Green concrete and its demand on the cement industry

Mette Glavind Danish Technological Institute

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Introduction Definition of sustainable concrete structures The Danish way Centre for Green concrete Evaluation of new supplementary cementing materials Future outlook and conclusions

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notnot-for for. . Technology and Innovation Objective The objective of the Danish Technological Institute is to address the needs of the industrial sector and society as a whole through the development and dissemination of technological innovation Green Concrete activities at DTI F DK project: Overview of impact and LCI F DK project: Guidelines in environmental management F DK project: Environmental assessment of sewer pipes F EU project TESCOP: LCA of 10 functional units & cleaner Technology F Danish Centre for Green Concrete F Evaluation of the use of green waste glass F Nordic network Concrete for the environment F DK project: List of action and selected activities F EU network ECO-SERVE F Nordic project: CO2 uptake 2 .Status An independent independent.profit institution. Approved as a technological service institute by the Danish Minister of Science.

Definition of an environmentally sustainable concrete structure F Designed. operated or reused in a ressourceefficient manner F Utilising the inherently environmentally beneficial properties The right concrete for the F Tailor-made for the use right application F Total environmental impact during the entire life cycle reduced to a minimum Source: Source : Concrete for the environment . built. Have an optimal clinker content according to the intended strength and durability. recycled raw materials and alternative energy sources. Not introduce environmental problems such as Source: Source : Concrete for the environment leaching of heavy metals etc. a Nordic network 3 .a Nordic network Criteria F F F F F Use aggregate that is extracted in an environmentally sound manner Use cement manufactured using modern production technology. Be produced at concrete plants where environmental impact is minimised.

CEM I Fly ash Silica fume Aggregate Water Indoor concrete 148 51 12 1926 138 SCC indoor concrete 168 107 30 1801 152 4 . 500 400 300 200 100 Sweden Spain Belgium Finland Netherlands Poland Ireland Switzerland Germany Denmark Norway Austrai Portugal UK Average France Italy 0 Source : ERMCO Source: 2001 statistics Typical DK mix designs Kg/m3 Cement.Cement consumption divided with concrete production for ready-mixed industry.

The ”Green Concrete” consortium Industrial partners UNICON AB SYDSTEN AALBORG PORTLAND COWI MT HØJGAARD DANISH ROAD DIRECTORATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK DANISH TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE Technological Service Institute AALBORG UNIVERSITY Universities 5 .

The Centre has developed a number of solutions that can be put directly to use by the industry both for large civil structure as well as for housing.Overview of results . Environmental targets F F F F F 30% CO2 reduction 20% residual products as aggregate Concrete industry to use own waste New types of residual products used Waste as fuel in cement production Not introduce new environmental problems + F 6 . The Centre has made it possible to document the technical properties of green types of concrete and to describe the environmental impacts of choosing green solutions.

Green strategies Materials: F”Green” cement FMinimize clinker content FOwn residual products FAlternative ashes Structural design: FNo asphalt or moisture barrier FEasy to substitute part of construction Repair and maintenance strategies: FStainless steel FIncreased cover FPermanent formwork A green demonstration bridge Green types of concrete Ref.5) § 35-38% FA § Sewage sludge incineration ash Stainless reinforcement No moisture barrier and asphalt § 7 .5) § Green cement (CEM 1 52.concrete (CEM I 42.

500 1.41 FA in % of powder 9 9 38 35 CO2 –reduction 33 51 45 Application Foundations Foundations Foundations Bridge deck Columns Columns Columns Bridge deck Bridge deck CO2.5) 317 210 238 FA 32 32 142 135 SF 18 18 18 18 Water 153 153 125 133 W/c 0.500 2.500 3.000 1.5) 317 Rapid C (CEM I 52.000 500 AR A0 A1 Br idg e3 4 A3 kg CO 2 per year Asphalt Concrete Maintenance Construction Asphalt Reinforcement Concrete 8 .emission .42 0.41 0.74 years 3.Mix design A-REF A0 A1 A1 3 3 3 3 kg/m i VOT kg/m i VOT kg/m i VOT kg/m i VOT Low-alkali C (CEM I 42.42 0.000 2.

Model in evaluation of supplementary cementing materials The model is presented in a Danish publication from the Green Concrete project. see www. Supplementary testing 9 .dk Model By-product 1. Initial testing 3. Initial evaluation of suitability 2.gronbeton.

Suppl. testing Model – phase 2 By-product 1. P 2O 5) 3. Frost resistance 3. repeat testing 10 . Suppl. Al 2O 3. Design recipes 2. Fe 2O3 – puzzolanic reaction Harmful substances Heavy metals Other substances (e. testing 1. hardening time. Initial evaluation 2.g. Initial testing 3. Determine the traditional properties § § § § § § Consistence and changes in the consistence Air content and changes in the air content Strength development Heat development Bleeding. etc. Initial testing Which constituent does the by-product replace ? • § § § SiO2. Correct recipes. Initial evaluation 2.Model – phase 1 By-product 1. MgO.

carry out supplementary tests of: By-product 1.g. Initial testing • • • Mechanical properties Durability properties Execution properties Fire resistance properties 3. testing • Conclusion .Model – phase 3 Evaluate initial results. Initial evaluation 2. Initial Testing 3. make corrections in mix design. EN 206-1) ? What is the environmental impact from this new type of concrete ? Can the concrete be produced and handled the same way as ordinary concrete ? 11 .Model By-product 1. Suppl. Initial Evaluation 2. testing Are there any limitations in the possible applications ? Is it allowed to use this by-product according to valid standards (e. Suppl.

72 1.03 12 .19 10.03 0.41 0.48 0.87 0.Waste glass Crushing Grinding Clear glass 350 m 2/kg Clear glass 500 m 2/kg Green glass Green glass 500 m 2/kg 350 m 2/kg Aalborg White Example with glass fillers Glass filler Blaine 500 SiO 2 A l2O 3 F e 2O 3 C r2 O 3 CaO MgO N a2O K 2O TiO 2 BaO 66.09 0.48 <0.84 13.

1 tid [uger] tid [døgn] 4 8 12 16 20 G350 K350 150 100 50 0 60 trykstyrke [MPa] 50 ekspansion [%] 0.Initial testing .1 0.results 200 afskalning [g/m²] Voervadsbro-sand (ikke-reaktivt) 0.0 0 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 -0.3 0.1 0.3 Beton-ref Beton-G350 ekspansion [%] 0.1 0 4 8 12 16 20 ref FA G350 G500 K350 tid [uger] Overall evaluation of glass fillers F Phase 1 and 2 of the model showed that glass fillers for concrete (grey and white) is a possibility F Supplementary testing is needed F EN 206 allows the use of glass fillers for concrete in all exposure classes if it is valid in the place of use.2 0.4 Nymølle-sand (reaktivt) 40 30 20 10 0 0 7 14 2 1 2 8 35 42 49 56 tid [døgn] Beton-ref Beton-G350 0. or if a national standard is prepared F Environmental impacts have only been discussed – no tests have been carried out 13 .0 -0.2 0.

CEM II cements and/or supplementary cementing materials F SCC will increase need of supplementary cementing materials F Focus on thermal capacities due to new EU directive 14 . 2 Selected trends: F Optimise clinker content .Future outlook and conclusions. 1 Reduce environmental impact from concrete constructions and use concrete to the benefit of the environment Increased use of concrete Future outlook and conclusions.

Reinforced concrete office building Primary energy (GJ/m3) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 Working life (years) 50 Power Heating Building materials Future outlook and conclusions.CEM II cements and/or supplementary cementing materials F SCC will increase need of supplementary cementing materials F Focus on thermal capacities due to new EU directive F Use carbonation in CO2 assessments 15 . 2 Selected trends: F Optimise clinker content .

kg cement 1. Carbonation Construction Reinforcement Concrete 16 .4 -0.CO2 emission pr.6 0.2 -0.2 0 -0.2 1 kg CO2/kg cement 0.8 0.6 Carbonisation Calcining Grinding ? Fuel Total CO2 emissions for bridge with a lifetime of 74 years 250 200 Maintenance 150 100 50 0 Excl.4 0. Carbonation Incl.

The right concrete for the right application 17 .

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