República Bolivariana de Venezuela I.U.P “Santiago Mariño” Extensión Porlamar – Edo.

Nueva Esparta

Glosario de Términos

Profesor: José Fermin Integrante Jesús Goncalves #43 Sección: 1D

Porlamar, Octubre de 2012

memory parity error. Absorber: generic term used to describe material used to absorb electromagnetic energy. Generally polyurethane made of . attempt to divide by 0. Examples of abnormal events include system detection of power failure.Electronics and Electrical Engineering A ABCD parameters: a convenient mathematical form that can be used to characterize two-port networks. Ray matrices and beam matrices are similar but are often regarded as distinct. Sometimes referred to as chain parameters. attempt to execute privileged instruction without privileged status. Abnormal event any external or program generated event that makes further normal program execution impossible or undesirable. in which case the ABCD matrix is defined for each two-port network. resulting in a system interrupt. ABCD parameters can also be used in analytic formalisms for propagating Gaussian beams and light rays. ABCD parameters are widely used to model cascaded connections of two-port microwave networks.

thereby giving rise to the term. the removal of stationary parts of a scene by subtracting two images taken at different times. Background subtraction: for images. Input back off is the difference in decibels between the input power required for saturation and that employed. the subtraction of a constant or slowly varying component of the function to better reveals rapid changes. wave Balanced ratio feature a low voltage standing because absorption of reflected power at the terminating resistor of . Output back off refers to the reduction in output power relative to saturation. such networks contain alternating currents as opposed to direct currents. the drive signal is reduced or backed off. Thus. B Back Off: a technique used in amplifiers when operated near saturation that reduces intermodulation products for multiple carriers.AC circuit: electrical network in which the voltage polarity and directions of current flow change continuously. Balanced amplifier: an amplifier in which two singleended amplifiers are operated in parallel with 90-degree amplifiers of hybrid. and often periodically. In its implementation. For 1-D functions.

Cache: an intermediate memory store having storage capacity and access times somewhere in between the general register set and main memory.the hybrids. C Cable: an assembly of insulated conductors. but the phases are such that the voltage would sum to zero. In a two conductor transmission line. the voltages would be equal and 180 degrees out of phase. Balanced line: symmetric multiconductor transmission line in which the voltage on each conductor along the transmission line has the same magnitude. . Balanced wiring configurations are often used to prevent noise problems such as ground loops. either buried or carried on poles (aerial cable). or balanced with respect to virtual ground. usually a calibration standard traceable to the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). Calibration: the procedure of characterizing the equipment in place for a particular measurement set-up relative to some known quantity. This is the equivalent of a virtual ground plane or zero E-field plane at the geometric center plane of the transmission line cross section.

Calibration standards: a precision device used in the process of calibrating an EM measurement system. It can be a standard gain horn. Darlington bipolar junction transistor: a combination of two bipolar junction transistors (BJT) where the emitter current of one transistor drives the base of the second transistor. Most calibration standards are provided with documentation that can be traced to a set of standards at the NIST. The main sources of dark currents are ohmic leakage due to imperfect insulation and thermionic emission. corresponding to undesired output signals in the absence of light. a load. that includes several copper bars short-circuited by conducting rings at the ends. etc. embedded in the pole shoes of a synchronous machine. a short. used to reduce speed fluctuation in the machine by developing an induction type torque that opposes any change in speed. Used to characterize an RCS. antenna. Dark current: a noise source in photodetectors. and the effective current gain of the combination is approximately the product of individual gains. The configuration can be made from . an open. D Damper winding: an uninsulated winding. or transmission line measurement system. The arrangement reduces the current required from the base driver circuit. sphere.

e. Early vision: the set of (mainly perceptual) processes occurring at an early stage of the vision process. Also known as transverse magnetic (TM) modes. E E modes: the wave solutions with the zero magnetic field components along the direction of propagation.. Fading rate: the rate at which the received signal level crosses the median signal level in a downward direction (i. F Fabry–Perot laser: a laser source where the gain medium is placed within a Fabry–Perot cavity. with a negative slope).two discrete transistors or can be obtained as a single integrated device. . which provides feedback into the laser medium. typically at the retinal level Edge enhancement: a type of image processing operation where edges are enhanced in contrast. It is usually expressed in fades per second or fades per minute. such as by passing only the high spatial frequencies in an image. depending on the actual rate of fading. Several simultaneous lasing modes are supported in such cavities.

The resulting shift in carriers inside the conductor or semiconductor produces a transverse Hall voltage that is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field (for constant current).G Gain coefficient: factor multiplying distance in a formula for the exponential amplitude or intensity growth of a wave in an unsaturated amplifying medium. A half adder has no carry input. Galloping: caused by wind. I . Hall phenomenon charge displaced current effect: where carriers the by are perpendicularly flows in the to their drift velocity when presence of a magnetic field. a low-frequency vibration of electric power lines H Half adder: a logic circuit that produces the sum and carry outputs for two input signals.

The space of all such joint vectors is referred to as joint space. Ignitron: a high-voltage mercury switch. The device is found in modulators used to dump the capacitor bank voltage in the event of a PA crowbar. with infinite input resistance and zero output resistance and insensitive to the frequency of the signal.Ideal operating amplifier: an op amp having infinite gain from input to output. This set of variables is called as the n _ 1 vector. off-axis projections of the red and blue tubes can cause keystone distortion. K K-nearest neighbor algorithm: a method assigned to the class which is most represented among the k nearest neighbors. For direct view television displays. A horizontal trapezoid is the result of the vertical yoke . An ideal op amp is useful in first order analysis of circuits. An ignitron passes electrical current to a pool. an extension of the nearest neighbor algorithm. Keystone distortion: a distortion that presents an image in the shape of a trapezoidal. unequal deflection sensitivities for the two sections of the deflection yoke can result in keystone distortion. For projection television displays. J Joint space: a position and orientation of amanipulator of n degrees of freedom is specifiedas a result of the forward kinematics problem.

Laddertron: a microwave vacuum tube oscillator with a slow-wave structure coupled to a single-cavity resonator.deflection sensitivities. a vertical trapezoid is the result of the horizontal yoke deflection sensitivities. notation. expressed in binary . also legal in C) that marks an instruction or statement as a possible target for a jump or branch. in which individual instructions are represented in binary notation. L Label: a tag in a programming language (usually assembly language. Machine language: the set of legal instructions to a machine’s processor. M Machine code: the machine format of a compiled executable. Similarly.

recognition. and parameterization of objects in the scene. Object based coding: video compression based on the extraction. Known-object coding relies on the detection of objects for which the system has a high-level structural model. Unknown-object coding finds geometrical structures representing 2D or 3D surfaces and codes these areas and their movement efficiently. of a metric distance equivalent to one billionth of a O Object: in object-orientation. an instance of a class definition. typically on the order of nanometers in size. P PAC learning: a supervised learning framework in which training examples x are randomly and independently drawn from a . Nanometer: measure meter.N Nanolithography: lithography involving the printing of ultrasmall features.

Sag: a decline ranging from 0. safe manner.5 cycles to 1 minute. approximation to the target function.x/ of the target function to be learned. to learn a close Q Quadratic phase coupling: a measure of the degree to which specific frequencies interact to produce a third frequency. on the basis of a finite number of examples. is able.fixed. Radar is an acronym that stands for radio detection and ranging. Nature and distance to the target. approximately correct) learning algorithm is one which.9 in RMS voltage or current at the supply frequency for a time period of 0. A PAC (probably. with high probability. but unknown. . Each example is labeled with the value f . R Raceway: a channel within a building which holds bare or insulated conductors.1 to 0. probability distribution on the set of all examples. S Safety: the probability that a system will either perform its functions correctly or will discontinue its functions in a well-defined.

Friction devices are placed against the shaft of the device being measured. Several are types tachometers available. . Tach generators are often used in servo systems. in which data was recirculating through a column of mercury. to are Others used magnetic variation or reflected light pulses determine Tachometer the generators speed. U Ultrasonic stored as memory: ultrasonic obsolete sound form of memory.T Tachometer: a instrument used to measure the speed of a rotating of device. mounted on the shaft of the device being measured and provide a voltage proportional to the speed. Also called mercury delayline memory.

. Valence band: the lower of the two partially filled bands in a semiconductor. Y Yconnection: a three-phase source or load which is connected such that the elements are connected in parallel and are thus represented in a schematic diagram in a Y or star–shaped configuration. X X-ray: short wavelength electromagnetic radiation.V Vagueness: a property indicating the lack of specifics and clarity and which is allied to imprecision and fuzziness. often considered to range from about 0. Also called a slice or substrate.1 to 100 °A. W Wafer: a thin slice of semiconductor material on which semiconductor devices is made.

Zener diodes are deliberately fabricated to operate in the reverse breakdown region at a specified voltage and are often used in voltage reference or voltage regulator circuits. and will move with any circuit element change (susceptible to load pulling). Zero the values of a complex function which cause the value of the function to equal zero. . They are influenced by all elements in the circuit. The zeros are all natural frequencies of vibration.Z Zener diode: a pn-junction diode that has an abrupt rise in current at a reverse-bias voltage Vz. which is usually between 3 to 6 volts. or resonances of the circuit described by the equation.