Connecting South Dakota and the Nation

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

CONCRETE PLANTS
PREPARED BY THE DOT STATE-WIDE LABORATORY ACCREDITATION TRAINING GROUP AND THE BUREAU OF PERSONNEL

2002

This Document was developed by the South Dakota Bureau of Personnel and the Department of Transportation as a tool for use by the staff to aid in performing the best possible inspection of construction activities. It is intended to be used as a training tool and as a guide for all personnel involved in performing inspection of this type of work and as such shall not be construed as containing all specifications, procedures and details. Various documents may be referenced but not included herein due to possible Copyright infringement. It shall be the responsibility of the user to secure those documents as needs dictate. This document is subject to revision periodically and it shall be the responsibility of the user to ascertain the document being used is the most current edition. The edition shown in this media form will always be the most current. This is an official Bureau of Personnel / Department of Transportation Document.

______________________________ Dennis Landguth Acting, Deputy Secretary South Dakota Department of Transportation April 17, 2000

“ SDCL 20-13, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 require that the Department of Transportation provide services to all persons without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sex, disability, ancestry or national origin.”

Suggestions for improvement of this manual should be sent to: Materials and Surfacing Engineer South Dakota Department of Transportation 700 East Broadway Pierre, South Dakota 57501-2586 (605) 773-3401

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION Role of An Inspector Communications and Attitude Qualifications of The Inspector Sampling and Testing Typical Plant Site Duties Records Plant Inspector’ s Equipment and Materials Summary CONCRETE BASICS Cement Water Aggregates Aggregate Grading Admixtures Air Entraining Admixtures Water Reducing Admixtures Pozzolanic Admixtures MATERIAL STORAGE AND HANDLING Aggregate Paving Concrete Structural Concrete Cement and Fly Ash Water Admixtures SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Cement Mill Certification Certified Mills Non-Certified Mills Cement Sampling Techniques Water Sampling Techniques Aggregate Sampling Techniques Conveyors
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1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5

6 7 8 8 9 9 11 13

16 17 17 18 18 19

20 20 20 20 21 24 26 26

) Central Lab Tests Specific Gravity Absolute Volume Absorbed Moisture Factors that Affect Slump.Stockpiles Sample Splitting Admixture Sampling Techniques Chemical Admixtures Mineral Admixtures TESTING PROBLEMS Gradation Moisture Content Fineness Modulus (F. Workability. and Consistency DESIGN MIX Cement Factor Water Cement Ratio Paving Concrete Masonary Concrete Moisture Adjustments Finding Free Moisture Workability Adjustments Water Content Adjustment Sand Weight Adjustment Plant Inspectors Daily Report Cold Weather Concreting Hot Weather Concreting Miscellaneous CONCRETE PLANTS Non Computerized Batching Plant Inspection Scales Water Meters Bins Admixtures Automatic Controls Computerized Batching Plant Inspection Mixing Plants Mixer Maintenance ii 26 28 31 31 31 34 35 36 39 39 39 41 42 46 46 47 48 49 49 52 53 56 59 63 69 69 ` 71 72 74 75 75 76 78 79 80 .M.

Central Office (formerly Huron Area) Tom Johnson. Those employees include: Roger Herrick. The Department of Transportation is grateful for and wishes to recognize the efforts of its employees who have made significant contributions to the improvement of this training manual. Quality of Concrete and Proportioning in the specification book.3 A. (380. Central Office Ronald Sherman.3 paragraph A.Mixing Transit Mix Trucks Mobile Concrete Mixer Cement Feeder Calibration Worksheet Mobile Mixer Calibration Worksheet DAILY INSPECTIONS Scales Cement Checks Hauling Units Hauling Tickets Agitator and Dump Trucks Partial Batches Summary USE OF NON-SPECIFICATION MATERIAL CONCRETE PLANT CHECKLIST VOCABULARY TABLE OF CONVERSION FACTORS ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS 81 82 84 86 87 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 110 111 All handouts (Handout 1) cited in this manual are in the envelope at the back of the manual.) refers the reader to Section 380. NOTE: Throughout this manual. reference is made to provisions of the South Dakota Standard Specifications for Roads and Bridges. Brookings Area iii . For example. Pierre Region Ronald McMahon. Brookings Area Robert Hofer.

16 February 1999 SD ACPA Annual Concrete Pavement Workshop Sioux Falls. and a thorough knowledge of the work at hand. Be consistent in your inspection. If a decision is questioned. You did not write the specification. don't let that weaken your conviction. Leave nothing to chance. Do not prejudice the public against road improvements by flippant answers to what may seem foolish questions. until he has approved a change. However. Aid the Contractor at every opportunity so long as the specifications are not violate. may be called to the attention of the particular workmen responsible. Be courteous to visitors.YOUR JOB The Concrete Inspector A good inspector is conscientious in obtaining a quality job. fairness. Do not try to magnify your own importance by telling outsiders of the errors you have corrected. will you be able to use good judgement. Do not waste workman's time by carrying on conversations with them. Be friendly with everyone on the job: Be familiary with no one. impartiality. etc. A reputation of being slack is quickly attained but diffucult to overcome. or the contractor only. or the quality of the work impaired. SD iv . The quality of the completed pavement will measure your ability and will be your strongest testimonial. but signify your willingness to refer to your superiors for further interpretation. including the reason for each requirement. superintendent. Insist upon specification results from start to finish. Be there when work starts in the morning and when it ends in the evening. An erroneous method is more easily corrected the first time it is practiced than after it becomes a habit. Know the specifications thoroughly. Familiarity dulls the edge of an inspector's authority. such minor items Needing corrections as form alignment. The first and last work of the day are the most likely of all to be defective and to require your complete attention. Let nothing occur during the day without your full knowledge. Future paving depends upon a public good will. Inly if you know the reason for each specification requirement. Discuss these provisions privately with your superior if you wish. see that the written specifications are followed. Your job is a full-time man-sized job.. But. Don't Argue! Base your decisions on judgement that reflects coolness. local high subgrade. The man who did may have had good reasons for inserting provisions which you do not think necessary or advisable. Instructions and suggestions should be given to foremen. A reputation of being severe and unreasonable breeds contempt for an inspector's instructions.

” A person can be proud to have earned the title “ Concrete Plant Inspector. The inspector is friendly but firm and impartial in making decisions when dealing with the contractor and his/her personnel. Attendees will discuss the plans and specifications for the project. engineers. Inspectors must avoid giving the impression that they control the work. he/she does not hesitate. The inspector does not permit reduced quality in order to increase the contractor's productivity. Failure to do this can cause legal problems later. and define lines of authority. The plant inspector assists these people by controlling the manufacture of concrete to meet their needs. One of the most important steps in establishing communications is the preconstruction meeting. He/she cannot watch any particular situation passively. An inspector influences the construction process to obtain the best possible results. This benefits both the Department and the contractor. design. The inspector helps the contractor anticipate problems and helps find ways to resolve them. Offer assistance while being careful not to supervise construction.” COMMUNICATIONS AND ATTITUDE Communication is one of the most important aspects of an inspector's job. traffic control techniques. 1 . These meetings are held before the beginning of any major construction project. At the meeting. The inspector is proactive by understanding the project from the contractor's point of view. The inspector's attitude is especially important. and operation of efficient and economical concrete structures and pavements.INTRODUCTION THE ROLE OF AN INSPECTOR A concrete plant inspector is a person whose occupation requires training in the technique of making concrete. proportioning and adjustment of concrete mixtures and performance and interpretation of field tests for purposes of quality control. An inspector should never issue a direct order to the contractor's workers. The inspector must never assume supervision of the work. The task is to judge the quality of work that is performed by methods that meet specifications. and contractors are involved in the application of scientific principles to practical ends such as the planning. construction. the inspector becomes acquainted with the contractor's key personnel. A definition of a concrete plant inspector could be “ a person who has demonstrated a fundamental knowledge of concrete materials. Architects. Communication is essential to ensure that the project is properly managed. If an inspector has a suggestion for changing a procedure to improve the quality and efficiency of the work.

"Seeing.QUALIFICATIONS OF THE INSPECTOR An inspector's qualifications are expected to exceed those of the concrete plant worker. they would be: 1) knowledge. Common sense grows out of knowledge and cannot be learned from a book. he/she must be observant and be capable of keeping neat. The inspector must be frank and sincere in relationships with people. The inspector must be able to perform accurate mathematical calculations. Then corrections. Practical experiences with concrete mix production. and testing are more accurate. The inspector should be familiar with the technical aspects of construction. The inspector should make frequent use of this and other manuals to ensure accurate tests and checks.It is important for an inspector to look carefully at everything going on around the site. He/she must have keen common sense for making competent decisions. and be a skilled diplomat able to handle tough situations without arousing hostility. 3) observational skills.While common sense is no substitute for knowledge. concrete production and construction procedures. Above all. 2. and other contract documents. 3. specifications. He or she needs to know the principles of material testing as well as how to interpret the test results. concise and accurate records. but also have a broad general knowledge of concrete materials. 2) common sense. A concrete plant inspector must have a thorough working knowledge of concrete plants. 2 . If all the qualifications of an inspector could be reduced to four. documentation. It is essential that he/she know how to read and understand plans. and 4) courtesy. When under stress. the better prepared he/she is to perform his/her duties. the inspector must still be able to maintain personal composure and make good decisions. it is the means by which an inspector can interpret specifications to enforce their intent. equipment and concrete pavement and structure construction procedures. The more knowledgeable the inspector. Common Sense .” means thinking carefully about what the eyes observe. straightforward manner. Technical study and/or construction experience is necessary to perform well as an inspector. roadway construction and concrete laboratory testing is a valuable asset. Knowledge . The inspector must be honest and conduct him/herself in a fair. Observational Skills . The inspector should understand the basic engineering principles of roadway design and should be familiar with the characteristics of construction materials. equipment operation and policy.The inspector should be familiar with the materials. 1.

The inspector is given standard forms for routine reporting. weather conditions. idle equipment. Gruff. Report forms include such items as date.A major part of the inspector's job is to inform the contractor when conditions are unsatisfactory or when the specifications are not being met. TYPICAL PLANT SITE DUTIES ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Sampling cement or fly ash Sampling and testing aggregates Sampling plastic concrete Verifying batch weights of mix Verify correct mechanical operation of the plant Storing and testing hardened concrete specimens Testing Samples Keeping records Conducting oneself in a safe manner RECORDS One of the most important functions of the inspector is to keep accurate records and document thoroughly. bossy. Records and reports should be kept current and submitted on schedule. weekly or monthly entries. The inspector must know which sampling to do at the plant. the inspector should keep a written or electronic diary of activities at the plant site. and sarcastic comments are unacceptable from any inspector.4. In addition to the standard forms. even if given in answer to a contractor's aggravating remarks. equipment being used. Follow the Materials Manual guidance. production rates and so forth. Experience shows that it is not what is said as much as the way it is said that is important. The inspector must make sure that every sample is identified with the proper information. The inspector must also know how to correctly sample and where the procedures can be verified. Be friendly. Courtesy . Yet the inspector's manner of presenting the comments can cause a poor relationship. The forms may require daily. location of the work. source of materials. It should contain such information as 3 . The inspector is encouraged to provide suggestions to improve operations. courteous and positive. test results. The inspector must be equally as confident and knowledgeable about prescribed testing procedures and documentation of tests. SAMPLING AND TESTING Sampling and testing are methods of evaluating the quality of the work. They should be neat. Records and reports are necessary to determine that contract requirements have been met so that payments can be made to the contractor. complete and legible.

length of work stoppages. such as field measurements. Any item of significance should be recorded. Concrete Plants Manual 9. needs these few items: 1. Set of Plans for the project 5. Mix Design Sheet for the project 4. 35. should be indicated on the inspector's report. 14. DOT Forms (1. important conversations. number of persons and types of equipment affected by work stoppages. Stop Watch 2. equipment breakdowns. Records and reports are used to determine quantities of materials for payment. The importance of entries listed in the inspector's diary cannot be overemphasized. in addition to what is available from the field lab. The basis for calculation of material quantities. 59 and 98A) 4 . More importantly.weather conditions. and any changes in the appearance of the materials. 25. PLANT INSPECTOR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS The Plant Inspector. unusual incidents. verbal orders received. 3. 4. Hand held calculator 10. visitors on the site. They ensure that the contractor is paid fairly. The quantity records must be complete and accurate. Lined tablet and pencils 7. The quantities of materials wasted or rejected should be identified so those totals can be checked by audit. The information is a reference that can be used to perform similar future work or in case of legal action. Specifications Book referenced in the project plans 3. Metric and English measuring device 11. it can give clues for investigators in case the job fails. 13. Project Diary or electronic data recorder 8. 2. A Materials Manual 6.

accurate work records. It also requires that he/she develop the skill of observation and use common sense.SUMMARY The role of the inspector is to see that the plans and specifications are followed. This requires that the inspector be honest. know how to do it. the inspector must be able to keep neat. concise. In addition. sincere. the inspector must want to do a good job. To maintain good working conditions. The inspector's responsibility is to identify to the contractor any situation in which plans and specifications are not being followed. and then go about it in a professional manner. the inspector must have a relationship with the contractor in which both parties understand and respect each other's viewpoints. The inspector does not have the authority to supervise the contractor's workers or to give orders. 5 . The inspector does have the authority to reject or not recommend payment for any work that does not meet job requirements. To do a professional job. knowledgeable and courteous.

When the cement is later mixed with water. air content and homogeneity. Through a chemical reaction called "hydration. By weight. and 78% aggregate. The cement and water form a "glue like" paste. the process reverses to hydration (combining with water) and the cement-water paste will become hard as rock. (21°C) 6 . CEMENT Cement holds the aggregates together (750). A basic requirement in all concrete handling is that both quality and uniformity of the concrete. mix thoroughly and grind up fine. Concrete Components. the first phase of the hydrating process (called the initial set) will occur in one or more hours. if not most. If the temperature is more than 70°F. in terms of water – cement ratio. must be preserved. cool the clinkers. practices resulting in production and placement of high quality concrete can be performed as economically as those resulting in poor concrete. Then run the material through a rotating kiln at a temperature from 2600°F (1427°C) to 3000°F (1649°C) until the raw materials change into clinkers. slump. add one-half cup of clay or pulverized shale. An important principle to remember about the cement-making process is the dehydration (drying out) of the materials by using intense heat. A simple recipe for Portland cement could be as follows: take one cup of crushed limestone.CONCRETE BASICS Figure 1. It also determines the strength of the concrete. In many cases." the paste hardens and binds the aggregates. add a pinch of sandstone or iron ore. add one tablespoon of gypsum and grind very fine into Portland cement. and aggregate (Figure 1) makes Portland Cement Concrete. By adding a small amount of air. Mixing cement. The paste must be spread evenly over every piece of aggregate. strong and durable concrete is produced. On a 70°F (21°C) day. water. most concrete is made up of about 15% cement. 7% water.

One bag weighs 94 (42. sugar.638 kg). The Central Office of Materials and Surfacing or the Region Materials Laboratories run a pH test to find 7 ." and stands for a quantity of 100 pounds (45. the numbers that are recorded are smaller. Hundred weight is written using its abbreviation. Always check the PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS for each project for the correct cement type. means 100 pounds (45.36 kg). When the contractor needs only a small quantity of cement. NOTE: Cement producers are furnishing Type I-II cement that may be used in lieu of either Type I or Type II cement. and other substances detrimental to the finished product (790). About the same strength is achieved in 7 days as in 28 days with Type I cement. Different kinds of cement can be produced for various uses. it will occur at a slower rate. acid. and 460. concrete shall be discharged within 90 minutes. When continuously agitated in the hauling unit.36 kg). By using hundred weight instead of pounds. and if the temperature is lower than 70°F (21° C).3 G.the hydration will occur at a faster rate. Type III is a "high early strength" cement used when rapid strength is needed. and discharged and screeded within 60 minutes. "cwt.) 85°F (30°C) or above.3 G. The time limitation shall be reduced to discharge within 45 minutes. and discharged and screeded within 105 minutes after the cement has been placed in contact with the aggregates. except when the concrete temperature is (380. Type II cement is a Portland Cement that is used when moderate sulfate resistance or moderate heat of hydration is desired. Type V is a slower setting cement and is used for low heat during hydration. injurious alkali. Each bag of cement weighs 94 pounds (42.. WATER The water used in making concrete should be free of oil. NOTE: Cwt. Either “ hundred weight” or “ bags” can refer to the quantity of cement.638 kg) pounds. vegetable matter. it is more convenient for him to have the cement delivered in bags. effluent from a sewage disposal plant. Type I is a general-purpose cement. Department specifications call for a uniform rate of concrete delivery.

both the coarse and fine pieces are graded into Figure 2. NOTE: Be sure to check the Specifications or Plan Note for each project.Fine (800) and Coarse (820). AGGREGATES Aggregates occupy most of the space in concrete. it is called fine aggregate or sand. Aggregate Spacing and Voids. This is called grading and is usually expressed in terms of percentages larger or smaller than each of a series of sieves. The Fine Aggregate (commonly called sand) is a material less than 3/8 inch (9. To do this.coarse and fine. It is best for these pieces of rock to be cubical or rounded. and when 95 to 100% of the material is finer than a Number 4 sieve (4. Aggregates can come from a wide range of material but are usually confined to: • • • • Natural Sand Natural Gravel Crushed Rock or Stone Expanded Shale (lightweight aggregate) These aggregates fall into two size classes .5 mm) in size. They also test the water for dissolved and suspended solid material to see if these solids would be harmful to the concrete.75 mm) is considered to be coarse aggregate. Sometimes crushed material is specified. a number of different sizes (Figure 2) in order to occupy the most space in the concrete as is shown by the illustration to the right.75 mm).75mm). Aggregate with 95 to 100% of the material larger than a Number 4 sieve (4. The Coarse Aggregate (commonly called rock) is the material larger than a Number 4 sieve (4. Both natural and crushed materials are used for coarse aggregate. 8 . it is necessary to separate the pieces of rock (natural or crushed) into different sizes and blend them back together. AGGREGATE GRADING To end up with as much aggregate in a concrete mix as possible.out if the water can be used for concrete. The aggregate or rock portion of concrete is the least expensive so it is important to use as much of it as practical. Aggregates are divided into two general sizes -.

water and air) and there is some extra paste to fill the tiny voids left. with the exception of air entraining admixtures. The most common types of admixtures are: • Air Entraining Admixtures • Water Reducing Admixtures • Pozzolanic Admixtures Air Entraining Admixtures Air entraining admixtures (751) are used to deliberately produce very small.7 mm) No.7 mm) in diameter. All concrete requires the use of an air-entraining agent to protect the concrete from freeze thaw deterioration.5 mm) ball and the 1-inch (25. but it is a goal to strive for. The information below is from the Specifications Book Section 820 for 1 inch paving coarse aggregate. Between the 1/2-inch (12. They help make the concrete less expensive and/or of better quality.4 mm) 1/2”(12. Sieve Size Percent Passing (Or Finer Than) 100% 95-100% 25-60% 0-10% 0-5% 1 and 1/2”(38. 4 (4. Aggregate specifications should have grading limits with ranges wide enough to make it practical for an aggregate producer to screen and blend natural or manufactured aggregates on a mass-production basis and still give us good performance. It is obvious that we can not expect a perfect grading.The illustration on the previous page demonstrates that if four 1-inch (25. uniformly spaced bubbles in the concrete mix. there will be enough space left in the middle for a ball about 1/2-inch (12. The use of air entrainment results in greater workability in the plastic concrete and in more resistance of the hardened concrete to cycles of freezing and thawing. This concrete would cost the least. If each ball is coated with a thin film of paste (cement. they are not used for all applications.175 mm) balls could be placed and so on.4 mm) balls are put together.36 mm) ADMIXTURES Admixtures are added to the concrete mix to improve one or more characteristics of the plastic or hardened concrete. we would have concrete containing a maximum amount of aggregate and a minimum amount of paste. However.1 mm) 1”(25. 8 (2. 9 .4 mm) balls some 1/8-inch (3.75 mm) No. English and Metric.

Approved means that the product has been tested and used. 7. In order to comply with Department specifications and properly control the amount of entrained air in the concrete. Cement content and fines. The presence of other admixtures. The efficiency of the air entraining admixture and its ability to produce bubbles of the proper size depends on the speed of the mixer and the length of the mixing cycle. Increases in the amounts of middle sized sands (Number 30 – Number 50 sieve or 0. a Certificate of Compliance need not be secured prior to use of the product.600 . 10 . The particle shape and gradation of the aggregates affects efficiency. Concentration of the air entraining admixture. adjust the dosage of the air-entraining admixture accordingly. Less water will inhibit air entrainment. 2.300-mm) increase air content.0. Air entraining admixtures are generally available in several different concentrations. Aggregates. Inspectors can check the list for approved brands. However. To overcome this effect. 5. the more efficient the air entraining admixture. use more airentraining admixture. Not enough air will be entrained if the mixing speed is too slow or the mixing time is not long enough. Decreases in the amounts decrease air content. Very fine material reduces the efficiency of air entraining admixtures. 4. More air-entraining admixture is needed for warmer temperatures. other kinds of admixtures can significantly affect the mix consistency without changing the total water content. Fines make the paste firmer and less capable of entraining air readily. Temperature. a more plastic consistency will generally entrain more air. the less fines in the mix. Time and speed of mixing. Since water also affects the consistency of the mix. Other admixtures can affect the efficiency of the air-entraining admixture.The efficiency of the admixtures used to entrain air is affected by many factors: 1. More water in a mix will assist the airentraining admixture. A concentrated air-entraining admixture has more active ingredients. Under cool conditions concrete will entrain air more readily unless hot water is used for the mixing water. Changes in the shape of the aggregate from round to angular increases the effectiveness of an air-entraining agent. Conversely. The Department has an approved list of acceptable brands of air entraining admixtures. Some admixtures will entrain additional air or reduce the amount ordinarily entrained. 3. 6. If the brand appears on the approved list. Water content of the concrete mix.

and drilled shaft concrete construction. paving. Water reducing admixture. Water Reducing Admixtures – Section 752 Other concrete admixtures are used that effect the setting characteristics of the concrete. Accelerating admixture – an admixture that accelerates the setting and early strength development of concrete. thawing snow. The Type F can experience rapid slump loss. The Type F admixture is used in precast and prestressed concrete industry. high range. it expands. etc.. freezing could cause cracking. Type B: Type C: Type D: Type E: Type F: Type G: Generally by reducing water. Water reducing and accelerating admixture – an admixture that reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a given consistency and accelerates the setting and early strength development of concrete.an admixture that reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a given consistency by 12% or greater and retards the setting of the concrete. the concrete becomes more durable.Moisture from rain. Retarding admixture – an admixture that retards the setting of concrete. Without the entrained air. The following are the various types available: Type A: Water reducing admixture – an admixture that reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a given consistency. The Type A admixtures are more commonly used in structural. Water reducing and retarding admixture – an admixture that reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a given consistency and retards the setting of concrete. Use of admixtures shall be as recommended by the manufacturer. As the moisture freezes. The tiny air bubbles of air entrainment allow the frozen water to expand without exerting a cracking force. Water reducing. high range – an admixture that reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a given consistency by 12% or greater. Dosage rates should be utilized within the manufacturer’ s recommendations to achieve the best 11 . and retarding admixture -. can soak into concrete.

Static electricity causes cement particles in fresh concrete to form small clumps. Perform laboratory testing with the actual ingredients being used in the mix at the proposed dosage rates and provide any historical performance. 2.performance level. The water held in the clump is also released into the mix. NEVER use chloride as an accelerator and do NOT allow chloride based material admixtures. discuss manufacturer’ s recommendations for the specific admixtures to be used on the project in detail. Anytime an admixture is used in a concrete mixture a higher level of quality control is required before. Disbursement improves the efficiency of the cement. Water reducing admixtures can be used in three ways: 1. The approval process will require the contractor to provide the following as determined by the Concrete Engineer and/or the Bridge Construction Engineer: 1. during. compatibility. set retarders. Sufficient lead-time will be required for the test pour to allow for adjustments and another field pour if deemed necessary. Submit the mix design and statistical analysis of the test results. Use those mix designs with the same admixtures that have an acceptable documented performance history. Water reducing admixtures are chemicals that can minimize these electric charges and disperse cement particles more evenly. 4. This makes the concrete easier to place. At the prepour meeting. Use them in a concrete mix at a fixed water and cement content. 3. Cement particles no longer clump. This clumping prevents cementing action between the aggregates. etc. Provide a field test pour under similar conditions that the mix will be used to verify its workability. and after construction. Contractors cannot use chemical admixtures (water reducers. 12 . making the mix more workable.) without approval of the Concrete Engineer and/or the Bridge Construction Engineer prior to use. 5. Chloride is NOT allowed as an admixture. It is useful where paving must be done by hand. Manufacturer’ s Product Information sheets shall be furnished with the admixture. This released water then acts as a lubricant. but become free to react and bond the aggregates. and performance.

" Reactivity is the ability of the ash to provide cementing action when combined with water.36 kg) of cement. For this reason. However.15 for cement. 3. Typically they have specific gravity’ s ranging from 2. Because fly ash has a lower specific gravity. (45. For this reason. particularly time of set. Water reducers are available in formulations that can accelerate or retard the setting. Fly ash reacts with the calcium hydroxide produced by hydration. like air entraining admixtures. water reducing admixtures may be used to provide some retardation and control heat generated as the cement and water react.3 A. Water reducing admixtures. Fly ash and other pozzolans are also lower in specific gravity than cement. Fly ash will not be used when Type III cement is used (605. This makes it possible to meet and maintain a specified strength with less cement. When used in a concrete mix. manufacturers give water reducer dosages in terms of fluid ounce (mL) per 100 lbs. the volume of the added ash is more than the volume of cement removed.2. Water reducing admixtures will also control other properties of the concrete. work in combination with the cement. Class "F" and "F" modified are the only tow calsses that are currently allowed. will show that in both cases the cement is being made more efficient. Water reducing admixtures are sometimes used to reduce the total water content. without decreasing the workability. Water reducing accelerators are used primarily for patching or paving in cool weather. Check with the project engineer if adjustments are required.2. they are used with cement in concrete construction.75 compared with 3. Pozzolanic Admixtures – Section 753 The most commonly used pozzolan for concrete construction is fly ash.). Fly ash is a waste product resulting from the burning of powdered coal in steam driven electric generating plants. In one case this is done for economy and in the other for maximum strength. This application will depend upon the current costs of cement and admixture. This method is used to obtain as much strength as possible from a given cement content. The water reducing retarders are occasionally used in hot weather to delay the setting of the concrete. A close look at the way admixtures are used in the applications discussed in subparagraphs 2 and 3.27 to 2. The differences in the chemistry of the classes give the ashes different levels of "reactivity. Used in sufficient quantities. If 13 . some DOT specifications do not permit admixtures to be used in this way. Anthracite or bituminous coals will produce Class F ash. pozzolans are normally added as a replacement for a certain percentage of the cement. Class F ashes react very little when mixed only with water. above. They are sometimes used to improve the efficiency of the cement.

These reactions cause expansion of the aggregates and. alumina and some iron oxide. Fly ash sampling requirements (M. The pozzolan provides additional fine material that helps separate the coarse aggregate particles.25:1. the use of pozzolans is frequently discontinued in cooler weather. eventually. particularly when the aggregates are deficient in fine material.fly ash is used. For this reason..) unless seasonal limitations are extended by the Region Engineer. and lack of combustible material (less than 6% carbon). cracking of the concrete. the concrete made with it has a history of being more variable. 1. NOTE: Although excellent results can be obtained using fly ash. The use of fly ash will be permitted only between April 15 and October 1 (605. These are ingredients used to make Portland cement. Pozzolans help control problems with workability in plastic concrete. The ratio of substitution of fly ash to cement shall be 1. The round shape of fly ash particles helps the coarse aggregate particles slide over each other.S. concrete requires additional air entraining admixture and takes longer to set. Do not use the load if the data does not check out. so it is not surprising that fly ash and cement should be compatible. by weight (605. the heat generated develops at a much slower rate. The glass consists of silica. Its water reducing characteristics are greatest if the majority of the fly ash particles are round. Pozzolans. The major ingredient in fly ash is glass (60% to 90%).3 A. can help minimize certain types of aggregate reactions in the concrete. in particular.T. Some aggregates will react with chemicals (alkalis) in the cement. For this reason.25 kg) of fly ash. Fly ash affects the job activities of the inspector. Very fine siliceous particles in the fly ash will react with the alkalis and use them to minimize any damage to the concrete. its fineness. the supplier normally will send one copy and tack another to a board on the side of the rail car 14 . the inspector should pay particular attention to his testing responsibilities and notify the project engineer of any problems. Fly ash. These effects are due to the slightly different hydration chemistry. is very effective. The concrete made with pozzolans sometimes is stronger than normal concrete but takes longer to develop the strength.) or remove 1 pound (1. The Certificate of Compliance allows the fly ash to be used before the test results of the samples are returned. Materials Manual) SD 420.3 C. The value of fly ash as an admixture in concrete depends on its glass content.0 kg) of cement and add 1 and 1/4 pound (1. A truck transport driver should bring two copies. Check the Certificate of Compliance to verify all information. Because fly ash contains carbon and sulfates. the minimum amount of cement to be replaced is 10 percent and the maximum amount is 15 percent.R. Also. For fly ash deliveries by rail car. particularly Class F fly ash.

15 .

Keep the aggregate stockpiles separate (Figure 5). or put a bulkhead (Figure 6) between them so that materials cannot mix. Only aggregate from one source goes into a stockpile. the stockpile is rejected. Build coarse stockpiles (Figure 3) in layers. Also check to see that they are strong enough to withstand material piled against one side. (Figure 4) segregation can occur. potential gradation problems while producing concrete may be avoided. Make sure there are no holes that would allow the material to become mixed. bulkheads must be the full depth of the stockpile and strong enough to stand up under operating conditions.MATERIAL STORAGE & HANDLING Methods of materials storage and handling depend on the contractor's operations. If they are built in a cone shape. The fine material will sift into the pile or stay near the top. Cone Shaped Stockpile. If the material should become mixed. AGGREGATES Stockpile locations should be on firm terrain with excellent drainage away from the stockpile(s) and concrete plant location. If the contractor builds the stockpile in layers. How the materials are stored and handled has an affect on the finished concrete. As the aggregate rolls down the pile. If used. Coarse Aggregate Stockpile. Figure 3. the coarser material will go to the outside and bottom of the pile. 16 . Figure 4.

The best place to do this is at the end of the conveyor where the sand dumps into the storage bin. This plant may be producing concrete for work other than Department projects. Most of these plants are limited on space for stockpiles. Aggregates may not meet the specifications for the Department project. one of two things must be done: 1. 2. stick your fingers into the sand as it goes up the conveyor belt." This means that some water will be draining from the stockpiles. PAVING CONCRETE Do not use "track type dozers" on a coarse aggregate stockpile (380. Separated Stockpiles. and sometimes the coarse aggregate. The tracks can break down or crush the material. To find mud balls.Figure 5. inform the contractor and the Project Engineer. The fine. If the contractor is using a track type dozer on the stockpile. Check the stockpiles occasionally for mud. STRUCTURAL CONCRETE – Section 460 Most concrete is produced in a commercial plant. The Project Engineer can reject the pile or require the material to be run over a screen. Mud will form little sandcoated balls.). therefore. Document the situation in the diary. There should be about 50 tons (45. A screen with openings no larger than one inch square is used. recommend he change this method and inform the Project Engineer. The plant owner should put up stockpiles for use on your job only. Bulkhead Between Stock Piles. Check the plan note to see if sand must be screened prior to use. 17 . If mud is found. Mud may get into the material. Figure 6. Sample and test the material before any concrete is mixed.360 kg) in each pile before mixing the concrete.3 D. is washed to eliminate "fines.

CEMENT AND FLY ASH – Section 750. & 753 Most cement and fly ash is delivered in bulk by railroad car or truck transport (Figures 1 and 1A). make sure they are stored in a shed or on a raised platform under a waterproof covering. If bags of cement are used. Bags should not touch shed walls and should be stacked so there are no spaces between bags. Figure 8. Bagged cement may be used. make sure that the inlet end of the pumping system is held up from the bottom of the water source so that there will be no mud or debris sucked up. Do not use cement or fly ash spilled during unloading or batching. Waiting to Unload. The water may include the 18 . It might be contaminated with dirt. Moisture causes "lumps. Both are transferred from the cars or trucks to storage silos either by conveyors or by compressed air." Do not use wet or lumpy cement because moisture causes hydration and low strength concrete will result. WATER – Section 790 The contractor can obtain water for mixing from various sources only one of which should be used: • Stock dam or lake • Stream or river • City water system or well If water is obtained from other than a city water system or a well. The contractor might use a small portable batch plant on some structure projects. Unloading Cement Carrier. 605.Figure 7.

discharge from a sewage or industrial plant. 19 . Send a water sample to the Central Testing Lab for a complete analysis.

Do not permit use of admixtures that you suspect might have frozen. Check all the containers of liquid types for the manufacture date. They all must be sampled and tested in accordance with the Materials Manual. check the material to ensure it has not exceeded its shelf life. Water Reducing Admixtures.ADMIXTURES Air Entraining Admixtures. and Pozzolanic Admixtures are the most common admixtures that will be added to concrete. If the shelf life of the admixture is past. Sample the material even though it may be on the approved product list. The test results will show if the admixture still has its full strength. If any of the dates are from the previous construction season. reject the material. 20 .

Certified Cement Plants A Certificate of Compliance is not required for each conveyance from a Certified Mill. He then will notify the personnel of results. It may take several days before the test results are returned. The contractor may use bag cement. Make a visual inspection to determine the identity and type of cement. Project Number. aggregate. Sample cement. Refer to the Materials Manual tabs labeled: Required Samples Tests and Certificates and Minimum Sample and Test Requirements. Net weight of the load. and admixtures. Non-Certified Cement Plants The manufacturer can certify that the cement being delivered will meet the specification requirements. CEMENT Cement is delivered by railroad car or truck.Used for rail shipments to give siding locations. and PCEMS Number Date the cement was loaded and Cement Type Rail Car or truck number and Consignee (Contractor or Subcontractor Name) Manufacturer and Seal Number(s) Destination . Samples must be tested before using the cement.SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Sampling is very important. Test these samples for compliance with specifications. This is called bulk cement because it is not in bags.Materials Manual). This is done with a Certificate of Compliance (Figure 1) for each load of cement. Mill Certification There are certain specifications to meet before using cement. The job could be delayed waiting for test results. fly ash. Because samples are small compared to the quantity represented. be careful when sampling. Get representative samples. Information that should appear on the Certificate of Compliance includes: l l l l l l l County. Sample cement before it is used (SD 401 . the Materials and Surfacing Engineer prior to the construction season can certify manufacturers furnishing Portland Cement. water. To overcome this delay. and document it in the field diary and on the DOT-25 form. 21 . Take samples in the field and send them to the Central Lab in accordance with the Materials Manual. Poor samples will produce poor results. Signature of manufacturer's representative.

Do not use the load if the type of cement is missing. the cement can be used when the contractor supplies the missing information. The information can be put on the bill of lading. Check the Certificate of Compliance to verify all information. so arrange with the supplier to save the certificates from all the loads. The proper way to take a cement sample (SD 401 . If a contractor is using concrete from more than one source. A supplier may produce concrete for more than one job. Always note problems and how they were corrected in the diary. How these equal amounts are obtained will depend on how the cement is delivered and. when cement is from a certified plant These requirements are for each type and source of cement. This may produce more certificates than needed. the supplier normally will send one certificate of compliance and tack another to a board on the side of the railroad car. CEMENT SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Take samples to be sure that the cement meets specifications. For cement deliveries by railroad cars. Area personnel shall accomplish the Independent Assurance sampling (in accordance with SD 401 Materials Manual). or the shipping order. The Certificate of Compliance allows the cement to be used before the test results of the samples are returned. Certificates are needed for all cement used. apply these requirements to each condition. NOTE: Ask the Project Engineer for the mill's certification status. A truck transport driver should bring two copies of the certificate of compliance. Notify the Project Engineer. but will cover all the cement that may be used on your project. in some cases.Materials Manual) is to get equal amounts of cement from three separate places in a load. on how it is unloaded. all material must come from the same suppliers. If more than one type is used or the cement comes from more than one source. This means that he has more cement than will be used on your job.It is not required that the suppliers use a DOT-59 Form as shown in Handout 1. 22 . but must have the information required and the signature of the manufacturer's representative. Refer to the Materials Manual for current sampling requirements. invoice. If any of the other information is missing.

Bulk Cement . Place over the sample can and remove the stopper. Repeat as necessary to get 1/3 of the sample. Try to enter the sack through the filling flap to avoid poking holes in the bag. 23 . Cement Sampling Probe. The probe is a pipe with a handle and a stopper. Tube Sampler. If the cement does not drop out on its own. When the sampler is pushed in all the way. If the cement does not drop out. Push the tapered end of the sampler into the sack (Figure 10). Hold the tapered end over the sample can and take your finger off the air hole. tap the sampler. These may be obtained from the Region Materials Engineer.The most common way of sampling bulk cement is with a probe (Figure 11). tap the pipe. Figure 10. Push the probe into the cement to take a sample. Figure 9.Use the following methods to sample cement: 1. Select three bags from the load. put a finger over the little air hole and remove the sampler. Sampling Bagged Cement. Repeat the procedure on the next sack. Bag Cement .Sample bags by using a tube sampler (Figure 9). Then close the pipe with the stopper and pull the probe out. 2. Figure 11.

to fill two cans.4 mm) in diameter. water or other contaminants. Cement Can. number on one can. collect the cement from the conveyor with a shovel or clean can. The cans (Figure 13) used for cement samples are metal.S. When transports are unloaded with a conveyor. Materials Manual). Place the project number on the cans to help 24 . Sampling From Bulk Container. 6 inches (152. Cement from three places in the load is needed. The cement must be representative of all the cement in the load. and have a friction lid.Figure 12. and a "B" behind it on the third can. get 1/3 of the sample from 3 different hatches. After the cans are filled.814 kg per can. If there is any dirt. If there is only one hatch. If 3 cans are needed for the sample. push the probe into the tank in 3 different directions. fill three cans. Space the time between scoops so 1/3 of the sample comes from each 1/3 of the load. Get them from the Region Materials Engineer. Keep the numbering of the samples consecutive. Get enough cement. about 6 inches (152. If the bulk container has 3 or more hatches.C. This will identify the sample if the data sheet gets lost. put the plain Figure 13. Use clean cans for samples. When there is no Certificate of Compliance. approximately 4 pounds or 1.4 mm) high.T. put an "A" behind it on the second can. Cement from three places is needed for a sample. put on the lids and seal them by wrapping a strip of masking tape around the lid. Use the probe to sample a storage bin or a transport that is unloaded with air pressure. Put the sample number on the outside of the can (R. a true test result will not be obtained.

Include the following information: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Your Name. Use plastic bottles obtained from the Region Materials Engineer. S. WATER SAMPLING TECHNIQUES The quality of the water used in concrete is important.Name. When a general Certificate of Compliance is used for paving. C. fill out a sample data sheet DOT-1 Form (Handout 3) in accordance with the R. Send all samples to the Central Testing Laboratory. Send in the sample at least two weeks before using the water. After taking the water sample.Name. Office Where to send the test results . etc." Tape the envelope to one of the cans and tape all the cans for a sample together.) Producer's Name and Address Car or Truck Number Remarks Put the Data Sheet and one copy of the Certificate of Compliance into the sample data envelope (DOT-2 Form). Make extra copies or add a note on the bottom of the Sample Data Sheet that "Certificate of Compliance is with the sample number so-and-so. Sample Data Sheet Complete a Sample Data Sheet DOT-1 Form (Handout 2) in accordance with instructions at the R.identify the sample. Title. Section in the Materials Manual. Complete the following items: • • • • Your Name. T. Get a one-pint (480-mL) sample and send it to the Central Testing Laboratory. S. Title. and Office Contractor (subcontractor) Project Number PCEMS Number County Type of Sample Field Sample Number Date Sampled Quantity Represented Type of Cement Concrete Use (Paving. Title. Section of the Materials Manual to identify the sample in the laboratory. there may not be enough copies to put one in each envelope. Office Contractor (subcontractor) Project Number 25 . Determine the source of water before producing concrete. Title. T. and Office Where to send the test results . It can affect the admixtures and the strength of the concrete. C.

• The suspended solids shall not exceed 2000 parts per million. but the dissolved solids must be tested in the Central Testing Laboratory. moss. There are three test requirements (790) water must meet before it can be used in concrete: • The pH must be no less than 6. The suspended and dissolved solids are not normal problems. and tape the envelope to the sample bottles. and send as soon as possible. Repeat water sampling during concrete production to maintain compliance. Test more frequently when the pH reaches 8. but the pH can change during the year.0.• • • • • • • • • PCEMS Number County Type of Sample Sample Number Date Sampled Quantity Represented Type of Sample Use of Material (Paving. This will affect water in the months of July. notify the Project Engineer.) Remarks (Location of Sample Source) NOTE: If a municipal water source is used in the northern half of the Rapid City Region. Sample the water and test the pH every four to six weeks. 26 . or industrial plant. The pH raises as weeds. IMPORTANT: Request detailed analyses if you suspect the water contains discharge from a feed lot. Be alert to rain as runoff can cause a change in all three tests.0 and no more than 8. heavily fertilized field. August. The Region Materials Office can perform the pH tests.6. etc. check with the Region Materials Engineer for procedures. and algae grow in warm weather. a sewage. This is not necessary when using wells or city systems. Put the data sheet into the sample data envelope. • The dissolved solids shall not exceed 2500 parts per million. and early September. If these requirements are not met. DOT-2 Form.

048 m) long and 1 foot (304. Remove all the material inside the templates for the sample. If templates are not available put a board or a shovel on the uphill side. dig three or more shallow trenches on top of the stockpile approximately 10 feet (3. Have the contractor stop the conveyor. Take equal portions from 3 equally spaced points along the bottom of each trench by pushing a shovel downward into the material and taking a shovel full from each point. It will help to use a “ sawing action” while pushing the templates into the material. Be alert to locations that are segregated and avoid them.AGGREGATE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Get a sample (SD 201 .8 mm) wide. 2.Materials Manual) that represents all the material. Use a brush to remove all fines from the belt. and on top. Put two templates (Figure 14) on top of the material and push down until it rests on the belt. obtain samples from conveyors and stockpiles. Template On Conveyor Belt. Use samples that are a cross section of all materials to be used. Figure 14. Mix all the material from all these places and split it to the sample size (See page 28). midpoint. This will keep the material from running down into the sample. Conveyors The flow on a conveyor is uniform and represents a cross section of material. Get material from three locations on the cone shaped stockpile. around the base. As a general rule. On the flat topped stockpile. 27 . Stockpiles A problem will be to find a location to get a representative sample. To sample a conveyor: 1.

Complete the sample data sheet. Document the test results on the DOT-3 (Handout 4). Acceptance is testing to determine compliance with specifications. test one sample of each size aggregate used for every 750 cubic yards (573. 28 . 3. The test results are needed before using the aggregates and are essential for new sources. Push a board or a piece of sheet metal (stopper plate) into the part of the pile to be sampled. Get the sample near the stopper plate.Materials Manual).92 m3) concrete produced (M. Shovel the aggregate away from the front of the stopper plate to get a level spot that extends into the pile. T. R. DOT-1 Form. Refer to SD 201 Materials Manual for the sample size for quality control testing. Quality Control Send samples for quality control to the Central Testing Lab two weeks before the concrete production. . test one sample of each size aggregate used for every 200 cubic yards (152. 1. Samples Take samples for quality control and acceptance. R. Quality control tests the quality of the aggregate. 2. T. For concrete paving.45 m3) of concrete produced (M. S. S.Materials Manual). The Area Engineer may allow production without the test results if the aggregates are from a source used before.Figure 15. Acceptance For concrete masonry. Sampling From a Stockpile. .

A spilled sample.0 22. SAMPLE SPLITTING Most of the samples will be larger than needed to run a test. a hole in a screen. Fixed Sample Splitter . This is in case the test must be repeated.1 2. Figure 16. The amount of material needed for a sample depends on the size of material sampled.0 33. Use a Sample Splitter (SD 213 . In this case. Take samples of the fine and coarse aggregate at the same time.2 5.5 mm) 3/4" (19. If a test fails because of material deficiency. The approximate sample weights (SD 202) needed (after splitting) are: Approximate Wt.0 44.Materials Manual) to divide a large sample for testing.0 500 1000 2500 5000 10000 15000 20000 Nominal Maximum Size of Particle #4 (4. Action must be taken to correct the material and to sample and test again.75 mm) 3/8”(9. Refer to the Materials Manual for material sample size. a wrong weight can cause a repeat test. Of Sample Wt. the more is needed for a sample. report the sample as failing. 29 Figure 17.2 D.).0 mm) 1 1/2" (37.5 mm) 2" (50. Grams 1.5 11.5 mm) ½”(12. Adjustable Sample Splitter. Of Sample Lbs.0 mm) 1" (25.Get material for a test and enough extra to make two standby portions. there is no reason to test the standby portions.0 mm) Specifications require that the minus 200 material in the fine and coarse material be mathematically combined (820. The larger the material.

3. the opening should be approximately 1-1/2" (38. If the openings are smaller. how much material should be obtained and what size openings are needed in the splitters? Sample size ______/_______. For fine aggregate. R. The diagram on the next page shows how a sample should be split. If sampling aggregate with a maximum size of one-inch (25. a. There is a chance that the sample will not be split evenly. Pour the sample evenly into the hopper.4 mm). The sample will not be split evenly if the splitter does not have the same number of openings on each side. One is adjustable. There will be a close correlation between the sample tested and the standby samples. to prevent sticking. While pouring. Then the sample will not be split evenly. There are two pans to catch the divided portions.1 mm) wide. The size of the openings should be 50% larger than the maximum size aggregate sampled (See SD 213). No chutes can be plugged.) English Metric English Metric Process a sample through the splitter more than once. Stand at one end of the splitter and pour the sample into the center of the hopper. Another is a fixed splitter with openings that are not adjustable. material may build up and plug the chutes. a splitter having 1/2" (12. There are two types of splitters. having adjustable openings for varying widths. Put the sample in a pan about the size of the hopper and slowly turn the pan over into the hopper. T. M. . Opening size ______/________. S. 30 . Note these three items: 1. b.5 mm) chutes can be used if the entire sample will pass a 3/8" (9. Use a brush to clean the chutes. (Answers on page 111.A sample splitter is a device with a hopper and a series of openings on each side that divide a sample into two parts. EXAMPLE: If testing aggregate with a maximum size of 1" (25. 2. Split it and then combine the portions for the last split.0 mm).5 mm) sieve.Materials Manual provides information on the sample quantities by type for the design mix. move the flow back and forth along the length of the hopper. Each pan should have the same gradation.

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ADMIXTURE SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Chemical Admixtures Sample chemical admixtures (air entraining and water reducing) not appearing on the Central Testing Laboratory's current list of qualified products before use. Get at least one sample for each date of manufacture or for each lot from each shipment. The material must be thoroughly stirred, air agitated, or otherwise properly mixed to disperse all settlement just prior to sampling (M. S. T. R. - Materials Manual). Use plastic bottles for a sample of 8 ounces (236.592 mL). The Region Materials Engineer will supply the bottles. Normally try to send these samples to the Lab two weeks before use. NOTE: Be sure to put the strength of the liquid air entraining agent on the sample data sheet (single, double, or triple). Samples may not be required of products that appear on the Central Testing Lab's “ Approved Products List.” If the quality or identity is questionable, sample them and submit to the Central Lab for testing. The Materials Manual will normally make it clear whether or not a sample is required. Mineral Admixtures Fly ash is a mineral admixture. A Certificate of Compliance (Handout 1A) is required for each load delivered to the project. Sample fly ash (SD 420) since it is not on the Central Testing Laboratory's current list of approved products. Sample one of every five conveyances. Use cans for a sample of at least 4 pounds (1.8 kg) when the samples are to be composited. For the individual test samples, on which all specified tests are to be made, obtain at least 8 pounds (3.6 kg) of material. The Region Materials Engineer will supply the cans. Send these samples to the Central Lab 40 days before use. Fly ash may be sampled by any one of the following methods: 1. From the conveyor delivering to bulk storage by taking one sample of four or more pounds (1.8 or more kg) in a single operation “ grab method” or several portions at regular intervals known as the “ composite method.” 2. From bulk storage at points of discharge, take one four pound (1.8 kg) sample either by the grab or composite methods. 3. From bulk storage by means of sampling tubes in the same manner as sampling cement when the depth of the fly ash does not exceed 10 feet (3.0 m).
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4. In the case of samples from rail cars and trucks, where the fly ash is being shipped from one source, combine the samples from multiple rail cars or trucks to form a test sample.

Figure 18. DOT 2 Form.

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TESTING PROBLEMS The inspector or the Central Lab conducts certain tests. Some tests conducted by the Central Lab are for the inspector's information and will be used when working with concrete plants. The tests conducted by the inspector are used to determine if the materials meet specifications and/or to make adjustment for design mix. These inspector conducted tests are: • Gradation • Fineness Modulus • Moisture Content NOTE: Check the specifications, supplemental specifications, plan notes, and special provisions for these requirements. Slump and air tests will be conducted for your own information and to see if they meet specifications. GRADATION Test SD 202, South Dakota Materials Manual, explains the gradation test. Report the results of each test on a DOT-3 Form -- Screen Analysis and P.I. Worksheet. Handouts 4 and 5 show the results of gradation tests during a paving job. Handouts 6 and 7 show the results for gradation tests during a concrete masonry project. After completing the gradation test, determine what portion of the combined material is finer than the #200 (0.075 mm) sieve (SD 206 - Materials Manual). To meet the specification requirements, the combined minus #200 (0.075 mm) must be 1.5% or less. To find the combination minus #200 (0.075 mm): 1. Find the minus #200 (0.075 mm) percentage for each sample, according to the procedure outlined by the South Dakota Materials Manual under Test No’ s SD 202 and SD 206. 2. Find the percentage of the total aggregate comprised of fine aggregate, by weight, to the nearest tenth of a percent. Likewise, find the percentage that is coarse aggregate.

34

35 .075 mm) for the samples of paving aggregate that were taken at the same time are: Sand 1" (25. Change the percentage of the material in the mix to a decimal number and multiply it times the percentage of the minus #200 (0.064 kg Sand Rock TOTAL % Sand % Rock 3.075 mm) NOTE: Compute the minus #200 (0. = 62.79% = 0.0 mm) = 2.075 mm) NOTE: If making a mix adjustment that will change the percentages of aggregate used from that shown in the Mix Design.0 mm) = 0. These new percentages should also be shown on the DOT-3 Form. 1089 lbs. Report the total for the combination minus #200 (0.064 kg 1095 kg = 62.075 mm) = 1. Total these figures to get the combination of minus #200 (0.13% = .629 x . 1846 lbs.1% 1741.371 x 2. 1846 lbs.35% Combined Minus #200 (0. 2935 lbs.13% = 0. (M3) 646.075 mm) to the nearest tenth of a percent.1% combination minus #200 (0.064 kg 1095.064 kg = 37.56% = 0.56% Multiply these times the percentage of each material to get: Sand 1" (25.000 kg 1741.9% 1741. EXAMPLE: The values of the minus #200 (0.EXAMPLE: The following weights of materials are being put into the mix per cubic yard (m3): (YD3) 1089 lbs.075 mm) material.14% Report this as 1.9% 2935 lbs. use these new percentages when mathematically combining the #200 (0. = 37.1% 2935 lbs.075 mm) to the nearest hundredth of a percent.064 kg 646.075 mm).

16 or 4. 36 .Using the Class A Design Mix of Handout 8. The Speedy Moisture Tester is the fastest way to find the moisture content of sand.4 gr.32 kg) = 21. Find this free moisture content by using any of the following moisture determination methods: • • • • Speedy Moisture Tester Burning with Alcohol Stove Drying Oven Drying Whichever method is used. When using any of the drying methods.9 grams Percent Moisture = 21.2% 525. find the percent of moisture content by subtracting the dry weight from the wet weight. what is the combination minus #200 (0.Materials Manual) on the aggregates to determine how much "free moisture" they contain.3 grams .075 mm) = 1. Free moisture is the amount of moisture in the aggregates above the amount needed for absorbed moisture.88% MOISTURE CONTENT Run moisture tests (SD 203 . Percent Moisture =(Wet Weight . it must be capable of checking within 0.4 grams (238.Dry Weight 525.075 mm) = . Divide the difference by the dry weight and then multiply the results by 100. Establish a procedure with one of the methods listed above and stay with it.06% Rock minus #200 (0. If the Speedy Chart is not available. x 100 = 4.Dry Weight x 100) Dry Weight EXAMPLE: Wet Weight 547.6% of the moisture content found by drying to a constant weight in an oven at 230°+ 9° F (110°+ 5°C).075 mm) when you have the following gradation results? _______________ (Answer on page 111) Sand minus #200 (0. refer to the Materials Manual to convert from "wet weight" moisture to "dry weight" moisture.9 gr. Pick the percent of moisture "by dry weight" for the sample from the Speedy Chart for the dial reading obtained. Do not use this method for rock because the size of the sample used for the test is so small.5% to 0.

M.6%. The sample tested using the usual drying method had a wet weight of 2. Keep drying the sample until it no longer loses any weight (Dry to a Constant Weight).176. Does the drying method check within the 0.7 grams. it is possible that it does not contain the full amount of absorbed moisture. Report in the laboratory diary a comment in agreement or disagreement and the results for any comparative tests. EXAMPLE: The drying method or the Speedy Moisture Tester gives a total moisture content of 5.7 grams. Fineness Modulus of the fine aggregate is the sum of the cumulative percentages 37 . its dry weight was 2. check the moisture content obtained by the usual drying method to the "oven dry" method. Check any method used against an oven-dried sample.) Fineness Modulus is a factor used to indicate the surface area of aggregate.6% . and then figure the moisture content. Increase the drying time or check the Speedy Moisture Tester.468.3%.3% = 4.084. Should the difference be more than 0.1.After finding the total moisture content. Attach it to DOT-98A-Plant Inspector's Daily Report submitted daily. Using Handout 9.5% of the oven dry method? ___________ What is the percent of Total moisture in the oven dry test? __________ (Answers on page 111) Report moisture test results on the DOT-35 Form .365. consider the moisture removed to be the remaining absorbed moisture.1%. After 35 minutes of drying.0 to 0. Free Moisture = 5.3% Report free moisture to the nearest 0. FINENESS MODULUS (F. calculate the amount of free moisture by subtracting the percent of absorbed moisture from the total moisture. the method has not removed all the absorbed moisture.2 grams.0 to 0. The absorbed moisture (Aggregate Test Results used in Design Mix) is 1.1 grams and a dry weight of 2.5%. Split a sample and run part of it by the method normally used and run the other part by the oven dry method. Another sample taken at the same time for the oven dry test had a wet weight of 2. In this case.Moisture Density Worksheet (Handout 10). If the aggregate looks dry when sampled.

find the F. of the sand sample shown on Handout 4? _________ (Answer on page 111) The Design Mix will supply the F.150 mm) Percent Cumulative Passing Percent Retained 98 2 89 11 70 30 38 62 22 78 9 91 TOTAL = 274 = 2. Notice that each screen needed to find the F. Use the #4 (4.M.M. 100 NOTE: The Screen Analysis and P.600 mm). #50 (0. is marked with a star. test.18 mm) #30 (0.M.I. number the finer the sand is. of the sample.M.75 mm) #8 (2.75 mm). #8 (2. shall stay within ±0. Because the gradation of the sand can change so much.M.74 F. EXAMPLE: Screen Size #4 (4. The smaller the F. tells us about the fineness or coarseness of sand.M. The F. Likewise.M. so the F. 3. If F. #30 (0.retained on a standard set of six sieves divided by 100. #16 (1. Total up the percentages in step 2 and divide by 100 to get the F. After completing the gradation test and finding the percentage of material passing each sieve size. What is the F. falls outside this limit. number the coarser the sand is. Worksheet (DOT-3 Form) has a place for the calculations (see Figures 4 and 7). run tests to determine the F.M.M. used for the sand. Make sure mistakes in the 38 .2 of this value. factor for the sample.600 mm) #50 (0. the larger the F.300 mm) and #100 (0.M.M.: 1. “ Cumulative percent retained”on a sieve means “ coarser than” so “ percent passing”plus “ cumulative percent retained”will always equal 100% To figure the F.M.300 mm) #100 (0. stop production and call the Central Testing Laboratory for a New or adjusted Design Mix.M.36 mm) #16 (1.M.150 mm) sieve sizes for the F. 2 Subtract each of these percentages from 100.36 mm).18 mm). Percentages shall be reported to whole number or decimal required by specification.

1/4-inch square (1. ♦ For each decrease of 0. about 1900 square feet (176.36 kg) of sand will have a surface area of about 1200 square feet (111.3. Using the Class A-45 Mix Design of Handout 8 and the gradation test report of the Mix Design in Handout 11.. durable concrete.the surface area keeps increasing.613 cm2). A one square inch (6. strong. of 2.M. for both fine and coarse aggregate.709 cm2) of surface area. of 3.M.60 m2) for a F. varies within the ±0.51 m2) for a F.5 m2) for every 100 pounds (45. The same 100 pounds (45. and there will be a surface area of 24 square inches (154.M. number and the larger the surface area.2 limit. what will be the change in the sand weight per cubic yard if there was a F. the 39 . Do not make a change each time a test shows a change in F. How well this happens depends upon how much surface area it has to coat. the smaller the F.M.1 in the F. decrease the sand weight by 1/2 % of the total weight of all the aggregates in the batch. Keep breaking it into smaller pieces .838 cm2).M. This will be covered during Mix Adjustment. The reason sand has more surface area than rock is because of the particle sizes. The Design Mix gradation test report states the F. If the F.7.M.M.451 cm2) rock has 6 square inches (38. and 4000 square feet (371.M. To adjust the aggregate weights: ♦ For each increase of 0. of 2.84? _______________ (Answer on page 111) Remember the cement and water forms a paste that must coat every particle of aggregate in order to produce good. Fineness Modulus is a factor used to indicate the surface area of aggregates. The best idea is to base the change on the average F.M.1.48 m2) for a F.M. the finer the material. The surface area of most coarse aggregates is 70 square feet (6. so the batch volume stays constant. increase the sand weight by 1/2 % of the total weight of all the aggregates in the batch.M.. Because the surface area of the coarse aggregate will vary slightly. from 3 to 6 tests. Break this same rock into 64 pieces. NOTE: Change the weight of the coarse aggregate at the same time that the sand weight is changed.1 in the F.data recording and computations have not been made before requesting a New Design Mix. Therefore.36 kg). of 2. make adjustments to existing design mix proportions. This change will also have to compensate for any aggregate volume change.

000 kg. The weight of one cubic foot of water is 62. contact the Central Testing Lab for the specific gravity. What is the F. The weight of one cubic meter of water is 1. These tests are conducted on materials submitted by plant inspectors. Illustration. and absorbed moisture (See Handouts 11 and 12).9 kg.40 62.M.40 1. An illustration of a specific gravity calculation is shown on the next page.only F.3969 or 2.00.000 kg The specific gravity of aggregates is listed on the DOT-4 Form (Handout 12). absolute volume. In other words.65 lbs. It compares the weights of one cubic foot of solid rock and one cubic foot of water.M.9 kg = 2. Absolute Volume Figure 19. Specific Gravity = 149. If cement of a type or from a source not listed is received. The Central Testing Lab produces an annual list (Handout 13) giving the specific gravity for the cements tested. Volume 40 . of the sand used in the Class A Design Mix of Handout 11? ______________ (Answer on page 111) CENTRAL LAB TESTS The Central Lab conducts tests for specific gravity.4 lbs. The specific gravity of water is 1.4#/cu ft METRIC EXAMPLE: A one cubic meter volume of solid rock weighs 2. it tells us how much heavier or lighter than water an object is.65#/cu ft = 2.396.398 or 2. Specific Gravity = 2. Specific Gravity Specific Gravity is a ratio of the weight (force of gravity) of material to the weight (force of gravity) of an equal (specific) volume of water. Specific Gravity = Weight of Material per cubic foot (m3) Weight of Water per cubic foot (m3) ENGLISH EXAMPLE: A one cubic foot volume of solid rock weighs 149.395. of concern is that of the sand.

Because the larger materials (coarse aggregates) leave voids that are filled with the smaller materials (sand. 564 1.500 lbs. ft. = 4.87 cu.48 cu.00 The solid volume occupied by the materials in the concrete in English Units is: Cement 564 lbs. water. 3.40 cu.64 2.97 cu./cu.15 2. 1.00 x 62./cu ft or 1. . 1. The specific gravity and the weight of material must be known to find the absolute volume of a material.4 lb.25 cu. 2. ft. and air).500 265 Weight kg. ft. cement. 41 Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water Air (5.548 1.4 lb. 265 lbs. a cubic yard (cu yd) (m3) of concrete contains materials with the following properties: English Units Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water Metric Units Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water Weight lb. ft.5%) = 1. ft. ft.68 1. ft./cu.055 x 27 cu. Absolute Volume = Weight of the Material Product of Specific Gravity x unit weight of water All concrete mixes are based on how much material it takes to make a cubic yard (m3) (27 cubic ft) (1.68 1.0 m3) of concrete.15 x 62.4 lb. 0.Absolute volume is the least amount of space a material would occupy if it were solid and contained no voids. 1.548 lbs./cu. = 8.000 kg/m3) For example. times the unit weight of water.68 x 62. 335 919 891 158 Bulk Specific Gravity 3.64 x 62.ft./cu. ft. the absolute volume must be known.64 2. 2.4 lbs. consider the following problems (Remember that water weighs 62. = 2.ft.4 lb.00 Bulk Specific Gravity 3. into the weight of the material.15 2. = 9. To help understand absolute volumes. Find the absolute volume by dividing the product of the specific gravity.

348 m3 2.97/27 4.332 cu yd (0. the absolute volumes are sometimes expressed in terms of the portions of a cubic yard (m3) that each material occupies.48/27 = 0.40/27 8.999 m3 Coarse Aggregate Water Air (5.000 kg/m3 891 kg 2.106 m3 Fine Aggregate 919 kg = 0.055 x 1 m3 Total volume of materials = 0.348 m3) = 0.055 m3) If the specific gravity of the fine aggregate for the paving mix given by Handouts 12 & 14 had been 2.15 x 1.000 kg/m3 158 kg 1. ft. The solid volume occupied by the materials in the concrete in Metric Units is: Cement 335 kg 3.000 kg/m3 0.Total volume of materials = 26.055 m3 = 0.00 x 1. This is done by dividing the volume of material by the number of cubic feet in a cubic yard (cubic meter).25/27 1.158 m3) = 0.000 kg/m3 = 0.348 cu yd (0.68 x 1.106 cu yd (0.57.055 cu yd (0. how many pounds (kilograms) of sand would be needed to give the required absolute volume per cubic yard (cubic meter) of concrete? __________/__________ (Answer on page 111) pounds / kilograms Absorbed Moisture 42 .64 x 1.97 cu.106 m3) = 0.158 m3 = 0. Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Water Air 2.87/27 9.332 m3) = 0.157 cu yd (0.332 m3 = 0.5%) In English and Metric units.

The paste serves as a lubricant to make the mixture pliable enough to be formed into the shapes or forms desired. The example on the left needs more moisture to fill its pores. The amount of water needed to fill these channels is called Absorbed Moisture. The aggregates may contain more or less moisture than needed to fill these channels.” Each of the elements of the 43 . which will indicate any free moisture or less moisture than the aggregate needs to reach the full-absorbed condition. When aggregates like these are put in a mix. Absorbed Moisture Illustration. These channels soak up moisture. knowing which condition is present is important. Figure 20.Aggregates are not completely solid . AND CONSISTENCY When concrete ingredients are blended together. the left one will soak up some of the mixing water. If the aggregates have more moisture than needed internally. WORKABILITY.they have extremely small channels inside them. the extra water can be used for mixing water. The right one will give up some of its moisture. The example on the right has an excess of moisture. some of the mixing water will be absorbed. the aggregates are suspended in a fluid paste. What is the amount of absorbed moisture in the aggregates submitted for the Class A mix in Handout 11? (Answers on page 111) Sand_______________ Rock_______________ FACTORS THAT AFFECT SLUMP. This is done by running moisture tests. The three conditions the aggregates can be in before they are put into the mix are shown in the diagram below. which becomes part of the mixing water. If the aggregates do not contain enough internal moisture. To produce uniform concrete. The general term used to describe this characteristic of the plastic concrete is “ workability.

or accelerating admixtures are used. and the heat of the hydration caused by the chemical action between the cement and the water all combine to determine the paste’ s temperature. If the mix or ambient temperature goes up. slump will be lost rapidly. in turn. This gives the concrete mix the mobility it needs to flow into its final position. Aggregates also affect the workability of fresh concrete. ice is even used as a substitute for mixing water." When concrete flash sets. Each element and its effect are discussed below. The engineer should be notified if repeated cases of flash set occur. is influenced by the temperature of the paste. This setting time. The most extreme example of rapid slump loss is concrete that undergoes "flash set. In flash setting.as cool as possible. Water in a concrete mix acts as a dispersing agent by putting more space between the aggregate particles. At warmer temperatures. Unless some later change is made in the mix (for example . Taking any of several precautions before mixing can prevent this slump loss. A concrete mix begins losing slump (it stiffens) from the moment the cement first comes in contact with the water. In practical terms. and admixture has its own influence on workability. water. a lot of heat is given off by the hydration of the cement with the water. air. a concrete mix will have a lower slump than an identical mix made at a cooler temperature. This causes the concrete to set up or harden more rapidly. The more water present in the mix. Eliminate accelerators from the mix. the cement hydrates faster when warm than when cool.fluid paste . the temperature of the surrounding air. resulting in an increase in the slump and the workability.if water is added or an admixture is introduced). and water . When it sets this soon. it sets up almost immediately after the mixing action has been completed.aggregates. more water is needed to make concrete workable than is 44 . In some cases. the increase in temperature caused by the mixing itself. Remember. slump is lost nearly instantaneously. The most important is to keep the mix components . Since chemical reactions go faster if the temperature is higher.cement. cement. the mix has as much workability when it first comes out of the mixer as it will ever have. This brings up a very important point about slump loss. The second element is water. It also acts as a lubricant. The setting time of the cement determines the amount of time from the addition of water to the mix until the concrete becomes unworkable. Using retarding admixtures or some type of fly ash may also help prevent flash set. leaving no time to place and finish concrete. The first element is cement. humidity goes down (which dries the mix). the less friction and interaction there will be between the aggregate particles. The temperature of each ingredient when it is mixed. this means that the contractor's personnel will have less time to place and consolidate the concrete. It effects the workability by changing the dry cement into a paste.

Conversely. Another element.needed just for the chemical hydration of the cement paste. and a lower slump. You can have all the workability you need. the hydration process slows down and nearly stops all together at freezing temperatures. It improves the workability of the fresh concrete because air bubbles act like tiny ball bearings. AND FINISH CONCRETE IN HOT WEATHER. but a gradation. particularly of the fine aggregates. causing less particle friction that tends to increase the slump. but the ratio between the cement and the water must be kept at the proper level. The admixture normally used to entrain the air bubbles also affects the surface tension of the water. The air bubbles also act in a way similar to fine aggregate by adding the equivalent of aggregate surface area to the mix. causing more particle friction. in cold weather. Larger maximum size coarse aggregate results in more space between the pieces. The amount of fine to coarse aggregate ratio also has an effect on slump. The very small air bubbles help spread the coarse aggregate particles apart and reduce particle interference. The third element of fluid paste is air. or they allow an increase in consistency (slump) without increasing the water-cement ratio. THE KEY THING TO REMEMBER IS THAT WE NORMALLY NEED AN HOUR OR MORE TO MIX. This results in less space between the particles. Many fine aggregates result in more total surface area to be coated by the water in the cementwater paste. By adding a retarding admixture we can gain some extra time to work with the concrete before it hardens. allowing the concrete to gain early strength to resist a possible freeze. interaction. Water-reducing admixtures reduce the amount of water required to produce concrete of a given consistency. Fly ash will improve the workability of mixes deficient in the finer sand particles. TRANSPORT. the results are not quite as obvious as with other 45 . The big problem occurs when the water is added at the job site. it is best to design a workable mix that will avoid the problem. Cement paste will bond better to rough and angular particles. However. It is difficult to add extra cement at the same time. and usually has some water-reducing qualities. The particle shape and the surface texture of aggregate influence the properties of plastic concrete. making the concrete mix more cohesive. so it is seldom if ever done. aggregate has an impact on workability. can have a large influence on slump. Other admixtures besides those that entrain air also affect the slump and workability of the concrete mix by speeding up or slowing down the setting time of the fluid paste. Two other admixtures are fly ash and water-reducing admixtures. This results in improving workability for the finishers because the excess water is retained in the mix that keeps bleeding to a minimum. An accelerator can be added to speed up the hydration. PLACE. To avoid exceeding the proper water-cement ratio. if this ratio is changed. This is especially important in slipform paving where holding a firm vertical edge is necessary.

the slump will be less. Moisture Control – Effort must be taken to insure. If the percentage of fine aggregates is increased. The area that is filled with the right combination of solids and the less it is filled with water. but the workability may actually be improved. the coarse aggregates must be dewatered to prevent transfer of excessive free water to the bins. In some cases. Only as much water and fine aggregate should be used as is required to obtain suitable workability for proper placing and consolidation by means of vibration. as practically as possible. it may be necessary to wet the coarse aggregate in the stockpile or on the delivery belts to compensate for high absorption or to provide cooling. This makes the mix more expensive. This better workability develops because the fine aggregate cuts down the tendency of the coarse aggregate to interlock. a point is reached where more cement is needed in the mix to maintain the concrete strength. 46 . a uniform and stable moisture content in the aggregate as batched. When this is done. the better will be the resulting concrete. The use of aggregate having varying amounts of free water is one of the most frequent causes for loss in control of concrete consistency (slump). if the percentage of fine aggregate is increased too much. However.factors effecting slump.

Most concrete needs 2.599 L) of water per cwt.yd. This is called the Cement Factor and is shown on the Design Mix as the amount of cement. From this process. What are the Cement Factors for the Design Mixes in Handouts 8 and 14? (Answer on page 111) Class A Mix __________ WATER CEMENT RATIO Water is added to the mix for "hydration" purposes and so the fresh concrete can be worked.8 gallons (10. The Design Mix lists the pounds of water needed per cwt. (45 kg) of cement. the materials combinations that make the best concrete also produce the design mix.DESIGN MIX Designing a mix is finding the correct quantities of materials for quality concrete. in lbs. (45 kg) of cement for hydration. (kg/m3). The water-cement ratio is defined as: water-cement ratio (w/c) = weight of water in a unit volume weight of cement in unit volume Paving Mix _____________ 47 . The rest of the water added is put into the mix for workability./cu. per cubic yard (m3) of concrete. Handouts 13 and 14 are a Design Mix for Paving Concrete. CEMENT FACTOR The proper amount of cement must be used to get the desired strength. Lab technicians use the materials that will be used on the project and mix them together in various combinations. The Design Mix Sheet provides: • • • • • • • Cement Factor Water Cement Ratio Fineness Modulus of the Aggregates Specific Gravity of the Aggregates Absolute Volume of Each Material per Cubic Yard of Concrete Weight of Each Material per Cubic Yard of Concrete Absorbed Moisture Content of the Aggregates Typical examples of Design Mixes are given in Handouts 8 and 14. Handouts 8 and 11 are for Masonry Concrete. The Central Testing Laboratory designs all concrete mixes.

) sends samples of the aggregates. Graphs for air-entrained and non-entrained concrete show the effect of the water cement ratio and air on strength. w/c = 254 # = 0. These stockpiles are located on the project or production site. Compressive Strength Chart. Plan specifications or notes may direct the contractor to develop their own mix designs. the slump and air content increase. cement. of water and 564 lb. and admixtures in the quantities specified in the . The water cement ratio is significant in plastic concrete.3 A. an increase in the water cement ratio indicates an Figure 21. R. Similarly. The Lab will then design the mix.M. Air-entrained concrete is considerably more durable than non air-entrained concrete.EXAMPLE: In a particular concrete mix. 48 . the slump and air content decrease. Durability increases as w/c ratio decreases. increase in the water content.Materials Manual to the Central Testing Lab 40 days before mixing concrete.a decrease in the water cement ratio indicates a decrease in the water content. S. T. If cement remains constant. These samples must be taken from the stockpiled project materials. The ratio does not tell the total water content of the mix. That can be calculated if the cement content is known. . to produce 1 cubic yard of concrete with satisfactory workability requires 254 lb. When the water cement ratio goes down. cement. As the water cement ratio goes up. Paving Concrete The contractor (380.450 564 The water cement ratio is the ratio of the total water to the total cement in the mix.

The materials have been used in the past and there is a current Design Mix. What weights are needed for a 7 cubic yard batch if the data from Figure 14 (English) is used? What weights are needed for a (5. and cement in cwt. Water is given in liters and kilograms and cement in kilograms. Masonry Concrete Generally the contractor will use a combination of materials that have been used before. Section of the Materials Manual and listed below: Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate (When only one size is used) Coarse Aggregate .352 m3) batch if the data from Figure 14A (Metric) is used? (Answers on page 111) English __________ __________ __________ __________ Metric _________ _________ _________ _________ Cement Water Sand Rock 49 ./cu yd.S.Each Size (When two sizes are involved) Cement Fly Ash Air Entraining Agent 750 lbs. There is an identification number for each of these mixes. 2.R./cu yd. and new material will not be necessary. (480 mL) The Area Engineer can allow mixing in less than 30 days. The metric quantities for sand and coarse aggregate are given in kg/m3. which identifies a particular mix.Contact the Region Materials Engineer or the Central Lab for quantities to be submitted if the amount is to be changed from the amounts specified in the M. If the contractor plans to use any of these source combinations.T. The same material is being used on another job and there is a current Design Mix. Water is given in gallons and pounds. (340 kg) 1100 lbs. the Design Mix in the tabulation can be used. (25 kg) 16 ozs. if: 1. The Central Testing Lab compiles a tabulation of Design Mixes (for mixes using materials from known sources) for concrete masonry (Handout 9). (100 kg) 50 lbs. When this is the case. (500 kg) 600 lbs. The English quantities for sand and coarse aggregate are given in lbs. This is done when there are several mixes using various combinations of the same materials. a design mix is on file. (270 kg) 200 lbs.

6% . Notify the Central Testing Lab.2% 0. fly ash (if not determined by Central Lab) MOISTURE ADJUSTMENTS The moisture of aggregates is usually more than is needed for absorption.It is the contractor or supplier's responsibility to determine how much air entraining admixture and water to add. For materials from an unknown source.0. Contact the Region Materials Engineer or Central Lab for quantities to be submitted.M. These adjustments are usually for: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ aggregate moisture changes a change in the F.6% = 0. Minor adjustments in the Design Mix may be needed to meet job conditions. The design mix supplies the total amount of water needed for mixing. To get the right amount of mixing water in each batch. Sand 1"(25 mm) No. Finding Free Moisture (English Units) The following is an example of a Paving Design Mix and total moisture test results (English Units): Design Mix Material Weights Total Absorbed Extra Cu Yd Moisture Moisture Moisture Sand 1"-No. 1335 lbs. which require volume adjustments. as the mix may have to be changed. Some have a different specific gravity. 194 lbs.4% = 0.just ensure that the maximum water requirements are not exceeded. thus creating free water. Differing cements may need more or less mixing water.4 Rock = 4. Do not tell him/her .3% 50 . Occasionally. Occasionally. check the method of drying against the oven drying method to know how much free moisture exists.9% . a change in the specific gravity. cut back the Design Mix quantity by an amount equal to the free water in the aggregate.4 Rock Water 1147 lbs. Find the amount of free moisture by subtracting the absorbed moisture from the total moisture. the contractor will want to use cement of a type or from a source different than given in the mix.1.9% 1. the contractor must send samples of the aggregates to the Central Lab for a new Design Mix.2% = 3.6% _______ _______ 1.6% 0. 4.

NOTE: A one gallon change in the mixing water per cubic yard (4. Adjust the mixing water anytime the change in moisture content of the aggregates would cause a water change of 2 pounds per cubic yard (1.2.4% = 39 lbs. 4. yd. 4 lbs. =1339 lbs. Design Mix Weight cu. Find the total pounds of free water in the aggregates by multiplying the Design Mix/cu. 3. 43 lbs. Adjust the amount of mixing water by subtracting the free water from the Design Mix water. R. S.186 kg/m3) of concrete. yd. by the percentage of free moisture and adding them together. x 3.4 Rock Multiply the corrected batch weights/cu. 1147 lbs. Enter the data on the DOT-98A --Plant Inspectors Daily Report.4 Rock Material Sand 1"-No. Adjusted mixing water = 194 lbs. = 1335 lbs. On a paving job take moisture tests for each sample obtained for a gradation test in accordance with the M. yd. Adjust the batch for the amount of aggregate for mix. T. = 1147 lbs. The amount of mixing water is directly related to the slump of the concrete. Sand 1" (25. x 0. Do this by increasing each aggregate weight by the amount of free water it contains.95 L/m3) of concrete will change the slump approximately one inch (25. by the number of cubic yards to be batched at one time to determine the weights to be actually set on the scales when batching materials. section in the Materials Manual. – 43 lbs. Take a moisture test of the aggregate at least every 2 hours.0 mm)-No. 1335 lbs. = 151 lbs. =1186 lbs. + + Free Water New Corrected Weight Batch Weight 39 lbs.4 mm). 51 .3% = 4 lbs.

6% 0.2% = 3. R. Adjust the amount of mixing water by subtracting the free water from the Design Mix water.12 kg 2.1.3% 2. Find the total kg of free water in the aggregates by multiplying the Design Mix/m3 by the percentage of free moisture and adding them together.4 Rock = 4.12 kg = 794.12 kg 1" (25. Take a moisture test of the aggregate at least every 2 hours.38 kg = 703. section in the Materials Manual. Adjusted mixing water = 115 kg – 23. Design Mix Weight m3 680 kg 792 kg + + Free Water New Corrected Weight Batch Weight 23. Find the amount of free moisture by subtracting the absorbed moisture from the total moisture.9% .4 Rock Water 680 kg 792 kg 115 kg 4.38 kg Material Sand 1"-No. T.4 Rock = 792 kg x 0.6% = 0. Sand = 680 kg x 3. Do this by increasing each aggregate weight by the amount of free water it contains.4 Rock Multiply the corrected batch weights/m3 by the number of m3 to be batched at one time to determine the weights to be actually set on the scales when batching materials.5 kg 3.5 kg 4.0.3% = 2. On a paving job take moisture tests for each sample obtained for a gradation test in accordance with the M.2% 0. S.0 mm)-No.4% = 0. Sand 1"(25 mm) No.Finding Free Moisture (Metric Units) The following is an example of a Paving Design Mix and total moisture test results (Metric Units): Design Mix Material Weights Total Absorbed Extra 3 M Moisture Moisture Moisture Sand 1"-No. Enter the data on the DOT-98A --Plant Inspectors Daily Report.38 kg 25. 52 .5 kg = 89. Adjust the batch for the amount of aggregate for mix.4% = 23.6% _______ _______ 1.6% .9% 1.

Some Central and Redi-Mix plants are equipped with a “ moisture meter. This electronic sensor functions on drum drag. The lower the drum speed and amperage reading. Slump Indicator. Run one test each day to check adjustment. WORKABILITY ADJUSTMENTS The air content of the concrete plays a big part in workability. Water is sometimes increased to correct a low slump when all that was needed was to increase the air content. sides of the sand bin. the lower is the slump. Integral to the mixing drum of Central Plants is a “ slump” indicator or wattmeter that measures the power required to turn the mixer. NOTE: A one gallon change in the mixing water per cubic yard (4.4 mm).186 kg/m3) of concrete. There are many factors that affect the air content. The wetter the mix (higher the slump) the higher the amperage reading.” There are probes in the Figure 22. Use these meters for the tests as long as they will agree with your results. Some of the units will show the total moisture. including: ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Aggregate Gradation Cement Content Slump Vibration Concrete Temperature Mixing Action Percent Air will: increase increase increase 53 Increase of : Slump Water/Cement Ratio % Sand . Do not neglect the air content when workability problems develop.95 L/m3) of concrete will change the slump approximately one inch (25.The amount of mixing water is directly related to the slump of the concrete. and the amount of moisture is measured by the resistance to the electrical current flowing between these probes. Adjust the mixing water anytime the change in moisture content of the aggregates would cause a water change of 2 pounds per cubic yard (1.

single strength is used for concrete masonry and double strength for paving. Using double strength air entrainment does not necessarily mean that the amount of air entrainment can be cut in half. If more than the +0. NOTE: Care should be taken to not exceed the water/cement ratio. (45. what is the maximum amount of water that can be used per cubic yard (m3) of concrete? ___________/___________________ (Answer on page 111) English / Metric Water Content Adjustment (English Units) Whenever the water content is adjusted.14 L) is needed. Usually.14 L) gallons of water will be exceeded.76 m3).3 (1.3 gallon (1. The contractor can use any type of air entrainment as long as the specifications are met. It may have to be cut 30 to 50 percent. depending on the brand.14 L) per cwt.4 pounds per cwt.3 gallon (1. be sure it is fully mixed with the correct amount of water. the coarse aggregate weight must also be adjusted to keep the volume per cubic yard (m3) at 27 cubic feet (0. The design was made under ideal conditions. If the powdered form is used.Fines in Sand Cement Content Cement Fineness Temperature Mixing Time Wind Velocity decrease decrease decrease decrease decrease decrease Know the strength of the air entrainment being used. = 1880 pounds per cubic yard 54 . Single and double strength air entrainment are most common.36 kg) of cement. The mix may need more or less water than indicated in the Design Mix. Subtract as much as needed or add as much as +0. per cubic yard = 45. stop production and call the Central Testing Lab for a new Design Mix. Triple strength is not common. The following conditions exist: Cement Factor Water Content Weight of Rock = 5. For the Paving Mix given in Handout 14 (English) and Handout 14A (metric). there will be an indication that the +0. Normally. The design mix water content can be adjusted. The amount of water in the mix also affects the slump.55 cwt.

Extra water = 262 lbs./cu. Weight = 2. yd. – 26 lbs. Design Water = 3.63 Five cubic yard batches are being mixed. Find the weight of rock that is equal to the extra volume of water. Water _________ English Rock_______ English 55 . = 1854 lbs. = 0. Adjust rock weight = 1880 lbs. 2. The weight is found by multiplying the specific gravity of the rock times the unit weight of the water times the extra volume. In order to retain slump.16 cu. 45. What weights of water and rock are needed? (Answers on page 111).4 lbs. ft./cu. NOTE: Use the adjusted weight when figuring the free moisture of the rock and the corrected batch weight per cubic yard.Specific Gravity of Rock = 2. rock 4./cu. = 26 lbs. the water per cubic yard will need to be increased to 262 pounds. .16 cu. yd. x 5.4#/cwt. ft. Find the quantity of extra water added to the mix./cu. Find the extra volume in the mix due to the extra water by dividing the unit weight of water into the weight of extra water.4 lbs. 62. ft. ft. 1.63 x 62. = 26 lbs.252 lbs. NOTE: A short cut of multiplying the water weight times the specific gravity of the rock can be used. Extra Volume = 10 lbs.55 cwt.63 x 10 lbs. Weight = 2. The slump of the concrete needs to be reduced one inch (2. x 0.54 cm). = 251. Reduce the rock weight by the amount found in step 3.97 or 252 lbs. = 10 lbs.

Extra Volume = 6 kg 1000 kg/m3 = 0. Weight = 2. the water per m3 will need to be increased to 155 kg. the coarse aggregate weight must also be adjusted to keep the volume at 1 m3 . 56 . The weight is found by multiplying the specific gravity of the rock times the unit weight of the water times the extra volume. Find the extra volume in the mix due to the extra water by dividing the unit weight of water into the weight of extra water. Find the quantity of extra water added to the mix.006 m3 = 15.78 kg = 1099.10 = 149 kg/m3 Extra water = 155 kg – 149 kg = 6 kg 2.006 m3) 3. Weight = 2. In order to retain slump.Water Content Adjustment (Metric Units) Whenever the water content is adjusted. Design Water = 21 kg x 7.63 One m3 batches are being mixed.63 x 1000 kg/m3 x 0. 1.78 kg rock 4. Reduce the rock weight by the amount found in step 3.63 x 6 kg = 15. Find the weight of rock that is equal to the extra volume of water.10 kg per 45 kg = 21 kg per 45 kg = 1115 kg/m3 = 2. The following conditions exist: Cement Factor Water Content Weight of Rock Specific Gravity of Rock = 7.78 kg rock NOTE: A short cut of multiplying the water weight times the specific gravity of the rock can be used. Adjust rock weight = 1115kg – 15.22 kg NOTE: Use the adjusted weight when figuring the free moisture of the rock and the corrected batch weight per 1 m3.

Find how much the rock weight must be reduced to maintain a constant volume. Extra Sand Weight = 0. ft. ft.M.40 x 15 lbs.092 cu.M./cu ft. What weights of water and rock are needed? Hint: Look at NOTE on page 49.4 mm. (Answers on page 102). 2.) = 15.40 The F.62 57 . Find the amount of weight that should be added to the sand weight. Rock Weight = 0.The slump of the concrete needs to be reduced 25.005 x (1226 lbs. NOTE: This weight can also be found by using a ratio of specific gravity’ s (rock divided by sand) times the extra sand weight. The following conditions exist: Weight of Sand per Batch = 1226 pounds Weight of Rock per Batch = 1856 pounds Specific Gravity of Sand = 2. Find the volume of this extra sand by dividing the unit weight of water times the sand's specific gravity into the extra sand weight. = 14 lbs./cu ft x 2.1. 1.4 lbs. 2.62 x 62. x 62.62 Specific Gravity of Rock = 2. Water _________ Metric Rock_______ Metric Sand Weight Adjustment (English Units) The same type of adjustment is needed when the sand weight is changed because of a change in the F. 2. Multiply the total aggregate by 1/2 % or 0. Multiply the extra volume times the unit weight of water times the rock's specific gravity.40 = 14 lbs. = 0. of the sand has increased 0.092 cu.005. Extra Volume = 15 lbs. 3.4 lbs.4 pounds 2. + 1856 lbs.

is averaging 2.M. Find the new batch weights for the sand and rock. + 15 lbs.005.M. Extra Volume = 9. – 14 lbs. The following conditions exist: Weight of Sand per m3 = 727 kg Weight of Rock per m3 = 1101 kg Specific Gravity of Sand = 2. Using the Paving Design Mix given in Handouts 12 and 14. of the sand has increased 0. Multiply the total aggregate by 1/2 % or 0. NOTE: Use the adjusted weights to figure the free moisture and corrected batch weights per cubic yard. what aggregate weights should be used per cubic yard if the sand F.005 x (727 kg + 1001 kg)) = 9.40 The F. Find the amount of weight that should be added to the sand weight.14 kg = 0. Rock Weight = 1856 lbs. = 1241 lbs. Extra Sand Weight = 0.0035 m3) 3 2.M.14 kg 2.4. Sand _________ English Rock ____________ English Sand Weight Adjustment (Metric Units) The same type of adjustment is needed when the sand weight is changed because of a change in the F.55? (Answers on page 111) The rules for adjustment are on page 37 of this manual. = 1842 lbs.1. Sand Weight = 1226 lbs.62 x 1000 kg/m 58 . 1. Find the volume of this extra sand by dividing the unit weight of water times the sand's specific gravity into the extra sand weight.62 Specific Gravity of Rock = 2.

Multiply the extra volume times the unit weight of water times the rock's specific gravity.37 kg = 1092.M.40 = 8.37 kg 2. Using the Paving Design Mix given in Handouts 12 A and 14A. 2.005 kg/m3 x 2. Find the new batch weights for the sand and rock.55? (Answers on page 111) The rule for adjustments is on page 38 of this manual. Sand _________ Metric Rock _________ Metric 59 .3. Sand Weight = 727 kg + 9.63 kg NOTE: Use the adjusted weights to figure the free moisture and corrected batch weights per cubic yard (m3). what aggregate weights should be used per m3 if the sand F.40 x 19.14 kg = 8.37 kg NOTE: This weight can also be found by using a ratio of specific gravity’ s (rock divided by sand) times the extra sand weight. Rock Weight = 0. is averaging 2.14 kg = 736.14 kg Rock Weight = 1101 kg – 8. Find how much the rock weight must be reduced to maintain a constant volume.62 4.

2.5%).PLANT INSPECTOR'S DAILY REPORT Use the Plant Inspector's Daily Report (DOT-98A) to track weights and changes to the Design Mix. This is the % FREE MOISTURE in the aggregate. This is given on the "ABSORBED MOISTURE %" line in the box. and the PCEMS number. the sand contains 3. (1130 hours) with the following results: Material Sand 1" (25.1% 1.0% To fill out the proportioning part of the report: 1.6% free moisture (5. For this example.5% free moisture (1.1.0 mm)-No. Subtract the % absorbed moisture from the % total moisture for each aggregate.M.5%). If a mix is used from the yearly tabulation of Design Mixes (Handout 9). Make use of the PROPORTIONING FOR MOISTURE IN AGGREGATE part of the report. To start filling out the form: 1. Enter the % TOTAL MOISTURE for each of the aggregates in the cell below the time entry row. Enter the time the tests were made in the first row. Enter the county name. 3.0% . The weights that will be set on the scales will be different because of the free moisture in the aggregates. In this example (Handout 15).1% .4 Rock Moisture 5. Complete this form for each day that concrete is produced. go to the 4th column from the left. write the mix number under this area. Handout 15 is a completed DOT-98A form. Enter the report number (consecutively. A moisture test was run at 11:30 A. The rock contains 0. Enter the % ABSORBED MOISTURE for each aggregate. 60 . project number. 2. Complete the first four lines of the Design Mix box using the information contained in the Design Mix (this report is completed using the Design Mix in Handouts 14 and 14A and information obtained from the most recent quality tests on the materials in Handout 12).0. one report per day of operation) and check the appropriate space for a structure or paving project. 3.

These exact weights cannot be set on the scales because they are not graduated fine enough.4 Rock 3. in Metric Units.4. = 56 lbs. the mix will still be obtained. Calculate the amount of water to be added. simply put the metric data in the appropriate spaces. Determine the free water in the aggregates. WT LBS" line for each aggregate. Multiply this times the appropriate weights from above. NOTE: There is no metric Plant Inspector’ s Daily Report Form. By setting the weight to the nearest graduation.5% x 1004 kg = 5. = 48 lbs. 9.22 kg or 114. 23. these are the actual weights the contractor will set on his plant scales. so if working on a metric project.4 Rock 0. Enter the necessary weights for a 7 cubic yard (5.3 m3) batch. For each aggregate. and in Metric Units would be: 28.02 kg Enter these amounts on the "FREE MOISTURE.5% x 1692 lbs. or 6. 61 .76 kg 0. English Units: Sand 3. 5.3 gallons of water (English Units) was needed. The next row is "ADDED WATER. In this case the free water in English Units would be: 48 lbs. = 8 lbs.22 L of water was needed. 6. 1"(25.6% x 799 kg = 28. 8. For this example.0 mm) No. + 8 lbs. Metric Units Sand 1"(25. this is determined as follows: 148 kg – 33.02 kg = 33.78 L.7 gallons. multiply the % free moisture times the batch weight of that material.78 kg or 33.6% x 1346 lbs. REMEMBER. New moisture tests have been run at the same time the above adjustment was made." The weight in this space is the actual amount of water to add to the batch to maintain the slump." for the sand and rock.76 kg + 5. Add the free moisture weights to the batch weights of each aggregate and put these figures on the "CORRECTED BATCH WEIGHT" line. Find the weights needed for the Design Mix per cubic yard (m3). Determine the size batch to be used and enter this in the "batch size" column under SCALE WEIGHTS. Be sure to use the "Corrected Batch Wt. In this case the total water weight is the same as the design amount and should match the gallons entered on the "TOTAL WATER" line. 7.0 mm) No.78 kg = 114. Add the free water and the added water to get the GALLONS WATER. Add the weights of the free moisture in the aggregates and enter the total on the "FREE WATER" space.

always base the adjustment on the weights being used before the adjustment was made. A workability adjustment does not mean that new moisture tests are needed. these moisture tests are run on a 2-hour basis and may not coincide with other adjustments. The slump can be maintained by reducing the total water content. For example. or the water requirements to maintain slump.REMEMBER.M. It is equal because the total amount of water per batch is being established. If using gallons. Most of the plants will be measuring water in gallons rather than pounds. Whenever adjustments in the weights of the aggregates are made. and the humidity is high. Weather conditions may affect a concrete mix. This happens because a slight change in water was necessary. breezy. area. but it was not enough to make a volume correction. the last field mix of the previous report should be entered as the first field mix on the current daily report. If using the same field mix as on the previous day.1% Rock Moisture = 1. compute the free moisture in each aggregate in pounds and convert it to gallons to complete the total water being used. The Inspector's Daily Report (Handout 15) shows that at 11:30 A. At times the total water content may be slightly different than the Field Mix. (0830 hours) show that the rock actually contained less total moisture than is required for absorption. The last adjustment will most likely be the field mix that will be used the next time concrete is produced. This is because of a change in F. one day is hot. Any time a change in the Design Mix is made. YD. The next day is cool. Quite often. a slight water content change might be made to produce uniform concrete. As soon as a few batches are run.M. (1130 hours) the mix was adjusted due to changes in aggregate moisture. 62 . These new weights will be needed when figuring the PROPORTIONING FOR MOISTURE IN AGGREGATES. The batch weight of this aggregate was reduced by the weight of water that it was missing. the only time the water content will be equal to the Field Mix quantity is when a new Field Mix is calculated. show the new mix in the FIELD MIX CU. windy. The moisture tests at 8:30 A.0% Adjustments in the Design Mix can be made to improve workability. Sand Moisture = 5. and the humidity is low.M.

changes in sand or when the aggregate moisture changes. Do not allow the admixtures to contact each other before mixing. keep a copy for use in developing the next day’ s report. Attach a copy of the moisture tests to the Plant Inspector Daily Report and send to the Concrete Engineer. and the Region Materials Engineer. take a sample from a batch load and conduct the appropriate test(s). such as when the F. make it on "cubic yard" (m3) weights. Additional Tests There will be requirements to make adjustments in the mix. The South Dakota Materials Manual explains the air content under SD 403 and the slump under SD 404.M. Admixtures Check that the amount of admixture recommended by the supplier or manufacturer is being used in the mix.95 L per m3). Keep the original report for the files. To determine how the changes will affect the slump or air content. Whenever making a mix adjustment. Do not use these test results for acceptance tests. as a chemical reaction will begin. Check that the plant operator is following the manufacturer's product use recommendations. 63 . the Area Engineer. NOTE: The results attained at the plant will usually be higher than those from the inspector at the placement site because of air loss during transit. It is the concrete supplier's responsibility to provide information on admixture use. NOTE: Be sure that the report is signed and dated.NOTE: A volume correction is not needed unless the water content changes more than ±1 gallon per cubic yard (4.

COLD WEATHER CONCRETING Check the temperature of the mixed concrete when the weather is cold. It must be at least 50°F (10°C) and not more than 90°F (32°C) (380.3 H. and 460.3 H.). The contractor may heat the water or aggregates to keep the concrete within these limits. The water should never be heated over 160°F (71° C) nor the aggregates over 100°F (38°C) (380.3.F). If the water is heated over 100°F (38°C), mix it with the aggregates before adding cement to avoid a flash set. Keep the aggregates and water heating uniform to produce uniform concrete. Use the following formula to estimate the temperature of the mixed concrete: Temperature = WT + 0.2 W'T' W + 0.2 W' W = Weight of water W' = Weight of Cement and Aggregate T = Temperature of water T' = Temperature of Cement and Aggregate Note: This formula is a simplified version of an ACI formula. This simplified version assumes cement, rock, and sand are all at the same temperatures. English Units Example: 1 and 1/2 cu yd batch Wts. etc. C = 846 lbs. R = 2574 lbs. S = 2067 lbs. Water = 37 gal = 309 lbs. W = 309 lbs. W' = 5487 lbs. T = 120°F T' = 37°F Temperature = 37080 + 40604 = 77684 = 55°F 309 + 1097 1406

Using the Design Mix at Handout 8, what would the mixed concrete temperature be if the water is 80°F and the cement and aggregates are 45°F? ____________ (Answer on page 111).

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Metric Units Example: 1.15 m3 batch Wts. etc. C = 383.7 kg R = 167.6 kg S = 937.6 kg Water = 140 L = 140 kg W = 140 kg W' = 2488.9 kg T = 49°C T' = 3°C Temperature = 6860 + 1493.3 = 8353.3 = 12.777 or 13°C 140 + 497.8 = 637.8

Be alert for frozen material. Conduct checks to ensure frozen lumps, ice, or snow is not allowed in the mix. When aggregates are heated, steam will generally be piped into the pile or heated over an open flame as shown in the diagram below. Check the material carefully to see that it is heated uniformly. If it is not, difficulty in producing uniform concrete or a flash set might occur.

Figure 23. Heating Aggregate Stockpiles. The hydration time period can be reduced if one additional bag of cement per cubic yard (m3) of concrete is added. When this is done, make adjustments in the mix because of the extra volume. The extra cement also requires additional water to maintain the slump. Generally, the adding of 2 gallons (7.6 L) of extra water per bag of cement is acceptable. Using the design mix given in Handout 16, the following steps should be followed to adjust a mix for the addition of one bag of cement in cold weather. The adjustments are made on the quantity of materials needed per cubic yard (m3) of concrete.

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NOTE: The increase of one bag of cement will usually require an increase of approximately 30% more air entrainment per cubic yard (m3). English Units Example: 1. Cement increased one bag = 94 lbs. New cement wt. = design or field mix wt. + added cement wt. New cement wt. = 625 lbs. + 94 lbs. = 719 lbs. 2. Add 2 gallons of water for the extra cement New water wt. = design or field mix wt. + added water wt. New water wt. = 267 lbs. + 17 lbs. = 284 lbs. Water may need to be added for the added cement. 3. Determine the added absolute volume due to the addition of 94 lbs. of cement and 2 gallons of water. Added cement vol. = wt. of cement Sp. Gr. of cement x water wt. per cu. ft.

Added cement vol. = 94 lbs. = 0.47 cu. ft. 3.21 x 62.4 lbs./cu. ft. Added water vol. = No. of gallons x water wt. per gallon water wt. per cu. ft. Added water vol. = 2 gallons x 8.34 lbs./gallon = 0.27 cu. ft. 62.4 lbs./cu. ft. Total added vol. = added cement vol. + added water vol. Total added vol. = 0.47 cu. ft. + 0.27 cu. ft = 0.74 cu. ft. 4. Reduce the absolute volume of the sand and rock to make room for the added volume of cement and water. Prorate the added volume based on the percentage of the sand and rock weights of the total aggregate weight. Do this so an absolute volume of 27 cu. ft./1cu. yd. can be maintained. Total aggregate wt. = sand wt. + rock wt. Total aggregate wt. = 1269 lbs. + 1676 lbs. = 2945 lbs. % of sand = % of rock = sand wt. total aggregate wt. rock wt. total aggregate wt. = = 1269 lbs. = 43.1% 2945 lbs. 1676 lbs. = 56.9% 2945 lbs.

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The new field batch weights with the extra bag of cement and the 2 gallons of water are: Cement = 719 lbs.63 2.ft. = reduced vol.42 cu. ft. ft. Vol. ft. ft = 52 lbs.wt. New sand wt. of reduced vol. x rock Sp.1% = 0. ft x 2. = 69 lbs.ft. increase x % rock (cement & water) Vol. New sand wt. – 69 lbs.8 kg 158.42 cu. Determine the new weights for sand and rock. x 43. 5.4 lbs. = design or field mix wt. = 1607 lbs. Reduced sand wt./cu. 6.9% = 0. = 1217 lbs. – 52 lbs.21 1 2. = 1676 lbs. rock to be reduced 0. New rock wt. rock to be reduced = vol. Reduced rock wt. Gr./cu. = 0. sand to be reduced = vol. = 0.74 cu. Reduced sand wt. increase x % sand (cement & water) Vol. x sand Sp.32 cu.62 67 . x water wt/cu. New rock wt. Metric Units Example: Original metric Design Mix: Cement Water Sand Rock = = = = wt/m3 370.4 lbs. .62 x 62.4 kg 752. ft Reduced sand wt.74 cu. = 69 lbs. . GR 3.wt.63 x 62. Water = 284 lbs.9 kg 994. ft. Reduced rock wt. = 1269 lbs. ft. x 56. = design or field mix wt.32 cu. Reduced rock wt. x 2. Rock = 1607 lbs. x water wt/cu. of reduced vol. Gr. = reduced vol.3 kg SP.Vol. Sand = 1217 lbs. = 52 lbs. sand to be reduced 0.

Added cement vol.0206 m3 4. Total aggregate wt. = added cement vol. = No.6 kg = 166 kg Water may need to be added for the added cement. total aggregate wt. of liters x water wt. = 158.3 kg) = 56. = 370.6 kg = 0.013 m3 + 0.4 kg 2.8 kg + 42. = design or field mix wt. + added cement wt. = = = 43. per liter water wt.6 kg = 0.6 kg New cement wt. = 752.1. sand to be reduced 0. Do this so an absolute volume of 1 m3 can be maintained.9% 1747. = sand wt. rock wt. sand to be reduced = vol.0206 m3 x .6 L of water.0089 m3 68 .2 kg 994.1% 752 kg 1747.013 m3 3.0076 m3 = 0.431 = 0.3 kg = 1747. New water wt. New cement wt. total aggregate wt.000 kg/m3 Total added vol. Determine the added absolute volume due to the addition of 42.21 x 1000 kg/m3 Added cement vol. = 7.4 kg + 7.6 kg of cement and 7. Total added vol. per kg/m3 42. per kg/m3 Added water vol. = design or field mix wt.6 kg = 413. = Added water vol. + rock wt. Gr. Total aggregate wt. + added water wt. 3. = 0. Prorate the added volume based on the percentage of the sand and rock weights of the total aggregate weight. of cement Sp.0076 m3 1 x 1. Reduce the absolute volume of the sand and rock to make room for the added volume of cement and water. Add 7.2 kg) Vol.9 kg + 994.2 kg % of sand = % of rock = sand wt. Cement increased one bag = 42. = wt.6 L of water for the extra cement New water wt. of cement x water wt. + added water vol. increase x % sand (cement & water) Vol.

increase x % rock (cement & water) Vol. = reduced vol.63 x 1. = design or field mix wt.7 kg New sand wt.0117 m3 5.3 kg – 30. of reduced vol.569 = 0. .089 m3 x 2. Determine the new weights for sand and rock. New sand wt. .wt. x sand Sp.4 kg) = 729.0117 m3 x 2. x rock Sp. Gr. Gr. Reduced sand wt.wt.23. = 1752. = reduced vol. New rock wt.5 kg New rock wt. rock to be reduced = vol. x water wt/m3 Reduced sand wt. = 0.6 kg) 6. = 994. rock to be reduced 0.0206 m3 x .9 kg .000 kg/m3 = 30. = 0.62 x 1.6 kg of water are: Cement = 413.000 kg/m3) = 23. The new field batch weights with the extra bag of cement and the 7. x water wt/m3 Reduced rock wt.Vol.6 kg 69 .4 kg Reduced rock wt. = design or field mix wt.4 kg Water = 166 kg Sand = 729.5 kg Rock = 963.7 kg) = 963. of reduced vol.

The plant operator can: 1. 70 . 3. 4. The temperature of concrete cannot be controlled as easily in hot weather as in cold weather.3 H. Insulate water-supply lines and tanks or at least paint exposed portions a light color to reflect heat. However.) or the following can occur. Shade materials and facilities with surplus camouflage nets or similar material. paint them a white or light color. use 30. MISCELLANEOUS A design mix featuring use of fly ash is available at Handout 16A. use 155 L of water per cubic meter when the temperature is 30° C. For bridge decks. avoid the use of hot cement.).3 H. The Engineer may authorize the maximum concrete temperature to be raised to 85°(29° C) with conditions see specification book. 2. • • • • Lower ultimate strength Reduced Durability Lessened Resistance to freeze-thaw cycles Increased Shrinkage cracking For each rise of 10°F (5°C) in the concrete temperature. ENGLISH UNIT EXAMPLE: If using 29 gallons of water per cubic yard when concrete temperature was 65° F.HOT WEATHER CONCRETING Do not place concrete when it has a temperature above 90°F (32°C) (380.0 liter) of water per cubic yard (m3) to maintain the same slump.5 gallons of water per cubic yard when the temperature is 80°F. Cool coarse aggregate stockpiles by spraying them with water. add one gallon (4. keep the temperature below 80°F (27°C) (460. Use cold water even to the point of adding measured quantities of ice. and keep them washed clean of cement and dust. 7. Work at night assuming illumination is available for the paving operation.95 or 5. 5. 6. there are various methods that can be used to lower the temperature of fresh concrete. METRIC UNIT EXAMPLE: If using 145 L of water per cubic meter when concrete temperature was 20° C. Cool mixer drums with water. When practical.

It is important to proportion each batch of materials to obtain strength and durability. A layout that permits all construction and delivery traffic to flow freely in and out of the plant site. The word "batch" means either the assembly or mixture of all the ingredients used in one concrete mixing operation. The following are required for concrete to flow uninterrupted to the construction site and for materials to be uniform from batch to batch: 1. Storage and handling procedures for all materials. and sizes of concrete plants. 6. 3. Good communications between the concrete plant and the placing operation. The proportions of aggregate have considerable effect on the workability of the fresh or "plastic" concrete. It is essential that there be an uninterrupted flow of the concrete from the plant to the construction site. DOT inspectors and contractor personnel who will take the initiative to anticipate a problem and make the effort to determine a solution before the problem causes a slowdown or stoppage of concrete production. Any error made in measuring these materials will also cause a variation in strength. Although there are many kinds. This will provide concrete uniformity and will facilitate a high quality construction. consistency and a quality control program. shapes. 4. For example. Control the measurement of materials within narrow limits. they all are of two general types: Batching Plants and Mixing Plants. Equipment that is kept in good operating condition. 7. All materials must be measured accurately.CONCRETE PLANTS A concrete plant is a factory. one truck mixer load or one plant mixer cycle in a central mix paving plant is a batch. The product manufactured is uniform fresh concrete. The key to quality and uniformity is using proper proportioning. Competent plant and equipment operators who are well supervised. 5. A site large enough to store materials for continuous operations. 2. NON COMPUTERIZED BATCHING PLANT INSPECTION 71 .

durability. The purpose of batching equipment is to meter the quantity of each material into the mixer so that the correct volume of concrete is produced. solid base to prevent the twisting and binding of parts. The batching plant must be on a level. Before the materials can be put into the mixer. A concrete mix is proportioned not only to meet the requirements of strength.8 to 7. Figure 24.A batching plant (380. 3.) measures the materials needed for a "batch of concrete. Thorough mixing of concrete is accomplished when the materials are charged into the mixer at about the same time. Hoppers At Batching Plant. batch by weight and are frequently used by redi-mixed concrete producers for aggregates. 4. Cement is normally weighed separately. These cumulative batchers weigh materials one after another in a common weight hopper suspended from a single weigh scale-lever system. Common hoppers. or at the job site. but also to produce a certain volume of concrete. on the way to the job site. and workability. which occurs as they enter the mixer. which in turn will not 72 . Multiple batchers sizes range from one to ten cubic yards (0. each must be measured. This will cause problems with the scales. called cumulative batchers. or more different materials. They can be arranged to handle 2. The mixing is done in one of three places: at the batching site." A batch is the amount of material that is to be mixed at one time. This is accomplished by dropping material from the storage bin into a weighing hopper.3 B.6 m3) or more. Conveyor Carrying Aggregate to Hopper. Figure 25. This is possible because of the partial blending of materials.

If the total capacity of the scale is 25.536 kg). 73 . The scale (380. For example. the graduations can be as large as 25 pounds (11. If they are not working properly.340 kg). Figure 26. Concrete footings make the best base. the graduations cannot be larger than 10 pounds (4. the slump could vary. refer to the SDDOT training manual titled WEIGHING. For further information on scales and weighing. Scales The scales are an important part of a batch plant. or the strength could be low. The contractor can use other bases as long as the plant is solid and remains level.3 B.536 kg) each. The graduations on these scales cannot be larger than 0.000 pounds (11.34 kg).000 pounds (4. the following can occur: the volume cannot be controlled. moisture adjustments will be difficult. if the scale has a total capacity of 10. Diagram of Two Types of Hopper Systems.weigh correctly.1 % of the scales total capacity.1.) must be either a beam or a springless dial type.

After the scales are checked and they meet requirements.). Be present while this is being done.1. Figure 28. It is up to the contractor to contact these people and set a date for checking the scales. enter the following in the plant diary: • Date the check was made • Name of the person making the check • A statement that the scale met requirements The state scale inspector checks the scales of most Redi-Mix plants annually.).Figure 27. it must be checked. They must also be sensitive to a weight equal to one gradation of the scale. Check the scales to see that they meet these requirements before producing concrete.3 B.5) percent of the load being weighed (380.1. The scales will not need to be checked if they have a scale inspector's seal that is less than 1 year old and the plant has not moved since the seal was issued. Beam Scale.000 pounds (13. NOTE: Scales used for weighing water have to be accurate to ±1 percent of the net weight of the load being weighed (380.3 B. they must be checked by the state scale inspector or by qualified private scale inspectors. Springless Dial Type Scale The scales must be accurate to 1/2 (0. 74 . Since the scales used for batch plants often have capacities of 30. If the plant does not have a recent seal or it has been moved.608 kg) or more.

3 B. and 460. sand. have the contractor put up a shelter to protect the hoppers (380. The wind may cause the hoppers to rock back and forth. The insides of a meter are delicate.1.3 B. Over-Under Indicator.3 B. Should wind cause such problems. but it shows a larger amount of movement than the main beam.). If the plant does not produce more than a few cubic yards (m3) of concrete.A beam scale must have an “ overunder” indicator (380.3 B. These meters must measure water with a tolerance of ± 1 percent of the quantity (380. Figure 30. Water Meters Meters sometimes measure mixing water. make adjustments or draw an “ output”curve. Water Meter. which indicate how much the load is off if the pointer did not fall on zero. and 460. If the water weighed is within ± 1 percent of the meter setting.). There are times when weighing will be affected by wind. It must have weight graduations up the side. causing vibrations in the lever arms.3 B.1. Check meter accuracy by weighing the water pumped through it.). Long use.1. These vibrations cause the scale to bounce making it hard to weigh. 75 . Figure 29. or dirt can damage it causing incorrect readings. The picture on the right shows an indicator. This is another beam. Occasionally the contractor may use a small batching plant for masonry concrete. The wind pushing against the weigh hoppers could cause them to touch or bind. the Engineer may order other means to check these scales. the meter is acceptable for use. If the accuracy falls outside the ± 1 percent limit.

check it. 76 . the dosage of admixture. Check to see that the material is not building up and spilling from one bin to another. It is the contractor’ s and/or the supplier’ s responsibility to determine Figure 31. The bins are filled from the top by conveyors. The meter is sealed. Most admixtures are specified in ounces and weighed in grams. This can be used in place of actually checking the meter if: 1.3 C.). Admixture Metering Device. If using the Certificate of Calibration. Look inside the bins to see that there are no holes in the walls between the bins. 2. Admixtures Each admixture should be added to the batch by a mechanical metering device. Bins The plant must have separate bins for each size aggregate.34 to get ounces. And 460. Divide the gram weight by 28.3 B1. Should there be a reason to suspect that the meter is no longer accurate.Some contractors have a Certificate of Calibration for their water meters. The Certificate shows the serial number of the meter. Weigh (grams) the material to verify the + 3% accuracy. The device must be able to measure within + 3% of the net weight or volume per batch (380. put the above data in the diary and send a copy to the Concrete Engineer. This calibration will be considered good for a period of one year from date of calibration or until the meter seal is broken. date of calibration and states that the meter is accurate within a range of error of not over ± 1 %. Mixing the aggregates will result in failing test results as well as non-uniform concrete. Check the accuracy by discharging a batch quantity into a container.

Open The Storage Bin Gates To Start Batching. Close Gates When The Correct Amount Of Each Aggregate And Cement Is Weighed Out.3 B. The illustrations below depict what the controls do when separate scales weigh aggregates and cement. Must not open the weigh hopper gates when the cement weighs 1% more or less than it is supposed to weigh. Batch plants for concrete masonry are not required to have automatic controls.3 B. 77 . Must not open the weigh hopper gates when the aggregates weigh 2% more or less than they are supposed to weigh.1. Figure 32.). Keep the storage bin gates closed when the weigh hopper gates are open.1. Figure 33. The automatic controls must also (380.): 1. 2.Automatic Controls A concrete paving batch plant must be operated with automatic controls (380. 3.

Do not let the plant start until these things are checked and the controls operate properly. He must have the automatic controls fixed before work begins the next day (380. Not open the weigh hopper gates when the cement weighs more or less than the correct weight by 1% or more. 3. Keep the storage bin gates closed when the weigh hopper gates are open. The automatic controls must also (380. the contractor is allowed to use the manual controls.): 1. Do the same thing with the cement weighing equipment. Figure 35. see if the storage bin gates for the next size of aggregate will open (when everything is weighed in one hopper).).5%) of the net weight of the total aggregate batch. Open The Storage Bin Gate For the First Aggregate To Be Weighed.1. Not open the weigh hopper gates when the total weight of the aggregates are more or less than the net weight by 1/2% (0.3 B. Not open the next storage bin gate when the last aggregate weighed is more or less than the allowable tolerance.1. 4. Close The Storage Bin Gate When The Correct Amount Of Aggregate Has Been Weighed. 2.5%) or more. Should the automatic controls break down. Repeat this procedure after putting more material in the weigh hopper than allowed by delivery tolerance. Have the contractor put less material in the weigh hopper than is allowed by the delivery tolerance.Figures 34 and 35 illustrate what automatic controls do when aggregates and cement are weighed on one scale: Figure 34. 78 .3 B. Check the automatic controls to be sure that they are working properly. The allowable tolerance is ± 1/2% (0. Then have him/her try to operate the automatic controls to see if the weigh hopper gates will open (for aggregates weighed separately) or. The two steps illustrated are repeated until the two sizes of aggregate and cement have been weighed.

8. 3. Ensure the maximum allowable water is not exceeded. A normal plant (scales. Trucks are clean and empty prior to batching. Any new trucks are checked prior to use. 4. Visually monitor the mix for slump or consistency changes. 7. Ensure that the appropriate information is on the ticket as specified. obtain a sample and test the fresh concrete. 79 . Material in bins is as indicated. 10. 4. Review time requirements. 12. the plant and associated equipment shall be periodically inspected to assure that: 1. At the project site. blade wear. Check to ensure the aggregate moistures appears reasonable. 5.) and truck (revolution counter. continuous plant inspection is not necessary. Check to see if trucks are taking an excessive amount of time getting to the project. meters. Ensure that additional cement is added for small loads. Proper mix time or revolutions is being accomplished. stockpiles. The rinsing of the truck mixing fins after batching is observed for excess usage of water. Recommend mixing the load an additional 30 revolutions after the addition of any water. 2. etc. Ensure that the weight of material is within tolerance.) inspection shall be accomplished prior to the plant furnishing material to the project. etc. 5. Take appropriate action based on the concrete test results. 6. Recommend mixing the truck load an additional 20 revolutions prior to discharge to assure uniformity of the mix. If the mix appears to have changed. The plant production and aggregate moisture determinations need to be reviewed with the plant operator. 7. 9.The Area Engineer can allow the contractor to produce concrete for special locations without using automatic controls. admixtures. the inspector should: 1. 6. 3. 11. manufacture plate. if the plant normally furnished concrete to SDDOT projects annually During the course of production. The proper batch weights and aggregate weight are verified and have been corrected for aggregate moisture. Check new trucks prior to use. 2. There may be occasions when plans contain a note stating that automatic controls are not required. Check with the Project Engineer. The stockpiles are properly maintained. COMPUTERIZED BATCHING PLANT INSPECTION When concrete is supplied from a computerized concrete batch plant. This should be accomplished on an annual basis.

To check the speed: 1. If the rating plate cannot be found. Check the drum to see that it is turning at the recommended speed. EXAMPLE: The manufacturer's plate recommends a mixing speed of 6 to 12 revolutions per minute. Figure 36. have the contractor supply the manufacturer's manual. Rating Plate. 2. 3. 10 revolutions were timed at 52 seconds.3 B. Divide the 10 revolutions by the time in minutes to determine the revolutions per minute of the drum.) are used on concrete paving projects and are a part of the batching plant. Use them as recommended by the manufacturer. Make a mark on the drum. They are large drums that mix the batched materials into concrete.MIXING PLANTS Mixing plants (380. Mixing Drum. Each mixer should have a rating plate that must be checked for: The maximum volume of concrete that can be mixed at one time.2. Figure 37. The drum's mixing speed is expressed in revolutions per minute. Use a stopwatch and time 10 revolutions. Have the operator turn the drum at the normal mixing speed. 80 . 4.

A number of factors can determine whether a concrete batch will be well mixed. The sketches below show different blades and where measurements should be taken. Check each mixer to see that the mixing blades are in good condition by crawling inside the drum.87 minutes 60 sec/minute Revolutions per minute = 10 rev = 11.0 mm) or more. Some of these are: ♦ charging procedure ♦ batch size ♦ method of adding water ♦ mixer speed ♦ number of revolutions ♦ type of materials ♦ mix proportions Constant observation by the plant inspector. keeping the basic rules of good concrete in mind. Quite often old dried 81 . concrete should be removed after each day’ s run.5 rev/min 0. Accumulation of hardened concrete in the drum and mixing blades will reduce the efficiency of the mixer. Minutes = Figure 38. will result in uniformly mixed batch of concrete. Mixing Blade Configurations. Get the manufacturer's manual from the contractor for the correct blade dimensions. The contractor should replace the blades when they become worn down 3/4 inch (19.87 min Experiments have shown that the concrete is mixed better when the drum is turning at or near maximum speed. Measure the blade at the point of the largest diameter of the drum. Blades worn more than allowed must be replaced before using the mixer. Badly worn mixer blades need to be replaced periodically.52 sec = 0. therefore. Mixer Maintenance A mixer must be kept clean and in good mechanical condition to do a good job of mixing.

If this overrides the timer and dumps the concrete.). When the materials are fed into the mixer. are in the mixer. but switch to manual controls should it break down. not portions. All the water must be in the drum within the first 15 seconds of the mixing cycle (380. Transit Mix Trucks 82 . The mixing is done while the trucks are at the plant site. It ends when the mixer starts to dump concrete. Mixing time begins when all materials. Allowing water to enter the mix first will also help spread the aggregates evenly in the mix.3 E. While the plant is being manually operated. Mixing Mix all concrete a minimum of 60 seconds (380. Most of these portable on site plants have mixing capacity rated on the number of bags of cement they can handle. Remove this before using the mixer or proper mixing of the concrete will not be achieved. the mixers for both concrete paving and concrete masonry must have automatic timing devices. The batch plant measures the materials so they can be mixed. Material weights must be based on the number of bags of cement being used. the contractor will have to correct the situation. or some other type of device that will signal each time the time lock is released. This water will help keep the other materials from balling up and sticking to the sides of the drum. except the water. A contractor may use a small batch plant on the project site. The timer should keep the mixer from dumping the concrete before the full mixing cycle is completed. Have the operator push the "dump" button before the mixing cycle is completed.1. The timer must be equipped with a bell.1.concrete has built up around the blades. The timer must be working properly before producing concrete the next day.). Use the automatic timer. The contractor must use only full bags. the mixing time remains at 60 seconds. To make sure this happens.3 E. part of the water must enter the drum before the cement and aggregates do. Verify the timer. light. Most masonry concrete will be delivered from a commercial Redi-Mix plant.

Figure 39. They all must have a rating plate describing: • Mixer design uses. Rating Plate. • Speed of the drum rpm’ s during mixing and agitating. 83 . The checking procedure is the same as with a mixing plant. above? _______________What is the recommended mixing speed? _______________ (Answers on page 111). Check the drums to be sure that they will turn at the recommended speed. Check the transit mix trucks before they are used. Check each mixer to be sure that the mixing blades are in good condition. Use the trucks according to the manufacturer's recommendations. • The maximum amount of concrete that can be mixed in the drum. Transit Mix Truck. Figure 40. What is the maximum volume of concrete that can be mixed in the drum by the rating plate in the picture on this page.

NOTE: It is normally a good practice to agitate the drum at mixing speed for a minute to assure uniformity throughout the load.2. Start the drum and make sure that the counter starts when the drum reaches the minimum speed recommended. If additional water or cement is added after completing the original mixing.3 D. The mixing time for truck mixers is 70 to 100 revolutions of the drum at mixing speed (380. mix the batch an additional 30 revolutions at mixing speed (460. It must be designed to count the revolutions of the drum when at mixing speed. NOTE: The full amount of mixing water should be added at the time of batching unless otherwise ordered by the Engineer.).The truck mixers must be equipped with a revolution counter (380. This is acceptable. Revolution Counter. Mobile Concrete Mixer 84 .). Additional mixing beyond 100 revolutions must be made at agitation speed. Figure 41. The range for agitation and mixing speed will often overlap. Ask the contractor to use a mixing speed near the top of the range. If the counter fails to activate at mixing speed.3E.2.). make sure the concrete is mixed for 70 revolutions at mixing speed before it leaves the plant. The contractor will normally use a drum speed within this overlap area so all revolutions are counted.2. but the concrete mixes better if the drum turns at near maximum speed.3 B. Adjust as necessary.

and discharge time in seconds required to dispense ninety-four pounds of cement.e. including water. mobile continuous mixing unit. i. Mobile Concrete Mixer Figure 44. as per the manufacturer’ s recommendations. Figure 42. The Mobile Concrete Mixer is usually truck mounted and carries unmixed material. An annual calibration and inspection by the SDDOT will be required for each mixer before the start of the first project each year. the number of revolutions. The calibration establishes the meter count. to produce fresh concrete at the job site. Typical Mobile Concrete Mixer Schematic 85 . Mobile Concrete Mixer Figure 43.Specifications require that both types of bridge deck overlay concrete be proportioned and mixed by a self-contained. Gate openings and pointer adjustments aggregates and general operating condition of equipment will also be inspected..

Concrete is discharged until the meter-register indicates the “ count” it should have for ¼ cu. containers. meter) of concrete into a ¼ cu. meter). Make sure the bins. (1/5 cu. and other materials and equipment necessary for calibration and inspection. you should inspect the general condition of the mixer. The yield test is the proper way to determine whether the mobile mixer is still in proper calibration and good mechanical condition. Also ensure that filters and traps are clean. yd. Differences would indicate the need to re-calibrate. yd. meter) container. The yield test involves discharging ¼ cu. see the mixer operating manual. A yield test is run before each pour. The Cement Meter Feeder calibration is recorded on DOT-293 (Figure 45). Once calibrated. gates and belts are free of dried mortar. The rock and sand gates are also calibrated in accordance with the operating manual.The Contractor must have a qualified mixer operator who is completely familiar with the procedures necessary to calibrate the machine. Before running the yield test. The Contractor should supply necessary scales. For actual calibration procedures. stop watches. The form is signed by both the Contractor’ s representative and the inspector. operating manuals. (1/5 cu. mud or other contaminants. the mobile mixer does not need to be calibrated prior to each use. See the operating manual for proper yield test procedures. yd. 86 . The machine is set using predetermined design-mix settings. (1/5 cu.

Cement Meter Feeder Calibration Worksheet (DOT-293) 87 .Figure 45.

88 .

(record to 4 Decimal Places): (B) (A) 267 564.8 43 18.53 RUN 5 94.34 TOTALS LBS.20 RUN 6 95. (Record to 4 Decimal Places): (C) (A) 115. Record the “ Weight of Cement” .“ Actual Meter Count” and “ Time” for each of the six test runs in the table below. Using the meter count designated in the Mobile Mixer Operations Manual or the Previous Years Calibrated Meter Reading as a starting point.98 RUN 3 96.3 45 19.3 267 115.Example of Mobile Mixer Calibration Worksheet (Handout 17) Contractor_______________________ Mobile Mixer Serial No.3 45 19.2039 (Factor 2) STEP 4: Determine new “ Cement Meter Count” by multiplying Factor 1 obtained in Step 2 by 94: (Factor 1) 0.4732 (Factor 1) STEP 3: Divide the Total Number of Seconds by the Total Cement Weight as determined in Step 1.3 Seconds = Lbs 0.____________ Inspector ________________________Operating Speed_________________ Date ____________________________ STEP 1: Set Mobile Mixer to Operating Speed.8 45 19.8 44 18.28 RUN 2 92.4732 x 94 = 44.06 564.73 RUN 4 95.3 45 19. RUN 1 CEMENT WEIGHT METER COUNT TIME 89.48 (New Meter Count) 89 . 564.3 Counts Lbs = 0. make six test runs discharging cement.06 (A) COUNTS (B) SECONDS (C) STEP 2: Divide the Total Meter Count by the Total Cement Weight as determined in STEP 1.

of Concrete by multiplying the new Time by the No. X 8.17 (New Time Seconds) 1 Bag Cement (94 lbs.2 (from operators manual or previous calibration) Rock Setting (Dial Setting) (I) STEP 6: Determine Cement Meter Reading for Discharge of 1 Cu.75 Bags = 389.0 (from operators manual or previous calibration) 4. (D) 44. of Concrete by multiplying new cement meter count by the no.71 Lbs/Count (M) 90 .17 Sec.: (L) (J) 1442. Yd.5 Counts X 8.) Moisture Content of Sand (G) Sand Setting (Dial Setting) (H) (from test results) 3. of bags in the mix design.2039 x 94 = 44.75 Bags = 167.38 Counts (J) STEP 7: Determine Time to Discharge 1 Cu.035 (G) = 1442.) Seconds (from Step 5.74 Seconds (K) STEP 8: Determine weight of sand per cement meter count: Adjust for moisture content by multiplying the weight of sand required by the mix design by (1 + moisture content): (Wt.38 = 3. Unit of Cement” by multiplying Factor 2 obtained in Step 3 by 94: (Factor 2) 0. (L) Determine weight of sand per cement count by dividing the adjusted weight by the cement meter count for 1 Cu. of bags in the mix design.) 1394 X (1+ 0.17 3.79 Lbs.) = (D) 1 Bag Cement = (E) Counts (from Step 4.5 19.STEP 5: Determine new “ Time to Discharge One 94 Lb. Yd.79 389. (E) 19.5% 19. Yd.

8 OF PER WEIGHT 90. Continue until three successive runs are made in which the Weight of Sand Discharged per Count equals the value (M) from Step 8.30 3.0 2.5 85. Set Dial for Sand to setting in (H) of Step 5.72 3.71 = 85.85 3.3 85.9 2.71 (N) 23 23 Counts (N) (round off to whole no.3 88.71 3.4 Use Sand Dial Setting = STEP 10: Determine weight of rock per cement meter count by dividing the weight of rock required by the mix design by the cement meter count for 1 Cu.: CEMENT WEIGHT METER SAND COUNT 21 23 24 23 23 23 2.) by the weight of sand per cement meter count.8 2. and Actual Cement Meter Reading. = (M) 3.4 85.) X (M) 3. Record the Sand dial Setting. Yd.33 Lbs. Discharge sand and try to stop discharging when cement meter reading is at the Count calculated above.8 COUNT 4. Weight of Sand Discharged.) 1394 = 91 3.8 2.9 2. New Sand Wt.86 3.71 DIAL SETTING Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Run 5 Run 6 3. Compute the Weight of Sand Discharged per Count.STEP 9: Determine new sand setting (dial setting) by dividing a measurable weight of sand (Between 80 to 90 lbs.: 85 lbs.: (Wt.8 92.58 Lbs/Count (P) .71 } ~3.

58 = 82.3 82.38 STEP 11: Determine new rock setting (dial setting) by dividing a measurable weight of rock (Between 80 and 90 lbs.34 Lbs.58 } ~ 3.) 85 (P) 3. and the Actual Cement Meter Reading.0 3. Continue until three successive runs are made in which the Weight of Rock Discharged per Count equals the value (P) from Step 10.: CEMENT WEIGHT OF METER ROCK PER COUNT COUNT WEIGHT 82.) by the cement meter count for 1 Cu.1 4.64 3.0 4.76 3.59 3.2 Discharge tock and try to stop discharging when cement meter reading is at the Count calculated above.1 4. Weight of Sand Discharged.3 83. Yd.62 3. Record the Rock Dial Setting.) X (P) 3.58 3. Compute the Weight of Rock Discharged per Count.2 82. New Rock Wt.0 Use Rock Dial Setting = STEP 12: WATER ADJUSTMENTS MADE BY TIME 92 .58 (Q) 23 = 23 Counts (Q) (round off to whole no.7 83.0 4. Set Dial for Rock to setting in (I) of Step 5.7 86.3 22 23 23 24 23 23 4.(J) 389. 4.58 SETTING Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Run 5 Run 6 4.2 4.: (Wt.

Yd. Yd.* Be sure to account for water in the sand. STEP 13: YIELD TEST BEFORE BATCHING CONCRETE A YIELD TEST MUST BE RAN • • • • • • ¼ Cu. but no overspill 93 . Set Mobile Mixer at Operating Speed Set Cement Meter at Zero Discharge Concrete until Cement Meter Reading is reached ¼ Cu. Form should be full. Form Determine Cement Meter Count for ¼ Cu. Yd.

discuss the change with the contractor. but a scale inspector must check the accuracy. On a beam scale. Verify that the scale will balance empty when weighing hoppers at a zero load. Remove the weight and have the contractor fill the weigh hopper to check movement. Adjustments to the working parts can be made. Remember. and SPECIAL PROVISIONS very carefully to be sure that the contractor is fulfilling the contract without being forced to violate the contract. 94 . On a dial scale. The contractor must repair the scale if it does not meet the sensitivity requirements. Check the scale sensitivity after the zero balance. provide a good recommendation. so be cooperative. Maintain a cooperative relationship with the contractor and his personnel. If an unmanageable situation develops. SCALES Check the balance and sensitivity of the scales every day they are used. Be sure that all specifications are met and that quality concrete is being produced. Make a check before "starting up" and again later in the day. There may be problems. The SDDOT Training manual titled “ WEIGHING” has specific scale check procedures. Place a weight equal to one scale graduation on the weigh hopper. If something can be done to improve the job. The over/under indicator should move at least 1/8 inch (0. Check the SPECIFICATIONS. the pointer should be on zero. Repeat this process for all the loads that will be weighed. the over under indicator will show if the scale is in balance.04 mm) on a beam scale. Never direct them on the operation of their equipment. everyone wants to produce quality concrete with as few problems as possible. SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS. Adjustments will not affect the accuracy of the scale. contact the Project Engineer. The pointer on a dial scale should move to the next graduation mark. Adjustments are necessary when excess material sticks to the hopper or temperature changes affect the lever rods. PLAN NOTES. Have the contractor adjust the scales if they do not balance.DAILY INSPECTIONS The production of quality concrete begins at the plant where the concrete is produced. If they ask for a suggestion.

3D) Use page 2 of DOT-13 Form (Handout 19) for the cement used each day. Any cement wasted during unloading. Item #11. The date for each day that cement was batched. 95 . Check with him for the procedure to use in these situations. Get copies of all the cement weight tickets to check the amount of cement. The weight in cwt. To find the amount of cement used. NOTE: The totals of items 10 & 11 should equal the number of batches produced by the plant each day.). Item #7. Estimate if necessary. Total number of batches actually used.Cement Record Sheet (Handouts 18 & 19) for the cement checks.3 D. Be sure to get a total for all the cement delivered and used since the last cement check and cutoff. Item #8. Any cement wasted during batching or to wind loss. Have the contractor empty any partially unloaded cement and all cement silos. in the load Initials of the person who took the cement sample (380. NOTE: A little cement goes a long way. Total number of batches wasted. 100 pounds (45 kg) of spilled cement will appear much larger. Use DOT-13 Form . Record the: • • • • Car or Transport Number Date it was unloaded Number of cwt. Estimate if necessary. This form is used on a daily basis. It is best to run the cutoff when the cement silo is nearly empty because the contractor will have to empty the silo. (kg) of cement specified for each batch. Use Page 1 of DOT-13 Form (Handout 18) for cement brought to the plant site. Item #10.NOTE: The engineer can use other means to check small on site plants. CEMENT CHECKS The quantity of cement used versus the quantity specified will be checked periodically by running a cutoff (380. Item #9. perform the item entries listed below: Item #6.

or it will cause too much slump. HAULING UNITS A small amount of concrete may stay inside the drums or boxes of the hauling units. Make sure that all of the wash water is out of the unit before the next batch. From time to time minor adjustments in the Design Mix will be needed to meet job conditions. and 11 (number of batches wasted times the weight per batch).’ s (kg) of cement used (number of batches used times the weight per batch). When a new batch is placed in the unit. Poor concrete will be produced when this happens.Item #12. Adjustments are normally for changes in aggregate moisture or changes in aggregate weights. Only fill in this column when making a cement check. Item #14. Perhaps there is a problem with the scales. Only fill in this column when making a cement check. To eliminate this possibility. Their accuracy could be off. This is the difference between the totals of items 14 and 15. Item #16. start doing some checking. This is the total received from item 4 of Handout 18. Use a plus (+) when item 15 is larger than item 14. Item #13. If the difference in item 16 is more than ± 1 % of the total of item 14. 8. An adjustment may be needed because of a change in the F. It also creates quite a mess! 96 .’ s (kg) of cement wasted from items 7. This concrete dries over time. NOTE: A cement check is not needed if a job has less than 5. Total cwt. clean the concrete compartment on all haul units and flush with water. Item #15. or the cement is not being batched within the ± 1% tolerance. Total of the cement from items 12 and 13. it will combine with the dried concrete.M.000 square yards (4180 m2) of paving. or the specific gravity. Total cwt.

Material (Paving. put the amount of water already in the mix. The Placement Inspector can calculate the amount of water that he may add to the batch.3 gallons per cwt. Tickets are issued to control these limits. For Masonry Concrete. This is the amount of water given by the Design Mix plus the allowable of 0. Figure 46. Put the size of the batch on the ticket. Truck Number 5. Include on the haul ticket (DOT-75 Form) the: 1. Project Number 2. (1. There may be times when different types of concrete are batched from the same plant.HAUL TICKETS There are time requirements for mixing and hauling. Plant Inspector’ s Name or Initials Complete haul tickets (DOT-75 Form) for all concrete hauled in transit mixers. etc.) 3. put the maximum amount of water in the “ Max. Date 4. In the “ Actual” blank. 97 . This will help the Inspector calculate water for additional slump. The mix design number could be placed on the haul ticket in the "Material" blank to eliminate confusion. Haul Ticket. Time Start Mix 6. Class A.135 L per 45 kg) (Policy Letter OC-20-00).” blank.

Note on the ticket the amount of free water and how much more water should be added at the job site. Put the mixing start time on the ticket. and the revolution counter reading on the ticket. Figure 47. especially as they apply to Structural Concrete and Concrete for Incidental Construction. except when the concrete temperature is 85°F (30° C) or above. concrete shall be discharged within 90 minutes. and discharged and screeded within 60 minutes after the cement 98 . and 460. Also. Put the revolution counter reading under "Revolutions. Under these conditions. the start mixing time. and discharged and screeded within 105 minutes after the cement has been placed in contact with the aggregates." Take the reading when the drum starts turning at mixing speed. Plant inspectors should review the Requirements regarding computer generated batch tickets. When not continuously agitated in the hauling unit. concrete shall be discharged within 45 minutes. do not put the water in the batch.3 G. the time limitation shall be reduced to discharged within 45 minutes. the contractor can add the water and cement at the job site. There are two things to be done when the water and cement are added on site. Use aggregate weights for the batch that will be equal to some number of full bags of cement. Agitator and Dump Trucks When continuously agitated in the hauling unit.3 G. The Placement Inspector will make any further adjustments. In this case. There are occasions when the haul from the batch plant to the job site exceeds the allowable time limit. and discharged and screeded within 60 minutes (380.The mixing time starts when the cement comes into contact with the water or wet aggregates. calibrate the water tank on the truck so the Placement Inspector can get the correct amount of water. Haul Ticket.).

a certain amount of cement paste is lost in coating the inside of the drum... only a small percentage of the total cement paste is lost..5 cu.15% cement 0 to 10 percent rated capacity .... it can be added at the construction site.... Standard specifications (380. + 141....3 G.. This loss could result in the production of low strength concrete.0 lbs. Use 10% additional cement. and 460.has been placed in contact with the aggregates.. = 1410 lbs... The size of the batch compared to the capacity of the mixer determines the amount that must be added.5% cement 20 to 40 percent rated capacity .... = 1551 lbs. PARTIAL BATCHES Whenever the concrete is mixed.5 cubic yard batch in a mixer that has a rated capacity of 7... plus the percentage that applies.5 cu.....3 D.5 cubic yards... Make a volume adjustment when additional material is added. The amount of cement required for a 2... If additional water is needed.20% cement The amount of cement to be put into a partial batch is equal to the weight of cement in the design mix. = 33% 7.... It may not be possible to determine the exact amount of extra water. The following table indicates the amount to be added: 40 to 60 percent rated capacity ...10% cement 10 to 20 percent rated capacity . Total cement for batch = 1410 lbs.)... a larger percentage of the total cement paste will be lost.....5 cubic yard batch is 1410 pounds. Adding cement for a partial batch is the one and only exception when volume adjustments are not made.. ENGLISH UNIT EXAMPLE: The contractor wants to mix a 2.....3 E. The amount of paste needed for this coating remains the same regardless of the size batch being mixed.... If a batch equal to the drum's rated capacity is being mixed.... yds. If a small batch is being mixed.. yds. times this weight of cement. Use the amount of water normally used in a batch this size.. the time limitation shall be reduced to discharged within 30 minutes (380... except when the concrete temperature is 80° F (27° C) or above..3 G.... There is a possibility that the added cement may require additional water.) provide guidance on how much extra cement is to be added for partial batches. 99 .0 lbs. Portion of rated capacity = 2..... and 460. x 10% = 141..

0 m3 = 33% . The inspector's judgment and performance will frequently determine the acceptance or rejection of thousands of dollars worth of materials. He must be watchful against materials becoming contaminated as they run low. Portion of rated capacity = 2. 6. Report any nonconformity. the inspector can ensure that the materials are of the specified quality. A daily report is required for all materials delivered. concrete. 100 . A plant inspector must know all the plant operations that could cause contamination. Total cement for batch = 640 kg x 10% = 64 kg = 640 kg + 64 kg = 704 kg SUMMARY The inspector at the plant site must understand how important it is for all materials to be uniform and be on the alert for any sudden changes in delivery.0 m3 batch is 640 kg.0 m3. or handling of materials. degradation. The amount of cement required for a 2.0 m3 batch in a mixer that has a rated capacity of 6. By the meticulous. or deterioration during storage and handling. The inspector must not permit stockpiling of aggregates in any manner that would create excessive segregation or degradation of the materials. and by the exercise of good judgment. storage.PROBLEM: Using the design mix given in Handout 8 and the rating plate shown on page 79. consistent use of the principles and tests. The plant inspector must maintain a complete diary of the daily plant operations such as the example at Handout 20.0 m3 Use 10% additional cement. what is the amount of cement needed on a 4 cubic yard batch? ________________(Answer on page 111) METRIC UNIT EXAMPLE: The contractor wants to mix a 2. and pavement.

shut the plant down and make corrections. Low entrained air is more harmful than high entrained air. If the air content does not meet specification. Check with the Project Engineer prior to paving to get their recommendation. 3. Concrete delivered to the project: a. 4. because the concrete has very little resistance to freeze-thaw cycles. Encourage the ready mix trucks to carry air-entraining agent with them. but would still be considered nonspecification material. The durability of the concrete is extremely poor. Slump: Normally. If the “ X” sample also fails. Do not allow continued use of high slump concrete. 101 . This causes workability problems for their finishers. Location of tests and the quantity represented must be documented accurately and recorded on the DOT-18. It is recommended that if air content is below 3%. the slump of the concrete is rarely allowed to be placed by the contractor when it is too low. A passing gradation sample must be obtained prior to allowing the plant to start up and continue production. 2.USE of Non-Specification Material: From time to time during construction of a project. Don’ t allow continued use of non-specification material. c. if a ready mix truck is used for transporting the concrete. 5. do not use it unless absolutely necessary. the concrete must be removed and replaced at the contractor’ s expense. some non-specification material may be incorporated into or arrive on the project. Temperature: Concrete that does not meet temperature requirements should not be used. b. Air content: Try to correct the air content prior to use. An occasional load of concrete in excess of the specified slump by an inch may be allowed. The contractor may have to stop placing concrete earlier in the day or make other compensations to cool the concrete. an “ X’ sample must be obtained and tested. The following are some “ common sense” recommendations: 1. The high slump will decrease the compressive strength of the concrete. Fill out a Report of Specification Deviation (DOT-18) for all non-specification material and non-conformance items. Aggregates – Gradation Samples: If a sample fails.

supplemental specifications. water. special provisions. The water and admixture scales are/have been checked for accuracy. The plant automatic controls and timer are/have been checked and are working properly. 5. The quality control tests for the aggregates. The site layout ensures a logical traffic pattern. The mixer blades have been checked against the manufacturer's diagram and are within wear tolerances. seals and certificates sufficient for project duration are present. 9. segregation. Tracked loaders are not being used. 3. 10. The mixer maximum volume and drum mixing speed have been checked and verified. The aggregate stockpiles are being properly built and are/have been checked for separation. and plan notes that pertain to the project are on hand. are/have been reviewed and are correct for the project. 8. safe operations.CONCRETE PLANT CHECKLIST This is a checklist of duties performed by a concrete plant inspector. and foreign material. 102 . The revolution counters on the transit mix trucks have been checked and they work properly. The plant is level on its foundation. 6. The following items contain those things that must be completed prior to producing concrete: 1. 2. This list does not contain all possible duties due to the differences in concrete plants. and proper drainage. 7. 11. seals and certificates sufficient for project duration are present. 4. but it does contain the most important duties. and admixtures are being performed or are on file. The cement and aggregate scales are/have been checked for accuracy. The design mix document is on hand. Put results of inspection on DOT-25 Form. The standard specifications. 12.

The mixing time is being checked. Certificates of Compliance are being obtained for the cement and admixtures.The following items must be checked shortly after the start of production and performed until project completion. 3. sand F. 13. Safety is a daily critical inspection item.M. 5. 10. Cement samples are being taken and sent to the Central Testing Laboratory. 7. the temperature required to heat water or the aggregates is being checked. 2. The strength of the air-entraining agent is being checked so the proper amount is being used. The hauling unit’ s cargo boxes are being checked for contamination. 4. The DOT-98A Form is being properly filled out. As necessary. The required aggregate gradation tests are being conducted and DOT 3 Forms are being completed. Cement checks are being made. 16. Additional water samples are being taken when needed. 6. Dirt balls and other foreign materials are being removed from the aggregate.. aggregate moisture content. 8. each air-entraining agent lot is being properly sampled? 15. 12. Scales are being checked for balance and sensitivity. and water. Also. The batch weights are being adjusted for changes in volume. 1. 11. Haul tickets are being issued when needed. workability. Aggregate moisture tests are being taken and correctly documented on the DOT-35 and DOT-98A Forms. 9. 103 . 14. if required.

uniformly spaced bubbles in a concrete mix to allow greater workability and more resistance to cycles of freezing and thawing. When added water and free water are summed. They must be turning continuously and at a speed fast enough to keep the concrete from segregating. into the weight of the material. Found by dividing the product of the specific gravity times the unit weight of water. the result is termed total water. Plant Inspector's Daily Report. is that actual amount of water introduced into the mix at the plant in order to obtain the desired consistency. The sand and gravel or crushed rock used in making concrete. Any soluble mineral salt or mixture of salts found in soils and capable of neutralizing acids. Those admixtures used to deliberately produce very small. Added water Added water as referred to on DOT-98A. Liquid or solid material added to a concrete mix to improve one or more characteristics of the concrete. Aggregates are porous solid particles. Absorbed moisture The amount of water needed to fill the permeable pores (Absorption) inside the aggregates.Vocabulary Absolute volume The least amount of space a material would occupy if it were solid and contained no voids. They are the principle basis for determining the acceptability of project materials and construction and assure compliance with specifications. Admixture Aggregates Agitators Air entraining admixtures Alkali Ambient 104 . Acceptance Acceptance samples and tests include the samples and Samples tests used for determining the acceptability of the materials and Tests and workmanship that have been or are being incorporated into the project work. Blades used to keep the concrete mixed during delivery to a project site. Accelerators Admixtures used to speed up the strength development of concrete at an early age.

a cement containing not more than 0. Automatic controls Controls on a concrete paving batch plant. theoretical amount of cement used. Cement shipped to the project is compared against the theoretical amount used through the plant. Batcher Batching Bins Bituminous coal Bleeding Carbon Cement check Cement content or cement factor Cement. and in the United States. preferably expressed as weight. soft coal. An operating installation of equipment including batchers and mixers as required for batching or for batching and mixing concrete materials. Weighing or volumetrically measuring materials for a batch of concrete. They perform specific functions automatically when weighing aggregates and cement. A device used for measuring materials for a batch of concrete.6 percent NA2O equivalent. and stone . The migration of water to the top surface of freshly placed concrete caused by the settlement of solid materials cement.temperature The temperature on all sides. Plant wastes are also accounted for. Batch Batch plant Amount of material that is to be mixed at one time. Containers used for storing aggregates. Low alkali 105 . A Portland cement that contains a relatively small amount of sodium or potassium or both. A nonmetallic chemical element found in many inorganic and all organic compounds. Quantity of cement contained in a unit volume of concrete or mortar. Verification of actual cement used vs.within the mass. It is also referred to as mixing plant when mixing equipment is included. sand. Coal that yields pitch or tar when it burns.

and Plants Refer to Materials Manual. Portland Portland cements are hydraulic cements consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates. a certified statement by a qualified agency attesting to the accuracy of equipment they have checked and/or adjusted. Central Materials Surfacing Laboratory. Coarse aggregate Concrete 106 . Required Samples. and various admixtures blended together in specific proportions." Aggregates with particles predominantly larger than 0. A "high early strength" Portland Cement used when rapid strength is needed. As referred to in this manual. aggregates of a specific graduation. “ 5-11 Certified Fabricators. Hydraulic cements set and harden by reacting chemically with water.Cement. Concrete which is completely mixed in a stationary mixer from which it is transported to the job site. and Certificates Section. date of calibration. Tests. Mills. 4 sieve) (4. The certificate should show the serial number of equipment. Required Samples. Cement Type I A general purpose Portland Cement suitable for all uses where the special properties of other types are not required.10 Certificates" for a complete definition and operational procedures. A Portland Cement that is used when moderate sulfate resistance or moderate heat of hydration is desired. Cement Type II Cement Type III Central Mixed Concrete Central Testing Lab Certificate of Calibration As referred to in this manual. concrete is a construction material comprised of Portland Cement. Mills and Plants. be signed by a representative of the agency and indicate the accuracy witnessed.2 inches (No. "5.75 mm). Tests and Certificates Section. water. Certificate of Compliance Certified Fabricators. Refer to Materials Manual.

4 sieve (4. FM is an index of the fineness of an aggregate. The concrete mixture developed at the central testing laboratory. 107 Conveyor Curing Design mix Dissolved solids Drum Expanded shale Fine aggregates Fineness Modulus (FM) Flash set Fly ash Free moisture . It is also called free water.Contractor An independent person or firm who has signed a legal agreement to perform work that meets standards specified by that agreement.75 mm). The impurities dispersed in water used for mixing concrete. Maintenance of humidity and temperature of freshly placed concrete during some definite period following placing. When excessive. When concrete sets up almost immediately after the mixing action has been completed. A lightweight aggregate. A concrete mixture that has good workability. The higher the FM. Aggregate particles smaller than No. Slump is lost nearly instantaneously. leaving no time to place and finish concrete. and usually has some water reducing qualities. aggregates. The flow is uniform. using a process by which one arrives at the right combination of cement. expressed as PPM (Parts Per Million). A mechanical device used to transfer the materials used to make concrete. A mineral admixture which improves the workability of concrete mixes deficient in the finer sand particles. and admixture for making concrete that will conform to a given specification. strength. the coarser the aggregate. strength. and other properties of concrete. but larger than No. The part of a mixer where batched materials are mixed into concrete. Amount of moisture in the aggregates above the amount needed for absorbed moisture and considered to be part of the mixing water in concrete. water. and durability. casting or finishing to assure satisfactory hydration of the cementious materials and proper hardening of the concrete. 200 sieve (75 mm). they may affect setting time.

time of delivery. A machine used for blending the constituents of concrete. mixer revolutions and rate. As referred to in this manual. batch size. allowable and actual water. As referred to in this manual. and inspector's initials. they may be used to control mixing time and rate. grout. Portland Cement Concrete produced in conformance with mix designs for general construction use. The amount of moisture in the aggregate consisting of absorbed moisture plus free moisture. date. 108 Graduations Haul Ticket Hauling unit Hydration Injurious Inspector Lignite coal Masonry concrete Mixer Mixing plant Moisture content .Gradation The grading is the particle size distribution of an aggregate as determined by a sieve analysis and expressed as the percentage of material passing each sieve. Harmful or damaging. The authorized representative assigned to make detailed inspections of contract performance. mortar. or other mixture. this term is used when speaking of Class A concrete construction applications. brownish-black coal in which the texture of the original wood can still be seen. type of material. A soft. normally the DOT-75 Form. graduations are the increments marked on scales that determine the accuracy to which material can be weighed. amount of water added and provide a ready means of determining approximate quantities when required. As referred to in this manual. time mixing started and time of discharge. Tickets used to control various specifications. The unit used to carry batches of concrete. Other information may include location of placement. The chemical reaction of cement and water to form a rocklike mass. Generally. running total of quantity and special remarks by the inspector. Information normally shown on a ticket includes project number. truck number. See Batch Plant.

(See Central Mixed Concrete and Transit Mixed Concrete. Generally.) Breaking down a sample to make it a more acceptable size for testing. All grains of sand or pieces of gravel or stone are encased and held in suspension. and contract documents. as required by the Standard Specifications.Moisture testing Testing of a sample by various methods to determine the amount of moisture present. Portland Cement Concrete produced in conformance with mix designs for use in flat work. 109 Partial batch Paving concrete Pit Plans Plastic concrete Pozzolan Quality control Ready mixed concrete Sample splitting . Concrete that is proportioned and mixed off the project site and delivered to the construction area in a plastic and unhardened state. profiles. The contract drawings and notes which show the location. character. and dimensions of the prescribed work. this term is used when speaking of specific mix designs for individual paving contracts involving slipform operations. As referred to in this manual. System for insuring quality of output involving inspection. the pit area is salvaged of topsoil. That concrete which is pliable and capable of being molded or shaped like a lump of modeling clay. but flows sluggishly without segregation. A volcanic rock. Sometimes added in addition to or as a partial replacement of cement to aid in workability and resistance to sulfate attack and alkali reactivity. A batch size smaller than 60% of the rated capacity of the mixer or agitator. including layouts. mined and reclaimed after use. An area of land designated for use in the securement of construction materials. Additional cement must be added to partial batches. cross sections. powdered and used in making a hydraulic cement. Typically. This concrete does not crumble. and action to make required changes. analysis. to account for cement paste lost to coating the inside of the drum.

) A device used to weigh samples. and requirements pertaining to performance of the work. Concrete used to carry structural load or to form an integral part of a structure. The amount by which the slump of freshly mixed concrete changes during a period of time after an initial slump test was made on a sample. A fast method of determining the amount of moisture in a sample using a gas pressure method as outlined in the Materials Manual for the test number SD 108. A woven wire cloth mounted in a suitable frame or holder for use in separating material according to size. contamination.Sampling Collecting an amount of material for testing to make sure that it meets specifications. (See also Absorbed Moisture. Saturated surface dry Scale Sieve Slipform paving Slump Slump loss Special provisions Specifications Specific gravity Speedy Moisture Test Stockpile Structure concrete 110 . A measure of consistency of freshly mixed concrete. in simple terms. Condition of an aggregate particle or other porous solid When the permeable voids are filled with water and no water is on the exposed surfaces. Special precautions are taken to avoid segregation. This is how many times "heavier" than water the material is. A general term applied to all directions. a carefully constructed pile of aggregate for project use. eliminating the need for stationary forms. A form is pulled or raised as concrete is placed. provisions. a ratio found by dividing the weight of a volume of water into the weight of an equal volume of solid material. As referred to in this manual. Additions and revisions to the standard and supplemental specifications applicable to an individual project. Construction method used to spread and finish concrete in one operation. For the purposes of this manual. or other detrimental effects to the pile.

expressed as PPM (Parts Per Million). Materials that are mixed on the way to the job site in a truck mixer. Run tests on samples to insure that they meet specifications. Approved additions and revisions to the standard specifications. The weight of water divided by the weight of cement. strength. Meters that measure mixing water. The ratio of total water to the total cement in the mix. the hauling unit that conveys cement to the project. The amount of water used for mixing concrete exclusive only of that absorbed by the aggregates. In general. As referred to in this manual. concrete of a specified consistency can be produced with a reduced water-cement ratio when utilizing water-reducing admixtures. A material that reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a certain slump or increase slump without increasing water appreciably. Impurities in mixing water that contribute to turbidity. They must measure water with a tolerance of plus or minus 1 percent. The ease of placing. and other properties. Excessive suspended solids in concrete mix water may affect setting time. consolidating. and finishing freshly mixed concrete. Testing Total water Transit mixed concrete Transport Water-cement ratio Water meters Water reducing admixtures Workability 111 .Sulfates Supplemental specifications Suspended solid Salts of sulfuric acids.

785 L tc = (tf – 32)/ 1. M3 gal x yd3 x 3.4536 kg 1 inch = 2. ft./gal 1 kg/L 62.28 cu. 1 m3 = 35.ft. = 0.ft.4536 kg = _____kg ft3 1 m3 lb.32 ft3 x 0.31 ft x 0.000 g 1 lb.59328 = ____kg Yd3 m3 lb x 35.308 cu.54 cm 1 gal = 3.000 mm 1 m = 100 cm 1 kg = 1. 1 m3 = 1.43 lb. = 27 cu. 1 m = 3.4536 = ____kg 3 3 3 Yd 27 ft 1m lb.35 g 1 cu. yd.785 L x 35.000 kg/m3 Direct: 1 oz = 28.TABLE OF CONVERSION FACTORS Water Weight: 8. ft. M3 TEMP: COMPLEX: Simplifies to: lb x 0./cu.34 lb.31 ft3 = ______L yd3 27 ft3 1 gal 1 m3 m3 112 . 1. 1 m = 1.8 3 3 lb x 1 yd x 35. yd.31 cu.

M. (3188 kg) 250 lbs.7 R.14 Increase of 14.4 lbs. 1315 lbs. (2537 kg) Rock = 11844 lbs. (1064 kg) Water = 1750 lbs.5” (50 mm) 1.0% Rock = 0.7 lbs. Rock = 1902 lbs Rock = 1128 kg Rock = 1738 lbs. (156 kg) (30 gal.) (114 L) Water = 243. Rock = 1029.Answers To Problems Page 29 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 41 Page 42 Page 46 Page 48 Sample Size = 22 lbs. (2. (10 kg) Opening Size = 1.8 gal.3% Class A-45 Mix = 6.0% Yes 3. (779 kg) Sand = 1.55 cwt.05 kg Sand = 1303 lbs. (3 kg) Cement = 3948 lbs. 2751 lbs.5% Paving Mix = 5.6 degrees F or 55ºF 8 cu yds.75 4. (470 kg) (209. Water = 144.6 kg) 2. Sand = 773.64 cwt.1 kg Page 53 Page 54 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 63 Page 82 Page 97 113 .8 kg 54.) (470 L) Sand = 9422 lbs. 4 to 9.P.