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Only a few people have heard about the Bible message that is found in the stars. This is definitely not astrology. Astrology can't even put three signs together to make a story, whereas, the 48 constellations that make up the true Zodiac all go together to tell the story of Jesus, the Redeemer. The story includes His birth and life prophesy (the first four major Signs; 16 constellations), His dealings with His elect people (the second four major Signs), and His coming in triumph over Satan (the last four major Signs).


You'll notice that the Biblical Zodiac doesn't start with Aries. While the spring equinox, with it's rebirth symbolism seems a logical place to start, the first "page" of the book is obscured by that starting point. If we are to see the whole story of Jesus, then we must start with the Virgin(Virgo) birth, of the Desired (Coma), two-natured (Centaurus) one, who will thrust in His sickle (Bootes), and rule. If the constellations are viewed in any other order than Virgo to Leo, the whole story goes out of synch. This is the order that best tells the story, and parallels the Bible. And let me add here that this story is told at three different levels. The names of the major Signs only begin to tell the story. The three minor constellations for each sign fill in more detail. But, not only the constellation names tell this story. I looked up ALL the stars I could find names for, and even they enhance the constellation names, filling out the story in even more detail. That's the way you'd have done it if you were God, wouldn't you? Before we go any further, I want to include this depiction of the Zodiac and the constellations that tell this story. This way you can refer back to it when we get down to the tables below that have the names and meanings of the different constellations and stars. I also have a zodiac chart that is made up of drawings of the constellations. I'll include this one before each of the four sections, or "books. My apology for the less than perfect quality of the charts.

I have the book of Enoch and have studied it some. There is a passage that tells about the fallen angels and how they taught men various skills, from swords to sorcery. Included in the list, it says that, "Baraqijal (taught) astrology, Kokabel the constellations." I want to bring your attention to the fact of the two "specialties." One would think that astrology, being the "study of the stars" would automatically include studying the constellations. Astrology is, after all, based in those very constellations. Then why the separation of astrology and constellations into two distinctly defined areas? Seems likely that the "constellations" meant astronomy, which I see as different than astrology. I would also mention that this passage says nothing about the "invention" of the Zodiac, the constellations, without which astrology couldn't even exist. The stars came first, the constellations came next, astronomy probably came third, and astrology finished a slow fourth. My whole point is that in order to understand the Zodiac I speak of, and it's purpose, and creation, one must "forget" there is such a thing as astrology. This study has NO connection to astrology. Like astronomy, it only has some of the same elements; stars and constellations. One more comment of comparison. Astrology makes extensive use of the planets. This study of the Zodiac never even mentions the planets. Not only is this not astrology, it isn't even astronomy. It's God. Why wouldn't God write the story of redemption in a place the whole world could see? Wouldn't He put that story everywhere in our lives? Yes, of course. Didn't God have Paul tells us to look at the stars to see how the "wrath of God" is revealed in the heavens? Romans 1:18 Do you have another explanation that fits verse 23? What else can there be in the heavens that man could change from "the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things?" There isn't anything up there to change but the pictures of the constellations. The Greeks changed the constellation of Coma from a seated woman with a child on her lap, to a swatch of hair, and called it Berinice. They obscured the picture that enhanced the main

sign of Virgo. The woman holding the child fills out the "seed" concept offered by Virgo, with her stalk of wheat in one hand. Astrology is Satan's counterfeit for "life guidance." Satan's counterfeits are always selforiented. His message through astrology is that your internal "clock," which began with the star alignment at your birth, governs your life. If you apply this information properly, "You can do life on your own, you don't need God." Not needing God to have all His Knowledge and Power has been Satan's tactic since Eden. Satan is VERY accomplished at covering God's tracks. The following tables harmonize the names of the forty-eight constellations of the twelve Signs with their meanings in various languages and selected scriptures. Following each table I have included a summary of the complete Sign which can be found in E.W. Bullinger's 1893 book, "The Witness of the Stars, from Kregel Publications. Here is a key to the letter-abbreviations used to denote the names of the constellations in other languages. KEY : A=Arabic; E=Egyptian; H=Hebrew Co=Coptic; P=Persian S=Syriac; C=Chaldean Ak=Akkadian G=Greek


BOOK ONE : VIRGO The Prophecy of the Promised Seed of the Woman

SIGN/DECAN VIRGO-The Virgin COMA-the desired CENTAURUSthe centaur BOOTES-the coming one

OTHER NAMES H-virgin; A-branch/ear of corn H-desired; P-woman feed baby boy A,C-the despised; H-sin offering H-the coming; E-one who rules

SCRIPTURE VERSE Isa 7:14-A virgin will conceive Hag 2:7-desired of all nations shall come Isa 53:3-despised/rejected of men Ps 96:13-he cometh to judge the earth; Enoch 7&8

The Promised Seed of the woman, the Desired of all nations, a two-natured being, who will come to harvest. BOOK ONE : LIBRA The Redeemer's Atoning Work SIGN/DEC AN OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE Isa 53:10-sin offering(balance our lacks) Dan 9:26- 62 weeks, messiah cut off Isa 53:7-lamb to the slaughter; Ez18:4 blood remission PS 110:1-thine enemies thy footstool

LIBRA-the H-weighing;A-purchase; Coscales propitiation CRUX-the cross H-cutting off; H-limit/finish

LUPUS-the H,A-to be slain victim CORONAH-royal crown; A-,jewel the crown

The price deficient balanced by the price which covers. The Cross endured by the Victicm slain, who receives the Crown. BOOK ONE : SCORPIO The Redeemer's Conflict SIGN/DECAN OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE

SCORPIO-the scorpion SERPENS-the serpent OPHIUCHUSserpent holder:

H-the conflict; A-wound him that cometh H,A-the serpent held No other names found

Good vs Evil Gen 3:15-bruise the head; Ps 91:13 tread on the adder Fighting with Satan Rev 19:11-white horse; conqueror

HERCULES-the E-who cometh; A-strong one mighty one

The Scorpion seeking to wound, but itself trodden under foot. The Serpent and the Man struggling. The Mighty Man kneeling on one knee, humbled in the conflict, but holding aloft the tokens of victory, with his foot on the head of the Dragon. BOOK ONE : SAGITTARIUS The Redeemer's Triumph SIGN/DECAN OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE Ps 45:3-5-people fall under thee; Ps64: God shoots arrow Rev 19:7-be glad, give honor; 5:13 blessing & honor Ps 21:9-fire shall devour them Isa 27:1-slay the dragon; Ps91:13 tread on adder

SAGITTARIU H,E,G,A-arrow; Co-beauty of S-the archer coming forth LYRA-the harp ARA-the burning pyre DRACO-the dragon No other names found [symbolizes rejoicing] A-finishing; G-cursing G-trodden on; Co-serpent accursed

The two-natured Conqueror going forth; Praise prepared for the Conqueror and the consuming fire prepared for His enemy the Old serpent--the Devil.


BOOK TWO : CAPARISONS Their Blessings Procured SIGN/DE CAN OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE Isa 53:8-stricken for my people;Lev 9:15; 16:22 Isa 53:4-smitten of God(royal eagle fall) [royal symbol, falling in death] died but rose again(whole New Testament)

CAPRICORNUS Replace of sacrifice; H,A-cut off -the sea goat SAGITTA-the arrow AQUILA-the eagle No other names found[has no human connection] No other names found

DELPHINUS-the H-pouring out water; A-coming dolphin quickly

The goat of Atonement for the Redeemed slain by the arrow of God. the smitten One falling, and Rising again. BOOK TWO : AQUARIUSTheir Blessings Ensured SIGN/frostbitten AQUARIUS-the water bearer OTHER NAMES frostbitten of him coming down SCRIPTURE Isa 33:-Lord is rivers/streams;Joel 2:pours out Spirit blessing is bestowed on the redeemed speedy bestowment of living waters

PISCUS AUSTRALISA-mouth of the fish the Southern fish PEGASUS-the winged horse H-chief horse

CYGNUS-the swan

Ethics from afar

Ps 36:8-9-fountain of life

The living waters of blessing poured forth for the Redeemed who Drink in the Blessing. Bringing speedily the Good News of the returning Redeemer. BOOK TWO : PISCES Their Blessings in Abeyance SIGN/Blessings PISCES-the fishes THE BAND-the band OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE

E-fishes of him that cometh Blesings to Israel & Ethnos(Eph 3:6) E-He cometh Jer 31:11; Hos 11:4 [held in Satan's grip] Jer 14:17-daughter broken; Isa 52:2 bands of thy neck Jer 31:1-I will be God to all the families of Israel

ANDROMEDA-the H-the chained; E-set up as chained WOMAN queen CEPHUS-the crowned king H-the branch; E-one cometh to rule

The Redeemed blessed though bound. (The two Houses of Israel and Judah) by a Band to their great enemy. The redeemed in bondage waiting for their Redeemer coming to rule. BOOK TWO : ARIES Their Blessings Consummated and Enjoyed SIGN/Judas ARIES-the ram CASSIOPEIA-the enthroned woman CETUS-the sea monster PERSEUS-the breaker OTHER NAMES Ak-sacrifice of righteousness A-the freed; E-set up as queen E-subdued E-who fights & subdues SCRIPTURE Lamb revives, full of life(New Testament) Isa 62:3-5-marriage of Christ; Isa 61:10, Isa 54:5-8 Ps 74:12-14-break dragon's head; Isa 26:21; 27:1 Christ is the agency of deliverance(many refs)

The Lamb that was slain. The captive to be delivered and prepared for her for her Husband, who is bound to Cetus, the sea monster, who will be Broken by the Deliverer.


BOOK THREE : TAURUS Messiah, the Coming Judge of All the Earth SIGN/Fetus TAURUS-the bull ORION-the glorious one OTHER NAMES E-who saves/delivers; Hcoming/ruling Ak-light of heaven SCRIPTURE Isa 34:2;26:21; Jud 14-rushing to judge; gore enemies Isa 60:1-3-glory of the Lord

HERIDANUS-the Dan 7:9-fire/judge-->Ps 97;Ps 1; Isa 30;Isa riverofthejudge[eri=river;dan= river 66; Nahum 1 judge] AURIGA-the shepherd H-shepherd; E-sceptre/power Isa 49:10-11-gather the lambs; Fez 34:22

Messiah coming to rule in the person of the redeemer. whose Wrath is breaking forth on His enemies, while He shepherd's his Redeemed in safety. BOOK THREE : GEMINI Messiah's Reign as Prince of Peace

SIGN/breaking GEMINI-the twins LEPUS-the hare Canis Majorthe dog Canis Minorthe 2nd dog

OTHER NAMES breaking of him who cometh; H,A,G-the united E-confounded/failing E-the head; A-coming quickly E-conquering/victorious

SCRIPTURE Jer33:14 Righteous (2 natured) branch to rule; Jer 23:5 Isa 63:3-4-trample the enemy; Mal 4; Ps 60;12 Isa 59:19-redeemer shall come to Zion; Isa 49:24 Isa 59:19-redeemer shall come to Zion; Isa 49:24

The twofold nature of the King who treads His enemy under foot. The coming glorious Prince of Prices, the exalted Redeemer. BOOK THREE : CANCER Messiah's Redeemed Possessions SIGN/Redeeme d CANCER-the crab OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE

E-the cattle-folds; A-holds/binds; Enfolding of the redeemed Ak-sieze seed EZ 34:12-16 EZ 34:12-16 Isa 35:10-ransomed of Lord to Zion; Isa 51; Jer 31; Isa 60

Ursa Minor-the lesser sheepfold(ancient picture) little bear Ursa Major-the A-assembled together(great great bear sheepfold) ARGO-the ship (many voyagers coming home)

The possessions held fast in the Lesser and greater Sheepfolds. The redeemed pilgrims safely journeying home. BOOK THREE : LEO Messiah's consummated Triumph SIGN/Triu OTHER NAMES SCRIPTURE

mph LEO-the lion S-rending lion; A-vehemently leaping as flame Rev 5:5 Lion of tribe of Judah prevails

HYDRA- means he is abhorred no other names Rev 20:2- Satan chained the serpent found CRATERthe cup CORVUSthe raven pouring out something no other names found Ps 75:8-God's cup; Ps 11:6 fire/brimstone in the cup

the enemy/breaking up[snake natural enemy] Rev 19:hybrids eat God's enemy's flesh

The Lion of the Tribe of Judah aroused for the rending of the Enemy, the old Serpent. the cup of Divine wrath poured out, while birds of prey devour him.


The Lunar Zodiac would seem from history to be more ancient than the Solar Zodiac. However, as we shall see, they undoubtedly have a common source. The Lunar Zodiac can be found in India, Arabia and China. Unlike China and Arabia, the Indian astronomy

assigned figures to each of the Mansions of the Moon. The Lunar Zodiac travels around the same ecliptic as the Solar, but is divided into twenty-eight parts. Each of these Mansions has it's own particular name. Joseph A. Seiss has written a very complete account of the Zodiacs, including related subjects, like primeval man. I urge you to get this book called, "The Gospel in the Stars." About the history of the Lunar Zodiac Seiss says, "Astronomers agree in regarding this LunarZodiac as containing the most ancient remains of the science of the stars. The Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians knew little or nothing about it, but it is a matter of record in China that it was known and understood in that country as early as the reign of Yao, about twenty-three hundred years before the Christian era, which was before the time of Abraham. In the Chinese astronomy it begins with Virgo, which would seem to indicate that the Chinese table came from the antediluvian times." If it was meant that the stars should carry a prophetic record of the Gospel, then we would find it also in the arrangement and naming of the Lunar Mansions. And, of course, it is. For ease of comparison, I'll table the Lunar Mansions as they occur in relation to the Solar Zodiac. And from E. Raymond Capt's excellent introductory study of this subject, I'll quote the summary for each of the four constellations that make up the twelve signs.

Seed of the Woman, the Desire of nations, Man of double nature in humiliation, exalted Shepherd and Harvester. NAME Al Awa Simak al Azel Caphir MEANING the Desired Branch of the Power of God the Atonement, the Propitiation by sacrifice

The Price to be paid, the Cross to be endured, the Victim slain, the Crown purchased.

NAM E Al Zuben a Al Iclil

MEANING the redeeming, the regaining by purchase, the buying back the complete submission

The Conflict, the Serpent's coils, the struggle with the Enemy, the toiling Vanquisher of evil. NAME Al Kalb Al Shaula MEANING the cleaving or wounding the sting, the deadly wound

The double-natured One triumphing as a Warrior, he gladdens the Heavens, he builds the fires of punishment, he casts down the Dragon. NAME al Naim Al Beldah MEANING the gracious, the delighted in hastily coming, as to judgement

Life out of Death, the Arrow of God, Pierced and falling, Springing up again in abundant life. NAME MEANING

Al Dibah

the sacrifice slain

Life-waters from on high, Drinking the heavenly flood, Carrying and speeding the Good News, bearing aloft the Cross over all the earth. NAME Sa'ad al Bula Sa'ad al Su'ud Al Achbiya MEANING witness of the rising or drinking in witness of the swimming or outpouring the fountain of pouring

Multiplication of the Redeemer's People, upheld and governed by the Lamb, the intended Bride bound and exposed on earth, the Bridegroom exalted. NAME Al Pherg al Muchaddem Al Pherg al Mauchher Al Risha MEANING the progeny of the ancient times the progeny of latter times the band, the joined together

The Lamb found worthy, the Bride released and making ready, Satan bound, the Breaker triumphing.

NAME Al Sheratan Al Botein Al Thuraiya

MEANING the wounded, that was cut off the treading under foot the enemy punished

The invincible Ruler come, the sublime Vanquisher, the River of Judgement, the allruling Shepherd. NAME Al Debaran Al Heka MEANING the Leader, the Governor, the Subduer the driving away

The Marriage of the Lamb, the Enemy trodden down, the Prince coming in Glory, his princely following. NAME Al Henah Al Dirah MEANING the wounded in the foot the ill-treated

The Possession secured, Lesser fold - the Church of the first born, Greater fold - Israel, the Bride, safe folding into the kingdom. NAME MEANING

Al Nethra

the treasure, the possession

Al Terpha the healed, the delivered, the saved

The King aroused for the rending, the Serpent fleeing, the Bowl of Wrath upon him, his Carcass devoured. NAME Al Gieba Al Zubra Al Serpha MEANING the exaltation, the Price the heaped-up, as sin and delayed punishment the burning, the funeral-pyre.

Seiss finishes by saying, "The whole series of these names thus runs parallel with the signs of the Solar Zodiac, and ends up precisely in the same way, proving that they are of a piece with it." A last reminder for those who may have lost track. The Chinese had these Mansions, with their names long before the other cultures of history. This Lunar Zodiac wasn't the product of some group of star gazers corrupting an existing Solar Zodiac. Amazing. But that's God. Go where you will. Study any Truth. There He is.


I couldn't end this page without including some background. In Seiss' book, "The Gospel in the Stars," he establishes, through many references, the antiquity of the Zodiac. In fact, he makes it abundantly clear that there can be no mistaking that the Zodiac came from antediluvian times. A science like astronomy doesn't appear full-blown as it seems to have done for the ancient Sumerians about 3000 BC. Then where did the Zodiac originate? With Adam, a great intellect.

See if all this doesn't make perfect sense. "Adam from the first was in perfect fellowship with the Divine Intelligence, and knew all things that came before him by an intuitive divine insight into their whole nature and intention. He needed no instructors, for the light of God shone clear and unclouded upon his soul. His whole being was in most thorough accord with God and with the mind of God, for he was the complete image of God. His wisdom and knowledge were necessarily higher by far than that of any other mere man that ever lived. Even Peter Bale agrees that it is not contrary to the analogy of faith nor to probability, and very proper to the narrative in Genesis, to believe that Adam came out of the hands of his Creator indued with innate science, and he did not lose it by sin as the bad angels are not less knowing since their fall, and as crimes of learned persons do not deprive them of the knowledge they enjoyed before. He also passes it as determined that the speculative understanding of the first man was endowed with all the philosophical and mathematical knowledge of which human nature is naturally capable. "Gale gives it as made out from the Mosaic record that Adam without all peradventure was the greatest amongst mere mortals that ever the world possessed, exactly prying into the very natures of things, and there contemplating those glorious ideas and characters of created light and order which the uncreated Light and Divine Wisdom had impressed thereon; and thence he could immediately collect and form the same into a complete system and body of philosophy, as also most methodically branch forth the same into the particular sciences. Hornius argues that 'Adam, being constituted in this theatre of the universe, was ignorant of nothing that pertained to the mystery of Nature.' "It is also a matter of inspired record that God gave to Adam special revelations. After his fall Jehovah made known to him His purposes concerning the Serpent and it's seed and the woman and her Seed. The whole Gospel revelation and promise was therein included, and was given to him, not for himself alone, but to be made known to all his posterity as the great and only hope of man. "What Adam knew, Seth would thus also know, and so would Enoch. And living contemporaneously together for more than two, three, or five ordinary lifetimes, there was the sublimest opportunity for them to observe, construct, and mature just such a system as astronomy presents, inwoven as it is with all the great facts, features, and hopes embraced in the promised redemption by the Seed of the woman. In fact, it was the one great and only opportunity in the history of our race for such an accomplishment. "And what Adam and his believing children did not know simply as men, they would still know as prophets, which they certainly were. "Under God, they were the great founders of the world, and were fully alive to the fact. They were the great appointed teachers of the world from the very nature of the case. They were the first great prophets of the world, the original recipients of the revelation of God's purposes of redemption through the promised Seed of the woman, and as such were under bonds to make known the facts, explain their import, and use every means of recording and transmitting to all men the knowledge of them. They lived nearly a

thousand years, and so had ample time for observation, study, and thorough elaboration to bring the work to finished perfection before being required to leave it. And over them were the virgin stars, only waiting to be named and grouped, and hung with the records and symbols of the precious treasures of promise and prophecy on which the world's hopes depended, that they might become the everlasting witnesses to men of the Godgiven faith and hope which shone in the serene imaginations of these great grand fathers of all sacred prophets. Nor can I see why a single shade of doubt should linger in our minds that these verily were the men who drew these celestial hieroglyphics, named and grouped the stars, laid out the Zodiacs and their signs, and made the heavens a picturegallery for all the world, the first and greatest that ever was made, that there mankind might gaze and read the wondrous story of the promised Redeemer, the redemption, and the redeemed. "And this, and this only, will account for the sacred reverence in which all the ancient peoples held these starry emblems, and even fell to worshipping them and ascribing to them all sorts of divine and prophetic virtues." One last point of confirmation. Josephus says that the sons of Seth, knowing of the worldwide destruction to come, made two monuments to preserve knowledge, one of which still existed in his day. Maybe some of you have noticed that Enoch was taken from mankind at the age of 365. Not as Elijah, in the fiery chariot. Where did he go, this "first great scribe of God," who was shown all things celestial? God could have surely used such a man to administer the building of such a Monument to Knowledge. The interior passages of the Great Pyramid also tell the story of the Redeemer and His People as they travel through the pages of history. Why, concerning God's people, the Israelites, the dates of the world's major revolutions, first World War, even the Great Depression are detailed there. If the Zodiac is the Bible in the stars, the Great Pyramid is in the Bible in stone.

Glasbury Tor

Around the town of Glastonbury, England, where Jesus spent time as a youth, and where Joseph of Arimathea, Jesus' uncle, founded the Christian Church of England in 37 AD, there is built into the landscape a huge Zodiac. This was only discovered in recent times. Copious evidence of prehistoric interference with the landscape can by seen on every side; there were obviously early and important settlements here. There is hardly a hill that has not been terraced or fortified; tumuli and other earthworks abound. The Tor, seen above, already impressive enough, has been laboriously terraced into something reminiscent of a Chaldean Ziggurat, or a step-pyramid. Its influence on the whole area is hypnotic; it is a constant reminder of eternity -- a gnarled prophetic finger pointing to another and disturbing dimension. Impossible to resist its imperial bidding for long, it impels us to ascend and contemplate wider horizons. The Glastonbury Zodiac is the earthly counterpart of the Caer Sidi of the Celts, a great Star-Temple, reflecting in its natural contours and streams the Zodiac in the heavens. So accurately indeed does it mirror the heavenly pattern that the stars of the Zodiac fit over its earthly effigies when the planisphere is scaled to the map of Avalon. Description of the Zodiac That this antiquity has lain so long forgotten is due, paradoxically, to its immense size. It is literally too big to be seen. These giant figures - one of them is five miles across - lie stretched over the Vale of Avalon in a great circle ten miles in diameter. Glastonbury Tor

is it's northern sighting point; Somerton and Lyte's Cary bound it on the south. The effigies are formed and outlined by hills, contours, earthworks, roads, paths, ancient field boundaries, and by natural and artificial waterways. They consist of the twelve signs of the Zodiac in their correct order, with a thirteenth figure, the largest of all, lying outside the circle to the southwest. This is the great dog of Langport, who guards the sacred abode of Annwn, just as Cerberus guarded the gates of Hades. The Glastonbury Zodiac

Sole credit for discovering the Glastonbury Giants belongs to Katharine Maltwood. In 1927 she was asked to draw an itinerary of the Grail-Quest in Avalon for "The High History of the Holy Grail," a Norman-French manuscript newly translated into English. Studying its text, which purports to have been written at Glastonbury Abbey, she found that the castles and adventures of the knights accurately corresponded to places in the Vale of Avalon. Following their encounters with dragons, giants, lions and other

alarming fauna on the map, she was amazed to find that she too was confronted by a huge lion, its underside accurately drawn by the river Cary from Somerton to Lyte's Cary; its back traced by an ancient road, Somerton Lane. A geographical giant revealed itself next, contoured by Dundon and Lollover Hills. An astrologer friend with whom she discussed these strange finds suggested from their relative positions that they might be Leo and Gemini of the Zodiac - and it was not long before the whole consort of Glastonbury Giants was restored, after centuries of oblivion. Who made it? When? And why? There can be no doubt that this Zodiac, in essence, is natural. Its huge figures, moulded by hills and lesser contours, part-outlined by rivers and streams whose course is determined by them - the whole complex measuring some ten or twelve miles across, thirty miles around, can hardly be the unaided work of man. No, it was modelled by a vaster hand; whether we like to call it Nature, Cosmic Forces, or simply God. So the question "Who made the Zodiac?" must it seems have a dual answer; it was made by Nature in the first place, and continued by man - because, as Kipling would say, "He Had To." He is still at it, quite unconsciously, for the Zodiac can be seen in 20th century maps perhaps more clearly than in the past; the paths are widening into motor roads, and some roads are becoming dual carriage-ways. Yet this is not to say that the design was unknown, unrecognized. There is indeed much evidence in early writings to show that it was known. The second question "When was it made?" must then take us back to the geological ages when the hills were first formed and the streams first began to flow. But this was only the beginning; its continuous development embraces all the ages of man down to the present day. The third question, "Why was it made?" has already been answered by Dunstan's biographer with commendable succinctness. It was prepared, he tells us, for the salvation of mankind. What a flavor of infinity there is about all these answers! We come to it in our usual state of partial consciousness, expecting a clear yes or no, and get both yes and no at once. This in itself is a hint that we are in touch with infinity.