 puzzolanic reaction Harmful substances Heavy metals Other substances (e.g. MgO, P 2O 5)

3. Suppl. testing

Model phase 2

1. Initial evaluation 2. Initial testing 3. Suppl. testing

1. Design recipes 2. Determine the traditional properties

Consistence and changes in the consistence Air content and changes in the air content Strength development Heat development Bleeding, hardening time, etc. Frost resistance

3. Correct recipes, repeat testing


Model phase 3
Evaluate initial results, make corrections in mix design, carry out supplementary tests of:

1. Initial evaluation 2. Initial testing

Mechanical properties Durability properties Execution properties Fire resistance properties

3. Suppl. testing

Conclusion - Model

1. Initial Evaluation 2. Initial Testing 3. Suppl. testing

Are there any limitations in the possible applications ? Is it allowed to use this by-product according to valid standards (e.g. EN 206-1) ? What is the environmental impact from this new type of concrete ? Can the concrete be produced and handled the same way as ordinary concrete ?


Waste glass



Clear glass 350 m 2/kg

Clear glass 500 m 2/kg

Green glass Green glass 500 m 2/kg 350 m 2/kg

Aalborg White

Example with glass fillers

Glass filler
Blaine 500

SiO 2 A l2O 3 F e 2O 3 C r2 O 3 CaO MgO N a2O K 2O TiO 2 BaO

66,72 1,48 0,41 0,19 10,87 0,84 13,09 0,48 <0,03 0,03


Initial testing - results

afskalning [g/m]

Voervadsbro-sand (ikke-reaktivt)
0,3 Beton-ref Beton-G350 ekspansion [%] 0,2 0,1 0,0 0 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 -0,1 tid [uger] tid [dgn] 4 8 12 16 20 G350 K350

150 100 50 0

60 trykstyrke [MPa] 50
ekspansion [%] 0,4

Nymlle-sand (reaktivt)

40 30 20 10 0 0 7 14 2 1 2 8 35 42 49 56 tid [dgn] Beton-ref Beton-G350

0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0 -0,1 0 4 8 12 16 20

ref FA G350 G500 K350

tid [uger]

Overall evaluation of glass fillers

Phase 1 and 2 of the model showed that glass fillers for concrete (grey and white) is a possibility F Supplementary testing is needed F EN 206 allows the use of glass fillers for concrete in all exposure classes if it is valid in the place of use, or if a national standard is prepared F Environmental impacts have only been discussed no tests have been carried out


Future outlook and conclusions, 1

Reduce environmental impact from concrete constructions and use concrete to the benefit of the environment

Increased use of concrete

Future outlook and conclusions, 2

Selected trends:

Optimise clinker content - CEM II cements and/or supplementary cementing materials F SCC will increase need of supplementary cementing materials F Focus on thermal capacities due to new EU directive


Reinforced concrete office building

Primary energy (GJ/m3) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 Working life (years) 50 Power Heating Building materials

Future outlook and conclusions, 2

Selected trends: F Optimise clinker content - CEM II cements and/or supplementary cementing materials F SCC will increase need of supplementary cementing materials F Focus on thermal capacities due to new EU directive F Use carbonation in CO2 assessments


CO2 emission pr. kg cement

1,2 1 kg CO2/kg cement 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 -0,2 -0,4 -0,6 Carbonisation Calcining Grinding


Total CO2 emissions for bridge with a lifetime of 74 years

250 200 Maintenance 150 100 50 0 Excl. Carbonation Incl. Carbonation Construction Reinforcement Concrete


The right concrete for the right application