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Historical atlas of India, for the

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HISTORICAL ATLAS
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INDIA
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To illustrate the Four Mysore Wars. in the 6 th 5. 3. Dominions in 1780 A. ('. 20. 1856 A. D. India in 14. India in 350 A. The Empire of the th White Huns Century A. India in 25. D. D. India in 13. 15. 1848 A. \ . India in 1805 A. 4. D. 1823 A. D.CONTENTS. India in 1751 A. India in 24. 1398 A. India in 1525 A. India in 250 B. D. 16. 21. D. To illustrate the The Indian Empire 1907 A. D. 1700 A. 1784 A. 10. D. D. 1605 A. D. 1. Map I Map Alexander's Empire 326 B. D. D. D. To illustrate the Wars between the English and French in the Carnatic. India in 11. Hyder's 19. 17. of 12. C. 7. D. India in 1022 A. D. 23. India in 1318 A. D.D. India in 1236 A. The Growth British in Bengal and Assam. India in 1795 A. 6. India in the 7 Century A. India in the 2 nd Century A. Mysore. 18. India in 22. D. 1704 A. the Dominions of Chick Deo Raja Wadeyar. D. 26. 2. D. Early Mahrarta History.

Bombay. Fort. this S. J have thought it best for the present to push on with the publication of the maps. of India. Meanwhile it will be a profitable exercise for students to draw up such comparative tables It greatly increased for themselves. In particular do I wish express my gratitude to the Eev. M. towns. E. Nelson Fraser. for has been thought desirable not to mar the clearness of the maps by overcrowding them with names of secondary or local importance. J. B. which allows. Mr. J. but are as correct as the available information unascertainable frontiers strictly Indefinite or are generally a straight dotted The notes given are explanatory of the maps and are thus for the most part etc. On the its other hand the maps presuppose an districts. Hence names states it of towns and forts familiar to antiquarians or those of minor which do not come within the scope of general history have been passed over. D. line. J. Charles Joppen. J. with information where required. Xavier's High School. "W. but to provide a general conspectus of Indian history chiefly for the use of School and College students. Madras. . While endorsing his opinion. September 1907. and supply. S. S. Sewell. Hull. St. it is not to the duty of an historical atlas to The boundary suggested by lines naturally cannot claim be mathematically accurate. The purpose of this atlas is not to furnish a set of detailed maps for the use of mature scholars. Broel. accompany the and the Eev. mountain ranges. confined to describing territorial changes The sources quoted will supply the student. was suggested by Principal J.PREFACE. for the careful revision of the Notes that for revising the proofs. to J. A. and S. elementary knowledge of the Geography.. hoping to carry out this useful idea in a subsequent edition. In conclusion I desire to acknowledge the kind interest shown in the work and the many useful suggestions offered by the Eev. W. and many friends and wellwishers both in Trichinopoly. Nelson Fraser that the utility of the work would be by the addition of charts or comparative tables showing the different dynasties. town and atlas in Calcutta. J.

farther. was defeated and captured. 7 ) The exact Op. and large tracts of land which are now sterile were then fertile fields 2). after a successful campaign. India in 250 B. probably at Ohind.but also to cede the provinces of Paropanisadai. — 2 ) lb is . C. had made himself king of western and central Asia. 54. Ohandragupta. The leader in this struggle for liberty was Prince Ohandragupta. the conqueror reluctantly gave orders for a retreat. he formed a fleet. and probably Gredrosia Thus the Hindu Kush mountains became the frontier of the first Indian Empire. This represents the empire of Alexander the Great. A. Taxiles of Taxila 6 ). chapter V. all map took Egypt and — . i Di] p. cit. king of the country between Hydaspes and Arcesines. and all Sindh. Arachosia. In 326. C. In the battle of the Hydaspes. his son Bindusura (f 2. Ohandragupta died in 297 B. C. he crossed the Indus. p. C. had already submitted before Alexander's arrival. oil. and was succeeded by Its capital was Pataliputra (now Patna). he arrived at Patala 7).. (see maps 1 and 2). C. — 3 ) lb. Op. who from the Persians western Asia as far as the river Indus.1. 33. northwest of the modern Rawalpindi.) his vast empire was broken up. all his garrisons. having joined Hephaistion. while his admiral Nearchus sailed through the Persian Gulf to the mouth of the Euphrates (dotted red line). From Mkaia. But on the banks of the Hyphasis. Northwards his dominions stretched to the foot of the Himalayas and seem to have comprised the districts *round Srinagar (which was built by him) and the territory round Lalita Patan in Nepal. but subsequently founder of the Mauryan dynasty of Magadha. Aria. his dominions extending from the Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea and reaching southwards probably as far as the Narbada. the renowned Asoka ) (272 Asoka's Empire extended in the northwest to the Hindu Kush. 8 232). 1 of the mod- . he banks. 43. The course of his march (B. (323 B. 32. p. Porus. but was allowed to retain his country as a vassal. p. 44. The map shows the present courses of the rivers. two and a half miles — i) V. C. while the Punjab and Sindh were ruled by numerous native chiefs 1 ). one of Alexander's generals. forced him not only to give up all thought of conquest in India. then an exile from Pataliputra. The Persian king Darius had annexed the Indus valley about the year 500 B.72 B. Alexander seeins but to when.) and his grandson. 16 miles above the modern Attock 5 ). advanced in 327 B. the greater part of Baluchistan. C. on the eastern bank of that river..in. — town this 8 ) for Probably it was 6 miles west para compare Smith. India were destroyed or driven back. while Alexander himself marched through the hilly country north of that stream to protect his army from attacks on the flank and rear and to secure' his communications 4 ).. — of India. through the valley of the Kabul river. p. himself marched back through Gredrosia and arrived at Susa in April or May 324. C. disputed. Having explored the western and eastern branch of the Indus. 95. Early History 6) p_ 52. finding his troops unwilling to proceed Retracing his steps to the Hydaspes. C. one of Alexander's generals. king of Macedon. p. Seleucus. 1 2. Smith. See Smith. west of the modern Jellalabad 3) Hephaistion. The Arcesines and Hydraotes were next crossed. Alexander's Empire in 326 B.. and at Alexander's time the Indus was the boundary between the Persian Empire and India. the larger portion being on the eastern side. as the ancient ones cannot be ascertained with certainty. 327 324) is shown by the red line and its direction by the accompanying arrows. The course of the Punjab rivers then differed from their present one. — 5) lb. and included most of the territory now called Afghanistan. But in 305 B. He seems to have been the first supreme sovereign of Hindustan. — 4 ) lb. position of this ern Mansurya. after his deatli have intended a permanent annexation of the Indus valley and the Punjab. and sailed down the river accompanied by contingents of his army on both After numerous fights with the tribes on both banks.

the third of the Kushan dynasty. kings at this time was Paithan on the Godaveri. Op. C. wards the west Kanishka's Empire reached to the Persian frontier. 3. 219. C. probably including Magadha (c. and The middle of the 4 th century reveals two other their empires were broken up into minor states. the Kabul valley. which are scattered all over India and tell us much of his principles of government and of his ethical systehi. pp. a Dra vidian people. and the Punjab were ruled by Greek and Parthian rulers. D. and Chera remained independent. C. 6 ) India in 350 A. one of the satraps. IX. The Andhra nation.. The northern and western boundaries of Andhra can thus The capital of the Andhra be fixed. however. period quoted on p. Embracing Buddhism. he had conquered established themselves in Sindh and Surashtra (the He ruled over the whole of northwestern India probably as far Kashgar. 143. *) For the whole of this chapter com>) Smith.. The Andhra kingdom. The southern frontier of the empire must have coincided closely with the 13 th degree of northern latitude. D. chapters VIII. Asoka is noted for his rock. and Khotan. In the east. The Dekkan had already been conquered either by Chandragupta or by Bindusura 2 ). The rest of India was at this time ruled by smaller Hindu rajas. In the beginning of the 3 ld century the Kushan and Andhra dynasties became extinct. he became active in its propagation. until they were overthrown by the Yueh-chi (Turlri nomads). cit. cit. 4 ) India in the second Century A. the strip of country extending along the coast of the Bay of Bengal from the Mahanadi to the Godavari) was subjugated in 261 B. D. they formed of time became a settled nation. but seems to have been a protected state. who in course Under Kanishka. 2 lb. 131. He acceded about 120 A. they rapidly extended their power to the Soon after Asoka's sources of the Godavari and soon stretched right across the peninsula from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. The hill tribes within the limits of the empire seem also to have enjoyed a certain amount of insoutheast of dependence !). Kalinga and Andhra were among the first to acquire independence. Malwa. and the Konkan became independent under Rudradaman. Sindh. 164. modern Kathiawar). After Asoka's death Sogdiana. The whole of Bengal acknowledged his sway.. coming from Grecian kingdoms in the northwest of India) and the Palavas (Parthians from Persia). In 145 A. After Asoka's death. ) — — — — — . cit. but also to Syria. 247—248. 5) and was a Buddhist. By the beginning of the 2 nd century A. Satiya. C). *). e. Op. had by this time settled in western India as rulers over the native population.. p. and Macedonia 3 ). occupied in Chandragupta's time the deltas of the Godavari and Krishna (see map 2). hordes of Sakas. was administered by its own raja. 3 lb. all these became subject to the Andhra kings. 255—256. Surashtra. t death (232 B. Kathmandu (also built by him). pp. Toa mighty power. dispatching missionaries not only over the whole of his empire. Yarkand. between the Godavari and the Krishna.. 27 B. Pandya. and waged a successful war even against the then powerful Chinese Empire. cit.. Western Satraps. Cutch. The Satrap Rudrasena and of the of the Guptas and that empires. and their chiefs assumed Other foreigners also the Tavanas (Asiatic Greeks or others the ancient Persian title of « satrap*. Egypt. About the middle of the 2 nd century B. p.and pillar-edicts. 142. Baktria. Op. while towards the east and south they remain problematical. also his paper on the Kushan pare Smith..) his empire broke up and his descendants seem to have retained only Magadha and the neighbouring provinces. pp. The southern Tamil kingdoms of Chola. X.HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. 224 and 225. Op. Northwards the boundaries of his dominions are not clearly defined. 4. ) ) 5 Smith. as the Jumna and the Chambal. a pastoral tribe from the Jaxartes. D. The capital of his empire was Parushapura (the modern Peshawar). D. that mighty the Gupta Samudragupta were contemporaries. ) 6 Smith. and the kingdom of Kalinga (i.

however. 1 ) The Empire of the White Huns in the VI.. India was. His first attack was directed against South Eosalla and the valley of the Mahanadi. Century A. This information about Samudragupta is wholly derived from the inscriptions on a stone pillar states still standing in the fort of Allahabad. At the beginning of the 6 th century the Indian dominions of the Huns were ruled by Mihiragula whose capital was at Sakala in the Punjab. cit. and the Oxus valley and other countries occupied by the Huns were then annexed by the Turks. D. Samudra-gupta's dominions extended from the Hugli to the Jumna and Chambal. when Harsha (606 a 35 years' war. while moving westwards from the steppes of Asia to in the second growing numbers. however. the Pallava king of Kanchi (now Conjeeveram). 2 ) India in the VII. this en- i) Smith. The one advancing into Europe was united subsequently under the terrible The latter section. . 395) the kingdom of the Sakas or "Western Satraps was overthrown by the Guptas. but achieved no permanent conquest. while Pulikesin II. the 4 th century for their Mihiragula. after ginning of the 7 th century. the greatest of the — v Chalukya dynasty was the leading sovereign in the south. D. overthrew the (Kushan) kingdom of Kabul and thence poured into India. Samudragupta organised a great campaign in the south of India.. took the hillforts of Mahendragiri and Kottura in Ganjam. Op. — 2 ) lb. divided themselves into two main streams. The result of counter was that Harsha was forded to accept the Narbada river as his southern frontier. and other smaller were tributary to him. returning through the western parts of the Dekkan he subdued Devarashtra (probably the Mahratta country) and Erandapalla (Khandesh). and Valabhi and other kingdoms must have been tributary to seek subsistence . overthrew the "White Hun Empire. The Gupta dynasty. About the year 528 Mihiragula was defeated by a confederacy of Hindu princes under the Between the years 560 and 570 the Persians. chapter XII. into the Towards the end Gupta Empire. Then. originally king of Thaneswar. still retained possession of Magadha and the eastern provinces. half of a Mongol tribe. Century A. The Gupta dynasty came into existence at the beginning of the 4th century A. defeated the king of Yengi. The Hunnish overlord levied tribute from forty countries extending from as a secondary capital. About the "White Huns. whose empire then extended from the Ganges delta to the Indus valley and the Arabian Sea. and the Pallava king of Palakha (now Palghatcherry). D. 500 they overwhelmed the kingdom of Gandhara (Peshawar) and overthrew the the year Gupta Empire. After the overthrow of the White Huns no supreme power existed in India until the be647 or 648). conquered Pishtapura (now Pithapuram). Kamarupa (the present Assam). after which he subdued the forest countries of Orissa.. became the lord paramount of the north. known as Attila. D. Towards the close of the 4 th century (A. The Huns. leadership of 6. chapter XII. then ruled by a Hunnish prince. The Gupta Empire subsisted till the end of the 5 m century when it was destroyed by the "White Huns or Ephthalites. This campaign is of interest. About 620 the armies of the northern and southern empires met. allied with the king of Magadha. XV. because its records reveal the political state of affairs in the south. and from the Himalayas to the Narbada. Malwa was the frontiers of Persia in the west to Khotan on the borders of China in the east. Turkish tribes. however. while the other directed its course towards the Oxus valley. The clans in northern Eajputana were under his protection. XIII. while Balkh served them empire. only a province of the The headquarters of the horde were at Bamyin (near Herat). Samatata (in the Granges delta).HISTOKICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. of the 4 ft century the territories of the Western Satraps were incorporated 5.

322. Muttra on the Jumna. at this time. A Student's Manual of the History of India. p.. map shows Slave kings. ) ) >) — Paramara (1010—1053) who had — — — — — — — — . the rajas of Bhatia. His son Eajendra Choladeva (1011 1052) extended his father's dominions as far as Orissa and Bengal. pp. In 1022 the Afghan Mohammadans gained a permanent footing in India when Mahmud of Ghazni wrested the kingdom of Lahore from Jeipal II. He thus became the Lord linga to his dominions and in 1005 went so far as to annex Ceylon. India in the 1022 A. The Ckalukya dynasty rose into importance in the middle of the 6 th century. 317). They seem to have been Eajputs from the north imposing their rule on the Dravidian inhabitants of the Dekkan. 71. (the modern Hadami). r^Paramount of Southern India 5 ) ruling^ over nearly the whole of what is now the Madras Presidency. This India in 1236 A. while the kings of Kamarupa (Assam). cit. of the 10 th and the beginning foreign In 992 Sabaktigin. p. ) His capital was Tanjore. 313.HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. was free from foreign invasion till the beginning of the 11 th century.. The Hoisala or Bellals seem at this time to have occupied western Mysore and Malabar and Their capital was Dwara Samudra. 338. and a large part of Mysore 6 ). and maintained a powerful navy 7). 331. D. the raja of Lahore at Peshawar (1001). and Ajmere in the decisive battle at Peshawar (1008). 10 Smith. 5 4 The walls of the great temple of that town. Thaneswar. 7.the Great (985 1011) overthrew the Pallavas of jSnchi and conquered the kingdom of Yengi. 8. By this time Kalinga had been depopulated and was for the most part covered with jungle. Multan. In the west the independent kingdom of Sindh was ruled by Icings of the Sudra caste. Delhi. the greatest of the of Hindustan was kept by him in various degrees of subordination rang- ing from complete subjection to partial dependence.. Kalinjar (Jejakabukti). 6 Smith. Malwa 2 ).restored the Chalukya kingdom and recovered most of the territory of the former dynasty.. Op. 648) India became once more a medley of petty states. except for the merely local incursion of the Arabs into Sindh. the modern to have supplanted the ancient Chera dynasty 9 ). cit. The whole the divisions of India at the death of Altamsh (1236).. Valabhi (in Kathiawar). p.. but. 345). — — Halebidi"). Op. 346. The ancient Pandia kingdom was most probably tributary to the Cholas 8 ). p. 326. and the Punjab and Multan formed one kingdom. and victory inclined now to one side now to the other. The Pallavas. — — Chedi» 3). and/ shrines he acquired the name of the «idol breaker* Somnath in Gujerat The extensive region to the south of Bundelkhand «whieh is now under the administration of the Chief Commissioner of ithe Central Provinces nearly corresponds with the old kingdom of At the end invaders. p. At that time Hindustan was ruled by many independent kings. cit. After Harsha's death (c. At the end of his reign Harsha held sway over the whole of the Gangetie plain from the Himalayas to the Narbada. Op. But Mohammad Ghazni defeated all the most important of them: Jeipal.. ) lb. 9 Meadows Taylor. p. but the Pallavas of Kanchi struggled eagerly for their liberty. D. 357. if we briefly sketch the historical events 2 Elphinstone. 345. ) ) are inscribed with the story of his victories (Smith. ) p. Rajaraj&. Op. 7 lb. Their capital was at Yatapi. of the ll*11 century India was again disturbed by founder of the House of Ghazni in Afghanistan took possession of the country as far as the Indus 1 ). pp. but about the year 973 a scion of the old royal house . and the united army of the kings of Gwalior. by the famous Bhoja *) Smith. Kanauj. his capital at Dhnra (See Smith. cit. The capital of this kingdom was Kalyani 4 ). built at his command 328. 8 lb. were driven from their homes by the Chalukyas. Vth ed. and Nepal were his vassals. ) Malwa was ruled.. between the Krishna and Godaveri (see map 4). It will serve to make the map better understood in Hindustan clown to this date. In the Dekkan the ancient Chalukya dynasty had been destroyed in the middle of the 8 th century. thus putting an end to He added Kathe independence of the Pallavas which had lasted for more than eight centuries. History of India. p. Ceylon. By plundering the Hinduv especially those at Nagarkot in the Himalayas. In the south the Chola rajas had risen into importance.

. conquered MalaIn the same year a revolt led by Harapala. 2 The Sumera (Sam-ma) Sindh was ruled by the Sumera elan of Eajputs (Meadows Taylor. The House Ghor. ) ) lb. 331. «) Smith.. These two were united — under one and the Baghilas of Ghrjerat 1 ). He also asserted his sovereignty over Behar and Bengal and reduced Eanthambor in Eajputana. cit. and reduced the whole of the eastern territory 12 ). ) 17 R.HISTOEICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. In the same year Eamachandra ef Deogarh once more sub-. cit. In the following year Muhammad defeated Jaichand. 396. His son in -law -and successor Altamsh (in 1225) obtained Sindh. 76. cit. For. The mosque was erected on the Malabar coast. ) driven from Sindh went over to Cutch and conquered that country (Bombay Gazetteer. Telingana was ruled by the Narupati dynasty whose capital was Warangal 7). took the In 1312 Malik Kafur put the raja prisoner. Op. Prom 1309 took his famous Dekkan campaign. dows Taylor. In 1309 the raja of Warangal made his submission and undertook to pay a permanent tribute 12). Mandu and Ujjain in Malwa (1226 1232) 3 ). 396.. Yadava raja to death and compelled the princes of Maharashtra and Karnata to pay tribute 14 ). cit. after flourishing for about 150 years.. p. and in the same and the following years Somnath and Sorath. After the death of Muhammad Ghori. v — The Bellals were still ruling in the south and had become very powerful 4 ). was suppressed. India in 1318 A. The four successors . Kutb ud Dien became independent ruler of India. *) Rajputs — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ^ . ) ) 15 lb. ) p. . Smjth. but at enmity with the Eathors disastrous to of Kanauj The result of this dissension was both parties. the eastern^ part of the Kathiawar peninsula. In 1196 he took Kalinjar. Op.. Jhalor and 1311 Malik Kafur. and perhaps the extreme south 17 ) of the peninsula alone retained their independence. Ajmere by that of Chouhan. p. p. raja Prithvi. In 1318 Khusru Khan. Behar and Bengal (capital Gaur) were reduced about the same time. Op. p. D. may be the place in question.. 359—375. and contention that Malik Kafur erected a mosque at Rameswaram. invaded the Dekkan in 1294 and forced Eamachandra."' to cede Ellichpur 8). mitted to Malik Kafur 13 ). pp. the first Khilji ruler (1290 1295). 332. 400. p. at Chadrawar (near Etava). 284. 12 lb. Thus the power Orissa in ef the Muhammadans was in felt the east. Sewell in «A Forgotten Empires (p. The Chalukya dynasty had come to an end about 1190 and their territory had been annexed by the Bellals in the south and by the Tadavas in the north 6 ).. another of Muhammad Ghori's generals. pp. Cutch. p. and bar 15 ). In the following year (1195) Gwalior was taken. Upon tins the greater part of the Eathor clan retreated from Kanauj and founded the principality of Marwar.. 397. and the dynasty of the Slave kings (1206—1290) had given way to that of the Khiljis (1290—1320). p. — — Harapala was flayed alive 16 ). south of Goa. The vigorous and talented Alia ud Dien. Op. Kashmir in the north. 132). though Muhammad Ghori was defeated by Prithvi in the battle of Thaneswar (1191). 42) corrects the erroneous 16) lb. the last of the Yadavas. slew him. Smith. Op. 156). invaded Gujerat Or Anhalwara. p. Op. In 1310 this general invaded the Belial (or Hoysala) kingdom. cit. p. u) Elphinstone. were reduced 9 ). 9. 73. In 1303 Chitor 10) was taken after a brave defence. 10 Founded after the Muhammadan conquest by the raja of Ayodhya (Oudh).. and annexed his dominions. took the capital. Pandia was recovering its independence 6). p. 332. but could not secure possession of the country. cit. and Kutb ud Dien. had been overthrown by the family of Muhammad of Ghor (1186—1206) decided to conquer Hindustan which was then held by Eajput (See map 7): Delhi by the clan of Tomara. 286. while Cutch and the northwestern part of Kathiawar preserved their independence.. Cutch and Junagarh the west. the Eathor raja of Kanauj. ) Op. the Yadava raja of Deogarh. 331. underSiwana were reduced in 1309 11 ).The Chola kingdom had in the 13 th century lost much of its former splendour 6). the last Khilji. 401. nephew of Jalal ud Dien. he suggests that Cape Ramas. pp. ) Elphinstone. took Benares and Kanauj. 347. 287. cit. p. ) Mea8 V) Bombay Gazetteer. p. °) lb. 330. he utterly routed the Rajput in the battle of Thaneswar (1193). p. throughout India.. In 1297 he finally subjugated Anhalwara (or Gujerat) whose raja had reasserted his independence.. which had been conquered from the Sumera Eajputs 2) by Nazir ud Dien. 3) Elphinstone. clans of Ghazni. Muhammad's Indian governor. About a century later (1318) the whole of India lay subject to the Mohammad an Afghans or Pathans in various degrees of dependency. a converted Hindu and general of Mubarak. Kathiawar.of Altamsh had made no political acquisitions. Alia ud Dien's general. and added the territories of the defeated prince to his own. lr Elphinstone. 7 4 5 Smith.

About 1344 the kings of Telingana. p. 4a. Malwa (capital Mandu). Dwarasamudra. p. ) Ferishta (Scott. pp. with its capital bearing the same name 6 ). it was already doomed to dissolution. (1379 9 7) lb.. 157. slaughtering the inhabitants of every town he passed. In 1398 Bahmini. ) Hariharsha II. pendent under Hindu chiefs. About 1398 Goa and Dharwar and the surrounding districts belonged to Vijayanagar 7 ). cit. Telingana became independent in 1340. I0 Meadows Taylor. 49. was joined on the Sutlej by Pir Muhammad. 13 The site of Dinkot is uncertain. In Orissa also an independent Hindu dynasty was in power. Tamerlane himself left Kabul in August 1398. took Adjudin. *f lb. I. the frontier towards Gondwana ran either along the Wardha or the Wainganga river. burst upon the remaining portion of the Afghan Empire. cit. 0) E. South of the Krishna and Tungabhadra the princes of Vijayanagar reigned supreme. Tribute. whose first ruler was Hassan Gango Bahmini. 12 lb. publicly proclaimed v Gujerat. "While India was thus divided into many kingdoms weakening each other by incessant war. ) Ferishta (Seott I. note 21). 10. Large though the Afghan Empire was in 1318. p. pp. the cruel v 3 2 Op. 79—81). Transoxonia. Sewell. 157.HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. and other states of Central Asia. especially in the south was given only when' exacted by the emperor or his generals at the head of an army. Jaunpur threw off its allegiance in 1394. They paid tribute to Delhi til] 1450 when they declared their independence 10).Indian world. marched to the Jhelum and down its banks to Talamba. 45. 46. p. ") lb. Bhatnair.. and the same applies to the kingdoms of Khandesh and Malwa 1 ).the ports of Ohaule and Dabul were the doors of communication between this kingdom and the non. p. wo had unified the Moghid hordes' and conquered Persia. while all the chiefs of southern India from the banks of the Krishna and Tungabhadra submitted to the sway of the raja of Anagundi a small state which in less than a century grew into the mighty empire 5) of Vijayanagar. Delhi surrendered... p. 52. and Tamerlane was the Emperor fled to fare. as given in the map. while Mudgal and Raichur were then in the hands of the Bah- — mini Sultan 8 ). pp. then governed by the famous and mighty JFiroze Shah Bahmini (1397 1422) extended itself over the western part of Telingana 2 ). India in 1398 A. and Bengal (capital Gaur) were under Afghan sultans. not been conquered by the sword of the Mahammadans and retained its independence. and wily Tamerlane. the rulingThe western part of Kathiawar and Cutch were still indedynasty since 1326 were Moslems 12). 147. Sewell. Op.. The tribes of Gondwana were united under one Nersingh of Kherla who in 1398 and 1399 was at war with Bahmini and agreed to pay tribute 9 ). 48). Op. 69).. The most powerful of these states were Bahmini and Vijayanagar. The vanguard of the Moghul host under Pir Muhammad took Multan and Talamba. The rich plain bounded by the Krishna and Tungabhadra rivers was an object of contention between Bahmini and Vijayanagar. ) Meadows Taylor. are only problematicand passim. Gujerat (capital Patau). Khandesh (capital Thalner). 161 ') Elphin. A number of dissatisfied Moghul nobles founded in 1347 the kingdom of Bahmini in the Dekkan. p. Bengal and . Two causes mainly brought about its downfall: the inroads of the Moghuls from the northwest and the want of cohesion among provinces which had yielded only an imperfect submission. and Samana. ) ) ) Most probably it is south of the Salt Range (see Elphinstone. al. the petty rajas of the Konkan being independent: . Op. Anagundi. Sindh was ruled by the Jam family of Sumera Rajputs who about the end of the 14 th century embraced the Muhammadan faith. Mahmucl Tuglak (1394—1412).. Ghyas ud Dien Tughlak (1320 1325) strengthened the frontiers against the Moghuls and reduced Warangal and Bednor once more. p. and its strong fortresses Raichur and Mudgal were held alternately by — — either party 3 ).stone. — — — — — — — — — — — — — . D. Berar was its most northerly province. 414. 406—414. and other Hindu princes of the south formed a league to stem the tide of Muhammadan invasion and to preserve or acquire independence. p. Of these Telingana remained independent 4 ). on the west the Ghauts formed the boundary.. 4 Its boundaries in 1398 against Bahmini and Gondwana. crossed the Indus at Dinkot 13 ). eit. Jaunpur (capital of the same name). But under his unfortunate if not mad son Muhammad Tughlak and his still more uncapable successors province after province was lost. The upper Tapti valley was in the possession of the Though Kashmir had descendants of the ancient cowherd kings who were then independent 11 ). Gujerat became practically independent in 1394. cit. ) 5 1399) assumed imperial titles calling himself « Maharajadiraja* (R.

p. cit. on the west a time neither of Delhi.. U. Golconda included the country between the lower Krishna and the lower and upper Godaveri rivers and an undefined tract north east of the Godavari. when it was annexed to the Bijapur was ruled by the Adil Shahi dynasty from 1489 Ahmadnagar state. Ahmadnagar comprised the western part of Berar. and from the Bima in the east to the seacoast from Goa to Bombay in the west 15 ). p. 5 *) Meadows Taylor.» than a compact monarchy. The northern boundaries of Telingana towards Orissa are not exactly known. At the time of Baber's. who had occupied the whole of the Punjab. Sanga also held the eastern Elphinstone. „ Bijapur extended from the The limits of these states may roughly be given as follows: Nira river in the north to the Krishna in the south. and Jabalpur in the Narbada valley. while in the west Daulat Khan Lodi. 417—421. the subah 16 of Aurangabad. Malik Nasir of Khandesh in 1399 captured Asirgarh and built the strong forts of Zainabad and Burhanpur 8 )..HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. from India. oit.. — — — — . ) 7 Meadows Taylor. e. pp. was in 1526 annexed to Gujerat 4 ). u) The capital Ahmadnagar was founded by Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1490 (see Meadows Taylor. — — — — — — — — — • — — — — — — — — f 1 3 *) lb. when it was annexed by Aurangzib.. rose in arms against his sovereign. At the end of the 15 th century the Bahmini kingdom shared the fate of so many Indian^ kingdoms and was broken up into 5 smaller sultanates: At Ahmadabad Bidar the last representatives of the Bahmini dynasty were mere puppets in the hands of their ministers. cit. oil. In Gondwana Sanyram Sa of Mandla about this time extended. A Textbook of Indian History. the powerful raja of Marwar and Ajmere as their' leader 3 ). IV. 135. Bombay as far as Bhilsa and Chanderi (lb. turned to the south and left India by the same route by which he had entered leaving anarchy. (Scott. The. 431. p. pp. Op. Thus matters stood when Baber invaded India 2 ). pp.. g. and pestilence behind him *). the governor of Lahore. Having plundered and slaughtered the people of Delhi.. Op. the Moghul marched to Meerut. Op. 135.. — — — — ). as represented on map 11. Mandla and Seoni in the Satpura highlands. Berar (capital Gawilgarh) was independent under the Imad Shahi dynasty from 1484 1574. 106). and the Konkan. Berar « extended from the Injadri (or Satpura) mountains to the Godavari. 1687. Cutch. Op. Ratanpur. 244. LXXIV. 16 ls G. and Damoh on the Yindhyan plateau: Hoshangabad. Secander's son Ibrahim (1517/18 1526) disgusted his followers by his pride and cruelty. The old capital had been abandoned and a new one (Ahmadabad) built by Ahmad Shah (1411— 1443) 7). Emperor of India. lb. The Konkan was subdued and Goa taken from Yijayanagar in the years 1469 1472 12). lb. India in After Tamerlane's departure 1525 authority A. 6 Bombay Gazetteer. his kingdom over 52 districts comprising the country now known as Bhopal Sagar. 136. 23. p. for Emperor nor Empire and the last of the line Surrendered his claims to Buhlol Lodi (Emperor 1450 1488). who were the real rulers in the districts round the old capital. D. ) lb. Kathiawar. jaghirs etc. He then marched along the foot of the mountains to Jammu. 431). p.. p. Narsingh.. those of Chatisgarh. pp.. The latter built Ahmadabad Bidar (1426—1432) on the site of an ancient Hindu capital 11 ). I. cit. there was little The Sayids (1414—1450) had — outside Delhi. — . crossed the Ganges and" proceeded up its banks to the foot of the Himalayas. The rest of the country was governed by other independent chiefs. invasion Sindh was in possession of Shah Hussein Arghoon of Multan 9 ). 414—417. p. 158. >) p. and Chanda 10 ). Gazetteer. ) ) !) — part of Malwa — — — — — . ) ) 1( 9 Meadows Taylor. LXXIII. 1686. Nizam Shahi dynasty held sway over Ahmadnagar 14 ) from 1489 1637. The kings of Gujerat had subdued western Kathiawar including Junagarh 5 ) (or Girnar) and Cutch 6 ). Malwa. pp 155—157. The Bajput princes had recovered their independence and acknowledged Sanga. Kbandesli. The Bahmini kingdom attained great power under Firoze Shah (1397 1422) and his brother Ahmed Shah (1422—1435). IV. 11. from Daman to Bombay ). Pope. Intro. 145.. 24. 13 ") i b .. were rather «a congeries of nearly independent principalities. p. when it was incorporated into the Moghul Empire by Aurangzib. famine. That ruler added Jaunpur to his dominions in 1478. 288. though still independent. when its last representative was sent as a state prisoner Golconda was under the Kuteb Shahi dynasty from 1512 to Gwalior. Li 1477 Teligana was reduced 13). Op. In the eastern part of his dominions one Derya Khan Lodi asserted his independence. the Bereeds. Gazetteer. ») Ferishfn. ) 8) Bombay Gazetteer. 168. His successor Secander Lodi (1488 1517/18) reannexed Behar and extended his territories in the direction of Bundelkhand.. 207). Central Provinces. p. but his dominions.

cit. 216]. Baber invaded India and defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat (152. The Portuguese had by this time secured a firm footing in India. ). Malwa 16. Akbar attacked Chitor and forced it to surrender. p. acquired the kingdom possessions.. 761. 201. p... — . 6 Elphinstonc. While the Muhammadan kingdoms of the Dekkan were thus divided. all southern India was still ^uuderthe sway of the king of Vijayanagar (Krishna Deva 1509—1530). *) M. Sewell. when that security failed them. In 1524 Cham Raj Bole either constructed or repaired a fort in the south to which he gave the new name Mahesh Asur. Op. however. and took Agra. At the invitation of Daulat Lodi. occnpied Delhi.HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. Akbar gained over the Rajputs by inducing them to recognise him as their overlord. cit. The surviving princes of the Vijayanagar dynasty retired first to Penaconda 8 ) and. R. Ill. at the time represented by the map. Khandesh. p. cit. 122. his son and successor. Historv of Mvsore. and Ponda on the mainland conquered 6 ). a discontented governor of the Punjab. though they were treated by the Portuguese as kings 2). [E. cit. and Vijayanagar. -"'Baber. — — — — 12. was.to 1555.. In 1510 Groa was taken. Sewell. to Chandragiri 9 ). VIII. The rana of Chitor at first offered him assistance with a view of recovering for himself the ancient Rajput supremacy over Hindustan. in which the Afghan power in Hindustan was for ever broken and the Moghul supremacy established. p. 309.. Malwa. he turned against the invader and marched against him at the head of of Kabul and 1504 prince Baber. ) 7) G. Hist. present raja of Anagundi in the Nizam's dominions is the modern representative of the royal house of Vijayanagar. Humayun fled to Persia. Wilks. the famous Akbar (1556—1605). Op. 215. Op. */In 1556 the 2 nd battle of Panipat was fought. India in In 1605 A. bordered on Ahmadnagar and Khandesh. fleeing to the Aravalli hills. Lahore 3. an Afghan. The chiefs of Seringapatam. U. Berar was annexed by Ahmadnagar in 1572 u ) and Bidar by Bijapur in i529. eit. Tamerlane and Chenghis Khan. 8) Sewell.. now called Mysore. Op. pp. about the middle of the 70° of eastern longitude. Akbar divided his realm into provinces or «subahs» ruled by viceroys or «subahdars». *) R. Sewell. Oudh 7. pp. after 9 years' reign. the rana of Chitor. § 6. But discovering that Baber intended to establish an empire of his own. p. a descendant in 1522 added Kandahar to his but suffered a defeat at Sikri near Agra (1527). 28. brought the whole of Hindustan under his power. the rana. defeated at Baxar by Sher Shah. 2. and encouraged by Sanga. 142. before his death (1530). n) M. — p. a name which figures largely on the pages of subsequent history 4 ). and in 1520 the districts of Salsette. IX.. scorned the idea of acknowledging a suzerain and organized a resistance. But their supremacy had passed away. They sank down to the level of merely local rajas. D. while only a few of them still one after another the chiefs of the South assumed their independence nominally acknowledging the Vijayanagar kings as their overlords 10). and Hindustan came once more under Afghan rulers from 153 9.6). Multan 4. Sindh. Humayun. 22. and at Talicot (1565) fought a decisive battle. Berar — Ajmere 15. on the 1 The boundaries of Bidar towards the east and west were ill defined. who had hitherto been the feudal superior of all the Rajputs. He was bad — 8. Textbook of Ind. and of his feudal lords. — — 9.. but at length they became united against the mighty Hindu supremacy of the South. Books VII. Agra 6. Ghrjerat Ahmadnagar — — — 10. Pope. Gondwana. while The list of Akbar's provinces is the districts were placed in the hands of deputies or «nawabs«.. which was followed by the utter and ruthless destruction of Vijayanagar. Op. 12. won the battle of Sirhind. '} Elphinsto'ne I. troops. But the rana of Chitor. in the possession of Krishna Deva 8). In the following year the of Chanderi was taken. cit. cit. Allahaas follows 7 ): 1. 143. founded Udaipur where he succeeded' in maintaining his independence 6). Bengal 18. 140. and others were his vassals. ) lb. J 10 The ») lb. seems to have been only loosely connected with the Empire.. Taylor. Orissa — — — Behar 17. it cast its limite are uncertain* Calicut. Khandesh — The four Dekkani sultans had hitherto lived in constant warfare among themselves and against the princes of Ghrjerat. 217.' 14. important Rajput fortress In 1555 he invaded India and with the help of Persian succeeded by his son. and the opposition of the Hindus was crushed. — 3 166. p. while Udai Singh. — — — — . Kabul reestablished his authority in Afghanistan. — — 13. Op. Delhi 5. 5 ) — — — — E . Bardez. Kashmir 11. The Raichur Doab was. In the course of his long reign Akbar conquered all Hindustan and extended his empire into the Dekkan. Op.

Daman between 1538 and 1545. 356. ) ) Elphinstone. and Kalyani became frontierprovinces alternately overrun by the troops of the various adjacent states 1 ). Nandial stretching probably as far south as the river Penner.. given to Charles II. 668. R. p. Op. an Abyssinian nobleman.. as Karnul.. Sewell. . and Aurangzib with his degenerated troops was unable to subdue these stalwart warriors. VI. the utmost limits of the Moghul Empire under Aurangzib (1658 1707). VII. Although the English East India Company (founded 1600) had established factories at Surat (1611). 65—60. of the 17 10 in 1510. and the Dekkan. was finally handed over to the English in 1668 ). cit. p. a small mudfort in the Dekkan. Francis Day from SriRanga Rayall. Op. holding his own against the imperial armies. set up a rival prince and governed in his name the remaining territory of the Nizam Shahi dynasty.. In the South the principal strongholds taken possession of were Adoni (Udni). Bijapur at Akbar's time was bounded on the north by the Nira river and (before the southern conquests) extended along the coast from Bankot to Cape Eama. and even then the chief who held it contrived to escape to Shorapur 7 ). but seem to have extended to the Arabian sea. Mulkaid. 634. and Bankapur. 328—329). ) lb. while many chiefs south of the Tungabhadra as far down as Mysore (reduced in 1593) and Malabar (subdued in 1593) became tributary to the Adil Shah 2). all of possessed in 1700. Op. Pope. could only be subdued after the arrival of the emperor himself. Aurangzib conquered Bijapur in 1686.. and. and emperor alike. 2 i) Grant Duff. Sadras. — — — — — — — — — — — — 2 . 3 ) tracts south of the Kistna. as part of the marriage portion. Meadows Taylor. Thus the overthrow of Bijapur and Golconda. Op. 13 Fort St. 221. Still Aurangzib was unable to overcome the disorders which prevailed in his vast realm. The year 1700 is a convenient time for enumerating the European possessions so far acquired in India. ) ) 13 G. U. - Pulikat. princes. who.. (Eedgeer). Naldrag. Calicut. Op. History of the Mahrattas. finally Salsette and Bombay ). George) at Madras Bombay.but the latter were constantly retaking them. p. they had a monopoly of trade between Europe and India. Gujerat. The Polygars in the South paid tribute only under compulsion 9 ). cit. cit. Op. pp.. and other places. Malik Amber. Pope. The Portuguese were the first on the scene.. Bidar divided it from Golconda. they built their first fort (St. 13. D. Though Akbar had reduced Ahmadabad and imprisoned its lawful prince. U. 8 Elphinstone. In 1637 the last remnant of the Ahmadnagar kingdom was annexed by Shah Jehan (1627 1658). Akalkot.) 3 ) . 668. on the east the districts of Eaichur. Op. ) of Chandragiri. cit. (R. 12 The site was obtained by Mr. and all the territory south of the Kistna which had been dependent on these two kingdoms 5 ). The boundaries of his territories were continually shifting. cit. 300—304. David (south of Madras) Braganza. which by incessant warfare had been reduced almost to a desert. Kabul was always waiting an opportunity to throw off its allegiance 8 ). when hard pressed. which had so long kept down the Mahrattas (or Bergis) proved fatal to the Moghul Empire and enabled the Mahratta ldngdom to rise on its ' Map 13 shows — — ruins during the following century. but his chief stronghold was Daulatabad. 10 G. The Moghul armies took fort after fort from the Mahrattas. still which except Bombay they The chief settlements of the Dutch founded in the 17 a century were: Negapatam. ) 5 6 4 Sec also map 15. 7 ) ) p. Bimlipatam. The Moghul army was so demoralised that VaMnkera. The Mahrattas were plundering and burning Malwa. p. Dharwar. I. 218.HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. retired to their mountain fastnesses and defied generals. Golconda in 1687. a descendant of the Vijayanagar kings. ) lb. "/The Bajputs and the Jats near Agra were in open hostility 6). I. He founded the town of Kirki (afterwards Aurangabad). In 1589 Ibrahim Kutb Shah founded the town of Haidarabad*). n) lb. 9 See Notes to 15. Masulipatam. Sewell. 6. 633. cit. 4. India in 1700 A. p. The kings of Golconda also occupied large etc. pp. Ferishta (Scott. From the landing of Vasco da Gama in 1498 tt and the beginning near Calicut to the appearance of the Dutch and English at the end of the 16 th They took Goa" century. pp. Gandicot. VII. Diu in 1534.of Catherine of only in 1639 12 ). 218. and Cochin 11 ). cit.

abstained for a time from further aggressions 13 ). responsible for the conduct of his son and kept whatever forts or territory he had taken from the Moghuls and of the 32 forts taken or built by him on Bijapur territory he was only allowed to keep 12. Calcutta. 101. 19 2 16 lb. 149. p.. obtained Kondaneh (to which he gave the name Singad) in the same year. permission from Aurangzib to collect the fourth and the tenth of the revenue 21 ) in certain districts of Bijapur 22).. in 1637. however. p. and eventually. and held likewise. p. Karnala.. and Rajpipla. whence it may be traced up the east bank of the Wardha to Manikgarh and then westward to Mahore. like an enam. In the Carnatic Shahji acquired in jaghir Kolhar. were Dekkan 10). then entered the service of the emperor Shah Jehan. The following notes are chiefly confined to territorial details: The enam 6 ) of the Bhonsle family (from which Sivaji sprang) was at Verole near Ellora caves. As the Bijapur government now made Shahji him for years a prisoner at large at Bijapur. '— Land free 5 Grant Duff. Ballapur. and in 1648 took ten districts — of Indapur. In 1696 the villages of Chuttanatti. A jaghir is never. Op. Baramati and several of the Mawals. 3.. the title of raja and struck coins in his own name. e.) 13 lb. the other Jaghirs are lands or assignments of revenue. and Kalyan district i) G. VIII. 14. 12 lb. and Sopa in 1667 23). ) lb. In 1665.. ») lb. was brought up at Puna. i. Shahji's son Sivaji bom 1627.. entirely freehold. To illustrate the Early Mahratta History. p. Chakun. Duff. 176-177. cit. Sivaji But on his father's release in 1655 he began. ) pp. On the death of his father in 1664 Sivaji assumed He also possessed a fleet at that time 20). as result of an unsuccessful war with Aurangzib's generals. is 6.. Singad. p. anil Govindpur were purchased from Azim-u-Shan Aurangzib's grandson 2 ). 124—126. 148. — *) lb. When Aurangzib made war on Bijapur in 1657. — — — — 168 169. that of the Bijapur king 7 ). 7. jore 11 ).. Duff. On the west the country was bounded by the ocean. 104. p.. 5. VII. 135—138. — 22 ) Grant . In 1659 Panhala surrendered and Vishalgad was taken by assault 16). Sivaji relinquished other forts. cit. °) lb.. In 1700 the French possessed Masulipatam (1669). 23 lb. he accepted Sivaji's services. pp. 168. i°) lb ") lb. built Rajgad in 1647. mountain. ) Duff. can by the original tenure be required*. with the rest of his possessions as jaghir under the Emperor. Bangalore. Pope. History *) lb. where Ghijerati is spoken. The space about Surat. I. in jaghir or otherwise.. Broach. From this last place it passed in an irregular line to Goa. — — — — — — — — — — — 21 I. p. and TanShahji died in 1664. p.. The boundary follows the western bank of that river up to its confluence with the Warda. I. p. pp. In 1662 Sivaji held sway over the Konkan from Kalyan to Goa and the Ghauts (or KonkanGhaut-Mahta) from the Bima to the Warna 19 ).... Maharashtra. the former is for the purpose of maintaining a body of troops for the service of the state. Uscota. Maholi. 160. Op. he led forth his hardy Mawalis and occupied the fort of Torna in 1646. of the Mahrattas. east of Nagpur. Porto Novo. 101—118. 158. 6. In 1660 Sivaji took Dabul and its dependencies 17 ) and in 1662 occupied the territory of the deshmukhs of Wari 18 ). is bounded on the north by the Satpura mountains and extends from Nandod on the west along those mountains to the Wainganga.. may be excluded by drawing an imaginary line from Daman to the middle of Nandod district 5). pp. ) ») lb. ") lb. ) Grant Duff.iii HISTORICAL ATLAS OB INDIA. p. sultan of Ahmadnagar. Purandhar. Op. Called respectively «chauth» and «surdeshmukhi» by Sivaji (Gr. pp. the consisted chiefly of Puna and Sopa 9 ). cit. — cit. VII. Ami. Pondicherry (1674). Op.. Shaji Bhonsle first commanded a party of horse in the service of Mortiza Nizam Shah. personal. the latter is for the support of an individual or family. ) There are two kinds. *«) lb. 238. and Chandarnagar 8 ).. 100. Lohgad. cit. He obtained. II. allowed him to keep what he already possessed of Bijapur territory and at the end of the campaign even agreed to the Konkan beingtransferred to his management 15). ) pp. — The 8) spelling of names altered. cit. Op. ) 7 Grant from all rent to government. ) p. 177). Sivaji soon recovered his lost possessions: Puna. by whom he was confirmed in the possession of his family jaghir 8 ) which For eminent service rendered by him in the Carnatic. At about the same time the Danes held Tranquebar and Serampur 4 ). added to his jaghir in the among which were Lohgad and Rajmach 12). — 3 ) lb. the country of the Mahrattas. (Grant Duff. U. 638. some service 9 Op. 186. "Wishing to become independent. and Sira.. again to capture existing hillforts and to erect new ones 14 ). 6 ) V. 122.. The people of this country first rose into notice in the 17 th century under Sivaji and became very powerful in the 18 th century under the Peshwas.valleys near Puna. was acquired by purchase in 1691 J ). «The one is military.

Of the acquisitions of Chick Deo Raj (1672—1704) no fewer (vol. I. and was enthroned at Raigarh 6). and the rana of Bednore paid him an annual tribute. than 48 are enumerated. Gurramconda 15). The chief of Sunda acknowledged his authority. In 1670 the forts Aundha.. and Indapur were occasionally held. (Grant Duff. whose possessions ) These.) ) the police. in ii 1670 !). Sivaji occupied that tract of Maharashtra from the Hiranyakeshi river on the south. On the 5 th April 1680 Sivaji died. pp. and all the conquered districts in the South 10). 214. at the time of his death. from 1524 till 1704. p. Bangalore. oit. lower Chaul. 5) lb. pp.HI8T0KICAL ATLAS (M INDIA. In 1674 he defeated the Bijapur army. 237—240. and several strong places in Khandesh and Sangamnere. 9) lb.. was rebuilt by Moro Trimmul.' pp. Haidarabad and Bijapur. distinctly mark the boundary of his consolidated territory to the eastward. extended along the back of the eastern Ghauts including most of the Baramahal (see maps 16 and 18). Mysore. the fort . cit. cit. took Vellore.. «Sivaji. p. D. 'O 12 Military posts at which the inferior revenue officers are stationed to protect the country. and other forts and sent his fleet to reduce Karwar. *) lb. 1704 A. power more and more by taking towns. Op. In 1668 Golconda and in 1-670 Khandesh agreed to pay ckauth to the Mahrattas 2). In 1677 Sivaji invaded the Carnatic. Singnapur. had a number of detached places. aid u ) lb. p. — Grant Duff. in the map of Mysore. his conquest in Drawed (i. Salher were taken and a Moghul force defeated near the latter place 8). 16 Gurramconda excepted. He. p.of Parneira.8 ) lb. the Dominions of Chick Deo Raja Wadeyar.. pp. 6 ) lb. 204—208. The map shows at the political condition of India south of the Kistna and Tungabhadra The southernmost part of the Moghul Empire consisted To these belonged Carnatic Haidarabad and Carnatic then of two subahs. but in 1678 restored them all to his brother Venkaji on condition of receiving a share of the revenue 8 ). He had thannas 12) in Karwar. e. been traced according to their Map 15 represents the growth of Mysore during about of Since the downfall position on Mackenzie's map also in Wilks' History of Mysore. but being hard pressed by Sivaji was forced to retreat 9 ).. Ballapur. p. The districts of Sopa. to the Indrayani river on the north. I. 211. though its possession seems Not all the names of these places have been included to have been disputed by the chief of Sira. Sira). which were subdivided into Bala Ghaut and Payeen Ghaut so as to distinguish the countries above and below the passes. and the line of forts. Bijapur. where he shared the districts with the deshmukhs 13 ). 31. south of India).) village patel and the raja... 148. forts. and the English settlement on the island of Bombay. p. 228/-. and collect the revenue. was in possession of the whole part of the Konkan extending from Gandevi to Ponda. 188. — — — — — — — — — — — — 2* . Exclusive of his possessions around Bellary and Kopal. 134—137. In the same year Sivaji retook Panhala. p.. and several places on the coast. 253. and recovered all Ms father's jaghirs (Kolhar. Ankola and other places 5 ). Vijayanagar (1565) the chiefs of Mysore had been extending their.. Gooty. Carnatic Haidarabad Payeen Ghaut consisted of the whole country from Guntur to the Coleroon : th century 14 ).. belonging to the Portuguese. the beginning of the 18 along the Coromandel coast. Salsette. Baramati... p. built from Tattora to Panhala. afterwards form the state of the nawab of Kurpa (Cuddapah). History of Mysore. Uscota. 244—248. and his garrisons and thannas occupied a great part of Buglana. 2 3) £b. p. Op. near Daman. Jinjira in possession of the Abyssinians. between Puna and Junir. Ankola.. l°) lb. and villages. but had remained in some form of subjection either to the viceroy of Vijayanagar who resided at Seringapatam or to the Bijapur government or A detailed list of the places taken may be found in Witts' History of Mysore to the Moghuls. assumed the insignia of royalty. 28—37. at the temple of Mahdeo was his hereditary enam village. Sadashivgacl and others) 7 ). 131—132).. 11 To sum up with Grant Duff ). 223. ) lb. 200 years i. Satara. pp. l) This is afterwards known as the province of Arcot. the boundaries of that state have. In 1672 many polygars in the northern Konkan were forced to join Sivaji 4 ). Wilks. Ganclicot. lb. his supremacy as well as share in Tanjore and the jaghir districts of his father in the Carnatic. his father's jaghir. however. In 1679 a Moghul army invaded Bijapur. and Bassein. with the exception of Goa. Sidhaut. In 1676 he again took possession of the open country between Panhala and Tattora and protected it by a series of forts (Vardangad. Op.» 15. 219. Among these Bangalore is the most important. Pattah. e. Carnatic Haidarabad Bala Ghaut comprised Cumbum. 248. For this timely service Sivaji was given the country round Kopal and Bellary and the sovereignty over Tanjore. however. I. and always claimed by him as his paternal jaghir. ) 13 A kind of intermediate agents between the (Grant Duff. u ) M. p. Parh.

In 1751 the Moghul Empire had crumbled to pieces. Op. even while waging war against the Emperor. and the chiefs of Malabar. The country between Bednor. In 1751 the Emperor ceded to him the Punjab 12 ). he professed obedience to him. Op. subject to. The territory of the nawab of Arcqt consisted of Haidarabad Payeen Ghaut and extended. while the Mahrattas demanded tribute from the same. The whole of Carnatie Haidarabad Bala Ghaut enlarged to the south formed the principality of the nawab of Kurpa (Cuddapah) 4 ). The two Carnatics were governed by Zulfikar Khan were in an unsettled condition. 10 In those unsettled times the frontiers of the many little states were continually shifting. Op. 20 miles from Chitaldrug. ) *) Its poli . 733—734. — — — — — — — — — — . and Savanur Bankapur belonged till to the pro- vince of Bijapur (not Carnatie). ) ) 5 7 «) Wilks. The districts along the east coast from the Chilka lake to the Gundakamma were called the Northern Circars (see map 16). The rana of Bednor seems to have been in possession of a considerable portion of the western Ghauts and the west coast 7 ). Harpanhally. Wilks. and Mudgiri. 737. after the acquisition of Trichinopli and Madura (1732). though. Balkh.. of this state are mentioned: Onore (Honawar). Savanor. cit. At this time three powers were making and the Mahrattas. the all independent. p. 154. Kurpa. Mysore. cit. Op. I. including Vellore.) ) 9 lb. the The Mahrattas were continually encroaching from the north and west on the dominions of the Nizam. p. 141. pp. originally viceroy of the Dekkan and Carnatie provinces of the Empire. ) When annexed by Hyder (1763).. The chiefs of The districts of most of these districts paid tribute under compulsion only. the death of Aurangzib. ruler 17. 481. chief of Gooty 5 ). Mangalore. cit. p. Travancore. Bednor extended ) Grant Duff. Prom and its this time the province designated Arcot on the map begins to be called «the Carnatie ». 214.. 163. and Trichino% it might be deemed a dependency seems to have been included in the Haidarabad Carnatie Payeen 2 3 cit. and Kashmir 11 ). Muhammadan usurpers 8). 505. had 1723 become practically independent. He claimed sovereignty over the states and principalities south of rivers Tungabhadra and Kistna. Op. Ghazipur (Nandial). the Mahrattaas. The frontiersline to the west was ill defined. To illustrate the Wars between the English and French in the Carnatie. Tanjore (which was still held by the Mahrattas). South of Bednor were the rajas of Coorg. but they 16. tant districts and Mysore. ) ) ia lb. each lasting 3 years. India in 1751 A. Op. the French. After Nadir Shah's assassination (1747) an Afghan chief Ahmed Shah Abdali became ruler over Afghanistan. lb. Many of these states were almost independent and their chiefs assumed the title «nawab» 2). Carnatie Bijapur seems to have consisted of Bala Ghaut provinces only 1 ).. Cochin. This was the group of states among which the English and French competed for supremacy in India. Bangalore. down to Cape Comorin 3 ). so far as — . Dindigul was The boundaries of the possessions of the Patan nawab of Savanor and the raja of Sonda cannot be clearly ascertained 10 ). ») Elphinstone. The more imporwere Sira.. and Gooty was probably chief of Sira. their influence felt in India: the Afghans.. I. (Wilks. The Patan chiefs of Karnul and Savanur also claimed the title nawab 6). D. since Nizam ul Mulk. 276. p. cit. cit. to the west over the maritime province now named Kanara and east to Hilalkera. In 1743 Nizam ul Mulk recognised Morari Rao. p. p. Chitaldrug. Sindh. 145. Bednor (Nagar). Anagundi. Northwards the Pain Ganga formed (in 1751) the boundary. As towns 8 Wilks. Adoni (Udni).. Op.. Ginjee.. the contest was carried on without intermission from 1746 to 1763. *) Ghaut. Except for two intervals of peace. p. 136. cit. nawab of the Carnatie or of Arcot. p. In Mysore sham rajas were nominated by Hindu and acquired by this state in 1745 9 ).) Grant Duff. (Wilks..12 HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. Conderpee. p. Payeen Ghaut.

pp. While — the Mahrattas held the sovereignty over the countries just mentioned. and Cuttack including Balasore (since 1751) were under the Mahratta chief Baguji Bhonsle. Kanakgiri. At this time the English power was of but little account. ) Op. since 1760. at this time. and Gujerat. a Hindu minister. They had either obtained by imperial grant or assumed the right to collect chauth. Condwana. Hyder's territory extended northwards to the river Kistna. and Rohilkhand. he was acknowledged governor of all the country from the Kistna to Cape Comorin. To illustrate the Four Mysore Wars. *) Wilks. I. Thus we can at the most speak only of a « Mahratta Confederacy*. in 1751. to D. the country east of the upper Ganges. For territorial changes resulting from i) this struggle the student should consult maps 20 and 21. Allahabad. Fort St. cit. David. and Bussy. eit. his Peshwa or Prime Minister who resided at Puna. ) 'J 8 "Wilks. Tet the Mahrattas. Its limits had by this time been extended towards the south 4 ). 267—410. Ram Raja at Satara was a merely nominal' raja. 502. with a French army. the provinces of Lucknow. His tributary chiefs were the polygars of Harpanhally.. Damaji Gaekwar. Dupleix. — — — — — — — . the Dekkan. be compared with map 16. especially under the vigorous administration of the Peshwas. who was then governor of Pondicherry (the chief French settlement in the south). 383. the country between the Jumna and the Sutlej. in Gujerat. while the Chambal formed the northwestern boundary of the country ceded by Nizam ul Mulk in the convention of Seronji (1738) 2 ). represented French interests at the Nizam's court at Aurangabad. 18. (1784 A. the actual power having been usurped by Balaji Baji Rao (1740 1761). 2) lb. been usurped by Hyder. 534.HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. southwards to Dindigul.. eit. ) Bombay pp. Hyder's Dominions in 1780 A. managed so skilfully that. and Bengal. Patna. and Ajmere 3 ). the raja being a mere figurehead.. 415. died in 1748. may be said to have reached its largest extent. to the edge of the eastern Ghauts. 19. The Rajputs were virtually independent under the leadership of the rana of Udaipur and the rajas of Jodhpur and Jaipur 6 ). There remained under the Emperor's direct authority only the upper Doab or country between the upper courses of the Ganges and Jumna. being confined to the towns of Calcutta. Gujerat. and Anagundi 8 ). who in 1751 occupied the territory as far south as the Godavari 1 ). 214. 501. as well as the political position of the South Indian powers at the beginning of the conflict. was occupied by Ali Maho- med and his Afghans in 1744 6). 6 For the construction of 18 the excellent map in Wilks' Mysore Pope. 3) lb.. Ill. the principal of whom were Ragnji Bhonsle of Berar. -whose independence in the provinces south of the Narbada had been acknowledged by the Emperor. pp. The nawab of Arcot was under his authority. Berar. Raidrug. Agra. At Mysore Nunjeraj. Again the Peshwa's power was much curbed by powerful — Mahratta chiefs. p. the government of which had. Op. Mulhar Rao Holkar and Ranoji Sindia in Malwa. Grant Duff. 13 Nizam ul Mnlk (or Asaf Jah). Madras.. 5 Gazetteer. I. e. 385. Thus French influence was supreme in the South. 501. 15. the fourth part of the revenue.' I. has been used. and eastwards.) To avoid overcrowding the previous map another one has been drawn show the noteworthy places mentioned in the history of the four Mysore wars between Hyder and the English.. Op. In Hindustan the territory of the Peshwa was bounded by the Sone and the Ganges. D. Bengal and Behar under Aliverdi •Khan in 1740. Bombay. pp. they exercised another not less important influence over the whole of India. westwards to the Arabian Sea. 173. cit. Oudh had become independent under Saadat Khan in 1724. Anand Rao Power of Dhar. The Mahrattas had. and the South of India. 7 ) In 1780 Mysore. extended their authority over the Konkan and the western part of the Dekkan down to the Tungabhadra. See also map 16 for the geography of the South of that period. formed no united government. Devicota. was the actual ruler. His death gave the French an opportunity of interfering in Indian affairs. Op. for the most part. i. The map also shows the principal places of note during To appreciate the extent of Hyder's conquests it should this aggressive period of Mysore History. which was still 5 ) under a dependent Moghul viceroy. 461.

Memoir of a Map of Hindustan.. were handed over by Shuja ud Daulah of Oudh 12). p. Bidar.. British influence. ) States of India.. ) 10 lb. eit. Bijapur. 56. Rajamahendri. n) lb. ») Pope. In 1795 the boundaries of the Mahratta Confederacy reached their furthest extent. south of Bombay. the command of that river. If map 20 fairly represents the political state of India before the arrival of Wellesley. ) lb. ») lb. Ill. Op. 244. and the districts of Kanara. In 1780 Bahawal Khan. 44. The Afghans under Zaman Shah (1793 1800) still held the Punjab. — — — — — 3) Grant Duff. and certain districts which included the provinces of Bijapur.. XII. — — — — I.. 21. eit. I. In 1760. In 1757 Ahmadabad was finally taken by the Mahrattas and Gujerat and Kathiawar were henceforth tributary to the Gaekwar. In the South a life-and-death struggle between the English and the French had ended with a total defeat of the latter. 138. They In 1800 a dispute arose as to are henceforth known as the «Ceded Districts of Haidarabad». eit.. The Rajputs were made whilst to Sindia in 1792 5 ). and. Cuddapah (Kurpa).. 23. and under The three Presidency towns Madras. Coimbatore. p. Cutch remained independent 2). X. In. IX. n/ The nawabvizier of Oudh was an ally of the English. II. vv the same year Bengal. "Warren Blastings. In 1752 Bhonsle of Nagpur withdrew his garrisons beyond the Pain Ganga. 21.the nawab of Arcot was under Calcutta. and Aurangabad. ) 12 lb. Bombay. D. Wynaad. lb. — — — — — — — — — - . and ten villages were ceded by the Peshwa to the English in 1756 8). and Orissa were granted by Shah Alum II. In the south. Intro. p. 348. Native e lb. 4 ) p. for the maintenance of a subsidiary force 17 ). 540. and districts between the lower Tungabhadra and the Eistna had been given to the Nizam. Kashmir. pp. and Malabar were acquired through the treaty of Seringapatam 15 ). They were bounded on the north by Painganga and Godavari rivers and on the east by the Northern Circars. ) 17 >6) lb. India in 1805 A. 28. eit. In Wellesley being called upon to arbitrate annexed the state 18). T) Malleson. Op.. 11 In 1775 the district'' ). thus restoring the territory between that river and the Godavari to the Nizam 1 ).. — Gazetteer. 304.. 16. of Benares. In the west Bassein had been conquered and the island of Salsette acquired 13 ). Op. eit.. which had been part of his share in the cessions after the 3 rd and 4 th Mysore wars. D. map 21 shows the country after the administration of that distinguished statesman (1798 1805). p. p. Asirgarh. But the same year saw the Mahratta chiefs united for the last time under the banner of the Peshwa at Kurdla. Kennel. By the treaty of Seringapatam (1792) Guti. Dindigul.. In 1792 the provinces of Baramahal. eit. the succession in Tanjore. Op. -^The nawabvizier of Oudh with the help of the British had added to his dominions the country the < — occupied by the Eohillas. excepting however the last named city 3). after the battle of Udgir. II. X. and men like Clive.. — — their protection. Ill. Kathiawar. Op. tributary The Nizam's Dominions were considerably reduced. CXVI. I. The Northern Circars were taken comprising Condapilly. Op. Bankot. 22. X. and Chicacole from the French and their acquisition confirmed by imperial grant from Shah Alum 1764 9 ). 150. they had been enlarged. Ahmadnagar.14 HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. — p. Guntur was ceded by the Nizam in 1788 u ).. II.. 250. II. 571. Grant Duff. The power of Tippu had been for ever crushed in the fourth Mysore war (1798 1799). The Nizam in 1800 ceded the districts of Bellary and Cuddapah. ") lb. and Sindh. the Mahrattas by treaty acquired from the Nizam several forts and amongst them Daulatabad. — p. s 16. Ellore. p. 2 ) Bombay 212.of Bahawalpur was forced to acknowledge the Afghan suzerainty 7 ). however. thus Tippu's territories were considerably reduced. including Chunar and Ghazipur. In 1765 the district of Chengalpat was ceded to the English by the nawab of the Carnatic 10). Cutch. In the north the provinces of Delhi and Agra were annexed *~/in 1789 and the Moghul Emperor was entirely in the hands of Sindia 4 ). 593—594. >>) Grant Duff. p. India in The series of 1795 A. Behar.. In the south the Mahrattas by the treaty of Seringapatam (1792) received some districts between the Kistua and the southern Wardha 6 ). and Nilgiri hills were annexed by the English 16 ). 20. of the maps 20 — 24 shows the decline Mahratta and the rise of the British power in India.. ") Pope. >) Grant Dnff. X. «) lb. had become growing centres of and Cornwallis the English possessions had assumed considerable dimensions. 11.

After the period of conquests and treaties under the Marquis of "Wellesley a period of reaction A large section of the British nation was opposed to the aggressive policy of the late governor-general. 416. exact fresh chauth from them. cit X. X. Gorackhpur. 417. 22 Pope. Grant Duff. — — — — — — — — — — — ^ — — _ . 314. II. Op. cit. Under Lord Minto (1807—18. 1823). the English. 39. Bijnaur. restored their allies his — prevailed 21 ).. cit. D. all the territory situated northeast of. 74. 592. The Sikhs on the right bank of the Sutlej were ruled by Ranjit Singh who in 1798 had been appointed governor of Lahore but had gradually assumed independence 18 ). 23 lb.. 416.. pp. of Allahabad. 95. In Cutch anarchy to however. p 330 12 i°) lb. Op.. and the districts and towns of Broach and Ahmadnagar 4 ).. «) lb. cit. Malleson. the old policy began left on the bank of the Sutlej placed subject to Ranjit Singh 22 ). 107. campaign ended with the annexation of the territories of the Peshwa.. Namala. p. X. Op. By the. The British supremacy had been recognised in the following states: Kuch Behar in 1772 7). By the treaty of Sirji Arjenjaon.. Bahawalpur was independent in 1805 19). The Sindia. Nagpur in 1803 u \ Sindia's dominions in 1804 15 ). 22. 20 Pope. Cawnpur. 410. 588. °) lb. The Amirs of Sindh and the Sikhs had by this time acquired independence. called the « Ceded Districts of Oudh» *). Kashmir was still ruled by the Afghans 20 ). p. however. 419. Op.. Gawilgarh. the Rajput states. the districts Futtehpore.. ) lb. who was sent a state priAfter the defeat of his army at Mehidper Holkar was forced. their allies. cit. 241.. Bareilly. 16 16 >8) P8pe. the Peshwa. Cutch. 1803. the territory west of the "Wardha river and south of Gawilgarh. Pindharis. of the Marquis of Hastings (1813 Under him. II. pp. Sindia ceded to the British and.. 383. p. Then followed the administration after a hardfought — — — — — 2 3) Grant Duff.. ) p. At this tirrie the principal Mahratta states were disaffected and intriguing against the English. 44. lb. Mysore in 1799 10 ). ) ) pp. II. Of these territories the Nizam received the whole tract west of the Wardha and south of the hills on which stand Gawilgarh and Namala down as far as the Godavari.. 329. Op. Op. cit. pp. in Bhartpur.. . whilst the Peshwa received the district and fort of Ahmadnagar 5)..HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. 349.. 378. i) Pope. 417. A short abetted by the Mahratta princes. 67. II.. pp. . XI.. 1809. Moradabad. ") Ib„ pp.. for the maintenance of a subsidiary force. because the late nawab had frequently put obstructions in the way of the Marquis of Wellesley and had held treacherous correspondence with Tippu 2). ) ) lb. cit. 278.. 23) Q rant Duff. X. 417. XI. cit. set in. 7. p... Haidarabad in 1798 9). The Ghurkas of Nepal had been steadily extending their territory to the west." Cochin in 1791 s ). *) lb. to cede the territory between the Satpura and Boondy hills 24 ). by the treaty of Mandeswar. and Dholpur between 1802— 18. with Bhonsle of Nagpur and Sindia on the other. VJ1801 the nawab ! 15 of Ouclh was forced to cede. Bhonsle and Sindia were defeated all along the line. and Shahjalianpur. The Sikh states themselves under British protection. — From 1802 — 1803 — the second Mahratta war was fought. p. 151—154. the Peshwa's dominions in 1802 13 ). were ravaging central India and making frequent inroads on the territory of the British and their allies. 21 '») Malleson. campaign against the Ghurkas (1814 1816). p. II. II. p. 378. II. Op. Bhonsle 3). p. 100. the raja -of Nagpur ceded to the British and their allies the province of Cuttack including Balasore. ») lb'. Baroda in 1801 "). 7 ») lb. ) ) Op. Travancore in 1805 16). In 1805 the English were still at war with Holkar on behalf of the Rajputs.13). Nepal was reduced to its present dimensions by the treaty of Segauli 23 ). Rampur in 1801 12). p. territories between the Jumna and Ganges. India in 1823 A. They were sheltered and The Peshwa first rose against the English in 1817. BundelMiand was ceded by the Peshwa for the maintenance of a subsidiary force 6 ). rather than become war and not to interfere in the quarrels of native princes.06 17 ). ") lb. 5) lb. Bombay Gazetteer. In the same year (1801) the Carnatic was annexed to the British possessions.. Op. Alwar. cit. Budann. 418. and the Nizam being on one side. who had been intriguing against the Engprincipality of Sagar was likewise annexed 25 ). treaty of Dewalgaon. Hence the alliance with the Rajputs was given up and Holkar was allowed to The governor-general received strict injunctions not to enter upon any to revive. 25. p. II. cit.Bands of robbers. Op. p. and some districts south of these forts were. soner to Bithur on the Ganges. 8) i b ) Malleson. 384. . _ — — — — — — — — — — II. Azamghar. 418.

. 267. Satara lapsed to the Paramount Power. D. 1848. 21) lb.. 189.. The British supremacy was recognised by the following states: Bikanir in 1828 15). p. was forced to cede the district of Ajmere and to renounce his claims on the Rajputs 1 ). because their rulers became insane and oppressed the people 11 ). Op. *) lb. 126. Map 23 shows — — — — — 24. Under Lord Dalhousie (1848 The power of the Sikhs was India in 1856 A. lb. 225.. lb. 85. lb. p. Garhwal in 1835"). 144. 345—347. Pegu was annexed after the second Burmese war in 1852 23 ). Coorg and Karnul* were annexed in 1834 and 1841. X. cit. pp. 347. The Jalandhar Doab. 273. — — — Jhansi lapsed to the 1856 states have been omittedr~~That they have not altogether disap- 25. in Sawantwadi Kapurthala (1819)6). 1834 20). in 1817. Sindh was annexed after the Sindh campaign in 1843 12 ). and Sobraon. 6 lb. except Bikanir. or Tehri (1812). e. Ill. 147.. 10 Pope. Firuzshar. 26. 16. the capital of the Sikhs.. ) ) ) ) 20 Pope.6) lb. a promi-"' nent Sikh leader. Op. 112.. Under Lord Amherst. 98. and 1823 2)... p. 18 lb. — — — 3) lb. Cachar. 144. Intro. ") lb. the Burmese government ceded Arakan and Tenasserim and gave up its claims to Assam. X. 2 *) lb. in Kolhapur (1S12)«). 128. D.. 592. 25 lb. See mup 25. 233. in Cutch (1816 or 1819)7). 90. p. and in Kathiawar (1820)9). broken in the battle of Ghijrat (1849) and the Punjab annexed 21 ).. The Indian Empire in 1907 A. p.. oit. 369. pp. 13 lb. 80. Chamba in 1847 18 ). The British supremacy was recognised in all the Rajput states. ) 2 . the country between the Bias and Sutlej. 257. 1818. *) Malleson. but at last the victorious English entered Lahore. who agreed to pay the cost of the war 13). In 1845 the Sikhs made an unprovoked attack on the British possessions. ) ) Grant Duff. after the first Burmese war (1824 1826). of tribute — m 23. 230. 220.79. ) ) pp... Agra was constituted a distinct province under a Lieutenant Governor. Manda and Sauket in 1846 18 ). cit.. . Samptar (1817)*). 23) lb. Bentinck in. ) pp. Op. 22) lb. Cachar in 1832 and Assam in 1839 lapsed to the sovereign power 1 *). India in 1848 A.. and a peace was concluded in 1846. I2 p. 23. India at the commencement of Lord Dalhousie's administration.. Apa Sahib of Nagpur was after a short campaign deposed. cit. payment for the subsidiary 1854 26).. Op. Jaora (1818). 139. 344. 73. in Buudelkhand: Urchah. ) p. Maps 25 and 26 ] are so clear as to need no explanation. X. 5 lb. X. ) ) 15 Malleson. 343. Dhar (1819)3). p. 218. Oudh was annexed as — force in in 1853 2? ). 8) lb. 307. lish with the Nepal ministry. X. 150. Bahawalpur in 1838"). i. 25 ). 24. 134. X.. Op. Kashmir in 1846 1»). Dewas (1818). 140. 130. ?) lb. Hardfought battles took place at Mudki. 55. X. X. in the Malwa states: Bhopal (1817).... — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 27 ) lb. Indore (1818). X. there being no heir to the throne on the raja's death 24 ). I4 lb. 122.. II. (1809)8). another period of annexation began. — 1856) finally S — signed to the English Paramount Power in In this map several minor peared is shown on map 26. Berar was asruling power in 1853. 125. Rewa (1813).16 HISTORICAL ATLAS OF INDIA. 201. because the raja died leaving no natural Nagpur lapsed to the heir 22).. 35. ) ) pp.. 345. 90. Kathiawar. The Growth of British Bengal and Assam.. cit. p. 19 18 17 lb. X.. 115.. by Lord W. 9 Bombay Gazetteer. 131. was annexed to the British possessions and Kashmir made over to Grolab Singh. D. and Jaintia 10 ). 66. X.

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INDIA in 1236. Gotha. Justus Perthes. 8. .

INDIA in 1318. 9. '&&& ^K TV-I ^J ^ujxi^TwvuSK A "/ .

/ Sftatnatr H N . & \ SccrruTTtg.INDIA in 1398.

INDIA in 1525. . Gotha. Justus Perthes.

Gujerat 70 Justus Perthes. Akbar's Subahs: Kabul 10. JO 1. Oudh Allahabad Ahmadnagar Orissa Ajmere Kashmir Sindh o 50 100 English Miles _5200 300 9.INDIA in 1605. 7. Gotha. 8. 6. 16. . Lahore Multan 3. 17. Khandesh Agra 14. Berar 15. 4. Delhi 5. 13. Malwa Behar Bengal 2. 12. 11. 18. 12.

. Justus Perthes.INDIA in 1700. Gotha.

Rajmach 4. . 11. Gotha. Sewneri 5. 9. ] Shahji's Sivaji's Jaghirs Terrilories English Miles i i i The Mahratta Country 50 100 150 200 3: Justus Perthes. Chakun Pattah Rairi (Raigurh) Partabgurh Nandgiri 6. 10.To illustrate the Early Mahratta History. XL 1. Aundha Persik _ 2. 7. 12. 8. Vardangurh Vishalgurh Panalla — Rajgurh 13. Pavangarh Torna 15. 3. 14.

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INDIA in 1751. Gotha. 17. "1 Sphere of French Influence Remnant of the Moghul Empire -5- Justus Perthes. .

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INDIA in 1795. .ROHll^^M'tt VM.\ ^. -.-sL^v-.-^jenMajiai^gft. Gotha..-lCYf' P U T S Ova. GherutX K ^M^sladabad)^£gurtJ&ar Plasse oTwpal Bassi fjtyan Bankot> -NIZAM'S <*t ATlAI IAS Goa DitMlNIONl" EA M&JigaZor&t 1 'Madras . ChengtLtpat PoTubickerry M Si %/ British Territory English Miles British Protected States 200 300 400 Justus Perthes. V ''SaXboay -Ea. "^ondahar Delhi.

. z. ' J P 1J T 'S ^*5£isL- ^-AJmutdabd/l Sif tt BasseinV ' ^r Bombay ' S aua E Us A N^ls I Bjridarabaa y*&* ( ^ / AT -vi .^7 R htt. - A Jaipur mwrV*''* W^S.^T .INDIA in 1805.' l^GiL \V»v. Gotha./ €oimbat/tre~ J British Territory English Miles J British Protected States 50 100 ZOO 300 400 Justus Perthes. 21..'foife' 0^ GoaN»T o -lYSOl PoruUcherry B . .

Mandeswar Koregaom Kapurthala British Territory English Miles J -5. . '/ t/a r^ ^4poMnioNsv%: AUi EA AT 0^ & ^S ^^ 1. 6.° Sagajjl yl o Aland la J^&a s -Bcanba JSrki %ara. Mehidper 5.INDIA in 1823. 7. Dewas Dhar Jaora 4. Kail MaJiryttr B 2aZ Salsette% itewu. Qotha. 2. J ~^o British Protected States _&50 100 200 300 400 JL Justus Perthes. 3.

INDIA in 1848. Gotha. Justus Perthes. .

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