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.....August 1996 ....m... 070.. 070-3516430 Sophisticated transportation sol utions Using inexpensive and effective methods to beat peak-hour congestion Transportation demand management policy document .....3517086 / Fax............ Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat Informatie en Documentatie Postbus 20901 2500 EX Oen Haag Tel.
Central government wil1 be providing 37 million guilders up to the year 2000. The challenge we face is to do a great deal more. Activities during the strategy's early years have been directed mainly at gathering expertise and experience. Efforts t o develop these programmes need to be stepped up. Other than this. "promotion points" have been set up and transport consultants hired for supplying businesses with the support they need to implement their own TDM strategies. Government's invitation to companies and institutions is loud and clear. Companies now have to demonstrate that they. If they do not. The substance of the TDM approach consists in joint action between the public and private sectors. As such it is a welcome addition to projects for building new infrastructure and optimizing utilization of the capacity we already have. can play their part in improving accessibility. which do after al1 generate the commuter traffic. however. accessibility and quality of life. If the additional effort needed is made. enabling firms to reduce car kilometres by an average of 14%. TDM also places responsibilitiesclose to where they belong . Trials show. that ought to be possible. there is little more that government can do within its present "voluntarist" approach. Covernment sees its own task primarily as that of creating a framework for innovative solutions and facilitating their introduction. The message is for them to accept the challenge not just of recognizing their responsibility for the problem of traffic congestion but also taking effective action to solve it. although their effectiveness remains insufficient. 2 . the scale and impact of these programs can be expected . From the outset. the aim being to respond to actual needs as they arise during this phase of TDM strategy. Numerous pilot projects are receiving support.Policy document summary Transport policy is geared primarily to the challenge of achieving the best possible combination of prosperity. In so doing they wil1 be contributing to the prevention of further damage to the economy and society as a whole. Moreover. The bal1 is now firmly in the business community's court. A vital component of government's effort to communicate with business is consultancy. The transportation demand management (TDM) approach is a tool for achieving this objective by influencing commuting patterns. from trade-press information to companies providing advice to employees willing to move closer to work. Already. that TDM measures do have the potential to be effective. This avenue is already being explored. the scale is far from sufficient.namely. Around 14% of companies have such a program. Besides being relatively inexpensive. government wil1 probably have to introduce measures of a more compulsory nature. and that requires the cooperation of business. The key to success lies in changing mobility patterns and the types of transport that employees choose. Some companies now also have hardand-fast rules on TDM matters. The target scenario described in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SVV 11) requires adjustment to the opportunities as they actually are. While results certainly are being achieved. the path chosen by government has been one of inspiring and motivating. developing other types of transport as alternatives to single-occupant car travel as wel1 as enhancing cooperation between government and business nationally and regionally. too. Results on the scale desired wil1 not be forthcoming immediately. companies.to grow as more and more firms emulate the increasing number of examples they see. These range from bicycle leasing to car-pooling. The number of companies operating employer trip reduction programs is increasing steadily.
The n prosperity and create jobs are therefore leading to u see this in the growing congestion on our roads.2 TDM off to an optimistic start. on t 6% drop in car traffic in the morning peak-hour. with it. various objectives were specified in the Second Transp Within six years al1 companies. institutions and gov more than fifty people were to have their own em The document required the number of car kilometres that these organi contribute to commuter flows to fall by 20%. Not that unbridled expansion of the infrastructure is even an option . Alternatives are required if impending gridlock is to be prevented. car traffic. These Accessibility Progress Reports were presented to the Lower House of the Dutch Parliament in 1994 and 1995. 1. While the document's authors derived their figures from experience in the United States . In 1989.he challenge 1.for technical. especially durin and in the heavily urbanized Randstad region in the west of the time for change. The reports' 3 . 1. Ensurin responsibilities in this respect poses a major challenge which transportation dernand management (TDM) w appropriate response. This increases mobility and.here too the strategy's success wil1 depend on spurring companies int0 taking effective action. notably in the Randstad. The message is that we are simply unable to expand the road network sufficiently to accommodate car traffic at its projected growth rates.3 "Traffic-jam" memoranda crystal clear. By virtue of the very economic acti companies can influence traffic flows directly. environrnental and social reasons.a country where both circumstances and attitudes differ greatly from those in the Netherlands .1 The economy is growing.
Public Worlts and Water Management. McKinsey's prime recommendation for reducing congestion is to influence the way people choose their means of transport. While decision action needs to be based on creative ways of encouraging employees to shift to alternatives that already exist. Individual businesses are being asked t o introduce those TDM strategies that are suitable for them. thereby effecting a change in mobility patterns. types of transport as yet entirely novel may also have a role. As a relatively new component of transport policy. effectively and at low cost. The selective building of new infrastructure cannot be seen in isolation from the need to improve use of the existing road network. In cooperation with other organizations and government agencies as wel1 as the business community itself. Collaboration between the authorities . which quickly rise to between sixty and a hundred guilders per hour that would have been lost.conclusion is underscored by a Mcl<insey & Company investigation .commissioned by the Ministry of Transport.entitled "Utilizing besides building" .7 Decisive action requires modernization. cycling and public transport are the most obvious alternatives to SOV trips. there is ample scope for this approach to bring tangible benefits. Mcl<insey & Company estimate that TDM is fifteen times cheaper for government than building new infrastructure would be. TDM needs further investigation. The cost of encouraging people to shift from single-occupant vehicle (SOV) commuting ranges from four t o seventeen guilders for each hour that would otherwise have been lost through traffic congestion. since changes in commuting patterns would yield a 20% decline in road congestion. According to the McKinsey report referred to above the results are promising. New infrastructure projects are expensive.5 Covernment's message is directed mainly at employers.6 integrated approach makes policy effective. This is the challenge . Car-pooling. investigated and solved on an integrated basis.both for government and the business community.4 Managing is cheaper than building. experimentation and the development of expertise.and business is needed for this integrated approach to be arrived at. This can be done rapidly. 1. Civen that half of al1 commuter trips are by car. It is essential for transport issues to be approached. especially in areas that suffer badly from congestion.is far cheaper. 4 . 1. 1. the Transport Ministry is going about creating the broad support necessary for TDM strategies to succeed. This compares extremely favourably with the costs of expanding the infrastructure.and creating the conditions for employees t o choose alternative transport arrangements . 1.at regional and local level . Using existing facilities more effectively .
This saying may not sound exactly flattering but it does have the virtue of encapsulating the Transport Ministry's enthusiastic respons initiative by nine captains of Dutch industry. People generally change their behaviour when the particular objective really is necessary Convincing them t difference wil1 then be what finally spurs them into action.1 Get one sheep over the dam and more wil1 follow. The appeal for TDM strategies to be implemented is not limited to individual companies. 5 . These bodies recognize that. environmental sustainability and an efficient transport sector is to be achieved. then they too have a role to PlaY. Umbrella organizations are also being encouraged to contribute actively. attended by hundreds of company directors and promises to promote TDM 2. if the optimum combination of economic development. I the Transportation Demand Management Recommendation nationwide business meeting close to the highly central Oudenrijn intersection -then undergoing reconstruction. as wel1 as groups representing the interests of motorists and the motor trade such as the ANWB and BOVAG/RAI.2 Mass-membership organizations also addressed. the Transportation Demand Management Recommendation Com body is intended to take the lead on TDM issues assume their responsibility and help reduce the s mass commuting. Acting jointly. Bodies prepared to listen include the employers' federations VNO/NCW and MKB.he invitation 2.in September 1994.
Neither wil1 a location's accessibility be any the worse . This is why. However. In a document entitled Location Policy for Businesces and Facilities. central government lays down standards for company parking facilities. This is a highly effective way of reducing car use. it may even improve. Companies also bear a degree of responsibility for the detrimental effects of traffic flows. A company may then even be spurred int0 introducing a whole raft of environmental measures.3 Good examples are trendsetters. every government department was instructed by the Cabinet to prepare a employer trip reduction plan aimed at reducing car use for commuting and business travel. Business is subject to certain social constraints. A priority-based distinction is drawn between what 6 .indeed.5 Cutting back on company parking facilities. since they help cause them. For this reason the Ministry of Transport. This is the principle that underlies public-nuisance and environmental legislation. While the government regards this as a decisive argument for applying TDM strategies. 2. in 1991. By the end of 1995. many individual entrepreneurs have yet to recognize that they have any responsibility at all.4 There are so many reasons to act. The Minister of the Interior was given the job of coordinating this initiative. for instance).2. 2. every department and three High Councils of State had drawn up its own employer trip reduction program as required. individual ministries are still finding actual implementation difficult. with five departments reporting that their staff are driving 20% fewer car kilometres. with companies required to take responsibility for the detrimental effects of their activities. The number of single occupant vehicles has fallen for al1 departments. notably regarding possible savings both for them and their employees (lower costs for providing parking facilities. thus improving its image to the outside world. Public Works and Water Management is expressly highlighting Imock-on benefits for firms that introduce TDM.
incentive premiums and other financi increase employees' readiness to give up commuting in shown a list of possible facilities and activities (see Table 1). The Transport Ministry has chosen to start by motivating companies to take action voluntari that actually work is crucial to success.7 Advent of new patterns of working. Placing its faith in coope government is encouraging companies to adapt their existing arrange work towards these standards as a way of implementing effective TDM strategies. .coupled with the more flexi working hours now being widely introduced . Reducing unnecessary parking space and being parsímoniousabou allocating it is key to this. . the min about the principal contenders such as tar-pooli Moreover. . . 2.. Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat .RQ$sjbitity suggested to companies. 070-3516430 Table 1 List of possible facilities and activities call-a-car schemes 7 .are termed "A" and "6" locations.3517086 / Fax. . with two days' teleworking a week cutting a person's commu requirement by 40%. 2. informatie en Documentatie Postbus 20901 2500 EX Oen Haag Tel. . The closer their new home. the larger the premium.6 Providingfeasible alternatives.important .helps employees to avoid peak-hour traffic Another highly effective option open to companies is to shift their opening and closing times to outside peak periods The same applies to reducing the working week from five to four days. b . . Requiring people who commute in SOVs aione to pay for parking is a further . . Telecommuting is one highly effective way of reducing people's need t commute. . I . 070. . This new way of working . It is also a simple matter to provide financial incentives for people prepared to move closer to where they work. . . . . .
they organized six regional round tables attended by board members of large companies as wel1 as representativesfrom provincial and local government. are displaying an active commitment. The use to which the acquired expertise and experience can be put is therefore optimized. setting up a support unit for the local Transportation Management Associations (VCCs). active exchange of information is taking place between the different regions. Throughout the Netherlands. A differentiated approach als0 stimulates those directly involved.3 Getting around the table. Senior managers in the Transportation Demand Management Recommendation Cornmittee have opted for a gradual process that wil1 become self-sustaining. The four chambers in Noord-Brabant province are even going so far as to coordinate public. buoyed by the success of their Oudenrijn motorway meeting.1 Central government's role is to encourage. as wel1 as with businesses in the respective areas. 3. 8 . In 1995.this is the Nationwide Employee Transportation Coordinators' Forum (LMV). Special sessions facilitated by the Transport Ministry were held both in 1994 and 1995. in its role as coordinator. Of the thirty such bodies in the Netherlands. too. 3. responsibility for promoting initiatives lies with the regional managements of the Department of Public Worlts. Al1 twelve are making active efforts to stimulate TDM strategies. Chambers of commerce elsewhere in the country.and private-sector efforts at provincial level. This makes it vital to gear activities to differing regional requirements and respond to these.2 Development in the regions. The Transportation Demand Management Recommendation Committee also offers a highly inspirational discussion arena for staff responsible for implementing their companies' internal TDM strategies . Accordingly the options chosen wil1 vary from one area to another although. This proved to be a good opportunity for people to meet.eveloping initiatives 3. with the "tradition" being continued in 1996. twelve are in the urban Randstad region. A key indicator of how successful these activities are proving is the extent to which local chambers of commerce have been prepared to get involved. the Transport Ministry does ensure that an ongoing. This has provided the basis for cooperation with government at regional and local level. exchange views and get down to working together.
set objectives and work out then opt for. say. The private sector.including more attractive tax arrangements . been introduced. Even more effective. pilot schemes are to commence in autumn 1996. Quality and a clear market identity wil1 be central.3 million staff. and has confirmed this in an agreement with the Ministry of Transport.4 Reliable information is crucial. Making working hours more flexible is one way of reducing traffic congestion because staggering travel times does work. most notably the Rijnstate hospital in Arnhem. Any desired change in behaviour can only be brought about on the b useable information. a manual has been prepared especially companies and institutions. which als0 dovetails with a perceived need to revamp the image of minibus transport. Bicycle leasing has been quick to carve out a plac Same applies to new types of company parking f requirement-matching systems for car-poolers.5 New types of transportforthcoming. 3. 3. Companies and institutions are themselves adopting this highly innovative idea. The social partners say they are ready to introduce telecommuting arrangements as well as more flexible working hours. A few years ago the Dutch organization for applied Scientific research (TNO) estimated the potential at around 1. This publication. Further to the report. After considering US experience with van pooling. or they have to make their way home at unsocial hours after working overtime . 9 .also seems to have been well received by Dutch employers. there would appear to be a gap in the market. The establishment of the Dutch Teleworking Forum is another encouraging sign. nevertheless a figure of 400. Although not al1 these people wil1 take the actual step of shifting to a largely telecommunications-based relationship with their companies. Public Works and Water Management.6 American systems look viable. entitled "Transportation deman management. the Ministry of Transpo Management also contributes to the trade journa people involved in transportation demand manag keeps them up to date with the latest opinions and 3. The US "guaranteed ride home" for staff in special circumstances . A programme of expansion needs to cover a broad spec Transport Ministry is therefore encouraging innovative tran as supporting pilot schemes.if they are taken ill. At present there are around 80. The Transport Ministry sees its own role here as limited to improving the overall conditions . the Dutch government has produced a report concluding that the idea is als0 worth trying in the Netherlands. is not travelling at all.for such initiatives. is intended to help managers to consider the issues.7 Business community promises to "wire up". a new challenge for businesses". Jhis is why the Transport Ministry has been initiating and stimulating activities with regard not only to flexible working hours but also telecommuting.000 teleworkers in the Netherlands. The Council of Central Employers' Organizations (RCO) is prepared to stimulate these initiatives. Whatever else may be true.000 is regarded as realistic for the future. Moreover. one fact is incontrovertible reducing cars' physical availability wil1 inevitably cut road commuting. however.3. Accordingly. Since this is a segment that public-transport operators are either unable or unwilling to serve.
for which the ministry has produced a separate brochure.for bicycle commuters. Here. and a method that enables these companies to factor in the mobility aspect has also been devised. with solutions in the realm of TDM constituting a vital part of the response. however. The provision of incentives is the obvious response. A key consideration is that no one who drives to work alone should suffer disadvantage by switching to alternative transport. and the appropriate research is being conducted. special characteristics may play a role. 95 Civen the traffic and environmental problems in our area it is necessary for my company to operate a TDM strategy. One such segment is hospitals with their specialized transport requirements. however. Accordingly. 94 Jan.3. however. Table 2 Company attitudes towards TDM Attitudes: agreement expressed Jan. Identifying common features is desirable. extensive investigations are conducted on the basis of a series of "quick scans" of each company's needs and possibilities. 3. Source: Beleidsmonitor Vervoersmanagement1994.10 From attitude to behaviour. Companies and their circumstances are too varied for a single. For instance. Civen the importance of tailoring approaches to local requirements.O% 10 . is classification of companies according to their attitudes and possibilities. The results can then be used as a basis for targeted advice and support. The "Creening" interdepartmental working group is investigating the possibilities. too.8 TDM must be tailored to requirements. 3. Even more important than segmentation.9 Clearing away tax impediments. companies looking to relocate receive particular attention. The vast majority of companies accept their own responsibility to society for transport problems. As soon as concrete action on their part i s suggested. A logica1 method is to divide target groups into segments that each require their own approach.0% 21 . standard approach t o be suitable.1995 21. measures introduced by the authorities include favourable tax arrangements taking effect in 1995 . The tax authorities can adopt a stick-and-carrot approach to reducing the strains on the road network and wider environment. they score less positively on attitude (table 2 ) .
The Transport M i n mere 14% of target companies operate an employer trip reduction progra reported by the ministry's in-house publica ment.utcomes 4. however. devising their own transport schemes and arriving at. This may explain the reluctance to implemen whole feels it is being strangulated by the da munity as a whole also articulates a litany of contrast to this. Seven of the companies have dropped out but the rest are persevering with the programme.--___ ~ l _ l l l l l ' J An opinion survey the employers' organizations VNO and NCW conducted among their members paints a similar picture. In practice the actual number of programs is increasing al1 the time. on average. companies willing t o take voluntary action to tackle the traffic problems t partially responsible for. the ministry's role being to help them reduce the number of car kilometres their staff were driving. 93% of individual the accessibility of their location. a 14% reduction in car kilometres. Objective measurement should therefore be preferred t o opinion surveys.5 million people. It is this ten experienced individually and collectively that behaviour. 4. companies indulge largely in lip-service.1 Individual companies fee1 little pain. in 1995).4 Inspiring examples work. The aim is to identify the various circumstances . This is evident from a Transport Ministry initiative entitled Business-oriented Pilot. ~ - ~ .2 At present. Judging by their acts rather than words. although doubts are expressed as to whether they are as effective as they might be. For al1 the regional differences this is an important thread that runs through today's entire approach to TDM.3 TDM is an effective tooi. a total of around 1. During the course of 1991 contracts were concluded with forty-one companies. At 7% the average for the bigger companies has been rather lower.46% have an employer trip reduction program .this applies to less than 10% of businesses employing from fifty to a hundred people. 4. The target scenario for al1 companies employing more t an employer trip reduction program in plac achieved. 4. While very large companies (> 500) score better . Since large companies sco is 22%.
Until 1991 the Holec manufacturing company in Ridderlkerk. The number of people commuting to work by bicycle has also doubled.and problems in order to promote solutions. Heineken started its Peak-hour bus service between Leiden railway station and its location at de Grote en Barre Polder. Car-poolers are allotted parking facilities closer to where they work. It is currently able to transport around 3. The resulting Botlek bus line serves an area from Maassluis to Nieuwerkerk aan de IJssel in the north to a line stretching from Rockanje to Goeree Overflakkee. In 1992 the Transportation Management Association (VCC) for the Rijnmond area commenced activities with nine member companies. Public Works and Water Management as wel1 as Stichting Europoort/Botlek Belangen. Delft and Rotterdam are also using TDM strategies to tackle their parking problems. too. Following the introduction of TDM. The project is also receiving active support from the Ministry of Transport. between them. The service also helps the companies involved to achieve costs savings. with actual policy implemented by a foundation employing paid staff.000 people). Despite greater variations in working hours the number of car-poolers among Schiphol's staff has doubled to 3.achieved a 30% reduction. Hospitals in Utrecht. Leiden. This initiative proved so successful that it has since been expanded int0 a regular service. private-sector bus service are good. Six have taken up the offer. but capacity could potentially be doubled. with 4. A year later. 75% of capacity was being utilized and the service had been incorporated int0 the regular network. 4. however. The city of Rotterdam. Shell Nederland introduced TDM in 1991. Those prepared to leave the car at home are given a free bicycle. Large companies in Zuid-Holland province are achieving noteworthy results.6 A flying start for TDM. in 1992.000 people. Arnhem's Rijnstate hospital even won the 1995 Transportation Demand Management Award for setting a particularly inspiring example. with the program also requiring KLM staff to pay to garage their cars. south of the port area proper.000 since 1993. 4. 12 i . Businesses in Rotterdam's port area share a problem. These policies mean people living in the vicinity of Schiphol have a better chance of a job there. with Heineken and bus company ZWN each bearing 50% of the costs. Four companies have now integrated their own staff transport operations and invited other firmc to use the service as well. 4. The private and public sectors have joined forces. was not served by any form of public transport. They employ several tens of thousands of people in an area virtually devoid of public transport.two years later the number of car kilometres had fallen by close on 12%. By 1994 this had reduced car kilometres by almost a quarter.employing 1.500 people . with the introduction of paid parking inducing 10% of KLM personnel to surrender their parking passes. The prospects for this joint. a foundation set up to promote the port area's interests.5 Companies join forces.000 staff responding positively. insurance giant Nationale Nederlanden included TDM aspects in the employment terms of some 7. This is no more than one would expect for an international airport like Schiphol along with efficient business-management practices.000 commuters. big numbers. That number has since grown to eighty-three firms who. Over the Same period the Zuid-Holland provincial authority .000 staff . near Rotterdam. a peak-hour bus service from Rotterdam's Zuidplein metro station was introduced. employ 45. is Ikeen to show that TDM should be part of a large municipality's personnel policy (Rotterdam employs 20.7 Big names.
five have dropped out and the rest are continuing t o pool their own cars. In September 1994. th authority. as the experience shows. Moreover. 30% the company's staff use it.the t w o houses of the Dutch parliament . Cycle use is up from 16% to 2 2 % . The States General . Siemens is reducing the pres premises by offering public-transport seaso t o give up their parking space. staff working irregular hours are guaranteed a taxi home when necessary.9 Learning by doing. 13 .10 States General sets the trend. A token charge is made for public-transport season tickets. Limburg province started its first car-pooling scheme. Further incentives are on offer not just for car-poolers but also for bicycle commuters.4. with a further 25% opting to lease a bicycle 4. that figure has dropped to a mere 6%. With many staff responding by switching to o university believes itwill be able toscrap plans to Until the end of 1993.8 Parking policies yield results. Occasionally it proves necessary to do more t o overcome people's inertia about switching to new transport modes. The amount is being raised gradually.has encouraged what is now exemplary commuting behaviour among its staff. The company purchases the 240from the users The upshot has been a shift to car-pooling a In The Hague. Gouda company Compaxo now combats parking collect employees The coaches have a set route and the service IS free. The Utrecht insurance company with its traditional policy of always complying facilities by introducing rationing. Almost fifty firms are involved and around 275 employees have used the four available cars.800 guilders for singleoccupant car drivers while allowing car-poolers to park free. Of the forty-three teams that started off the project. Almost always. Central to its approach is the levying of an annual parking charge of 1. While 3 3 % of staff used to drive to work alone. The fact that the initiative is being prolonged is a sign of its success. staff at clothing company were able to park without difficulty. parking measures wil1 be an integral part of T co. The initiative is working.via their companies. Now. public-transport use from 42% to 68%.free of charge . with the best spaces going t o c and other TDM measures have reduced si Amsterdam's Vrije Universiteit introduced its staff. 4. People are introduced to it .
competencies. Implementation 5. The Transportation Demand Management Recommendation Committee regards its job of whipping up enthusiasm for change as largely done.4 Ciains need to be secured. actively approaching companies and institutions with TDM initiatives. communicating. too. The regional managements of the Department of Public Works wil1 need to ensure that TDM activities. developing expertise and I 14 . The commitment of the business community remains crucial. responsibilities and resources wil1 remain fluid.2 Monitoring of TDM. are looking to come up with an effective way of tackling problems of accessibility. These lower tiers have reached agreements with central government under which the required functions and responsibilities wil1 devolve to them smoothly. in some cases the law is unclear as to precisely what duties can be devolved down to lower tiers of administration.objectively and on the basis of hard facts. wil1 retain a role in future. Furthermore. the pace at which change can be introduced should not be overestimated. circumstances with regard to initiatives. the type of travel advice provided. Functions cannot be transferred from one day to the next . Everyone involved now takes a more realistic view both of the opportunities and limitations. innovating. While cooperation between the various tiers of government wil1 always be essential. 5. Accordingly. 5. NCW and MI<Bis highly encouraging in this respect. Nor are they al1 in the same state of readiness to take on the new responsibilities. A recent initiative by employers' federations VNO.1 TDM has come of age. remaining the driving force with regard to regulating. every company in the programme wil1 have its own system indicating both what is feasible and desirable. The role of regional and local government is to be beefed up. desirability has given way to feasibility as policy-makers have travelled a learning curve. the approach adopted to date needs to be developed further over the coming years. what measures are planned and whether evaluations have been carried out. Moreover. Companies in the regions involved and employing more than fifty people are to be entered in a database. In short. TDM advisers and consultants wil1 use these systems when managing their relationship with a company. While the potential for growth is clearly there. do not start to tail off again during the period when responsibilities are being transferred. Two rnembers of the Recommendation Committee are participating in these activities and bringing their experience to bear on them.not al1 regional and local authorities envisage the same timetable. Provincial and local authorities wil1 spearhead implementation. those alternatives found to be convincing need to be applied more widely. data wil1 be collated on a regional basis in order to fashion an effective management tool. TDM wil1 be the key to development in traffic and transport planning. together with the Dutch motoring organization ANWB. now implemented on an increasingly large-scale. 5. Ideal scenarios have been adapted. They. Central government.3 Regions to spearhead implementation.5. The idea is to scrutinize activities and their effects . This wil1 cover such criteria as the number of employees. This is a long-term proces. The Transport Ministry's recently developed monitoring system is being introduced in the Randstad as a matter of priority.
cycling or parking schemes. Some of the additional funds referred to above wil1 be used to finance the deployment of transport consultants. working with the business community. Another area of central government's brief wil1 additional momentum when particularly serious traffic probl and other areas of congestion need to be tackled urgently. The rest of the government's additional budget has been earmarked for special projects such as TDM at hospitals and monitoring activities. Similar initiatives by third parties also receive financial support.and the fact that they are temporary bodies exemplifies the government's transport philosophy of encouraging people to act voluntarily. or systems for matching car-pooling requirements . office equipment. communications and targeted activities. The work of these promotion points . organizational integration. Currently there are eighteen transport consultants operating out of nine promotion points.6 Transport consultants assist companies. 5.000 guilders per full-time employee.g. Their job is to work with companies and suggest TDM strategies . experimentation and networking.e. Following this start-up period of investigation. have set up "promotion points". 15 . These inform. These funds wil1 areas of congestion.and identify ways to implement these. Various tiers of government. The promotion units cost 300. Building new infrastructure is expensive and take That is why the Progress Memorandum calls for incr of 37 million guilders for the 1996-99 period.monitoring. advise and support companies and institutions. the business community wil1 then be expected to actually deliver. primarily the Randstad. These costs are accounted for by wage b i k . spurring them int0 taking action.
therefore. on current funding levels. the onus would be on government to rethirik this strategy. More detailed investigation of the desirability and feasibility of compulsory measures would then be required. Their example has now to be reproduced on a large scale. In the undesirable event of it failing.8 Legislation if the voluntary approach fails. The key to government thinking is effectiveness. single-occupant car transport and the appropriate tax treatment forms the main thrust of investigations during this exploratory phase. and we are keen to see broad swathes of industry setting up their own programs. That would necessitate legislative changes. Government hopes that tightening the present regulatory framework or devising new legislation wil1 prove unnecessary. Central government hopes that. The approach adopted by the Ministry of Transport. 5. since compulsory TDM would be irreconcilable with the principles underlying environmental law as it stands. The option of introducing a specific body of transport legislation is now also being explored. Public Works and Water Management has been geared consistently to allowing companies and institutions to opt to shoulder their responsibilities voluntarily. with companies that have introduced TDM strategies achieving results. it is now up to companies themselves to rise to the challenge. 80% of firms with more than 500 employees. 50% with 100-500 and 30% with 50-100 wil1 move to active transportation demand management and achieve concrete results with it. A separate TDM act that would regulate matters related t o parking.7 Active support for companies. central government is certainly playing its part . though. however.business is receiving al1 the support it needs from this quarter. We are keen to persevere with this approach. the approach would have to be changed. Dovetailing requirements with environmental laws would be one possibility. We take the view that sheèK setf-interest should be sufficient t o motivate the business community int0 making a succes of TDM. We have also demonstrated that it works. . It would then be time for Iess carrot and more stick.5. If results were t o fall appreciably short of these projections. T D M is on the agenda. With government having demonstrated its commitment. With its additional budget of 37 million guilders to cover the period until the year 2000.
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