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REDOX REACTION

REDUCTION

OXIDATION

By the end of the topic, students should be able to:


□ Know what is meant by a redox reaction.
□ Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen gain/loss and use it
to show where oxidation and reduction take place in a reaction.
□ Define oxidation and reduction in terms of hydrogen loss/gain and use
it to show where oxidation and reduction take place in a reaction.
□ Define oxidation and reduction as electron loss/gain and use it to show
where oxidation and reduction take place in a reaction.
□ Find the oxidation state of an element in a compound.
□ Find the formula of a compound from its name containing an oxidation
number.
□ Define oxidation and reduction in terms of changes in oxidation state
and use it to show where oxidation and reduction take place in a
reaction.
□ Describe the colour change when potassium iodide is used to test for
an oxidizing agent.
□ Describe the colour change when potassium manganate (VII) and
potassium dichromate (VI) are used to test for a reducing agent.
□ State some common oxidizing and reducing agents.

Please tick in the box if you can do the above.

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OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

 In chemical reactions, oxidation and reduction is an important concept


and it has applications in many topics.

 There are several ways of describing oxidation and reduction. They


can be described in terms of:
1) loss and gain of oxygen
2) loss and gain of hydrogen
3) loss and gain of electrons
4) change of oxidation state

1) LOSS AND GAIN OF OXYGEN

 Gain of oxygen in a reaction is __________________.


 Loss of oxygen in a reaction is __________________.

Example 1:

Oxidising and reducing agent


 What is an oxidizing agent?
A substance that causes another substance to be _______________.
An oxidizing agent is _____________ when it oxidizes another
substance.

 What is a reducing agent?


A substance that causes another substance to be _______________.
A reducing agent is _______________ when it reduces another
substance.

⇒ From example 1 above, state the oxidizing agent and the reducing
agent.
Oxidising agent:
Reducing agent:

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 Please proceed to do exercise from:
CHEMISTRY INSIGHTS, Pg. 325, Questions, Quest. 1-2

2) LOSS AND GAIN OF HYDROGEN

 Loss of hydrogen in a reaction is ______________________.


 Gainof hydrogen in a reaction is _______________________.

Example 2:

⇒ From example 2 above, state the oxidizing agent and the reducing
agent.
Oxidising agent:
Reducing agent:

 Please proceed to do exercise from:


CHEMISTRY INSIGHTS, Pg. 325, Questions, Quest. 3

3) LOSS AND GAIN OF ELECTRONS

 Loss of electrons in a reaction is _________________.


 Gain of electrons in a reaction is _________________.

Example 3:

⇒ From example 3 above, state the oxidizing agent and the reducing
agent.

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Oxidising agent:
Reducing agent:

IONIC HALF EQUATIONS

 Redox reactions involving a transfer of electrons can be split into two


halves.

 One half equation shows oxidation while the other half shows
reduction.

 In the reaction between sodium and chlorine, the two ionic half
equations are:
Na (s)  Na+ (s) + e- oxidation – loss of electrons
Cl2(g) + 2e  2Cl (s)
- -
reduction – gain of electrons

 Please proceed to do exercise from:


CHEMISTRY INSIGHTS, Pg. 328, Questions, Quest. 1-2.

OXIDATION STATE

 What is an oxidation state?


The oxidation state is the charge of an atom of an element would have if
it existed as an ion in a compound (even if it is covalently bonded).

 To work out the oxidation state of an atom, we apply the following


rules:
1) Elements are zero
E.g. O2, He, Na, C are all zero.
2) Simple ions have an oxidation number = charge on the ion
E.g. Na+ = +1, Al3+ = +3, S2- = -2
3) Hydrogen is +1 except when joined directly to metals (NaH, CaH2)
4) Oxygen is -2 except in peroxides where it is -1 (H2O2, Na2O2)
5) Compounds and radicals have their sum of oxidation numbers =
total charge.
E,g, SO2 S + 2O = 0
S + 2(-2) = 0
S = +4

 Please proceed to do exercise from:


WORKSHEET 1

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NAMES OF COMPOUNDS

 The oxidation state of an element in a compound can be indicated by a


Roman number.
e.g. Manganese (IV) oxide, means the manganese has oxidation state
of +4 in the compound.

 Oxidation state are usually only given in the names of compounds


where an element can have more than one oxidation state.
e.g. Magnesium always has oxidation state of _______ in compounds
so the name of MgSO4 is ________________________.
Iron can have oxidation state of +2 or +3 in compounds, so the name of
FeSO4 is ______________________________.

4) CHANGE OF OXIDATION STATE

 Increase in oxidation state is _______________________.


 Decrease in oxidation state is _______________________.

Oxidised: Reduced:
Oxidising agent: Reducing Agent:

 Please proceed to do exercise from:


CHEMISTRY INSIGHTS, Pg. 333, Questions, Quest. 1-3.

REDOX REACTION

UCTION IDATION

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 Redox reaction is the combined process of oxidation and reduction.
There can be NO oxidation without reduction and vice versa.

 Please proceed to do exercise from:


WORKSHEET 2

TEST FOR OXIDISING AND REDUCING AGENT

COMMON OXIDISING AND REDUCING AGENTS

 Please proceed to do exercise from:


WORKSHEET 3
WORKSHEET 4

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WORKSHEET 1

WORKSHEET 2

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WORKSHEET 3

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WORKSHEET 4

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