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III.CONTENTS PAGR I. Macaulay's Carber 6 . IV. Ths MACAUI. . Introduction 1 II.AY Problems The Stanhope Relationship Macaulay's Genius 17 39 64 V.


. biographers and critics. there would left essayist man but little concerning that great for a later writer to record. statesman. since multitudes of essayists. IXTRODUCTION. A NEW LIGHT ON LORD MACAULAY. In Eng- land. have published their impressions of the illustrious historian. orator. so great a prince ot the pen as Lord Morley gave to the world the fruits of his reflections upon this eminent historian's contributions to . during the past eighty years. Chapteb I. J T may be thought that. thirty years ago. be and poet. Lord Macaulay.

A NSW WOHT ON I. Many others celebrated. have been those L^^J^ tw! tHre considering his .A*'«ntie Ocean which has failed to publish the familiar incidents of hb striking and precocious career. In the presence of so much research it will be expected that but little of noveltyZ be presented to the reader.ORD MACAUIAY Pnnshc. Morley nUif^^ W any who have enshrined his genius m essays and in biographies Pub Wons among «y of Maeaulay. yet sigjiifioant be of the very deepest interest to the mniions of people in every country fail to . the famous pulpit and orator.^{^^o ^^! '=°°«*«°«y multiplied.'^clsTa epe thousands of the educated of the tandZ writings earner. nnti° exists scarcely a journal of rLy therrare circLstances "n his literary life which all of his biographers and critics have strangely and some most *''! .

surpris- but unfortunate. Trevelyan. is not much of the element of tragedy to be found in Macaulay's life Who never weary There and there is therefore but little in hiJ career which furnishes inspiration for romance. The lengthy and official account of his career was written by his nephew. it cannot pretend to rank with BoswelPs Life of Johnson. which record the incidents of his career. of Letters Series is no better this respect than the others.INTRODUCTION in their admiration of the achievements and the genius of this tnily remarkable man. and not ing. with Thack- Ibnghsh m Men 3 . has risen much above the limits of mediocrity. So much is this a tact that his biographers have had impressed upon them the spirit of simplicity to a degree that is not only one of them can be regarded as having secured an established place in litera Not one of the countless biographies. and while it is a readable and interesting narrative. His life was exceedingly simple and unostentatious.

Many of the editions of IS K"r occasionally to be snggestion of the great 'T'^' m Mac of his life. They are^° his career to be and there are also accounts of dopedias A than ever from a solution. legions of found in all of the encythousand books have been written about Napoleon. still a century rj T^ For Bnonaalthough ^"'«™"' «"<J . oharaoteristicaUy dissimilar. is simply 4 after the close of his meteoric career tods the enigma perhaps even further vmters have striven to explain the nddle of his existence.A IWW UOHT ON loSD MACAUIAV Z^l\?^^'"^ mystical "' t""* Fonr Georges or which Carlyle illmmnations numamty when he gave his wonderful the enuaent ' biography a faint reflection of the brilliant literary style Sio7JrK''Mv nnde is of observed No ""'^ fasci„ating*stS ' to be found any of the other biographies. however. One biography of Macaulay.

Macaulay»s life so plain and «o open. that with all their profound skill and breadth of knowledge.-found Punshon in Canada.-the former and the latter in his ora- and .MACAULAY'S CAREER satile a repetition of all the others. and the verhis review m orator alike were unable to cast any new light upon the details of their great hero's life and vicissitudes. Even the stately Morley in England. reviewer tion.

even in England. ^^ ^ *"•«>• lifo >>„* advooato of !.„ i.. and . . l. ""^ht'on of slavery. *^ that at a time when anti-slavery se^ ". to^eT^ He Zo? f « i^l e wer7nor^J . "'»«'' has ^^L*^"'^T'''^ written and spoken great man it been about this would be'strange tf he were ""* •« ooareely v^„ an ocourrenoe in "' his ^r^ ness. however an .rents of good soda! standing exceUent education. He was bom. .ChaptbbIL Macauiat's Caueb.. His ««ned some renown as an author acquired more.ents.i * " zealous ' in October 1800 F.

show distinotlv that had attained >p a knowledge far beyond years."ACATOAY'S CAKBEX popular as they afterwards became. This love of reading he TrdeV^^rT V' interest year by year during the whole essays of his youth. considerate a youth he was sent to several private schools. and a genius ^« which Xh i ^°*"^i^'v""" foS and his The impression visible both m his conversation of age. As "« ««eTn«i . and de voured nearly everything that came to lus attention. however. Macaulay. wmch he went to Cambridge finisWng University His college course. The son s edaoation began while he was very yonng and he almost instantly gave vrl " ""osfunusn^I order. While yet a child he displayed a passionate devotion to books. while not so brilliant 7 feC was err nearly ^^''f five.

and stored with a vast and readily accessible wealth of widely diversified information. and subsequently literature for politics. he welcomed as a diversion and a recreation. which was not merely extensive in range. He left Cambridge at the age of twent>-two. which others loathed as an imposition and a task. but prodigious in amount.A N8W LIORT OK LORD MACAUtAY as those of Gladstone and Lord Acton. that reverting ultimately to literature as both a pastime and a profession. with his exceptionally retentive memory amply to Morley made in later years. examinations. His first 8 . but after making the same superficial attempt at practising his profession remember forever. abandoned law for literature. He then studied for the bar. he read for Enjoyable information. was marked by great industry. and then forgot forever. What others read with disagreeable compulsion in order to pass longings. like Morley. particularly in reading. he. and became a lawyer. Nothing was too severe. nothing too exhausting to satisfy his intellectual The Greek and the Latin.

The immediate and overwhelming success of that brilliant composition—a success which far exceeded his most sanguine expectations. as well as of a liter- i! ary character.—opened the door instantly for greater triumphs. and one of the gifts of the great was an easily won seat in the British House of Com- II mons.MACAULAY'S CARBBR serious appearance in print was at the age of twenty-five. wel- In a short time a new Parliament 9 . which the Beform Act a few years afterwards His first speech Parliament was on the question of Jewish Disabilities. and received a m righteously abolished. The opulent of England. come that was ahnost a herald of future fame. ever ready to smile whenever the beaming Goddess was bestowing the Crown.—triumphs of a social and a political. In 1830. threw their oflferings at his feet. when he stirred England to its very depths by the publication 1/ of his famous essay on Milton. Macaulay was elected to Parliament for Calne. one of those wretched and almost deserted constituencies.

It was a brilliant effort and the reconstruction of the ridings of England and known emphatically as "The threw his giant efforts into the scale with the reformers. and for a time Macaulay divided with the first men the land the attention of high m For mouths.'' was introduced by Lord John Bussell into Parliament on March 1.A WIW WOHT ON wi«D UAQAVtAY Beform Bill. with. he rapidly followed parliamentary success. however. Kctorm. On the following night Macaulay one which promoted him at once to the very first rank of debaters and parliament ry orators. 1831. Maoaulay again was elected for the same scat. it is never dined at home. and Maoaulay society in London. The agitation for Parliamentary Reform had reached its height by then. said. was slow in triumphlO . but the appearance of a contest. this time. The proposed law for was Bummoned. Social fame delivered the urst of his many reform speeches. so numerous were the doors which were flung invitingly open to him because of his triumphant oratorical achievements.

«hed as a parliame:it«ry having been abol! A^^tZJ^ S!V^<1^^ m. were ishable masterpieces of literature. ^^ ^ P"* lSh«??"J to ?hthe J flwt the meaa«>* oonn- "' ** ^^ <•' tater but nevertheless were exceedingly bril- ^ rhetorical aplendonr "^'T and most flmshed of them all. almost needless to say that they amply tw^*^ . oco^: That A in British bin with that object if vfet ^^V.v*!:°f°r' with his help became ^*° ParliUent.the reputation for eloquent seat which he had held.^n^St^^***""wnted between the red a radical change in the systemTf administering public affairs city he repr^ years 1833 and 18W he was member for Leeds.le fcdia. Beform speMhe. that ing. TX Md AGoverJ^nt .MACAOIAV* CAkn* Bud it waa not nntU aftar manT Ve«chea had be«n deUverad. law. inolw^ing half a doaen by Macanlay. constituency bv 1^'^'"'"' entered tte parliament as member for . It i.

In addition. together with the famous draft of a code of civil laws for India.ORD MACAULAY established. a large and unexpected legacy which he received. than because of his love of the task. where 12 ments. which was a product of his pen. however came more speedily than he had anticipated for out of a princely income he was able to save a fortune within a very short time. are all the literary fruits of his four years of . similar to those he had already pubUshed. By 1«38 he was again in England. that he became willing to temporarily forsake England for the shores of the Indian Ocean. Two or three reviews. and to tHe highly remunerative position as a member of that board he was appointed.A NBW LIGHT ON I. and which bears the impress of the same rhetorical skill that graces his essays. Financial relief. placed him far beyond the reach of penury. His correspondence in connection with the appointment indicates that it was rather because he wished to free himself from prospective pecuniary embarrass- Board for India was residence in that distant realm.

es which had been interrupted by his aotiv Board m'. were the ^d Se Gove«S MeCume . and soon after was fW that f'. I„ Sep! 1839.t.*° ?" ^"'^''^ ^vemLen hinted of ^ had he probably done with it fo^ *''«>''"«Wng Enchantress Ts'. He gladly accepted.*"""°«reached England than he was offered the representation in Parliament of the City of Edinburgh. he entered Lord Cabinet as Secretary at War ul frequently called into service to needy fortunes of the dying administration.MACAOIAY'S CAXBSR edly achieved immortality *° men Of lesser genius than he had repeat- ^°«'«»d he resumed i^n^ "*'°™ and parliamentary those literary .""^ ""^ tJ^ »°«« ae members elWone tember bonme's for that^"* Scarcely had he u !°r. however. In 1841 »3 °^ "° ''«^ serious ?\? abnif^K abihty beyond that required in snperintendmg the routine details of the offi^ His powers as a debater.

on keen and unerring majestically into the brilliant Minister abundantly needed to confront the serious situations which at once commenced to embarrass him. and his lofty thunders. this time with a powerful following. opposition to the great Premier. was soaring days when Disraeli. was beginning to shake England Macaulay. as well as the able )rators h incessantly opposed! him. and wh^ Gladstone. By 1847 the first two ^'^olumes were 14 . Not only was the voice lifted.A NEW fell WGHT ON I. as well as an unceasing.ORD MACAUI^Y wmg. Essays and verses flowed copiously in a crystal stream from the gifted writer's tireless fame. Those were the mg and Peel. voicing a merciless. with his oratorical enchantments. was often heard in the course In 1841 he began his History of England. became Premier again. but the pen was also busy. This follow- pen of the many and splendid debates which signalized the course of the second Peel administration. who a few years previously Had spent some anxious months in office.

were none too many to me^tTlfj popular demand. asTf ear" est literary and parliamentary efforts had done.!i*YTA. They. Tots of ti. h.h„* of l^fds but indifferent.MACACIAY'S CAKBBR completed were published. ffis health at the same time began to f^il Jt . lifted their wfrid and found a secure and permanent the Uterary annals of England.s altogether probable that tte four JeaJs "'^ ""favorable of India r. too."° had something to do with tte nlf ""^ '"'Portant'^^h C wL Sdf cliS '5 . Seventy yearfhi™ in the estimation of the intellectual and fa the following Tear author sWl Sr Xe m L ^r reduction the lous product of m demand for this marvel his pen. Macaulay became to attendance fa the House a Peer. The n«t^i" In 1857. nor does it appear fa* ?he "b' ^'"''^ "^ ParUament. flootog kets.uusands of copies.

Few of the long array of his many companions sleeping was interred On a sunless afternoon January. for oratory and for history commendable charity. and retired from public life. was. edifice in the dust by his side give that i6 . At undermining of a constitution never very robust. 1856. he passed quietly and peacefully away. the body of the famous man who had done so much for letters.ORD 1IACAUI. after Corner of Westminster Abbey. rather than in a sudden collapse. the illustrious orator bade farewell to the electors of Edinburgh. with assist an ob- m in the Poet's mighty a greater glory than he who became one of its silent tenants on that dreary winter's day. One of his latest acts Illness.A NEW tlGHT ON I.AY a short which consisted of a gradual weakening. the ve^ close of 1859. In January. to scure but needy stranger. 1860.

lit- m have been thus suggested. erary on^n of his unique and masterly if possible. the his historical adopted to and to form an estimate of the true position which it eventually must occupy literature.Chaptbb m. The second relates to the attempts which have been made to ascertain. The first ox these is the attitude which his biographers and critics have great and important circumstances impress the careful student and literary opinions. style. "PWO of Macaulay's life and writings. it is comparatively easy to enter upon a discussion of 17 . The Maoaulay Pboblbms.

When he was writing his history he said that his thoughts were not fixed upon merely transient fame.A NEW WGHT ON W)RD MACAUlJlY his biographers and critics have held in reference to those political and historical conclusions which he formed. Macanlay himself was always considering most the ^ews Nearly all of have devoted much of their energy to denouncing the judgments which he passed upon the many men and many his critics templating the possibility of his writings surviving for many generations after he should have passed away. that essay was one of the very last that he would have willingly disowned. One of the most famous of his own criticisms is that which he passed some yeart after the publication of his essay on Milton had. lifted him into undying fame. he was con- carefully the possibility of the endurance of his own judgments upon events and characters. He then said that it contained scarcely an opinion which . his maturer judgment endorsed. Yet. for obvious reasons. and which have not been accepted as final by history.

Monson.THB MACAOTAY PROBI. the fruit „flh ''"i of whose hterary labours unfortunately has not come down to iUuminate our gen- Men who was selected bv the 7"'"*"* ^'^ Morley to m"** Macanlay's life in the Endish f thousands of copies ammsUv ^ all over the English speaking worir Many of Macanlay's other essavo «« subjected to similar treatment. although not "o Spedding is dead r-"™'-'"! wort is for^tten it occupies no place in critical litfratur^ or on library shelves. osophical mistakes which he m an effort to answer the historical and foundb ^ Books in their attempts to controvert '9 .BMS 7^'^" f*"**** tion. calls the essay on Bacon "deplorable. wfS write '»' Wstory'B Observa- of Letters Series." He also tells „s '"""^'^ Spedding. ph. Able and distmgnished writers. but the essay on "° tens^^r 'f^« """J circulating by tens of that famous essay.

as well as from other acknowl- edged authorities. His attack upon Chief Justice Impey. In both cases the eulogies and the depreciations have been accompanied by illustrative quotations from his own wntings. all writings' weU past sixty years has consisted of either adulations or denunciations of his opinions. does not come before the world appealing in this respect for a correctness He confidence similar to that which we are accustomed to place in the compilers of our arith- metics and our cook books or the manu20 . that most of the Macaulay literature of the volumes. The truth is that altogether too much has been made of the correctness or inof Macaulay's judgments. that have been printed in multitudes of periodicals.A NIW LIGHT ON tOED MACAULAY various views to be found scattered unifonnly has this policy been adopted. as essays. So as and numerous other parts of his have all produced in reply many through Macaulay's writings. and upon Ajgyle. his defence of William the Third his arraignment of William Penn .

which vaiy with custom. Most of the literhistorical ary and fronted Macaulay were those which involved capricious conclusions. The fundamental questions. 31 upon them equipped his less Many people have heard . feeling and style. the problems on which definite conclusions cannot be reached except in an arbitrary manner.THB MACAULAV PROBUlMS facturers of our barometers and our ^®^® ^8 '^o such thing as ?^li^}!?}'^' mfalhbUity on any side of the many debatable questions which are constantly being considered by men like Macaulay. will always encounter at the hands of intelligent men untold diversities of opinion. habit. of course. the many problems which history and literature must pass upon in considering their countless events and characters . But those questions. are always proverbially beyond dispute. The fact that Macaulay had more learning than thousands of others who have examined those problems is no more reason for expecting a sounder judgment problems which con- from him than from contemporaries.

grounds from any that have been previously assigned. as if they were supported by Macaulay '8 marvellous stores of information. In the law Courts it is quite a common occurrence to witness Counsel of comparatively equal mental incompetence presenting the opposing sides of a lawsuit. and manifest lack of skill and it is equally common to observe the judges arriving at as correct conclusions iipon these imperfect arguments. There are many jurists of weight and learning who dissent from 22 . as if the discussions had been sig.A N«W LIGHT ON I.O«D MACAULAY argrmnents between unlettered people proceed with as much conviction and vehemence. wih superficiality. very often upon grounds wholly different from those assigned by the nallized itry. while still Higher fountains of justice continue the process of reversal upon still different by the utmost learning and abilIt also frequently happens that the carefully considered judgments of wise and experienced judges are reversed on appeal. and leading to as just conelusions. tribunals of first instance.

But wider information usually means the produc- tional historical characters and events. but as absolutely illogical and erroneous. If men were so universally wider information must necessarily lead to a closer approximation to truth. The same conclusion applies to the judgments wHich may be passed upon more conven- the arbitrary aspects of literature the vast knowledge of a On good as . And.TH« M ACAULAV PKOBLBMS the unanimous decisions of the highest tnbunalsoftheland. as in the case of Separate Schools in Manitoba. very frequently parliaments have been invoked to legislate away the decisions of ultimate tribunals. These additional facts often furnish as much support to the one as to the other side of the judgments which are in the process of formation. cisions objectionable de- tion 01 additional facts. because in the opinions of men ranking in wisdom not behind the judges. the have been regarded as not merely unsatisfactory and unpopular. It 18 true that in regard to them a Macaulay can never be a guarantee of truth.

i ( contradictory. many of them hitherto unknown. of them often both surprising and embarrassing. were elicited. and countless other varying motives colour deeply all men 's actions he who on one occasion awakens all oHir sympathies by the moderation and the humanity of his conduct at another crisis shocks us by his unreasonable violence and severity. innumerable facts. selfishness. some of them all sult of the searching investigations to and his- 24 . that a multiplication of occurrences but the more firmly supported the one or the other view of the individuals or the occurrences in question. As a re• .1 A NHW UOHT ON lO«D MACAUIAY I immutable conclusions. if events were so consistently uniform. or bad. then an increase of infonnation would necessarily lead to the attainment of eternally 1 I I i I I I . passion. which only intensified the numerous difficulties that were already present to perplex the which Macaulay submitted the lives of the many eminent actors whom he brought upon the stage of history. But there is very little consistency in most men or events caprice.

Macaulay's critics have confused extensive knowledge with accurate judgment. 'or a Buckle. the same array of facts in the mind of a scholarly Mac- new ments was characteristically fitted. the draindigger and the scavenger to-day essay to pass instantaneous judgment upon the Prime Minister's long meditated utterances of last night. a Solon. Extensive and ex- haustive reading and study. of course. there must of necessity exist and remain eternal differences M of opinion..TBI torian MACAtJ. for which. a Johnson. And these differences are such as no breadth of knowledge will ever effectually remove. the coal-heaver. In an age when no man will submit his judgment to that of another.AY PKOBUCMS and hinder him from reaching a permanently unassailable conclusion. when the milkman. will undoubtedly furnish the historian with aulay enjoys no more certainty of receiving an unerring interpretation than the facts would receive had they been sub25 . a man of Macaulay's endow- truths . but unless a writer be gifted with the wisdom of a Solomon.

ORD MACAUI. men like Burke Johnson Draper. But the best informed men have not been those whose opinions have been most uniformly accepted. In the abstract the mind should approach among I . of all the an Ideal state to the extent to which it is furmshed with additional aids for its development.AY ! J i and their wisdom. or to a degree of perfection which implies that Its conclusions are final and unassailable. Lecky. And when it is remembered of what a complexity of materials the judgments of the human mmd are formed.—have given the world the benefit of their learn- ages. but it is equally conclusive that breadth of reading does not brmg the judging faculty of the mind into a condition of infallibility. Buckle and Carlyle. among the modems.--men really unsettled questions of history are those on which the wisest men. Froude. of partially remem26 li mg like Socrates and Plato the ancients. The mitted to the judgment of a fairly intelligent salesman.A NEW UGHT ON I. mechanic or labourer It IS true that persistent study tends to develop the mind.

when passion. or the well stored brain of the scholar. of inaccurate ii reimlarJy pieced together without any recogiiized rule to govern the combination.—of no two mmds are alike. and the whole violently coloured and indelibly tinted by reports. of rumours. inonts of information. veneration. all forming mediums. it is not surprising and when the conclusion 27 arbitrary in the extreme. is to be reached through the consideration one which has . and a thousand other deit is remem- be judged that the conclusion is an equally imperfect product. But standards of truth and opinions of the wise are quite inapplicable when the object to is bered that the textures.THE MACAULAY PROBLEMS bered facts. prejudice. malice. whether it be reached by the empty mind of the ignorant. of frci. jealousy. -I gossips. nor that the opinions of sages and scholars are without value. admiration. It must not be imagined that in exercising the faculty of judgment it follows that there are no absolute standards of truth.—if such an expression may be allowed.

it is not because he.IGHT ON I. ents . of every possible character. Perhaps undue provocation has temporarily robbed them of charity and the other Christian critically and has led them to dip their pens in venom whenever they are attacking an opponent in the press. the English Mechanic and World of Science. Not even is science exempt from this apparently agreeable method of confuting opponattributes. one has only to turn over the pages of any scientific publication. more than countless others. complexity and condition. and voices opinions which can be repelled only with violence.ORD MACAUI^Y of numberless facts. courts controversy. The real reason why Macaulay's views criticized with such malevolence.A NEW I. as for example. flagrantly transgresses. is not because h«. more than a thou- have been sand other authors. which generously throws open its columns to a world of indiscriminate scribblers. it is rather because many controversialists -cannot write without importing into their essays malice and slander. to find its pages invaded by 28 .

for in many of his essays he likewise aimed sharply barbed arrows of invective and fury at those whom he felt tempted to assail. The extent of the attacks which have fallen upon Macaulay 's head during the past half century is principally to be ascribed to the immense circulation which has been given to his writings. Had he enjoyed a more limited fame. and in concluding therefore that his errors merit equally profound refuta29 \ . and fewer people therefore would have had the opportunity of rushing into print against him.! THE MACAUI. also. ! M f The error. into which many writers have unconsciously fallen is in regarding Macaulay as a profoundly philosophical and a faultlessly accurate historian. who seem to forget everything except the pettiness of malicious calumny in offering their musings to the world. fewer people would have seen his works. therefore.AY PROBLBMS a host of writers. Macaulay offered some provocation himself. Perhaps. because of his wide popularity.

Even the greatest genius of them that of the others. because of the vast stores of information on which they are based. that many of his views are those which properly ought to be expressed by an eminent historian. still even a superficial surv<^y of his careei.upon the oft debated subject. It is true. who was gifted with all of Macauley's talents and erudition.leads inevitably to the conclusion that he owes his permanent renown to a quality vastly different from his opinions. Carlyle. In truth. and therefore wholly independent of them. is likewise a brilliant attempt to refute Macaulay's arguments. did not differ in this regard from the others.ORD MACAUI^Y No less renowned a man than Gladwas of subject to this misconception. although the latter 's views are of inestimable value to the critic and to the historian. WGHT ON I. however. And yet similar conclusions have been reached repeatedly by writers who have never experienced a thousandth part of his 30 . stone contemporaries shared Gladstone's mistake. Most Macaulay's His ossay.A NEW tion.

and who. who have published and perished during the past fifty years. has laid England under a potent spell. ihar to the nameless thousands. It may also even be conjectured that if any of these unremembered myriads who wrote mediocre 31 Macaulay written the substance of his essays and his history in the style fam- Had . his writings would long since have been entombed in a hopeless and eternal obUvion. and has captivated the world of letters as no style known to which he made <. to the valuable estimates Macaulay owes nor and published of a vast array of characters and circumstances covering an extensive and important range of history His great fame must be ascribed prin cipally to the fact that he was the author of a literary and rhetorical style. are comparatively forgotten.THB UACAVULY PXOBUtHS fame. his greatness and his constantly increasing popularity neither to his ahnost unsurpassed learning. instead of enjoying his popularity to-day. which for over half a century. literature had ev0r done before.

and have passed gloriously and triumphantly 1 'I on. had expressed their thoughts in the shining rhetoric. to 32 . that he was a devourer of books instead of a manufacturer of ideas . that he reca^ed with his memory instead of meditating with his intellect. of which he was so consummate a master. It has been the subject of much criticism that Macaulay read rather than reflected.ll i A NBW LIGHT ON LORD MACAULAY prose. One man »! •' IF reads Macaulay's writings to learn his historical convictions. for the many who read them in the hope of being able to snatch from their pages even for a transient moment the faintest part of that picturesque and stately literary style. on a trip by steamer one stormy night across the Irish Channel. those authors would surely and sublimely have escaped the cruel tragedy of the endless night. to live in literary history forever. Most of his biographers delight in illustrating this contention with the often narrated incident that. enshrined in fadeless eloquence. which bums with a deathless splendour through all of Macaulay's writings.

Never was greater in- done to a writer. to have been endowed with philosophic superficiality. he spent much of the night in reciting to himself from recollection several books of "Paradise Lost. while luxuriating in a marvellous memory. Macaulay was essentially an author who charmed by his irresistible style. Enniskillen.TH« MACAUtAY visit PROBI. Never was a conclusion more unfounded. and. The view of the critics has uniformly been that this circumstance conclusively proves Macaulay to have lacked the reflective instinct.BMS \} Londonderry. in order that he might enrich his writings with new and original descriptions of those celebrated spots which loom large in the history of human freedom.'* All of the critics of this incident have overlooked its one really serious and striking significance. The best method in the world to cultivate a perfect literary style is to read incessantly the rhejustice 33 . and who well understood the importance of maintaining his vocabulary at the highest possible standard of verbal excellence. Limerick and the Boyne.

or forever sunk Under you boiling ocean. Caught ! n in a fiery tempest shall be hurled. unreprieved. Milton's apostrophe to light. when he told the infernal legions how they. and recall them frequ ntly. than Milton »s "Paradise Lost.msm A NBW LIGHT ON WSD MACAUI^Y torical masterpieces of the world. unpitied.'* Some of the passages to be found in that famous creation rival anything that has ever been written in our language. Unrespited. The oration of Belial'at the Council of his peers. and having read them attentively. to remember them tenaciously. wrap*t in chains. which is best adapted for the purposes of the brilliant rhetorician. to converse with everlasting There groans. and the 34 I I . It is idle to attempt once more to prove the well established fact that there is no greater repository of that language. Each on his rock transfixed. the sport and prey Of wracking whirlwinds.

And v: inextinguishable rage and Millions of fierce encountering angels . those proud towers to swift destruction doomed. what time The sun was sunk and star after him the Of Hesperus whose oflSce is to bring Twilight upon the earth. the dread advent of Satan to Eden. when he forsook his lifelong dwelling-place. when . . Abdiel's farewell to the legions of the night. fought. the descent from Paradise to earth of the exploring angel along the gleaming pathway paved with sunbeams the Warfare of the Skies.The macauiay probi. Under fiery cope together rushed Both battles main with ruinous assault. and With retorted scorn his back he On turned. short arbiter *Twixt day and night. . 35 .bms interlude of his reflection upon his own blindness.

A NBW UGHT ON IC ID MACAUIAY Adam's fall. mag- nificent Miltonian passages. — have few rhetorical parallels in English No orator at all anxious for his reputation would ever dream of achieving renown without being familiar with these and a hundred other lofty and speech. piteous lamentation after the i i TKn. . and peace have crowned With length of happy days the race of men the enumeration of the holy virtues of woman.1 When violence had ^ .. ceased and ^^^^ ^*^ hope war on earth. when In either hand the hastening Angel caught Our lingering parents.—passages of such soft ana wondrous beauty that they seem to contain something far dif36 i I . All would have then gone well. and led them down to the subjected plain. the stately drama moving majestically on to its melancholy but in- evitable termination.


from mere words and phrases,—

something that kindles into a radiant glow, and consumes as if with an incandescent splendour. In that master drama the very language seems to pulsate with life, while page after page unfolds records, mysteries and revelations. By virtue of the eloquence which the writer uses, the characters seem to assume a warm and thrilling reality. Blinding lightnings seem to kindle in the very vaults of Heaven. Starry splendours mystically flash in beaming eyes.


Earth trembles and reels beneath the swift tread of hurrying feet. The cowering hosts of Hell seem to shudvoices.


valleys reverberate with the echoes of



near, as the reader broods over the majesty of fitting word, of polished sentence, of stately phrase and of peerless paragraph. It was because of Macaulay's unique familiarity with innumerable authors, including the

draw radiantly

and the smiling angels of Heaven

mighty and majestic Milton, that the
great historian of the nineteenth century


of a source of which has perplexed three generations of critics, and which,
style, the

A W»W UOBT ON X^KO M ACAX7LAT became renowned as the master some

before that style is one which, even when compared with the brilliance of Sheridan, Burke, Sheil and Canning, easily marks the highest point that a not too nchly ornamented, yet a brilliantly oratoncal, as well as a picturesquely argumentative, rhetoric has attained in the entire course of the development of the


respects, is greater and facile than all others which went



English language.

How did Macaulay contrive to acquire
been answered. An answer, however, may now be had, notwith standing the famous remark which the well-informed Jeffrey made on reading the captivating essay on Milton, "The more I think, the less I can conceive where you picked up that style.*'

nowhere has

so finished and perfect a literary stylet This question has often been asked, but


Chapteb IV.

The Stanhope Relationship.

masters whose writings have contributed to the formaof






modems, are undoubtedly,

Milton, Samuel Johnson, Addison, and

Much ofMacaulay's style is to his familiarity with these men.

them must be added another, who, on


who laboured with the pen three-quarters
of a century ago. This last was the famous Chesterlield, who, although his influence in later years has declined, was a sovereign in the kingdom of letters dur39

careful reflection, cannot be overlooked in estimating the resources of a writer

A NBW UGHT ON I. but what he did leave gives evidence of wide research and profound scholarship. Stanhope had inherited to a large degree those talents which made the fourth Earl renowned both as the master of a graceful literary style. His information 40 ti II' . inheriting much of the intellectual wealth of the ancestor. Chesterfield's genius passed to his descendants.ORD MACAULAY I ing the early part of the nineteenth century. existed a relationship. afterwards fifth Earl Stanhope. perhaps even unconsciously. He did not leave as much behind him as Macaulay did. and which it is the purpose of the succeeding pages to carefully examine. as the years rolled on. He was a prolific writer. and as an arbiter of courtly deportment. With the Chesterfields familiar. Viscount Mahon. the scholarly Philip Henry. Between him and the last of the house of Chesterfield. each one. which is responsible for a circumstance that is unique in literary history. Macaulay was abundantly From them I have no doubt but that he drew. untold stores of literary wealth.

THE STANHOPE REI^TIONSHIP was thorough. He wrote a seven volume
History of England, covering in its pages, in point of time, the greater part
of the eighteenth century. He was also the author of a two volume history of the Reign of Queen Anne. The former of these works was commenced in 1836, and finished about 1854: the latter was a subsequent product of his pen.

Macaulay and Stanhope were intimate
friends; although it is evident that while the former preserved a dignified


austere demeanour towards his famous contemporary. Stanhope reverenced Macaulay. TheHistory of Queen Anne's reign commences near the place where Macaulay »s long and brilliant narrative


In the introduction to his volumes. Stanhope pays his illustrious friend a singularly flattering tribute. He says that the reader, who has been bourne on the wings of rhetoric and imagery through Macaulay 's stately story,


continue his interest in the lofty theme by means of his own, although less brilliant, pages. In Stanhope's life of




Queen Anne, the name of Maeaulay is mentioned no fewer than twelve times, and each time with a respect that borders closely upon servility. In this Hiatorv there is no striking similarity in words
or ideas to those of Maeaulay, although there were many essays which the latter

wrote treating of events that are to be found in the Queen Anne volumes. Here was Stanhope's opportunity to fearlessly appropriate, had he been a mere echo of Maeaulay. The mighty master's voice was stilled in death. His powerful pen could no longer be used to punish a purloiner. Why Maeaulay did not copy anything from this publication needs no
demonstration, for the great historian had ceased to exist when Stanhope's History of Queen Anne's reign was first given with all its scholarship and splendour to the world. Stanhope's History of England has

passed through five editions, the fifth having been printed in 1858. Evidently towards the middle of the nineteenth century it had acquired an extensive re4«

nown. Its popularity, however, has not corresponded with its merits, for in later years it seems not only to have ceased
circulate, but to


pnnted. Even the libraries possess very sparingly, it being

have ceased to be







of the very largest dimensions.

collections of books, except those

men was

important now to determine' not composition, for many a writer has retained his manuscript vnpublished for years after it has been written. And on the result of that exammation it will appear that one of two conclusions will be demonstrated. Either one or other of these

whose production was the earliej merely m print, but in actual


guilty of the grossest piracy that 18 to be found in British

or one of the most marveUous coincidences that ever was found in letters will have been found to have existed between these two illustrious contemporanes. Stanhope's references to Macaulay have been given; it may be helpful


Macaulay*s declaration that Stanhope possessed some of the most valuable qualities of an historian. history of the When Stanhope published his War of the Spanish Suc- Macaulay reviewed the work.i. great judgment in weighing testimony. gives an account of the first glimpse he had of Stanhope. conciseness." is significant. cation. **we sat Lord Mahon. great diligence in exanuning authorities. Macaulay. ' * cession. ** At Holland House.—a violent Tory. to Stanhope. in which were Lord Albemarle. in writing from London to his sister Hannah.I A NBW UGHT ON W)RD MACAUI^Y recall panion. '. and great impartial- / ity in estimating characters. and gave it exceedingly high praise indeed." runs the communi- down to dinner in a fine long room. Macaulay *s biographer. In the light of what is to follow. who was then Lord Mahon. Lord Russell. Lord Alvanley. "perspicuousness. but a very agreeable companion and a very good scholar. Macaulay's references to his comIn 1831. Alluding to the treatment which Mac- makes but one reference 44 . Morison.

* Trevelyan makes a further allusion to Maoaulay's contemporary just at the close of the last volume of his ^ ^graphy. in when he 45 . conscientious. ferences to the illustrious man who had so much in common with one of the greatest writers in the world. He says that Stanhope was oi of those * * * to the accurate. '* steady guide through the eighteenth **century. These about complete the Macaulay reAbbey. a hundred will read the brilliant essays by Macaulay. It is evident therefore from these references that Stanhope loomed large along the horizon of Macaulay 's experience during many of the years their last resting place. **Lord Stanhope. is a much more safe. But for one reader who will by Lord "Stanhope. Morison says:—*«His (Macaulay^s) friend. "ill-written History of England **sit down celebrated citizens of London who assist- ed in c-rrying Macaulay^s remains to Westminster Twice Stanhope's name occurs in Macaulay *s speeches on 7 ^form.THB STANHOPB KBLATIONSHIP aulay gave to the historical essay.

Wherever he found literary piracy he was unrelenting in its condemnation. and during his lifetime was well understood. man named Vizetelly. had not collected his public addresses in book form. who. maintained a continually increasing circulation. published without authority an edition of his speeches. at once 46 . before the piracy took place. which contained innumerable errors. and which with the increase of Macaulay's fame.A NEW UOBT ON UORD XACAUI^Y penning his immortal messages for humanity. Macaulay*8 own attitude towards unacknowledged literary appropriation was brilliantly was often indicated. It is said that both Croker and Montgomery passed sooner to their graves because of the bitterness of the invectives which he heaped upon them. The preface to his collected speeches contains an elaborate and detailed denunciation of one who sought to profit by appropriating his writings. When he himself was the victim of piracy he was equally outspoken. whom A Macaulay denounces as unprincipled. Macaulay.

in his habit to overlook offences TJe fnendship which had commenced 1831 was no hindrance to the aggrieved Succession. would he Had Macaulay have spared should he have reviled VizeteUy and have condoned Stanhope? was not of this kmd He owed Stanhope nothing. another. taken but 47 . It would have Spamsh He already had meted out but scant courtesy to his noble fnend m the review of his War of the historian in asserting one of the most elementary rights of a man who io devotmg his life to literature. his offence of stealing the writings of Macaulay belaboured poor Vizetelly most righteously and unmercifully for bs nval? Why It been the victim of another appropriation by another equally aspiring writer. In fact.THB STANHOPB RBI^TIONSHIP actually published a corrected volume of hiB own speeches as a weapon of defence against the miscreant who had made immense profits by his publication. the bluntness of the praise was not far removed from blame. In the introduction to the authorized volume.

had there been sufficient justification. An author who copies generally condenses. it is inconceivable that. had the language. the style. paragraph after paragraph. And a plagiarism of the kind suggested was just such a justification as would call forth all the bittemesp which such an offence warranted. through scores of pages by Stanhope.A NSW UOHT OK LORD MACAULAT have changed the faint approval into a bitter depreciation. Stanhope had access to valuable papers which were 48 . without having left to the world a solitary sentence by way of protest or complaint f Internally the evidence supports this conclusion. Macaulay's narratives are usually abbreviations of those which 6tanhope had written. the very spirit and form of Macaulay *8 three most famous essays. Except in passages where rein could be given to his great imagination. and those upon which his lasting reputation largely depended. been copied. Moreover. the injured man would have quietly watched little to the literary appropriations passing rapir'iy into five editions.

but it appears to land. as well as several chapters in a later volume. I What. of which there were an abundance. The literary style. sometimes in a diiferent order from that in which they occurred. the arrange- ^ . the illustrations. Volume four of Stanhope wad first published in 1844. It was but natural that he should have used those papers to their fullest extent. This detail was capable of very great condensation without interfering with the narrative. And so he did. was more likely than that Macaulay should have greatly condensed the leading sentences. contain a lengthy have been written considerably before that time. then. the chrono- ments of paragraphs. and which formed the vital parts in the wide survey that Stanhope made of the marvellous achievements of the eighteenth century T Chapters thir^-nine and forty in volume four of Stanhope's History of Engaccount of England's ascendancy to dominion in India. together with par49 logical order of events.THE STAKHOPB XBtATIONSBIP being used for historical purposes for the first time.

A NSW LIOHT ON X^BD MACAULAT tioalar phrases. Here are the versions. using in a short sentence of three or four lines no less than ten of the same words that Stanhope employs in telling the incident. Stanhope refers to the youthful daring of the future conqueror of India." Stanhope says **The people at Dayton long : — remembered how they saw young Clive 50 . and with what terror the inhabitants saw him seated on a stone spout near the summit. and characteristic colourings appear in Maoanlay's essays. striking words. Macaulay relates the same incident in almost pre(iisely the same language. saying that the people of his native town long remembered Clive climbing the steeple of the town ai^d seatmg himself on a projection at the summit. In commencing the aooonnt of dive's life. Macaulay says ^**The old people of the neighborhood still remember to have heard from their parents how Bob : — Clive climbed to the top of the lofty steeple of Market-Dayton. and on- usual expressions. even as they appear in those chapters of Stanhope's history.

" The remainder of the by Macaulay in words which differ from those used by Stanhope only where a change was necessary for condensation. Early in his Indian career. although both of them allude to the steeple's ascent. uses the expression. but for quite a different purpose from that mentioned by Stanhope and by Macaulay." Macaulay says. nor Gleig. the biographer of Clive. who followed Malcolm. ''he twice one day snapped a pistol at his own head. Macaulay 's famous incident is told passage descriptive of the base nature 51 . says anything about Olive ''seating'' himself near the top. who was most likely to be nearly pconrate. because all the Olive papers had been entrusted to his care for biographical purposes. referring to this fact. and seated astride a spout near the top. that neither Malcohn.'' It may be mentioned. "twice the pistol which he snapped at his own head failed to go off. in this connection. Stanhope.THB STANHOPB RBLATI0N8BIP climb their lofty steeple. Olive attempted suicide.

That historian tells ns that Snrajah Dowlah had a ferooions temper and a feeble understanding. but of the illustration. The somewhat unusual word ** debauchery |' used by Stanhope in describing the habits of the same low-minded ruler. "It had I ! early been his amusement to torture beasts and birds." says Stanhope of the besotted Indian Rajah. "had been the pastime of I his childhood. Surajah in his earlier years a youth. also has much in oommon with Stanhope. and when he grew up he enjoyed with still keener relish the misery of his fellow creatures. and that term satisfies Macaulay. but a pre- servation not mereiy of the idea. and says that the iniquitous Hindoo's understanding was naturally feeble and his temper ill' unamiable. is calls hope 5a .A MSW UOHT ON X^ID MACAULAY of Snrajah Dowlah.'* Macaulay has a slight alteration of the language. when he says." Stani i: ! Vif . 'and the sufferings of fel- I low-creatures became the sport of his riper years. ** The torture of beasts and birds. Maoanlay's version changes the order of these ignominious qualities.

and before Stanhope says:—«* The Nabob Nabob seated himself. but with the use of many of the same idenexpressions.with .'* says Stanhope of the murderer of the victims of the Black Hole.TH« tTANHOPS KSLATIONSBIP also ^aed in the same connection by Macaula>. tical were first promised their and the the same latter writer reproduces incident in the same language.'' Maoanlay voices the same thought in the famous words:— **From a child Surajah Do^lah had hated the English. "Towards the English. ' ' After the prisoners were dismissed to spend the night in the Black Hole. Macaulay's account of the atrocity is told in a briefer manner. seated himself in the great hall of the factory and received the congratulations of his courtiers." The memorable atrocity of the Black Hole of Calcutta is thrillingly told by Stanhope in graphic language. The former writer tells how the victims of the horror after their capture lives. **he looked with ignorant aversion." Witness Macaulay:—"The regal pomp in the principal hall of the factory.

When the door was opened. " Gleig. I became necessary to clear a lane.'* i.A NEW WGHT ON 1. and the corpses were observed to be so numerous as to render entrance impossible.AY became apparent tenants. "held up lights to the ! whatever about that occurrence. Stanhope says the guards over the prisoners in the dungeon. Macaulay says "it was sometime before the soldiers could make a lane. Stanhope says they ** laughed and jested. they "held lights to the bars. »» as applied to one of the ordinary iimiates of the Black Hole. The infre- quently seen word " malefactor. is used with the same significance by both Stanhope and Macaulay. the original historian of those dark deeds. Stanhope says Macaulay says.'* and Macaulay * * ' ' "it 54 . Stanhope describes as "ghastly.'* Macaulay allows the same three words to describe to its its fearful significance doomed their contented behaviour. in order to observe more closely the cruel struggles among the d^ng. Those who survived the crime and were able to 'emerge from the pit of death. says nothing bars.0RD MACAUI.

» » " negotiations." and Macaulay employs the same expression. Even in the succession in which events are narrated^ sometimes without following the proper order of dates. Stanhope and Macaulay are in identity." "two treaties were dr^wn up. yet not wholly unwelcome." "fictitious." "put everything to the hazard. are by both writers said to have been placed "in irons. tidings of the stem and righteous punishment which overtook the fiend Surajah Dowlah. and follows the account by the pathetic." favour. * " wealthy merchant. These events are stated in a different chronological order from that in which his "a stipulation in 55 . Stanhope tells the fate of Meer Jaffier in a snort paragraph.*' Words and expressions such as "thenceforward.THB STANHOPB RBLATIONSRIP does the same." are all copied unblushingly by one of the two great authors from the other. Several of the survivors who were handcuffed before being sent to another prison. Stanhope says "promiscuously." "expedient." "real. The dead were flung into a large grave.

Coincidences may happen. and from them there can be only one or two logical inferences. it is more reasonable to ascribe the reproduction of illustration into the extraneous incidents by way t 56 . but when it is desired to teach a great lesson in history by comparing two different conditions of society in two totally different parts of the world. But and indeed natural. for equally well informed writers to describe the same great events in history in something like the same language. These quotations have been given extensively. Macaulay's version gives every detail of each occurrence in nearly the same inverse order in point of time. from the m or a comcidence has occurred which is wholly unique and quite without an example in modem While literature. it is possible. Either the one author servilely copied other. it passes the bounds of merely accidental similarity to find two different writers simultaneously importing wholly I ! of mere same august narrative.ORD MACAUI^Y they happened.A NKW LIGHT ON I. this is not all. and at nearly equal length.

and.THB STANHOPB RBI^TIONSHIP sentence after sentence of a similar description of entirely irrelevant matter to plagiarism than to regard it as solely and entirely a curious. by an extensive comparison of its history with the Germanic portion of the old Roman Empire shortly after that mighty confederation of principalities commenced to undergo a final dis- solution. Stanhope pauses at the same place in the narrative. but taken in conjunction with the mass of evidence which has preceded. as does his illustrious contemporary. there exists the most shameless and dar57 . of honesty. coincidence. this incident would furnish just cause for surprise. Strangely enough. Taken same lesson of I 1 by itself. employs the same illustration. between these two writers. may one add. Macaulay illustrates the condition of India at the time immediately preceding its conquest by the English. To form a setting for the admission of Clive*s splendid achievements into British History. it is impossible not to say that somewhere. yet actual. from the comparison. draws the usefulness.

just as in the case of the earlier chapters on Clive. the order of ( i I I. in an extended form. In both authors the same style is seen. the same incidents are recounted. Those three chapters. Chapters sixty-seven. contain. Some years later if was published the closing volume of Stanhope's History of England. 58 . That volume reverts to Indian exploits again. In 1841 appeared Macaulay 's brilliant essay on Warren Hastings. with slight variations.! i A NBW tIGHT ON LORD MACAULAY ing literary larceny. the marshalling of evidence to prove the desired facts. winning an Oriental Empire for England. gained a world-wide celebrity in the essay of Macaulay. and sixty-nine of Stanhope contain the story U' of Hastings* triumphs in the East. essay on Hastings. events. And so the story of Clivers rise to greatness. the directing of the drama presented by Stanhope being that which. sixty-eight. the story which was immortalized by Macaulay in his stirring I . proceeds through page after page of history. the same allusions are made.

The word sprung. * ' Stanhope has 59 . and even the very words and thoughts are to be found. The mention of the school which Hastings attended induces Macaulay to connect with it the name of Cowper. * ' in precisely * * the same connection.THB STANHOPB KSLATIOKSHIP the same phrases are repeated. Stanhope mentions the same school. and. is used by Macaulay. The latter has Hastings **as a lad shipped off to India. makes the same reference to the presence there of Cowper. In Stanhope. as a schoohnate of Hastings. The incident calls forth the same allusion on the part of Macaulay. in history as in essay. Hastings had "sprung*' from a family of ancient renown. like Macaulay. The mention of the name of Sir Elijah Impey calls forth by Stanhope an allusion to his boyish rela- tionship with Hastings. the three chapters of Stanhope might easily pass for Macaulay's essay on Warren Hastings. the poet. Making appropriate allowance for the condensation which characterizes the essay. and the expansion which marks the history.

" These are but a few of the ilarities many sim- which exist between the two productions. speaking of Hastings: **He took his measures accordingly with promptitude and skill. as has been indicated. or a copying of the one author by the other. contains two words additional. lacks one of the nine wards Stanhope uses in telling this fact has two others substituted for their synonyms. Each of the two writers refers to the boy Hastings as "little Warren. "He took his measures with his usual vigour and dexterity."too. so that the occurrence in the essay is seen to read.'* Macaulay 's version. published.1 : HIW UOHT ON UORD MACAULAY him**8hippedoff. t ' i i I'l ' Mi! I \v Stanhope says. Describing the rapid and energetic movements which culminated in the arrest of ' vh 1 r i Mohammed Beza Khan. and it hardly needs demonstration that the only rational explanation for the countless identities is that the 60 1 .'' Macaulay says the same. some years earlier. Stanhope says that on Impey "the fortunes of Hastings more than once depended." unquestionably an nnusual accident.

So likewise did Macaulay. Of the latter it is proper to say that he soars more easily to loftier flights of rhetoric than does Stanhope. and it is to be feared. phrases. Gleig and information.THE 8TANH0PB XBI. later author was In the two essays on Chatham. although Stanhope's silvery sentences are an unfailing characteristic of his various voluminous histories. incidents. tion of the But it is no explana- many likenesses which exist 6i . are conunon to both of the illustrious patriot's admirers. Orme. and historian quote.— equally a hero of both Stanhope and Macaulay. volumes of Malcohn.—the same circumstances are Multitudes of words. It must be remembered that both these men depended on the monumental apparent. Stanhope wrote with a powerful pen. ideas.ATIONSHIP perfectly familiar with the learned writings of the man who had gone before. and make due Mill for much of their Where essayist acknowledgment. they employ quotation marks. events. and used exceptionally briliant language.

pages of opinions. ' i! 1 ^"i ji - guage. If the circumstances which have been narrated be due to accident. that one man could perform the mysterious undertak62 i- i!- . It transcends probability. it defies reason. then the crime deserves to be placed on permanent record. and narrating whole pages of incidents in the same identical lofty and unnsnal lanauthorities them. If it be due to piracy. Carljle's French Bevolntion was written long years before it ever felt the touch of printer's ink.A NBW LIGHT ON LORD UACAVULY between these authors to say that they are dne to the fact that the same origina] were resorted to by both of It is very remote from probability to find two eminent men giving expression to whole. for very frequently friends are privileged to examine the writings of one another. then the accident is sufficiently important to justify preservation. So with the products of innumerable other authors * pens. Differences in dates of publication mean nothing. long before those writings are committed to the care of the public.

condensing or expanding the copy to suit his historical exigencies. have been regarded in each instance. for a period of over sixty years. One hundred pages of the one writer and three hundred pages of the other. or was the incomparable Macaulay the base. substance. as wholly original literature. in style.THB STANHOPB RBLATION8HIP ing of nnintentionally (ransoribing a whole book of his contemporary. and then offer it to the public as the original output of his mind. similar i and matter. echo of his erudite contemporary? 63 . though mighty. diction lb Was the stately Stanhope the disappointing culprit.

it I' Macaulay derived his style from oountless sources. utterly oblivious of its marvellous utterance. nor his almost miracu64 !^ 'i . But if he lived too soon to be engulfed by the rich and crystal flow of sweetness which Tennyson's art disclosed. Maoattlat's Obnius. ^^HILB peerless laureate's matchless minstrelsy had already entranced the hearts of men. He was ahnost too early for Tennyson and yet some of that . was touching the souls of the British people with the passion of his oratory. there were other mines of literarytreasares that his genins never knew.i ChaptbbV. he did not live too early to be overwhelmed by the strange and subtle mystery of the Heaven-penetrating Shelley. Yet neither Shelley's name. while the great historian.

MACAUIAY'S OSNIUl measures. the luminous stars seemed to radiate an intense splendour. with a voice not un like that of his own deathless nightingale. He was embarrassed not by the wealth but by the poverty which he felt to be a characteristic of language. The poet's mighty wings ever beat restlessly ing. filled the close of the eighteenth century with a spirit-stirring music kin- 65 . and sought to soar to some sublimer sphere where his soul's deep aspirations might be expressed by some less cramping medium than mere words. against the bars of being. lime. And Shelley had a magio spell that was hanntloufi and a literary spirit that was subHis dramas glowed with fiery words. ever made their powers felt in the great historian's life. The vaulted Heavens seemed to open. the fair flowers seemed to blossom with an unaccustomed loveliness. and singing to the stars. dwelling in the clouds. as if he recognized the manifest limitations of the English tongue. Keats. in the vast and boundless richness of his verse. His poetry laid bare the very choicest treasures of human speech. and burned with flaming sentences.

ridge. Cole- "with looks aspersed with fairy foam. and a wizard of his art. where the fair flowers blushed and blossomed. Quaint old mysteryloving Scott. there where the deep shadows lengthened and fell. and overhung by the sparkling jewels of frosty constella tions. from the weird and ghostly mystery of Kubla Khan and the Ancient Mariner. crested with eternal winters. There. regally descended from the hoary heights of Caledonian mountains. and virgin with rich verdure and unsurpassed romance. to the maddened harmonies of the Ode to Liberty." pouring out his heart and intellect in those subtle numbers. and accompanied by sprites and fairies. musical with tuneful waters. attended by ghosts and goblins.A NSW UOBT ON LORD MACAULAV dred to the muBic of the spheres. bom of swift and un66 i/ij . gaaed out over the same stormy generation with the look of one who was a pnnce in his reakn. into the soft retreats of Lowland vales. the mystic minstrel flashed before men's eyes strange images. and Ghristabel.

or as floate*! gi. has a mission in his own generation. and he into from passr. strength.y aiKi >t-like down zephyr carefh' ci va'f v?.. in order that he might have caught an inspired vision of these wondrous days which are sweeping meteoiically by. and have left his matchless record of their triumphs and their pains as a pricelegacy to posterity! Each writer. as mBrvellous as ever clustered around foi nUliag mountain * manner to passes.' majestically on History.MACAULAY'S GSNIU8 familiar words and spirit-haunting sentences . and those elementary instruments of expression seemed in some curious conceal weird shapes and wondrous forms. had .?. however. m their glorious being \<uo\iy t-^m-t Macaulay. sublimity ai <1 -wAotness. and it may be that he who less is a prophet in the times in which he dwells 67 . or iross tempest torment id h-cama But ihese and similar sonrceH of l't< . What a pity that Macaulay could not have been removed from his century into this. curiously and pathetically heedless of their wonderful existence.r> art.

with the tumult of their people making music on the thoroughfares. while the majesty and strength of an imheralded civilization reigns all over a peerless continent. new Birminghams. in the America. and the smoke of their industries spreading darkness through the skies. Yet the difference between 1919 and 1859. Toronto and Montreal. A new era throbs upon the Western Hemisphere. is "Westward I the course of Empire • takes its way*' has become a fact of history rather than a sentiment of poetry. have become permanent establishments in North Belfasts. New York. when Macaulay left this planet behind him. from the westward. new Glasgows and new land-guarded seas. where the commerce-laden rivers seek the Eng- fading Londons.A NBW UOBT ON LORD MACAUI«AY might be merely an encmnbrance if transplanted to another age. hundred A million residents now 68 contentedly abide . where the sunset glorifies the cloud-embosomed Rockies. worthy of a moment's reflection. to the eastward. New form of Chicago.

Or is it merely that the opportunity for their previous appearance was missing. have become the willing ministers of endless industry and trade.MACAULAT'S GBNIUS where a mere handful of sojourners formerly anxiously lingered. has come with all its brooding misery to humanity. which were thought to be the abode of mystery and danger. have obtained a ghastly reawakening. long feared and long expected war. have become the sources of a world's untold supplies of food. Passions. for the passions of the soul are bom in the human flesh. yet with the Alexander-like longing for unknown conquests. Lakes and rivers that once were the forbidding terror of daring navigators. that A were thought to have been entombed. Prairies. sought to soar across seared hearts and bleeding bodies to **a place torical A 69 . but ever as in the past boundless restoration has triumphed over measureless destruction. of world-wide dimensions. and not merely in his- circumstance? Ruin has confronted the world. nation. cradled in happiness and peace.

the echo of the cannon is dying out in the hearts of a still has love liberty better than life. After a four years* struggle. Within those four years the Anglo-Saxon race people who p'f has passed through the experiences of centuries yet out of the flaming furnace the gleaming gold has come. Allies' illustrious intrepidity. and is now meeting with the of the Babylonian Kingdom and of the Roman Empire. Inspired minds in years to come must guide the pens that shall supply a hungering posterity with the satisfying story of Britain's unconquerable daring. For every resource will be required to preserve . as she has for centuries gone by. and justice more than happiness. to be the enthroned Sovereign of the Waves.A NBW UGBT ON WRD MACAX7IAY in the sun". of our . whilQ the dross has been left behind. of all the thrilling memories of this marvellously unrivalled time. in which Britain terrible doom proved herself. Yet the pen of a Mac- aulay would have been supremely fitting to make the record complete. of Canada's deathless heroism.

have revered Macaulay as a master maker of the literature of England. I. For years. to bum with an increasing radiance the while the changing seasons hurry on. in common with countless thousands. for credulity often falters in the presence of the stupendous. as being 71 . Other historians of these mighty events will grandly live. Another age may be equally nnkind. and give their recollections to the world! Yet had Macaulay been a denizen of this great age. While considering the possibility of his literary perfidy. and feel that the giants of our earlier world were viewless We myths.MACAULAY'S GBNIUS from destruction the numberless fading details of these titanic years. too. and to us. while the generations and the centuries are left behind. and that their vaunted achievements were legendary impossibilities. his story of its greatness and its glory would flash sublimely along ages. do the same and the past sometimes fades into doubts as well as into distance. read the story of the past. and to kmdle new ambitions in the souls of unborn races.

I turn to the brighter and nobler aspect of his career. somewhere in and hoping that the bosom of the van- ished years lies a silent explanation of the mystery. in his History of England. and even in his poetry. his progress through them was lustrous with ahnost unwonted brilliance. more fitting and glorious For his genius was truly magnificent. when Demosthenes thun- dered sublimely against 72 the dreaded . He had the ability to lead instead of to follow. There are passages in his speeches which are resplendent with the most perfect eloquence known to the entire nine- teenth century. paragraphs which bring back to memory the vanished days of other lands. In many of his essays. and thousands were the golden opportunities on which he demonstrated this supreme capacity. Whenever he found himself in previously untraversed reahns.A miW UGHT ON lott WRD If ACAUtAY perfectly unthinkable. he rose with almost unconscious ease to the very zenith of literary splendour. in his speeches. and bring this imperfect survey of his genius to a close.

when Cicero's majestic oratory aroused ancient Rome against the perilous treacheries of the skilful and indefatigable Cataline. For close upon three generations every English-speaking orator has venerated Macaulay as a perfect master of peerles§ British eloquence. so lofty and so ethereal as ahnost to dismay. His language is not hki Chatham's.TTT— I MACAULAY'S GSNIUS Macedonian. when Bright with ahnost superhuman energy opof England. so overburdened with stormed the granite foundations which supported the mighty system of American slavery. There are whole pages of Macaulay's speeches which are freighted with irresistible suggestions of the golden days when Burke magnificently arraigned the oppressors of India's benighted millions. when Cobden with triumphant eloquence declaimed against the pressive Com Laws rhetor- 73 . it is not like Erskine's. when Grattan's silvery voice rang through two pariiament chambers as he passionately pleaded with an unbending legislature for the independence of the Irish people.

Countless authors. Browning forces words to perform Carlyle rephrases what other writers expand into paragraphs. rather than approach it as a burden and a task." and the **wade through slaughter to a throne" peroration. His periods have an amplitude ihat is all their own. equally renowned. Bright has a number of passages in his speeches as luminous as any Macaulay ever delivered. Such writers repel rather than attract the tens of thousands of readers who welcome literature as a charm and a recreation.A NBW UOHT ON LOW) MACAULAT wal ornament as almost to overwhelm. Moriey 's periods are too condensed and too severe to permit of his universal acceptance as ideal an moulder of a true oratorical style. offend in kindred particulars. notably the rhetorical flight about the "fluttering of the angel's wings. Gladstone's sentences are too lengthy and too cnmbrons to entitle him to rank as one of the oratorical models of his century. duces into to the commonplace after those splendid 74 . but he often sinks the work of phrases.

he does not sometunes descend below his ordinary level At the commencement of his career he attorned an eminence in his art. however. but he does not tire. far beyond that reached by any orator of his time. he is weighty. struck medinm he IS a happy in his style. and have stood transfixed at the world. "'^Hi^"""^' VACAUI^Y'S GENIUS oratorical eminences have been gained. men all countries have marvelled at his powers.. Few had in which he spoke hke an inspired prophet to the people. and below it he all the stirring of his career. He does not occasionally rise above his customary height. but he does not confuse. he is elegant. he mspires. Maoaulay. And since he has passed away. he charms. Above that pinnacle he infrequently soared. He is rhetorical seldom dropped during vicissitudes picturesque. Few learned the important lesson in oratory which he was teaching during the years mmation upon master enricher of style ere he first flashed like a new and wondrous iUu- memorable public equalled him as a m 75 .

A IfBW UGBT ON his ability. and as one who. and will continue to accept him. from which it is destined to sway the world through centuries that are yet to come. satisfies. as a prince of the pen. by voice and by tongue. he quence and literature upon a more stately throne. is He he admired. Thousands in every land and in every age have accepted him. 76 . he fills with delight. as a king of the platform.QKO MACAULAY have receded before his read. yet I. placed elois genius and aehievements.

•. OZMipkO Mr. a.) THE GREAT ORATORS OF CANADA A mmkm tlv^r of tkM Uv«s oratorical of o of lU Icaiiog Orotors of Coooio. has spent some time in the stndy of the place a number of Canadian speakers of national renown deserve to occttpy.OX. MAO COMa. which is one that has not been previously treated. HasMrd."— Cfi/«^. " The style it brilliant aad oratorical. . HAMA**. KOCKINUHAlf PKBSS . io ^ Ikoir oloaoooM. Mi wwn •••*•' ^''k. It is expected that this work will become an authority upon its author's favorite subject. who is known as a sptaker himaelf and who has very high ideals of the art in which Cicero and Demosthenes excelled.SOON READY BY THE SAME AUTHOR U.