Analysis and Direction of the Philippine Fisheries


CBCRM NGOs programs

1. CBCRM NGOs have attempted to make an analysis of the strategic issues of the fishing communities and how to resolve them. Based on current trends, there are 4 strategic issues that are interrelated as shown in the Illustration below.

CBCRM Framework in Addressing 4 Strategic Issues


Business Domination
Causes of Poverty in Fishing Communities Equity-driven Development low socio-economic, cultural and political status (Non-market-driven development) insecure access to resources Tripartite Body (National) lack of political and financial support WTO / UNCTAD/UNDP (int’l) vulnerability (seasonal catch, market price, risk, etc) trend towards resource depletion remoteness of many fishing communities agro-ecological characteristics of nearby land competition and conflict with industrial vessels and other economic sectors in coastal areas

Political Socio-cultural


Equity Basic Social Services / Livelihood Development +Mariculture Project +Land-Based Projects +Fishing/Processing Projects +Others

Empowerment Gender Equality Community Organizing Participatory Governance Environmental

Political Marginalization/ Gender Inequality

Environmental Degradation
Systems-Orientation Sustainability Coastal and Fisheries Resource Management +Fish Habitat Management +Fish Stock Management

2. Corollary to the above, there are 3 major sectors that are the key players in development, these are: government, business, and civil society. Of the 3, it is the business sector that dominates and its domination is entrenched by the government itself.

3. Some CBCRM NGOs are developing and improving their approaches and strategies in assisting the partner POs in resolving the 4 strategic issues for more than a decade. At the start of program implementation, the approach is capability building of the POs for organizational management and development and then towards fisheries resource management. Fisheries resource management starts from PO-led to co-management approach . After learning that it will take a longer time to institutionalize co-management and make the fish habitat and fish stocks recover, NGOs-POs changed their strategies of focusing on developing the POs for livelihood development while continuing the efforts towards institutionalization of co-management. In fact, livelihood development had been started long in the initial years of the program through self-help project and accessing of basic social services.

4. Currently, the NGOs-POs which are advanced in CBCRM have developed the capacity to participate in local governance and make certain influence on the LGUs and LGAs and other stakeholders. However, the co-management approach in CRM has yet to be institutionalized in terms of secured annual budget and management body and it is still a long way to go particularly so that RA 8550 and its IRR is not being given focus by the LGUs and line agencies which are mandated to implement it. The major activities in fisheries resource management are fishery law enforcement, ecology-awareness raising, and accessing of financial and technical assistance for alternative livelihood projects.

5. The business sector with interest in commercial fishing and conversion of mangrove areas into fishponds is showing sign that they get on with their illegal activities because of “connections.” The business sector attempts to establish “connections” with government for the purpose of gaining favors in their business interests which are contrary to the interest of the small fisherfolkmust be met with efforts by the NGOs-POs in engaging the government units and instrumentalities through good governance.

Several NGOs-POs have experienced on how to engage the erring local executives in cahoots with commercial fishers by bringing the case to the provincial executives until the Ombudsman and in a particular situation to the National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAFC).

6. As an initial step towards CRM or MPA – Integrated Fisheries Livelihood Development Project, demo projects are being launched to make the POs gain experience in mariculture projects and develop technical skills, and then making project proposals for submission to concerned funding agencies.


CRM by the Government

1. There are several CRM projects in which the government is engaged in. These are the FRMP and CBRMP which are implemented by the LGU-DENR and LGU-BFAR, respectively, in partnership with NGOs and POs.

2. There arealso CRM type of program that is implemented by certain entities through funding from USAID like the FISH Project (Fisheries for Improved Sustainable Harvest).

a. The project is conceptualized based on the “lessons learned from the Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP) and other projects and programs to achieve the next crucial benchmark in managing fisheries and coastal resources in the Philippines. This benchmark calls for integrated fisheries management driven by informed, disciplined and cooperative stakeholders at national and local levels of engagement. The FISH Project is a seven-year (2003-2010) technical assistance project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented in partnership with the Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA-BFAR), other national government agencies, local government units and non-governmental and other assisting organizations.” b. Project activities focus on four target implementation areas: Calamianes Islands (Palawan), Danajon Bank (Bohol, Southern Leyte, Leyte, Cebu), Surigao del Sur and Tawi-Tawi. The Project is expected to result in a 10% increase in fish stocks in the four target implementation areas by 2010. To achieve this, national and local activities are undertaken to build capacity, improve the national policy framework, and develop an informed constituency for fisheries management. c. The FISH Project does provide an Illustration about the evolution of CRM in the Philippines


Its analysis of the fisheries management problems are presented in the following Table.

CORE PROBLEMS Loss of marine biodiversity Declining fish stocks Loss of revenues and benefits from fisheries and coastal resources

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS ➢ Overfishing Illegal and destructive fishing Coastal and habitat degradation Siltation and pollution Post-harvest losses Inefficient marketing Open access Low awareness and participation in management Lack of employment/poverty among municipal fishers ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢

➢ ➢ ➢

Inequitable distribution of benefits from fisheries and coastal resource uses

➢ Inter- and intra-sectoral conflicts
➢ ➢

➢ ➢ Population growth ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢

Low awareness of the implications of overpopulation and food security Lack of delivery mechanisms for reproductive health programs in rural coastal communities Continued investments in production-oriented programs Conflicting and fragmented national policies Absence of a vision for institutional change to support sustainable fisheries Inadequate technical and financial support to LGU fisheries management initiatives Weak and inadequate law enforcement mechanisms for fisheries and coastal resource management

Inconsistent policies and programs for sustainable fisheries

Weak institutional and stakeholder capacity to plan and implement fisheries management

➢ Inadequate interagency coordination

➢ ➢ Lack of a constituency for sustainable fisheries

Low awareness and understanding of the implications of overfishing on food security and economic development Polarization of stakeholders over means to achieve sustainable fishing

e. The project states that “The solutions to address these problems are challenging. Tough decisions must be made to stabilize and reverse the negative trends plaguing fisheries and coastal habitats today. Fisheries and coastal resource management must be prioritized by national and local stakeholders to ensure food on the table today, and fish catch in the future and continued economic benefits from the rich coastal ecosystems of the Philippines. Develop ecosystem-based fisheries management program to address critical threats to fisheries and other coastal resources.”


NGO Advocacy Work (National and International)

1. NGOs like Tambuyog and NFR are engaged in advocating and promoting the interests of the municipal fisherfolk. There are other POs that are doing this like the Kilusang Mangingisda (FisherfolkMovement – Philippines International). Based on certain articles on advocacy work, the following are the latest happenings.

a. There is protest against in Non-Agricultural Market Access or NAMA where the fishery industry is subsumed along with toys, clothes, jewelry and other industrial goods.

b. The WTO's negotiations on NAMA will further marginalize artisanal fisherfolk due to nonrecognition of the "externalities" involved within the whole fishing industry especially subsidies for commercial fleet operations and industrial aquaculture.

c. The Fisherfolk Movement - Philippines International (thru its Liaison Mr. Ruperto Aleroza) issued a statement demanding that, "the artisanal fishers of world which comprises the bulk of the producers of fish and fishery related products, has been reeling from a very lopsided trade arrangement brought about by bilateral talks and regional talks, and further discussion of liberalizing the fishing industry under the WTO will be a bad thing for all artisanal fisherfolk." He also stated that, "there is a need for local industry protection from competition from highly subsidized fishing fleets from developed countries, therefore we must discipline those countries who are investing heavily in their respective floating factories, which results to over-fishing." The Fisherfolk Movement -Philippines further stated that there is a need to strengthen artisanal fishers’ capacity to manage their resources, using municipal subsidies that will enhance local and regional capacity to sustainably produce fish and like products for their own consumption.

d. As a rejoinder the current Chair of the Fisherfolk Movement-Philippines, Mr. Bonifacio Federizo, stated that "its seems that there is a need to again rethink the whole strategy of multilateralism on global trade using pro-poor and pro-environment templates, this in consideration of the collapse IV. Analyzes of the Fisheries Situation


World Fish Production

a. Total world fish production appears to be increasing but not from fish catching which has leveled off starting the 1990s at less than 100 million metric tons as shown in the Illustration below. It is the fish production from aquaculture (fish farmed) that makes the total world total fish production still increasing.

World Fish Production
140 120 100 Million Tons 80 60
Fish Farmed


Fish Catch

40 20 0 1940



1970 Year





b. The Illustration above shows the status of world fisheries: 9% is under-exploited, 23% is moderately exploited, 44% - fully heavily exploited, 16% - over exploited, 6% depleted, and 3% is recovering. The too much exploitation of the world fish stocks has led to overfishing which means that volume of catch is more than what the wild fish can reproduce which then results to the catching of portion of the total fish biomass required to attain maximum sustainable level.

c. Overfished areas can be made to recover through protection like declaring closed seasons or regulation of fishing activities. However due to too much fishing boats with gears has led to overcapacity. According to an artcle, numerous statistics point to over-capacity: 1) despite warnings of a slowdown in the marine catch in the 1970's and 80's, the fishing
industry increased fishing efforts 2) 3) over the past 40 years, the technology used in fishing has improved now, boats are more powerful, fish are located electronically through sonar, larger nets are used, and there are just more fishing operations. at present, the industry is twice as large as necessary; it could go back to the smaller, fewer boats of 1970 and still produce the same yield; this overcapacity is global: Norway is 60% over, while the European Union is 40% over


d. An article on world fisheries stated that to illustrate how overcapacity works, we will study the example of the Peruvian anchovy, which in boom years was the largest new fishery in the world.

1) Before 1950, fish in Peru were harvested mainly for human consumption. The total
annual catch was 86,000 tons. 2) In 1953, the first fish meal plants were developed.

3) Within 9 years, Peru became the number one fishing nation in the world by volume. 4) This lead to a period of boom years in Peru. 1,700 purse seiners exploited a 7-month
fishing season.

Since early 1960s fish catch volume increased dramatically until it reached 1st peak at 10.5 M m.t. The following years It went below 9M m.t. indicating that the fish stock at sustainable yield is between 10.5 and 9M m.t.

2nd higher peak was attained at about 12M m.t. but this was not sustained Indicating that this is beyond the MSY 3rd highest peak was attained but the reduction in subsequent catch was so abrupt Indicating a collapse in the fishery

Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)

5) Fearing a crash, in 1970, a group of scientists in the Peruvian government issued a
warning. They estimated that the sustainable yield was around 9.5 million tons, a number that was currently being surpassed The government turned a deaf ear toward its own scientists. Due to the collapse of the Norwegian and Icelandic herring fisheries the previous year, Peru was more poised than ever to earn yet more hard currency.

6) Therefore, in 1970, the government allowed a harvest of 12.4 million tons. The following
year, 10.5 million tons were harvested. In 1972, the combination of an El Nino year and the prolonged overfishing led to a complete collapse of the fishery. It has not recovered. 2. Philippine Fishery Production

a. Total Annual Fish Production: The Graph below shows that the country’s total fish production has kept on increasing. However closer look at the data shows the following:

1) However, a closer look shows that the municipal fish catch has attained its highest in 1991 and it went down until itslowest in 1998 and slowly increasing until 2005 which is at the level of 1991. It be said that the municipal fishing ground has become overfished but the expansion of fishing grounds by the municipal fishers in the deeper waters has kept the fish catch of the municipal fishers appear increasing.

Fish Production By Sector
Total Value of Production: 2001 - P106.98B 2002 - 113.26B 2003 - 119.87B
Total Number of Fisherfolk Income per month (assuming equal distribution of wealth)

5 out of 20 species are demersal

4000 3500 3000 2500 Production (x000 m.t.) 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Aquaculture P 36.634B 35.418B 37.199B 250,000 P12,399 P413/day

Municipal Comm’l 34.222 36.089 38.158 39.681 40.664 42.003 total 700,000 50,000 P 4,840 P 70,005 3619 P 161/day P2,333/dayGrowth rate of 5.5% Cumulative 3369 5.5% growth 3147 Rate (base=1998)
Population Growth rate (base=1998)
Intensified technology and mariculture

Major Marine Fish Production


d dsc a


indian Philippine Marine Fish P

Top 5 species are: 1.roundscad 300 2.frigate tuna 3. indian sardine 4. skipjack 5. yellowfin/big-eye 250
Indian sar dine


municipal skipjac commercial total fimbria






Metric Tons

977 1042 989 970

1,110 1055. CRM projects
Offshore fishing

Deep-sea expansion

te ga Fri

a tun

x 1000 Metric Tons

2005 data: Aquaculture = 1,895,847 m.t. Commercial = 1,133,976 m.t. Municipal Marine = 988,240 m.t. Municipal Inland = 143,806 m.t. Total municipal=1,132,046 m.t.

Population Growth Rate of 2.36%
commercial aquaculture





indian squid flying

/ bi fi n 150lowBigeye scad Yel

jac Skip



eye g-


Population Growth Rate of 2.36%
Municipal (marine/inland)
6.5% growth rate (base=1998) Population Growth rate= 2.36% (base=1998)

anch ovies

rel Indian mac ke

blue c




(demersal) (demersal)


1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003









no. fishing boats c. d. provincial species

0 2001



0 2002 2003 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 Year

2) The commercial fish catch appears to be continuously increasing although not significantly until 2003 and even until 2005 and the reason is the expansion of fishing grounds by the commercial fishers particularly after the implementation of RA 8550 beyond the municipal water. However, intrusion of commercial fishing boats into the municipal water has been occurring particularly in areas where fishery law enforcement is not strict.

3) Aquaculture production which was the lowest of the 3 sectors in 1991 has been very much on top in 2003 and even until 2005. Just like the world trend in fish production, it is the aquaculture sector which keeps the country’s total fish production appear to be increasing significantly..


Fish Production by Sub-Sector

1) Graph below shows that for the municipal marine fish catch, the municipal marine fish catch was higher than commercial fish catch during 2003-2005.

Fish Production by Sub-sector
Seaweed significant increase Municipal slight increase

1600 1400 1200 Production ('000MT) 1000 800 600 400 200 0
ag e an d

Mun marine increasing

2003 2004 2005

Brackishwater / freshwater pond slight increase Marine pen / cage showing increasing trend

ee ds

st er oy






at er po n

er c

ar in

pe n/ ca


n/ c

in l




wa te r








wa te r






2) For fishponds, both the brackishwater and freshwater fishponds have almost same increase in volume of production during 2003-2005.

Fr e




in e





se l


3) For mariculture, it is the seaweed culture that provided the significantly highest increase in the volume of production followed by marine cage/pen culture. It is the seaweed production alone that contributed to the significant increase in the overall aquaculture production.


Fish Food Supply and Security

The Graph shows that population growth rate of the country is gradually increasing while the catch per unit effort (CPUE) is decreasing. This means that the available fish supply is decreasing over the years and therefore the animal protein requirement of the Filipinos is becoming less available or scarce. This situation will be the basis for unlimited importation of cheap fishery products from developed countries due to subsidy being provided by those countries to their fishers and lower tariff rates charged against imported fishery products.

d. What marine species that contributed to the slight increase in marine fish production? It is the Indian sardine (tamban) that has the highest increase in volume of catch, followed by
F E Y I R i a e n o m s l d u b t l i n r e o a d i r w n s a n f c t i s a e l n a d d i r t s d s t l i e a l i n c g e r d h e i t s a n u i s e n g i a n c i g n s r f c e i

Major Marine Species Caught
350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
R nd In s ca d s d Fr r din gt e e t Yl S una w k ip fin /b jack ig -e y Bg e ey e Fm Ind d br m k td re Es s l trn rdi n li t e tt u An na ch Sl v y pm ou th In do Sq Pc u id f Th c M rd k r fn l b C rm r Bl eva ue lle c Fl rab yi ng s fs Si h ga n C id av Sn all a ap pe r

2004 2005

Volume ('000 MT)

Fimbriated sardine (tunsoy), yellowfin / big-eyed tuna, while the other species with slight increase during 2003-2005.


e n s a a i e n s f t i n c i g a n n c t r e. What species that contributed to significant increase in aquaculture production? It is the seaweed e which is highest in increase in volume of production by 350,000 m.t., followed by bangus by 43,000 m.t., i a n s then 27,000 m.t., and with other species like tiger prawns, carp, oyster, and mussel having c e lesser increase. r e a s e Aquaculture Production

1600 1400 1200 Volume ('000 MT) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 seaw eeds milkfish tilapia 289.2 273.5 246.5 163 145.9 136 988.9 1338.6 1204.8

2003 2004 2005

37.7 16.5 17.2 20.1 35.9 15 15.9 13.8 35 8.9 14.5 13.5 tiger praw n carp oyster mussel

Major Species

f. Extent of competition between commercial and municipal fishers in terms of species? The Graph below shows that both commercial fishers and municipal fishers are competing for the same

Marine Fish Catch in 2003

300000 250000 Catch (metric tons) 200000 150000 100000 50000 0
tu na tu na ad

commercial municipal

ia te d

In d



Fi m


speciesof fish. On top is roundscad (galunggong), followed by Indian sardine (tamban), frigate tuna (tulingan), yellowfin / big-eyed tuna (tambakol), skipjack (gulyasan), big-eyed scad (matangbaka), slipmouth (sapsap), Indian mackerel (alumahan), and anchovy (dilis). Since galunggong and the other small pelagic species are usually dominant in the nearshore and offshore area of the municipal water, this indicates that commercial fishing boats intrude into the municipal fishing grounds.

In d


e m ou ia n th m ac ke re A l nc ho vi es S qu id B lu e cr ab S lip


ds ca d


rd in

at e

pj a

w fin

d ye


ou n

Fr ig

ia n


el lo

ig -e




rd in


g. Extent of competition between municipal fishers with motorized and non-motorized bancas? The Graph below shows that in 2000 there were more fishers using non-motorized bancas about twice as much than those with motorized bancas: the highest is in Region 4, followed by Region 8, Region 7, Region 5, and Region 9. Comparing the Graph on number of Bancas and Graph on fish catch, it is in Region 7 and 8 in which catch per bancais lowest. There is a sign of overcapitalization leading to the a situation of overfishing.

Number of Municipal Bancas (2000)
50000 45000
43,358 35,262 26,569 18,375 11,641 6,037 1,802 611 1,502 49 8,663

Motorized Non-motorized
41,813 37,042 32,370

Number of Bancas

40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

25,574 20,081 12,717 11,382 11,20212,193 8,088 7,442 6,569 2,671

19,453 19,100 16,234 16,255 13,280



















Municipal Marine Fish Catch 2000-2005
200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
M an il a C AR R eg 1 R eg 2 R eg 3 4A M et ro
Regions with increase Regions with significant increase

Volume of Catch (metric tons)

h. Where are the centers of commercial fishing boats? Graphs below show that NCR which is part of Region 4-A has the highest number of commercial fishing boats and tonnage level which means that NCR has bigger size of bancaper gross tonnage. The next highest is Region 11 (Davao provinces) followed by Region 6 (Panay / Negros Occ), and Region IX (Zamboanga provinces). The NCR boats are based in NCR and docking their catch at the Navotas Fish Port but the fishing grounds areall over the country. In terms of catch, it is Region 9 with highest volume of catch per banca. The commercial boats based in Davao are landing their catch at Region 12 particularly General SantosCity. On the other hand, Region 6 has the lowest catch per fishing boat due to the overfished conditions of the fishing grounds in Negros Occidental and Panayprovinces. This means that commercial fishers in these areas are not making much profit than those in Region 9 and elsewhere.

4B eg 5 R eg 6 R eg 7 R eg 8 R eg R 9 eg 1 R 0 eg 1 R 1 eg C AR 12 A G A AR M M R


Number of Commercial Fishing Boats and Total Tonnage (1999)

1800 Number / Tonnage (x100) 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 113 64 0
40 221 1,351

Number of Boats Gross Tonnage

555 404 160 124 392


























Volume of catch (metric tons)

R 2 e 0 g 0 i 5 0 o n s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e

Commercial Fish Catch in 2000-2005
300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0
2 R M et eg ro 3 M an ila 4A 1 5 6 7 8 9 eg R R 1 R 0 eg 1 R 1 eg 1 C AR 2 A G A AR M M AR 4B eg C eg eg eg eg eg R R R R R R eg


What are the statusof the fishing grounds or fishery in the different provinces of the country?


Map and Graphs of marine fish production of the selected and representative provinces show

that Surigao del Sur, Surigao del Norte and Negros Occidental have significant declining marine fish catchindicating a heavily overfished condition of the fishing grounds. The fishing grounds in Regions 5 and 8 or those facing the Pacific Oceans and Palawan are showing continuous increase in marine fish catch.

Marine Fish Production in W estern Samar F is h C a tc h (m e tric ton s )

Philippine Map showing the Mining Project Areas and Graphs on Marine Fish Catch of Selected Provinces

Municipal 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1980 2943 18317 15374 Commercial Total
Start of CERD Program Maqueda Bay (1989)

Start WESAMAR program

CERD Calbayog program

CERD Almagro program



23335 24179 16485 17364


14982 8070


9994 8054 1940

10402 7385 3017 1995 2000 2001
2002 2003 2004


6815 6,158




1990 Year

Municipal Marine Fish Production in Catanduanes 9,000 8,000 Metric Tons
municipal commercial total

7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000

Marine Fish Production in Camarines Sur 1,000
0 1998 1999 2000 2001 Year 2002 2003 2004





ng hi fis




ou gr

0,000 Fish Catch in Iloilo

municipal commercial otal 0





2001 Year




99 commercial 2000 2001

atch in Negros Occidental municipal





Marine Fish Production in Palawan 180,000 160,000 140,000
Marine Fish Production in South Cotabato
municipal commercial total

Decreasing catch

municipal commercial total


Metric Tons

120,000 100,000

Marine Fish Catch in Surigao del Sur
Highest catch



80,000 60,000 20,000



Metric Tons


Highest catch 1) ReducedP50/kg) (P500M at by 10,000 m.t.
Reduced by 10,000 m.t. or

Year 40,000
0 80000 1998 70000

municipal commercial total

Fish Catch (metric tons)

Marine Fish Production in Cebu 150,000
100,000 50,000 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004


Note: Provincial catch erratic and declined from 2001 (14, 2003 (12,028 m.t.) by 4,500 m.t. Increase 2) Hinatuan catch increased from 2001 from 10,500 m.t. in 1998 (2-3kgs/day) to 2004 (3-8kgs/day) to 14,500m.t. in 2001 using fish corral, gill net, fish trap

or 42%



2001 Year




Tuna fishing ground

15000 10000 5000 0



? 12,028

60000 Metric Tons 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 Year

Catch = 3-8kgs/day Commercial Average daily Average daily Average daily Catch = 2-3kgs/day Catch = 3-8kgs/day Catch = 2-3 kgs/dayin Hinatuan (2004) in Hinatuan (2001) In Hinatuan (2001)
1,002 1,038

Municipal 10,976 Average daily



1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year




2) Based on the fish production at the regional levels, the Map below shows that the Regions with increasing municipal marine fish catch are: Regions 4-B, 5, and 8; those with increasing commercial fish catch are: Regions 4-B, 5, 8, 9, ARMM, and 12; and those with increasing aquaculture production are: Region 4-B, 9, and ARMM. Regions with increasing marine fish catch have areas for expansion of fishing activities even beyond the 15-km limit for deepsea fishing using motorized bancas.

Volume of Catch (metric tons)

Volume (M.T.) Metric Tons

200,000 200000
180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0

Municipal Marine Fish Catch 2000-2005

Municipal Marine Fish Catch 2000-2005

troM Ma an ni i l la a C AR R eg 1 R eg 2 R eg 3

M et Mro e

Regions Commercial Fish Catch in 2000-2005

Volume of Catch (metric tons)

300,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0
ni la

Commercial Marine Fish Catch 2000-2005




3 4A 4B 5 5

4B R eg 5 R eg 6 R eg 7 R eg 8 R eg 9 R eg 1 R 0 eg 1 R 1 eg 1 C C AR 2 ar AG a A A A gR R aM M M


7 8

8 10 11 12











M a







M et ro





















Deep-sea “Payao”










LEGEND: Regions with increasing production Municipal fish catch Aquaculture Production Commercial fish catch Regions with levelling-off or decreasing fish catch


6 7
Deep-sea “Payao” REGION 9
ARMM REGION 12 Deep-sea “Payao”

Aquaculture Production in 2001-2005

Aquaculture Production 2001-2005
600000 600,000 Volume in metric tons 500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0
ila 7 AR R eg 1 R eg 2 R eg 3 5 6 8 9 eg eg M an C eg eg eg eg eg eg A AR R R R R R M M 10 12 C 11 G A 4A 4B

M et ro

3) Regions 6, 7, 10, and Caraga which are mostly in interior seas and with high population density Region are characterized with insignificant increase or with leveled-off or decreasing catch. The overfished situation of Region 7 (central visayas) has been articulated by Prof. N. Armada of U.P. Visayasin his report through the conduct of systematic study. Bohol (Panglao Island) which is part of Region 7 is considered to be one area of the country which has the most diverse organisms of coals and coral-related fish. However, there can be a situation in which there is high biodiversity and high biomass of organisms





within the protected coral reef areas but the fish biomass of coral-dependent commercial species outside of the coral reef or in the open water can be very low due to overfishing.

4) The Pacific side around Bicol and Samar as well as Palawan are being utilized or potentials for the deep-sea “payao” fishing projects. Sardines and tuna which are the top species caught and that contributes to the slightly increasing trend in the marine fish production are caught in these areas where deep-sea fishing projects are viable and can be made sustainable.

5) Mariculture highways have been declared in Palawanareas Samar-Leyte areas. In fact, mariculture parks and sites have been established and declared already in certain areas and certain fish cage projects using bangus as stocks have become successful technically and financially. V. Conclusions and Recommendations

1. CRM of various types has been implemented in the Philippines and it is the central visayasregion that has the most number of projects related to fish habitat management and fish stock management. But the inadequacy of fishery regulatory measures and lack of alternative livelihood or income diversification which is associated with lack of capability of the organized fisherfolkto engage in non-fishing but fisheries-related livelihood development projects, the pressure on the fishery resources particularly in poverty-stricken areas is very high. In fact, those fishery law enforcers coming from the ranks of small fishers and not belonging to the authorities have been exposed to death threats and some have become victims of killings as what happened not too long ago somewhere in Cebu.

2. The existence of different NGOs doing different approaches in CRM program implementation adheres to the concept that there is more stability in diversity of approaches and methodologies which are adaptable to the concrete conditions of the program areas. However, the CRM programs should adopt the sustainable development principles that include gender development. Moreover, there should be a realistic framework of operationalizationof CRM programs and project that focus on resolving the 4 strategic issues of poverty, political marginalization, environmental degradation, and business monopoly.

3. Since CRM programs are concerned on mobilizing the major stakeholders coming from the civil society sector (e.g. NGOs and POs), government sector (e.g. LGU/LGA and their instrumentalities), and business sector (e.g. investors on fisheries projects) to institutionalize CRM pursuant to RA 8550 of 1998 and LGC of 1991, priority should be given to capability building of the POs as well as the partnerfacilitator-NGOs and the LGUs-LGAs.

4. It has already been a practice that those implementing CRM programs are making evaluations of the program implementation to be able to cull lessons and determine best practices for adoption in other

areas. This includes best practices in resolving the interrelated strategic issues through co-management in fisheries resources, participatory and good governance, engagement in livelihood development projects, and equity-driven business development, In the third world countries like the Philippines, the CRM should focus on developing the capability of the POs in doing livelihood development projects like mariculture projects (technical skills, project proposal making and accessing of funds, project management and marketing, among others) whose tangible results and goal being realizable in the shortterm can enable, empower, and energize the POs to facilitate the process towards the realization of the other interrelated goals of co-management in fisheries resources, participatory and good governance, and equity-driven development.

5. Different CRM stakeholder-organizations have different tasks, roles and responsibilities, rights and obligations, authorities and mandate based on their VMG, Constiand By-laws. When the different stakeholders work together in accordance with their tasks, roles, etc. in implementing for example the MFARMC as co-management body in fisheries resources and participatory good governance then the institutional goal and program goal set by each of the stakeholder-organizations could be easily realized. In reality however, the co-management in fisheries resource projects does not work well due to not welldefined tasks, roles, etc as well as no clear accountability mechanisms pertaining to the partnership or agreement related to co-management. The issue becomes complicated when the stakeholders become bias because of vested interests. There is a need for the NGOs to facilitate the process of recognition, acceptance, and actually doing and being accountable for the tasks, roles, etc when entering into comanagement scheme like the MFARMC and other management bodies the tasks, roles, etc.

6. The fisheries situation as is just part of the environmental degradation issue. But after comprehensive analysis of the fisheries situation, the stakeholders working at the national level can be able to identify priority areas and corresponding focus or strategies for CRM intervention. The national NGOs like CERD and Tambuyog and others who are under the umbrella of NFR can be able to present recommendations and measures to the government or BFAR to address the national fisheries issues and problems, among these are as follows:

a. Regions 6, 7, 10, and CARAGA should exert more efforts in CRM in order to reverse the trend towards overfishing. These regions have become the centers for CRM program and being located at interior seas and having wide expanse of fish habitat like mangrove, seagrass, and corals, these areas provide recruits (e.g. blue crabs and other commercial pelagic fish) to other distant areas like Regions 4B, 5, and 8. Mariculture projects should be encouraged in these areas so that the POs can become energized in pursuing CRM.

b. Regions 4-B, 5, 8, 9, 12, and ARMM should expand its deepsea fishing projects like “payao” towards the EEZ to ensure sustainable marine fish catch and guard the EEZ boundaries against poachers. Regions 4-A (NCR), 6, and 7 which are overcapitalized should study the viability of utilizing certain fishing vessels or disposing them for deep-sea “payao” fishing in Regions 4-B, 5, 8, 9, 12, and ARMM.

c. The establishment of mariculture highways in Palawanand Samar-Leyte will boost marine fishery production. The government and BFAR should give priority to the organized fisherfolks active in CRM in providing technical services and financial resources for mariculture projects, as well as post-harvest facilities like fish landing, cold storage, and transportation.

d. Since addressing the issues related to Philippine marine fisheries entails Herculean tasks and that the fisheries sector represent 26% of the total agricultural production and could further increase up to more than 50% in the near future, there is a need for making BFAR a Department. The plan of making BFAR an agency under DA does not jibe with the current realities that mariculture is becoming a sunshine industry and that the Philippines is recognized as the aquaculture center in Southeast Asia and that the Philippines needs to develop its deepsea tuna fishery by expanding and controlling its fishing grounds in the Pacific Ocean side which is being exploited by foreign fishing vessels from developed countries where the commercial fishers are provided subsidy.

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