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The use of Odonata as Bioindicator in Environmental Systems

Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar Dept. Agroecotechnology Faculty Agriculture Universitas Sumatera Utara zuliyanti@yahoo.com, azsyanti@gmail.com ABSTRACT Odonata were lived on, in, or near the substratum of running water include representatives of almost every taxonomical group that occurs in freshwater. Studies on odonata were not popular in Indonesian. Odonata have been shown to be sensitive and reliable of environmental disturbances to both rivers, terrestrial, and forest. Indices such as Biotic Index, Family Biotic Index, British Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Shannon Diversity Index, Simpson Diversity Index, Water Quality Index (WQI) and many others are used in evaluating the condition of the water in a particular aquatic environment. Odonata can use as well as other macro invertebrates in evaluating the quality of water is safe, cheap, and time saving. Odonata were calculated at Petani Streams, Sibolangit consist of 3 families (Aeshnidae: Aeshna sp), Gomphidae (Heliogomphus retroflexus), and Libellulidae (Pantala flavescens). While in Manik Rambung rice fields were collected by two orders, such as Zygoptera and Anisoptera. Zygoptera separte in family Coenagrionidae (4), such as Pseudagrion microcephalum, Ischnura senegalensis, Agriocnemis femina, A. pygmaea ; then family Gomphidae (2), consist of Ictinogomphus acutus,Gomphidia abbotti; while Anisoptera devided family Libellulidae (8) such as Potamarcha congener, Orthetrum sabina, Diplacodes trivialis, Crocothemis servilia, N. terminata, N. ramburii, Tholymis tillarga, and Pantala flavescens. Keyword: Odonata, use, bioindicator, environmental. ABSTRAK Capung tinggal diatas, dalam, dan di dekat substrat pada aliran air yang mengalir termasuk kedalam kelompok taksonomi yang diperhitungkan. Kajian tentang capung tidak begitu dikenal di Indonesia. Capung menunjukkan sensitivitas dan sangat terganggu pada lingkungan yang berubah, baik di sungai, daratan, maupun hutan. Indeks yang dapat digunakan seperti Indeks Biotik, Indeks Famili Biotik, Indeks Keanekaragaman Kelompok Pekerja Pemantauan British (BMWP), Indeks Keanekaragaman Shannon, Indeks Keanekaragaman Simpson, indeks Kualitas Air (WQI) dand banyak indkes lainnya dapat digunakan untuk melihat kondisi badan air pada suatu lingkungan perairan. Penggunaan capung sama baiknya seperti menggunakan makroinvertebrata dalam mengevaluasi kualitas perairan karena terjamin, murah, dan menghemat waktu. Odonata yang dikumpulkan di Sungai Petani, Sibolangit terdiri dari famili (Aeshnidae: Aeshna sp), Gomphidae (Heliogomphus retroflexus), and Libellulidae (Pantala flavescens). Sedangkan pada padi sawah di Manik Rambung diidentifikasi dua sub order, yaitu Zygoptera dan Anisoptera. Zygoptera terbagi atas famili Coenagrionidae (4), seperti Pseudagrion microcephalum, Ischnura senegalensis, Agriocnemis femina, A. pygmaea; kemudian famili Gomphidae (2), terdiri atas Ictinogomphus acutus,Gomphidia abbotti; selanjutnya Anisoptera terbagi atas famili Libellulidae (8) such as Potamarcha congener, Orthetrum sabina, Diplacodes trivialis, Crocothemis servilia, N. terminata, N. ramburii, Tholymis tillarga, dan Pantala flavescens. Keyword: Capung, digunakan, indikator biologi, lingkungan.
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INTRODUCTION Odonata are the order of insects and made up of the damselflies and dragonflies. There are approximately 6500 species world wide representing about 600 genera (Vick, 2002). All of these species been described and most of them are distributed in the tropics, where the greatest numbers and diversity occur. Of more 6000 species of Odonata described worldwide (Corbet, 1999), 143 have been identified from Sulawesi (Tol, 1987) and more are being described (Tol, 1997; 2000). It has been found in Sulawesi that species found only in primary forest tend to be endemic, while other habitats have mostly species with image across Southeast Asia (Arai, 1996). The high level of endemism highlights the importance of conservation in this area, especially in wetland, rice field, aquatic, and forest. The lifecycle involves a terrestrial adult stage and usually an aquatic larval stage, which may last from a few weeks to two years (Dudgeon, 1999). Odonata are made up of two suborders-the Anisoptera, which are the dragonflies. Zygoptera are slender as adults and hold their wings above their body while perching. Their larvae have an elongate abdomen and have two or three external saccoid or lamellate gills on the end of it. The Anisoptera are most robust insects and the adults hold their wings out flat while perching. The larvae a short, broad, abdomen, and internal gills. Odonate species tend to occupy a characteristics habitat or range of habitats with some a wide range of biotypes while others are very specific (Corbet, 1999). Odonata communities larvae which live on, in, or near the substratum of running water include representatives of almost every taxonimical group that occurs in freshwater. Several families which primarily occur in streams are the odonatan Agrionidae, Cordulegastridae, Gomphidae, Macromidae, and occupy almost all kinds of habitats along the habitat permanent gradient ranging from permanent running waters and lakes to small temporary rain ponds (Corbet, 1999). They show some preferences to specific habitats and their distribution are sometimes very much restricted to some microhabitats (Sheldon & Walker, 1998). Interestingly, most Odonata preferred to perch on vegetations including riparian vegetation, overhanging vegetation, and forested section of the stream. Thus, it reveals that vegetation play a role in the regulation of faunal distribution and their assemblage is strongly dependent on the composition and structure of vegetation (Korkeamaki & Suhonen, 2002). Che Salmah et al (1998) found that riverine ecosystem has the richest fauna of Odonata,

followed by rice field, stream, freshwater swamp and peat swamp. Watanabe et al. (2004) recorded although Odonata occur in almost types of aquatic ecosystem, microhabitat with high heterogeneity of vegetation is believed to be the factor primarily responsible in determining their diversity and distribution. Indonesia with its hot and wet tropical climate harbours. Based on the latest finding by Orr et al (2004), the Indonesian odonates fauna comprises about 750 species. They include zygopterans and anisopterans. Some of the species endemic in Sulawesi, such as Gynacantha Penelope (1989), several unique species such as are listed from Sumatera and Kalimantan (Paragomphus sumatranensis). Libellulidae is the most dominant family found in various ecosystems in Indonesia and Malaysia (Norma Rashied et al, 2000, Salmah, 2004). In Cambodia, 24 species of Odonata were recorded day trips to the Siem Reap area in lowland areas of Cambodia (Oleg, 2006). Despite these many species occurring in this country, very little information has been published on biological and ecological aspects of Indonesia fauna. The concept of biological indicator using Odonata is based on the diversity, abundance, and the distribution of the Odonata in relation to the physical and chemical conditions of the habitats. When the habitat is clean or polluted, the diversity and abundance of Odonata of insects living in the area will reflect it. Some species are known to have particular requirements concerning nutrients or level of oxygen. Once theses re defined, the presence of a particular species in a habitat indicates that the given determinant or parameter is within the tolerance limits of that species. Community structure of Odonata is sensitive to and determined by the conditions and resources available within a habitat (Begon et al, 1990). Odonata have been shown to be sensitive and reliable of environmental disturbances to both rivers, terrestrial, and forest (Chovance et ql, 2004; Stewart & Samways, 1998) and they are seen to be essential tool in the characterisation and assessment of many features of aquatic systems (Schindler et al, 2003). This is owing to their habitat specifications and niche differention (Chovanec et al, 2004). Destruction of habitat is the most important cause of Odonate population decline (Moore,2004). Therefore the species is considered as indicator for the range of the parameter it tolerates. Some indicators may continue to exist in a polluted environment but suffer physiological stress. The stress is revealed in diminished rate of growth, impaired reproductive capacity or modified behaviour. This is essentially a bioassay of environmental contamination and the indicator has become a biosensor for that
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pollutant or stressor. Indices such as Family Biotic Index, Biotic Index, British Monitoring Working party (BMWP), Shannon Diversity Index, Simpson Diversity Index, water Quality Index (WQI) (Culhane, 2005; Hillsenhoof, 1988; Morse et al., 1994; Ludwig & Reynolds, 1988; Armitage et al., 1983) and many others are used in evaluating the condition of the water in a particular aquatic environment. Using Odonate as well as other macroinvertebrtaes in evaluating the quality of water is safe, cheap, and time saving. Most importantly the method produces reliable results. METHODOLOGY Odonata were sampled at at Petani River (can any stream/river and lakes) in Sibolangit and 40 acre area of about ten ha rice field plot in Manik Rambung village in the Simalungun district, North of Sumatera. The area is located at 253 52.8N and 99 0024.4E, about 90 km from Medan City at 594 - 602 above meter sea level with temperature between 23 and 37C. The study area received water from the Siborna dam and the annual rainfall was 188.67mm in the year, it is about 100 m from highway to Sidamanik, tea plantation area. The isolated semi-triangular control plot is borded by main road in the west and mini forestry in the souteast and a highway to Prapat. There is a village town along the road near the junction to the sudy area. Scattered human settlements are found across the road and on the other side of stream and a mini-canal. Usually two rice crops were grown in a year. Although the District Office of Agriculture advises the farmers in this district on rice cultivation schedules. The owner of this field cannot follow those schedules closely since his fields depends totally on the irrigation and chnage of climate. Rice cultivation in this field was fully mechanized and pesticides were minimally used. Research commenced in September 2008 until to midle December 2008. The areas studied devided on 3 rice fields (blocks), consisting of control, lowland, and terrace rice fields. These rice fields are selected from 5 arbitary plots (1-5), and 6 replicates are randomly collected from each plot (following combined sampling design of Randomized Complete Block Design and Completly Randomized Design). Diversities of odonata was sampled weekly of the exprerimental plots was 2.0 m x 3.5 m rice field strips near the bunds (leeves). Sweeping net samplers was used to sample the odonate in a standard manner (Merrit & Cummmins 1996). A mesh size of 30-45 cm, depth 75 cm was found most suitable to sample odonate and was used throughout

the study. The Odonate were identified using keys of Asahina (1979), Merrit &
Cummins (1984), Shanti (1998), and Orr (2004).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Description of Odonata Odonata were calculated from Petani Streams, Sibolangit consist of 3 families (Aeshnidae: Aeshna sp), Gomphidae (Heliogomphus retroflexus), and Libellulidae (Pantala flavescens). While in Manik Rambung rice fields were collected by two orders, such as Zygoptera and Anisoptera. Zygoptera separte in family Coenagrionidae (4), such as Pseudagrion microcephalum, Ischnura senegalensis, Agriocnemis femina, A. pygmaea; Libellulidae (8) such as Pantala flavescens. Biological indices The biological indices were calculated for all stations (streams or lake) using FBI, BMWP, and Shannon Index for categorized water quality (Hillsenhoff, 1988; Morse et al., 1994; Ludwig & Reynolds, 1988; Armiatage et al., 1983) (look table 1) Table 1. The biological indices were calculated in streams or lake using FBI, BMWP, and Shannon Index
Index
FBI (Hilsenhoff, 1988)

then family Gomphidae (2), consist of

Ictinogomphus acutus,Gomphidia abbotti; while Anisoptera devided family Potamarcha congener, Orthetrum sabina, Diplacodes trivialis, Crocothemis servilia, N. terminata, N. ramburii, Tholymis tillarga, and

Range Scores

of Proposed new Water quality description range* 0.00 3.75 3.76 - 4.25 4.26 5.00 5.01 5.75 5.76 6.50 6.51 - 7.25 7.26 10.00 Excellent Very Good Good Fairly Poor Poor Very Poor Very high/Good quality High water quality Good water quality Moderate water quality Poor water quality Clean Moderately polluted Substantially polluted

BMWP (Armitage et al., 1983)

Shannons Index

0.00 3.75 3.76 - 4.25 4.26 5.00 5.01 5.75 5.76 6.50 6.51 - 7.25 7.26 10.00 > 151 101 150 51 100 17 50 0 - 16 3.00 5.00 1.00 - 3.00 < 1.00

Stream /Lake class I II III IV V I II III IV V I II III

3.00 5.00 1.00 - 3.00 < 1.00

DISCUSSION
The Odonata in this rice field were quite diverse. Out of Ansori (2006) recorded 4 species (Ortetrum sabiba, Crocothemis servilea, Neurothemis terimata, and Anaciaeshna jaspidea) in Some fields in Bandung. Meanwhile Kandibane et al (2007) revealed the inventory of 12 Odonata with 9 species dragonflies and 3 species damselflies. However, the densities of family Gomphidae was much lower than that recorded in this study. Minimum pesticide application as used in this rice field plots had proven no harmful effect on the odonates. Fiften families insects were also recorded by Heckman (1974, 1979) in rice fields of Laos and Thailand that were completly free of pesticides. Similar number of taxa were collected in the Phillipines (Mogi & Miyagi, 1990). The existence of odonata in the rice field was totally dependent on the availability of water. Temporary drying especially in rain fed rice fields was a major factor that reduced the abundance of most insect communities (Mogi, 1993). However, odonata is the largest insect order, which is entirely predaceous in rice ecosystem. Both naiads and adults are the voracious predators on other insect (Krishnasamy et al., 1983). As indicated by Heckman (1974) one of insect, odonates are early colonisers. They reappear in the rice field as soon aa the water sets in. In this study, their populations were found in the rice field as soon as the water was available. Release from microrefugia such as soil crackss or the space among dense rice tillers may have contributed to their prompt appreance in the fields. Many of these species such as Odonata (Corbet 1980; Che Salmah, 1996) compensated for the high attrition rate during the dry seasons by being very prolific when conditions were optimal. Then large amount of fertilizers and herbicides were applied to the actively growing rice plants. Nutrients availability coupled with high penetration of sunlight resulted in high production of phytoplankton (Ali, 1988).The abundance of food resulted in proliferation of prey species which eventually led to an increase in predator abundance, it has been reported that the mean total density of macroinvertebrates was positively correlated with the densities of predators such as odonates and predatory midges (Thorp & Cothran, 1984). Odonata are striking aquatic and aerial component of wetland environment, in term of both biomass and their influence as predators (Banke, 1978). In the tropic, the dragonfly populations are continuous and as many as four generations has been

recorded to occur in a year (Heckman,1974; Che Salmah, 1995). Generally most tropical Anisoptera complete development in less than 100 days (Hasan, 1975; Kumar, 1984). The abundance of relatively diverse animal community availability and refugia determined the actual preys available in this rice field to the predators, implied a continuous availability of preys in this habitat. Although factors such as prey mortality due to starvation was presumably uncommon for most predator soecies. Families Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae are predators. Many soecies of them are aggressive, eating on most of other insects. Cannibalistic libellulids consume all types of aquatic species of suitable sizes and textures (Chutter 1961, Pritchard 1964; Thompson, 1978; Folsom & Collins, 1984; Blois 1985) such as corixids (Folsom, 1980) and Anopheles mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS Odonata were calculated at Petani Streams, Sibolangit consist of 3 families (Aeshnidae: Aeshna sp), Gomphidae (Heliogomphus retroflexus), and Libellulidae (Pantala flavescens). While in Manik Rambung rice fields were collected by two orders, such as Zygoptera and Anisoptera. Zygoptera separte in family Coenagrionidae (4), such as Pseudagrion microcephalum, Ischnura senegalensis, Agriocnemis femina, A. pygmaea; Libellulidae (8) such as then family Gomphidae (2), consist of Ictinogomphus acutus,Gomphidia abbotti; while Anisoptera devided family Potamarcha congener, Orthetrum sabina, Diplacodes trivialis, Crocothemis servilia, N. terminata, N. ramburii, Tholymis tillarga, and Pantala flavescens. Using Odonata as well as other macroinvertebrates in evaluating the quality of water is safe, cheap, and time saving. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We are very much grateful to Mr. Silalahi and Mr. Nainggolan and family for allowing us to work in their rice field. This research was funded by Hibah Strategis Nasional of Ministry of Higher Education Indonesian, Universiti Sumatera Utara, and University Science Malaysia.
Presented in BKPSL Seminar in Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru. 2010.

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