Freudenberg Group

Freudenberg Group

Basics for preventing damage
30 DE 252 3.5 0408 Trurnit/Bosch Druck, Landshut

Erich Prem · Rolf Vogt

The Simmerring
Reliability right from the beginning


Basics for preventing damage

The Simmerring®

Yo u r Te c h n o l o g y S p e c i a l i s t

Yo u r Te c h n o l o g y S p e c i a l i s t

The Simmerring® Reliability right from the beginning

Basics for preventing damage

Erich Prem • Rolf Vogt

The Simmerring
Reliability right from the beginning


Basics for preventing damage

1. Reliable sealing 2. Shaft surfaces
Requirements and working forms

© Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG reserves all rights, especially copyright and the registration of industrial property rights. Please observe that this document contains company secrets and any reproduction or dissemination to third parties may only occur through us. Protective charge: 10.00 Euro


© Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG

Simrit and the Simmerring – A 75 year success story
parameters. The complex interplay of sealing component, rotating shaft and lubricant not only present the engineers and technicians at Simrit with great challenges, they also present particular challenges to the user. Many instances of damage and dysfunction arise simply due to incorrect or at least improper handling of the Simmerring during installation. This book will help to clarify the technical possibilities of the Simmerring component and its function in the "tribological system". In this way, production losses caused by improper handling or its suboptimal application can be avoided. In the first part, possible causes of failure will be discussed and detailed examples of damage will be presented. In the second part, the requirements placed on the shaft surface will be looked at in depth and how the current surface treatment processes are suited to the interplay with the sealing component will be shown. Over 75 years ago, Walther Simmer developed the Simmerring at Freudenberg in Weinheim on Bergstrasse. Over the last 75 years, the sealing component has been continuously improved and optimised for new application areas. The resulting wealth of experience at Simrit is unique and makes this a book from the experts.

Erich Prem Product Development Industry

Dipl.-Ing. Rolf Vogt Manager Product Development Industry

The Simmerring is a universal sealing component. Its applications range from agricultural and construction machinery, to two and four stroke engines in chain saws and motorcycles, as well as hydrostatic drives in machine engineering to washing machines and wind power plants. Simmerrings have the combined role of sealing a rotating shaft and a housing from oil loss and preventing the intrusion of moisture and dirt. To do this, the sealing ring, lubricant and the shaft surface must be precisely matched to each other. Because both lubricants as well as shaft surfaces come in countless designs, the interplay of the Simmerring with these components is determined by a multitude of

© Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG


KG 7 . Shaft surfaces Requirements and working forms Shaft surface requirements Surface treatment process Leading test Summary 40 41 53 55 56 Supplementary literature © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. Reliable sealing How a Simmerring functions Leakage definition Analysis of leakage causes Damage scenarios Handling and installation Troubleshooting Summary 10 11 13 18 25 31 37 2.Contents 1.


Reliable Sealing .1.

a component is created that works like a microscopic pump. such as I I I I Irregularities in the shaft topology Shaft eccentricities Housing misalignment Skewed installation in the housing (wobble).Reliable sealing How a Simmerring functions The sealing effect of a Simmerring is based on a simple yet ingenious principle: Through an intelligent interplay of geometry. 1: Simmerring in the tribological system Contact width Gap height Dust lip Shaft surface shear Lubricant Grease filling Access of air Sealing zone temperature 10 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. It is also capable of delivering microscopically small leakages back into the space to be sealed. Contact pressure Fig. it can also transport contamination particles as well. Meniscus Gas or fluid entry Seal gap Sealing edge Lubricant entry Conveyance effect Fig. 2: Active principle of a Simmerring (schematic) It is exactly this „defined“ leakage that is necessary for a Simmerring to achieve sufficient lubrication and thus a long operating life. material and manufacturing process. This "micropump" not only transports fluids or gases under the sealing edge. KG . This phenomenal characteristic is the reason why even the most varied types of seal disturbance variables can be compensated for to a certain extent (depending on the specifications of the seal disturbance variables).

For further information. Short-term leakage Short-term fault of the sealing system. leakage terms. KG . A certain amount of leakage is advantageous for a good long-term seal but is usually no longer tolerated by today's users. This collected and measured amount of media from the test-rig experiment is defined as the leakage. originating from the back face of the seal. particularly in the sealing edge caused by excessive thermal load during operation 11 Measurable leakage Detectable. however. The following definitions should assist: continue to increase with increasing running time in approx. the lack of tightness is determined by the amount of the sealed fluid . The cause of measurable leakages can be: I Various elongations of seal and housing on the static side for non-compliance with tolerances I Material tears. cause. Apparent-leakage Moist In the case of normal operating conditions.over and above any moistness which may occur in normal operating conditions – which gets past the sealing edge and can be collected and measured. small rivulet on the outside of the seal housing. when the seal is run for a definite time on a test-rig. classification Using standard test conditions. it is not always easy to clearly classify the leakage of a radial shaft ring. g.Leakage definition Leakage definition: the standard. Wet A film of moisture exceeding beyond the back face with drop formation but not yet dripping. 1 g/day). read DIN 3760 or DIN 3761 respectively as well as from ISO 6194. In practice. 20 % of leaking radial shaft seals). g. Sealed No detectable moisture at the seal. in which release procedures in conjunction with leakage classes are described (supplementary literature 11). 80 % of the cases. Temporary leakage that is usually traced back to over-greasing between sealing lip and dust lip. these © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. e. does not exceed the back face of the seal. a film of moisture present on the sealing edge area which. caused by small dirt particles under the sealing edge which are removed during further operation (affects approx. If radial shaft seals clearly exhibit leakages (e.

Deviating test conditions are to be agreed upon. the so-called zero-leakage with testrig tests of 240 h with 12 specimens can be arranged for release for construction. which cannot be followed by the sealing lip I Permanent ingress of contamination on the sealing lip from the inside or outside which results in premature wear to the sealing lip I Premature wear of the sealing lip through non-compliance with regulations for the design of the running surface on the shaft (see page 15: The shaft) I Damage to the sealing edge during transport. but no dripping occurs In tests on assemblies and vehicles. failure during the operation or at the end of the part's sealing lifespan. In addition. the leakage classes according to table 1 are to be used. no formation of droplets I Film of moisture passing beyond the back face and/or formation of droplets. max. permissible leakage per 12 radial shaft seals 3g 6g 12 g Table 1: Leakage classes 1 2 3 12 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. Classification of occurring leakages For monitoring production parts according to DIN 3761. handling or installation Leakage class max. film of moisture at the sealing edge only I Film of moisture over the sealing edge area but not passing beyond the back face. KG . zeroleakage defines that state of the radial shaft seal during static and dynamic conditions where the sealed medium does not leak beyond the outer side of the radial shaft seal.Leakage definition I Hardening of the elastomer caused by excessive thermal/mechanical load and/or incompatibility with the medium to be sealed I Softening of the elastomer as a result of swelling from the medium to be sealed leading to premature wear of the seal I Corrosion of the shaft underneath the sealing edge and permanent malfunction of the sealing system I Failure of the lubricant with dry running and rapid lip wear as the consequence I Ageing of the pairing elastomer – medium to be sealed I Formation of "oil carbon" in the sealing edge area which floats up resulting in the malfunctioning of the sealing system I Vibrations in equipment assembly and shaft. premature failure. permissible leakage per radial shaft seal 1g 2g 3g These causes are to be analysed and appraised depending on the running time as early failure. These zero-leakages can be subdivided according to the following criteria: I In the course of normal operating conditions. or for critical installation locations with special safety requirements.

It can be Fig. KG 13 .000 km) in detail. Upon examining prematurely failing radial shaft seals (with < 100 operating hours or an operational performance < 10.Leakage causes Analysis of leakage causes: Static and dynamic leakage Two kinds of leakage are distinguished with radial shaft seals: Static leakage. failure can be subdivided in the following way: I 30 % attributable to an improper shaft preparation method [see chapter shaft treatment/handling] I 30 % attributable to an improper installation I 10 % attributable to a faulty seal [damage symptoms DIN 3761. and dynamic leakage. which is possible on the press fit and on the sealing lip. 3: Possible causes of failure for radial shaft seals © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. It is important that seal and aggregate manufacturers as well as users are co-operative and that they proceed systematically with the fault analysis. part 5] I 15 % attributable to apparent-leakage/ premature leakage I 15 % attributable to other causes such as lubricant incompatibility/excessive temperatures/vibrations/contaminants Most failures can be avoided through corresponding installation training or consulting with regards to the correct shaft surface preparation method. which only occurs on the sealing lip.

Static leakage at the press-fit I The housing bore is too rough which is especially critical in Simmerring B1 seal designs.Leakage causes more difficult to determine the causes of leakage from seals that have already been in operation over a longer period of time (months/years or e. The interplay of multiple factors normally leads to leakage. The following describes the most important causes of leakage and the corresponding corrective measures in more detail: I Sharp-edged chamfer area and/or too steep a chamfer angle on the housing bore I Simmerring B1: develops longitudinal furrows I Simmerring BA: elastomer can be sheared off Static leakage at the sealing lip I Shaft is too rough. Nominal: Rmax < 6. 3. the causes of failure can be systematically narrowed down. KG . There are a number of influencing parameters and whose interplay can affect the medium-term and long-term sealing effect of a radial shaft seal. the cause of failure can be directly seen on the seal and the shaft. I Damage to the sealing lip caused by sharp-edged chamfer or feathered key groove on the shaft in the sealing lip area I For radial shaft seals with return pumping action (single or alternating leading). 80 % of the cases. 3. these imponderables can increase the leakage. but above all to receive the actual seal and shaft themselves for damage analysis. I Chamfer at the shaft is too small or too steep so that the sealing lip can tip over or turn under and the spring can come off [compare Fig. Using this diagram.3 bar ) so that it only lies on the helix (with nonventilated housings) I Shaft diameter is too small and/or the housing misalignment is too great. g. the sealing lip can be so greatly released (already at pressures > 0. The chart [see Fig.3-16 µm for B1 design (metallic outer case) Rmax < 10 -25 µm for BA design (rubber coated outer case) 14 Dynamic leakage at the sealing lip Dynamically caused leakages at the sealing lip occur much more frequently than static which summarises the most important information required for processing a damage claim. The most important influencing parameters are: © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. You can find the "technical data analysis" form sheet at www. In approx.000 km). page 13] Comment: In dynamic operation of radial shaft seals. It is important to know that there is almost never only one cause of a leak.simrit. page 13] has proven itself as a sensible analysis instrument for determining the cause of damage. It is therefore without a doubt of great advantage for the seal manufacturer to be able to get all the relevant information on each failure. > 100. possibly with longitudinal furrows caused by the insertion of a bearing. Hence the causes are also more complex.

31. Measuring these damaging helical structures is not easy.Leakage causes The shaft I Sharp introduced chamfering. 10]. which significantly alter the seal itself or simply blister during operation leaving holes behind. I Oil carbon directly on the sealing edge of the radial shaft seal due to thermal overloading of the lubricant. 15 . g.3 µm These roughness values ensure minimal sealing edge wear of the radial seal shaft independently from the machining method and normally independent of the operating conditions. The shaft surface topology in particular must be given complete attention. But not all structures can be easily measured using this method. 63. developing into hardened accumulations with the result being that even the slightest axial movements of the shaft cause excessive seal lip wear.0. caused by a bearing that was drawn onto the shaft [compare Fig. caused for example by high circumferential shaft speeds.8 µm I Rz 1 . I Radial shaft seals not being lubricated sufficiently despite sufficient supply of lubricant and thus wearing faster. The lubricants Not all lubricants can be easily sealed. these surface structures can nowadays be precisely detected and thus the relevant grinding © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.05 mm are permissible) I Too smooth or too rough a shaft surface which can lead to high seal lip wear I An undefined leading of the shaft [compare Fig. These deposits can cause tears in the sealing edge. incorrect lubricant or seal selection. scratches. Using new measuring methods. KG process parameters can be selectively modified [Supplementary literature 7. 9. poor lubrication of the sealing edge. the interaction of the individual additives with each other and the unavoidable interactions with the elastomer of the radial shaft seal can lead to: I Radial shaft seals being chemically attacked especially at the sealing edge (Formation of bubbles and filler metal erosion occurrences or even depolymerisation). The complex makeup of the lubricants. In practice.5 µm I Rmax < 6. e. The following roughness values must be adhered to: I Ra 0.2 . Shaft surfaces created through plunge-cut grinding very often exhibit helical structures that can lead to leakages within just a few rotations of the shaft. the "thread method" is a proven method. page 23] I Blow holes in the running track area of the radial shaft seal (pores with a diameter < 0. I Lubrication additives being deposited at the shaft in the immediate vicinity of the sealing lip. page 53] can lead to radial shaft seal failure in a very short amount of time. This phenomenon can occur especially with synthetic lubricants based on polyalphaolefin or polyglycol. insufficient heat dissipation.

Depending on the circumferential speeds. KG . The particles can be drawn into the sealing gap. It is not so much the contamination present in the inner part of every aggregate (form sand. an incorrect seal selection or critical operating conditions are often responsible for the malfunction. The results are an increased seal lip wear and reduced running times. Pressure When aggregates are not ventilated. the radial shaft seal can also be © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. lubricant. The pressure increases the seal lip contact pressure. wear debris from rotating parts). but rather the external contamination stirred up in the proximity of the seal. it can cause the seal lip to loosen enough so that the lubricant can pass through the seal gap and reach the surrounding area unhindered. oil sump temperature. lubricant supply and seal concept. 4: Housing and shaft design Operating conditions and environmental effects When early failure of radial seal rings occurs. loading of the elastomer and the lubricant as well as the mechanical load increase. accumulate there and may eventually end up underneath the sealing edge.Leakage causes Edge rounded 15°–25° Edge rounded and polished 15°–25° Fig. Not only does the wear of the seal lip and shaft (shaft running-in) increase. the sealing edge temperature can be from 20 °C to 40 °C above the oil sump temperature and in extreme cases even 60 °C (!) above the oil sump temperature. Contamination Many radial shaft seals fail due to contamination. a pressure build-up in the housing can occur due to thermal expansion and the continuous air conveyance of the radial shaft seal ("micropump"). Temperature The temperatures directly at the sealing edge of a radial shaft seal are often underestimated. even if they have survived the first hours of operation trouble-free. A few practical examples should make this clear. The thermal 16 The radial shaft seal itself Naturally.

surface damage. adhesions. tribo-oxidation I Precise concentricity I Cost-efficient manufacturing I Utilisation through the medium I Good heat dissipation Fig. The radial shaft seal is pulled onto a glass mandrel. 30 % of all early failures are caused by an improper installation [See pages 38 ff. which has the nominal diameter of the shaft and the sealing edges system is tested. scratches I Roughness Rmax Rz Ra Rp I Shaft surface topography: Grinding. Assuming the correct material selection and the corresponding profile design are correct. for more information. An important aid is the testing of the sealing edge footprint on a glass mandrel. A positive test run in the laboratory usually confirms the assumption that the seal itself is in a faultless state so that the cause of the failure generally focuses on two points: I On the shaft or its surface structure. finish rolling. the possibility of a self-caused leak by the radial shaft seal itself is quite low. it is almost exclusively inhomogenities on the sealing edge that cause a leakage. I Approx. 5: Shaft design requirements as counter direction point of the Simmerring © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. pores. This can generate leakages very rapidly. part 7. machining in hardened material I Leading freedom I Sufficient corrosion protection I Wear-resistance: Abrasion. If the footprint of the sealing edge on the glass mandrel is homogenous and is closed completely. Claims are often made for leaking radial shaft seals on which there are no noticeable irregularities and which are practically in a new state.Leakage causes responsible for the leakages. KG 17 .] I No damage. Such inhomogeneities can be caused by: I An instable manufacturing process I Materials inhomogeneities (manufacture-related) I Agglomerisation of fillers I Tool contamination I Improper handling after forming (among others things) Further features that should not be present on radial shaft seals are mentioned in from the DIN 3761.

6: Design of a Simmerring There must not be any loose or firmly attached particles on the sealing edge 18 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. Static part. outside diameter chamfer Back face Metal insert Inner lining Front side Dust lip Spring Spring retaining lip Front side contact surface Back abutment contact surface Membrane Sealing edge Sealing edge: Pre pressed Trimmed bi directional helix Uni directional helix The sealing edge must be completely closed. The lead impression must be clean as well Fig. With their help.Damage scenarios Damage scenarios: Examples of damage The damage scenarios show examples of the most important causes of leakage that lead to the failure of the radial shaft seal. it is possible to narrow down the causes of leakage in each case. KG .

0. The gap height amounts to approx. strongly adhesive oil carbon deposits on the sealing edge Fig. The results are oil carbonisation on the sealing edge and/or thermally-related tear formation in the elastomer. KG 19 . 10: Extremely strong.3 mm. the lubricant "cracks" and/or the elastomer is thermally damaged. 1 µm. 7: Deposits in the leading area Fig. 12: Advanced oil carbonisation and tear formation on the sealing edge © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.Damage scenarios Damage caused by thermal overload The sealing edge of new Simmerrings has a contact width of approx. Fig. 9: Oil carbonisation beginning in the sealing edge area Fig. 80 % of this is transferred to the shaft. If this heat is not well dissipated. Approx. Heat caused by friction is created in this narrow gap. 11: Oil carbonisation and tear formation beginning on the sealing edge Fig. 8: Tears in the sealing edge Fig.

It must always be observed that the sealing edge temperature in conjunction with the shearing of the lubricant under the sealing edge can significantly accelerate damaging interplay. 18: Formation of blisters/deposits on the back face of the radial shaft seal 20 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. 14: Chemical interplay between elastomer and medium as a result of deposits on the running surface Fig. KG . Fig. It is the additives that have more of an effect. The base oil has less to do with the interplay with the elastomers. 16: Strong oil carbon deposits with circumferential grooving in the sealing edge area Fig.Damage scenarios Damage due to chemical-physical interplay Not all lubricants are compatible with the seal materials. 13: Strong chemical filler metal erosion of the sealing edge Fig. These can attack the seal material already at 60 – 80 °C. 15: Blister formation through chemical interplay Fig. 17: Abrasion/bronze and decomposition products from the lubricant in the sealing edge area Fig.

21: Metallic deposits on the running surface Fig. form sand Fig. 24: Contamination particles between sealing lip and dust lip caused by improper storage of the seal © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. g. 19: Excessive seal edge wear with circumferential groove formation in the running surface Fig. care must be taken so that no contaminating particles of any kind are located on the sealing edge since these can quickly lead to leakages. However. 20: Contamination between sealing edge and dust lip. Even during installation. Depending on the application case. 22: Contamination over the entire sealing edge area Fig. they react very sensitively to contamination in the sealing edge area. 23: Metal shavings and lint on the dust lip caused during greasing of the radial shaft seals Fig. among other problems. Fig. e. corresponding buffer elements such as dust lips. spring plates or labyrinth seals must be installed. radial shaft seals are robust sealing components and can easily compensate for many disturbance variables.Damage scenarios Damage due to contamination True. KG 21 .

3 bar or if abrasive particles from inside (wear from gear wheels or worm gears. 28: Groove formation as a result of increased pressure at the aggregate Fig.Damage scenarios Damage due to excessive wear Radial shaft seals wear extensively if there is partial dry running of the seal. sand. dust or similar) get under the sealing edge. 27: Excessive wear due to poor lubrication Fig. form sand or similar) or from the outside (water. if the housing inner pressure takes on a value of > 0. Fig. KG . 25: Groove formation with significant discolouration of the contact surface – air side Fig. 29: Excessive wear of the sealing edge caused by excessive pressure being applied 22 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. 26: Excessive sealing edge wear due to high pressure applied in conjunction with poor lubrication Fig.

Fig. 32: Sealing edge damage caused by blind installation over a spline shaft Fig. assembly via grooves and gear teeth and inadequate fitting tools are first on the list.Damage scenarios Mechanical damage Radial shaft seals react very sensitively to mechanical damage which occur almost exclusively during handling and installation. KG 23 . Sharp edges on shaft or housing chamfers. 33: Damage to the shaft surface due to improper handling © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. 31: Sealing edge damage due to the use of improper fitting tools Fig. 30: Sealing edge damage caused by sharp-edged grooves Fig.

cleanly shouldered and has running width < 0. This can. 35: Optimally greased Simmerring Fig. What happens quite often is that the user applies too much grease to the area between sealing lip and dust lip. Fig. The sealing edge is free from deposits. 34: Excessive greasing can lead to apparent leakages Fig.Damage scenarios Case study Disappointing early failures are frequently associated with "apparent-leakage". 36: Optimal sealing edge of a Simmerring after 1000 operating hours.5 mm 24 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. depending on the operating conditions. KG . lose its consistency in a very short amount of time and it oils out and thus causes an apparent leakage.

At first glance. Therefore. Even the tiniest amount of sealing edge damage can lead to a premature failure of the radial shaft seal. Storing Simmerrings Simmerrings should be stored under the following conditions: Temperatures > –10 °C to 25 °C maximum Humidity < 65 % No direct light No direct sunlight Adequate packaging Warehouses must not use ozone-emitting equipment The storage time for Simmerrings manufactured from NBR.Handling and installation Handling and installation: Practical handling and tips The effects of improper installation of a radial shaft seal are frequently underestimated by the user. that: I Attention is paid to damaged packaging I Simmerrings are left in their original packaging as long as possible prior to installation I The Simmerrings are protected from dust and dirt I The Simmerrings do not come into contact with sharp objects like metal shavings (even fingernails!) or sharp edges of the fitting tools or shaft and housing chamfers I That greased Simmerrings are stored closed or covered I The amount of grease between sealing edge and dust lip amounts to a maximum of 40 % of the volume (otherwise "apparent leakages" may occur) I The Simmerrings are greased in a defined manner (amount. The operating lifespan is also already determined during the installation. it is important. Fig. many appear trivial but the ramifications could be severe. VMQ should not exceed 7 years. cleanliness) I The sealing edge preferably only comes in contact with the lubricant that will later be © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. ACM. KG used for sealing (starting aid with insufficient lubrication) Check in the housing and shaft design that the insertion chamfer (angle and length) are absolutely free of burrs according to the guidelines [cf. Many unfortunate customer complaints could be avoided if preventative measures like installation training or internal auditing were performed more frequently [Supplementary literature 6]. 5. I I I I I I 25 . The storage time for Simmerrings manufactured from FKM. placement. Requirements for a proper installation There are numerous possible imperfections. HNBR should not exceed 5 years. page 17]. The storage time may be extended after a corresponding test by a maximum of 3 years for the former and 5 years for the latter [for further information see DIN 7716]. for example.

When using adhesive to glue the seal into the housing. it is essential that no adhesive gets onto the shaft or onto the sealing lip. KG . Attention: Diameter of the metallic stop must be 5 mm to 10 mm larger than the outer diameter of the Simmerring Fig. There is the risk that the seal can be deformed when an excessive punctual stress occurs during the fitting. 41: Permissible hammer fitting Attention: Fitting plate must be used! Fig. 39: Not this way please! Seal inserted at an angle Fig. 37: Fitting with hydraulic or pneumatic press die.Handling and installation Hammer fitting For hammer fitting (used frequently for large Simmerrings) a mounting plate is used. Fig. 40: Not this way please! Too small diameter of the press die Fig. 42: Not this way please! Incorrect hammer fitting 26 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.5 mm smaller than the inside diameter of the Simmerring. 38: Fitting back face forward Attention: Outer diameter of the fitting mandrel approx. 0. Ask us if needed Fig.

it is recommended that the seal not be fitted in one press but rather that the seal be allowed to release completely for approx. the sealing lip must not come into contact with sharp-edged chamfers. I An inclination of more than 0.25 mm Da 60 mm a = 0. grooves or similar since early failures are otherwise certain to happen. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. edges.52 mm Da 100 mm a = 0. 1 s at approx.5° should be avoided with standard parts.87 mm I During the fitting.Handling and installation Fitting tool The fitting tools used must exactly match the respective Simmerring as otherwise there is the risk of irreparable damage. Fitting collars must also exhibit no excessively rough surfaces or scratches. the fitting speed of 100 to 500 mm/min for Simmerrings with a rubberised static part and 1000 mm/min for Simmerrings with a metallic static part must not be exceeded. 43: Fitting over a spline shaft (tongue and groove linking) (also for sharp-edged shaft section) Fitting notes If the fitting is performed using a pneumatic or hydraulic press. 44: The permitted tangential deviation in the housing depends on the seal type and the shaft diameter 27 . Fig. Make sure that: I The Simmerring is not inserted at an angle I The Simmerring does not become deformed I The Simmerring does not spring back too far I The Simmering is precisely fixed in the bore To minimise the spring back and tangential deviation of rubberised Simmerrings. The Simmerring should preferably be pressed into the housing using hydraulic or pneumatic assembly equipment. 1 mm from the end position and then softly position the seal. Examples: Da 30 mm a = 0. KG Fig.

Handling and installation I When fitting an aggregate part with a pre assembled Simmerring. Fig. 2. The functioning of the Simmerring is not affected by this reduction. the diameter of the running surface is to be reduced by 0. Measures for this are the installation of spacer rings. e. The fitting procedure as follows should be adhered to: 1. I Since elastomers have a reversible behaviour. Wet the slip ring lightly with oil or grease. the exchange of shaft Sleeves or the selection of a different press-in depth in the bore [see Fig. a centering bolt should be used to prevent tilting and thus damage to the sealing lip.5 µm (turned surface is sufficient) through the slip ring of the cassette. the sealing lips can be easily stretched during the short installation time. Push the shaft (diameter tolerance h8 or smaller) with roughness values Rmax < 10 µm and Ra < 1. bearings with a press fit and the same nominal diameter.30 mm for shaft diameters >150 mm in order to prevent damage. 3. KG 28 . Replacing Simmerrings The following information should be observed: I New Simmerrings must be installed for a repair or overhaul of an aggregate. Press the cassette into the housing (as for a normal Simmerring). © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. g. I The sealing lip of the new Simmerring must not be located on the same running location.2 mm for shaft diameters from > 30 mm to 150 mm and 0. I If additional components of the aggregate are to be pushed over the running surface. 0. 45].10 mm for shaft diameters up to 30 mm. 45: Original fitting (above) and fitting for repair of the aggregate (below) Fitting of Simmerring cassette seals Cassette seals are mainly used when very heavy dirt accumulation is present. but better with an alcohol-water mixture.

page 30].5 bar). dimensions. g. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. a wax. the Simmerring can also be easily glued (e. 47. or a wateralcohol mixture which thus prevents shearing. 46: Proper fitting of the cassette Fitting tips I Simmerrings with an elastomer press fit (BA design) must not be additionally glued into the housing. if the bore diameter is too great or if there is a high pressure in the aggregate (> 0. with Loctite 480). However.Handling and installation Fig. I If for whatever reason. the housing chamfer should be checked first (geometry.This reliably prevents 29 . the adhesion force of the Simmerring in the bore is not sufficient. burr free). it is recommended that a small groove be added to the bore housing [see Fig. I If a part of the elastomer static part shears off during the fitting. KG I The fitting force can be greatly reduced by using a lubricant. The water-alcohol mixture has the advantage that the seal sits very firmly in the bore after the alcohol has evaporated.

The reason can almost always be found in the too small press-in depth of the Simmerring in the bore. Loctite 480) or better with a sealing compound (e. A support manual was created which contains the most important parameters that affect the function and lists the corresponding remedial action [see the following chapter for this]. Through the grease discharge. I Simmerrings with a pure metallic static part should be fixed with an adhesive (e. Epple 33 or Loctite 574) in the bore. I Simmerrings occasionally "wander" out of the housing bore after fitting. 47: The correct press-in depth 30 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG . I Contaminated radial shaft seals should be lightly rubbed without fail before fitting using a lint-free cloth or cleaned with a blast of air. The amount of grease should be less than 40 % (except for compression-loaded Simmerrings). 47]. g. I The application of grease between the sealing lip and dust lip should not be done with a brush. g. so-called apparent leaks frequently exist since 1 g of washed out or "bleed" grease can create up to 35 drops of oil (!). Even the smallest of dirt particles like lint can release the sealing edge enough so that a leakage is certain right after the installation.Handling and installation the seal from springing back and can increase the press-out force by a factor of two. A defined greasing on site using a grease mandrel matched to the product is best. Preventing potential errors It has proven beneficial to perform an internal installation audit from time to time. Note: The cylindrical static part of the Simmerring must not be in contact with the housing chamfer [see Fig. Direction: The Simmerring must sit deeply enough in the housing bore A holding groove prevents the seal from springing back Not this way please! The cylindrical static part of the Simmerring must not be in contact with the housing bevel Fig.

improve handling. visual and significant changes. test for contamination Intermediate storage at the installation location (consumable amounts) Contamination of Simmerrings Installation of a contaminated Simmerring From no influence to immediate leakage as well as reduced lifespan through added wear caused by dust. Consequences for the sealing function Sources of error Receipt of goods Damage to the packaging Possible errors Cause of the problem Remedial action Contamination of Simmerrings From reduced lifespan to immediate leakage Incorrect transport packaging Test the parts for contamination. KG 31 . supply for the installation) Non-compliance with the storage conditions according to DIN 7716 Non-compliance with the storage requirements Storage conditions according to DIN 7716 must absolutely be complied with Clean Simmerring before installation using suitable cleaning agent (DIN 7716). Please consult our technical support. dirt Damage of the Simmerring Installation of damaged Simmerrings Immediate leakage or reduced lifespan Premature ageing due to improper storage Transport (from intermediate storage to installation location) Damage to the packaging Contamination of Simmerrings From reduced lifespan to immediate leakage Improper handling Blocking of and special clearance procedure for parts in damaged cartons. Open original packaging first at the installation location Open the original packaging first at the installation location Installation of faulty Simmerrings Reduced lifespan Contamination of Simmerrings Installation and use of contaminated Simmerrings From no influence to immediate leakage as well as reduced lifespan Dust. optimise packaging Storage (larger quantities over longer time period) Intermediate storage (consumable quantities. dirt Clean Simmerring before installation using suitable cleaning agent (DIN 7716) © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.Troubleshooting Troubleshooting: Sources of error and recommended remedial actions The compilation of possible sources of error during the fitting and handling of Simmerrings by the user should help our customers recognise pitfalls and choose corresponding remedial measures.

dust. Incorrect greasing unit or incorrect greasing mandrel Use pregreased Simmerrings. dirt from the surroundings Remedial action Always cover the packaged unit and protect from dust and dirt. application tool. damages Apparent-leakage From immediate leakage to reduced longevity None Incorrect instructions or wrong dosage amount. easy to clean containers with no sharp edges Unsuitable Storage containers Contamination. damage if the Simmerring spring snaps out Accumulation of dirt and moisture in the storage container. modify the construction of the grease applicator Dirt. apparent leakage Application of the grease Contamination.Troubleshooting Sources of error Open storage of pre-greased Simmerrings Possible errors Contamination of the grease Consequences for the Sealing function From no influence to immediate leakage as well as shortened lifespan through added wear From no influence to Immediate leakage as well as shortened lifespan through added wear Cause of the problem Caused by dust. suitable tools. chemical influences. special caution and instruction of the assembly fitter Greasing of the Simmerring with contaminated oil or grease Unsuitable oil for lubricating the shaft Too much grease between sealing edge and dust lip Too much grease on the oil side No or too little grease Dust. installation of the Simmerring without spring Contamination of the Simmerring From immediate leakage to reduced lifespan through increased wear Reduced lifespan through increased wear Apparent-leakage Sharp-edged or unsuitable tools or opening methods Suitable packaging and tools. squeaking (stick-slip) Grease discharge during installation or operation Grease discharge draws oil leakage with it Insufficient lubrication of the dust lip. amount of grease: Approx. never use graphite grease Max. snapping lifespan out of the spring. 40 % of the grease space No grease on the oil side Chemical influence on the seal material. rubber abrasion Unfavourable lubrication. no contact oil with the Simmerring material Incorrect amount of grease Incorrect fitting instructions Incorrect instructions or wrong dosage amount Leakage leads to failure Reduced lifespan through increased temperatures in the dust lip area or through premature wear Position the grease amount on the dust lip Application of grease Insufficient lubrication Reduced lifespan to incorrect area on the dust lip through increased temperatures in the dust lip area or through premature wear. cleaning tool. increased dirt entry. sharp-edged corners Preparation of the Simmerring for installation Improper opening or removal from the packaging Cuts or similar From immediate damages on the outer leakage to reduced diameter. KG . dirt Protect the grease container from contamination and keep closed when not in use Discuss oil types with customer consultant. Information and training of the fitting technicians Select a different seal type Greasing of a Simmerring without grease chamber 32 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. for damages or sharp edges on the greasing mandrel Insufficient/incorrect information Check for cleanliness. only remove the required consumable amount Bottom opening.

sharp edges/ metal chips From immediate failure to reduced lifespan Dirt.Troubleshooting Sources of error Possible errors Consequences for the sealing function Cause of the problem Remedial action Installation: Fitting/mounting fixture. Simrit catalogue recommendation Pay attention to cleanliness. Qualification/clearly and simply displayed instructions: Visualisation/sensitisation for sealing components © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. skewed position Seal or mounting fixture contaminated or damaged From immediate failure to reduced lifespan Improper fitting Fitting location unclean (remove cigarette ashes). observe the suggestions of the DIN 3761. reduced lifespan. fitting technician Incorrect design of the fitting mandrel Damage to the seal. select a stable seal design Press-in path too short/too long Sealing lip and dust lip running on incorrect location From no influence to Immediate failure/ early failures Fitting mandrel or mounting fixture not OK Hammer fitting Damage to the Simmerring and of the installation chamber/snapping out of the spring. snapping out of the spring Damage to the Simmerring (bending of the metal part) Comply with recommended max. a hammer fitting should not be used/in the case of repairs with hammer fitting. reduced lifespan through uneven wear Customisation: Simmerring – shaft – housing – fitting mandrel. sharp edges Keep fitting location clean and free from damage. Damage to the outer diameter. spring snaps out. mounting location. static leakage Fitting mandrel not OK Regular checking Incorrect fitting mandrel Damage to the Simmerring Mix-up/no assignment: Simmerring-fitting mandrel Fitting speed/hammer fitting Correct fitting instructions Too high a fitting speed Spring back and/or skewed position of the Simmerring. speed Too high a press-in force for a fitting to stop From immediate leakage to reduced lifespan Press-in force too high/ fitting to stop Reduce the press-in force/ force limit/ end stop on the fitting mandrel/do not press-in to stop: Path limitation Check Simmerring for correct seating/set press-in path afterwards In a series production. KG 33 . Simmerring installed at an angle From no leakage to immediate leakage. Mounting fixture incorrect Co-ordinate adjustment with Freudenberg. clean the fitting mandrel regularly Contaminated fitting mandrel Contamination fo the Simmerring leading to possible damage Damage to the Simmerring Premature failures or reduced lifespan Dust and dirt at the working station Damaged fitting mandrel From immediate leakage to reduced lifespan From immediate leakage to reduced lifespan Uneven wear.

KG . poor sliding on of the Simmerring sealing lip or the dust lip diaphragm onto the shaft Spring snaps out/ upending of the diaphragm or dust lip Reduced lifespan Insufficient lubrication/ chamfer of the shaft not OK/SL covering too large/incorrect Simmerring design Blind fitting: Long shafts/ heavy shafts/ tipping of the shaft Spring snaps out/ upending of the sealing lip or dust lip/skewed position or damage to the Simmerring From reduced lifespan to immediate failure Insufficient guiding of the shaft Housing bore Two-part housing Combination with incorrect Simmerring static part design Static leakage Unsuitable Static part design One part housing/ select outer rubber coating or partial rubber coating/sealing lacquer or adhesive are unsuitable here 34 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. Match Simmerring construction with the fitting as well as the installation room Match Simmerring construction with the fitting as well as the installation space/select suitable sealing concept Corroded shaft From immediate failures to reduced lifespan Corrosion protection Chemical reaction with the Simmerring material or the sealed oil Reduced lifespan Unsuitable material combination or corrosion protection material Installation of the shaft.Troubleshooting Sources of error Possible errors Consequences for the sealing function Cause of the problem Remedial action Simmerring running location (shaft) on fitting location Scratched shaft Damage to the sealing lip during insertion of the shaft From immediate failures to reduced lifespan Transportation damage/ missing shaft protection/ improper storage and handling of the shaft Check the shaft before installation/DIN 3761 observe/use suitable protective covers and transport container/do not store or transport shaft as bulk cargo Contaminated shaft Damage and contamination of the sealing lip during insertion of the shaft Damage and contamination of the sealing lip during insertion of the shaft From immediate failures to reduced lifespan Insufficient shaft protection/unsuitable transport container/ unclean handling Insufficient corrosion protection/humidity too high/ storage too long/ insufficient-transport container or missing covering Clean shaft before installation/use suitable protective covering and transport container Check shaft before the installation for corrosion/ never use a corroded shaft Apply suitable corrosion protection/recondition corroded shafts Co-ordinate adjustment with Freudenberg/test the corrosion protection material for suitability with the Simmerring material in the laboratory Sufficient lubrication from Simmerring and shaft/observe Freudenberg recommendation to the shaft chamfer.

Mg) Damage to the bore from metallic press fit Static leakage/ reduced lifespan/ bore scratched (not OK) in the case of repair Unsuitable static part design Select outer rubber coating Plastic housing Damage to the bore from metal press fit/ influence of thermal expansion or too smooth surface Static leakage/ reduces lifespan Unsuitable material pairing or static part design Select outer rubber coating Insert chamfer in the housing in combination with an outer rubber coating on the Simmerring Housing bore Shearing off of rubber with outer rubber coating/ skewed position/ springback of the Simmerring Shearing off of rubber/Simmerring Static leakage Burr formation on the transition from the chamfer to the bore/ chamfer too large or too small/Simmerring is out of round Chamfer too large Ensure freedom from burrs/ observe recommendation of the DIN 3761 with regards to the chamfer Static leakage Select chamfer = 15° – 20° Handling of aggregates with seal already installed in the production line Seal laying open or unprotected Contamination/ hardening of the elastomeric material From reduced lifespan to immediate leakage Dirt and dust in the surrounding area UV light/ozone Select suitable covering of the seal for protection against damage and for avoiding negative influences like ozone or UV light/select suitable sealing system. Mg) Press fit not sufficient/skewed position/spring back or wandering out of the Simmerring (with outer rubber coating) Electrochemical corrosion (for metallic press fit) Housing bore too fine/ unsuitable static part design Die-cast housing (Al. Mg) Static leakage/ damage from metal part or housing Voltage potential (quiescence potential) Suitable factory pairing/ select outer rubber coating Die-cast housing (Al.Troubleshooting Sources of error Cast housing Possible errors pores/blow holes/ casting sand Consequences for the sealing function From static leakage/ increased wear to reduced lifespan through casting sand Insecure fitting/ reduced lifespan Cause of the problem Casting quality not sufficient/insufficient cleaning Remedial action Pores and blow holes maximum 1/3 of the static part width/improve cleaning Rz > 10 µm and < 25 µm/ select outer rubber coating Die-cast housing (Al. which protects itself/careful fitting/detailed instructions © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG 35 .

KG . which protects itself/careful fitting/detailed instructions Corrosion of the shaft or housing Corrosion at the sealing lip running location Reduced lifespan High humidity/ insufficient corrosion protection Corrosion protection/ covering of the seal/ limit humidity Transport Spring snaps out Reduced lifespan Unsuitable transportation container/Simmerring centred on mandrel Suitable transportation container/perform a check of the spring seating before the installation Fitting Damage to the sealing lip From reduced lifespan to immediate leakage Keyway gearing Use mounting sleeve 36 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.Troubleshooting Sources of error Seal laying open or unprotected Possible errors Damage Consequences for the sealing function From reduced lifespan to Immediate leakage Cause of the problem Mechanical effect of components. objects or working processes on the seal/ insufficient transportation protection for loose parts Remedial action Select suitable covering for the seal for protection against damage and for avoiding negative influences like ozone or UV light/select suitable sealing system.

and radial shaft seal. for the corresponding fitting tools for the design of the shaft and the housing as well as for the correct greasing of the Simmerrings should help with the removal of these error sources. Experience shows that roughly 30 percent of early failures can be traced back to improper installation. robust and reliable sealing components. However. Damage scenarios show the most important causes that lead to failure of the seal and provide the first clues. only be determined through a systematic limitation of the possible damaging mechanisms in conjunction with an immediate analysis of shaft. regularly performed installation audits and training contribute to helping to isolate weak areas and permanently prevent them. however. The actual cause of the damage can. Practical information for the proper storage.Summary Summary Simmerrings are proven. they are subject to a natural amount of wear due to the interplay in the tribological system. Determining the cause of leakages is therefore a difficult issue. Moreover. KG 37 . lubricant. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.


Shaft surfaces Requirements and working forms .2.

page 10]. KG .5 µm Rmax 6. the shafts should be hardened for possible inner (casting sand.3 µm I exhibit no damage of any kind. In order for the shaft to withstand the technical requirements. Fig 1. metal particles. dust. For ground shafts it is recommended in accordance with DIN 3760 or 3761: Ra 0. shearing forces. but rather. The design engineer should thus rely on the experience that the seal manufacturer can offer. such as scratches.8 µm Rz 1 . It should I be burr free I not fall below or exceed the specified roughness parameters. I the shaft diameter should be toleranced to ISO h11 I the roundness tolerance IT 8 should not be exceeded I the lubricant should wet the surface sufficiently I the surface should also maintain the lubricant film under load (e. If the operating conditions are known. It is also recommended that the shafts be hardened for pressurised seals and for high circumferential speeds (> 12 m/s) as well. scoring.2 . inflow of oxygen and transient interplay between the seal material and the lubricant or its additives [cf. pores. Furthermore. the components in the tribological system Simmerring – lubricant – shaft surface must be optimally matched to each other. g. For this reason. It is not always easy since the processes in the actual sealing zone are so complex due to high pressures. varnish and outer (water. abrasionresistance. pressure) I and of increasing importance today. temperatures. These processes in the order of their importance are introduced below.Shaft surfaces Shaft surface requirements To be able to ensure trouble-free functioning. corrosion I have sufficient dimensions. the manufacturer cannot only recommend a corresponding seal. 40 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. can also submit suggestions as to how the shaft surface should be machined. The requirements of a shaft or its surface are only significant at first glance. residual oil.0. the correct machining method is of great importance. mud) contamination. the machining process should be as economical as possible.

The main problem is. can have a negative influence on the surface structures. however.Important process parameters like constants and. The most important are evaluated according to the latest thinking: Fig. However. however. 48: Grinding of shafts Grinding Shaft surfaces for seals are often ground Decades of experience show that plungecut grinding is a safe and proven process for creating a functional surface for radial shaft seals. revolution speed rates are often not adhered to or checked. cycle) are not adhered to and the sparking out time is often not sufficient. External factors such as machine vibrations. the requirement © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. This "conveying structure" can have a negative effect with the corresponding direction of rotation on the sealing function of the radial shaft seal. virtually impossible. This should ensure no shaft draw direction in the form of a thread-like structure is present. there are early failures of radial shaft seals again and again which can be traced back to an improperly prepared shaft. 41 . bearing play etc. this does not guarantee a lead free surface. not all of these processes are suitable in combination with Simmerrings. KG for "lead-free" shaft surfaces is. above all. In practice. that the effects of these process parameter changes or process fluctuations are not exactly detectable and measurable. the dressing tool requirements for the grinding disc (feed rate. Even when plunge grinding is performed in accordance with specifications. cutting depth. One of the main requirements of a ground surface is the absence of lead.Surface treatment processes Surface treatment processes There is an abundance of possible surface treatment processes for shafts: I Grinding I Turning I Tangential turning I Roller Burnishing I Peening I Superfinishing/honing I Polishing I Quickpoint grinding I Outer grinding However.

the machining of hardened shafts has been continually improved. for example. due to its small cross sectional area. abrasive grit will press the surface peaks to one side or will tear out whole areas. The most important process parameters and their influence on the radial shaft seal are summarised in Table 2. Sparking out times of 30 seconds should be regarded as a minimum. can exceed the natural pumping capacity of the seal. Turning In the last few years. the lower will be the resistance to fluid flow. (The sparking out time amounted to 3 minutes!) 42 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG . 49: REM image of a plunge-cut shaft surface. To some degree. however. even with practically perfect processing and the appropriate sparking out time. this technology is integrated in the manufacturing process at Fig. independent of pitch. Although prescribed surface roughness values have been adhered to and the shaft surface is seen to be in a satisfactory condition. Only exact adherence to the process parameters can make grinding secure If the prescribed process parameters are adhered to. it is possible for a 10-start thread structure to be set up on the shaft surface whose pitch will correspond precisely to the dressing feed of the dressing tool. 10:1. The result is that the fluid transport through the threads. Thus. that the ground surface normally has several "threads". The greater the resulting damage which arises in the axial plane on the shaft. however. The reason for this is the microscopically small lead on the shaft surface. Minor imperfections in the surface texture can and must be compensated for by radial shaft seals. Sparking out time is crucial The main factor to be aware of when grinding surfaces for radial shaft seals is the sparking out time. corresponding to the direction of rotation. illustrates that the surface of a ground shaft will not be homogenous. then grinding will be a reliable production process. In the meantime. is not normally harmful to radial shaft seals. resulting in increased leakage. Figure 49. Since a thread structure can never be avoided.Surface treatment processes Residual lead can cause leakage. it frequently happens that radial shaft seals leak within a few operating hours. it is necessary for the sparking out time to be adequately high to eliminate it altogether. An individual helix ("thread"). irrespective of process parameters. if the ratio between the grinding disk and the shaft is. The problem is.

02 mm Sparking out time Influences cross section of the conveying thread Complete sparking out.1 mm/rotation Dressing should only occur in one direction Dressing tool Can cause a leading structure Multi grain diamond Single grain diamond Dressing infeed Influences roughness values approx. 10. at least 30 seconds Most common causes for lead afflicted surfaces Infeed depth Can cause leakage >> as Rmax from the previous machining process Example: 60 –100.5:1 Observance Check during the process Can cause a leading 30 –300 rev/min 1500 –1700 rev/min Tool and working material must rotate in counter directions Influences the slope of the conveying thread < 0.Surface treatment processes Influence of the manufacturing parameters for the grinding on the sealing effect Process parameters Rotational speed ratio Grinding disc/working material Rotational speed working material Rotational speed grinding disc Dressing traverse speed Consequence Can cause a leading Aim Not in whole numbers e. Rmax Concentricity of the tools and working material axis Creates leading structure on the surface Table 2: Relevant machining guidelines for ground surfaces © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. 0. KG 43 .g. Rz. Aluminium oxide 60KL8V25 (white) Dimensions 400 x 50 x 127 Concentricity as small as possible Grinding disc/ granulation Influences the roughness parameters Ra.

KG 44 . the setup costs can be reduced by up to 95 %. in theory. significant potential for reducing costs in comparison to other processes. With only a few exceptions. this can be utilised for use in aggregates where one direction of operation is used primarily: I Engine I Gearbox input I Gearbox output and differential input (to a degree) The "helical lead" on the shaft surface can thus support the radial shaft seal and pump the sealed lubricant back into the aggregate. thus opposed to the effect of the leading of the shaft.e. the sealing area of the shaft is still ground. Since one can create a directional lead on a shaft. Another advantage is that the surface texture with turned shafts is precisely defined and markedly homogenous [see Fig. remains in tact for long periods of time. 51]. More and more aggregate manufacturers are thus using a turned shaft as a counter direction point for the seal. Turned shafts with corresponding direction of rotation can. Of significant importance here is that the seal be capable over a longer period of time of pumping these fluid volumes back since the surface structure of the shaft normally shows little wear. This is significantly © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. If one considers the use of turned shafts for applications with which the direction of rotation can vary. i. the direction of rotation is not completely clear or the rotation can occur in both directions.Surface treatment processes many companies for economic reasons. however. convey sizeable lubricant volumes underneath the seal on account of their leading ("helical threads") and in dependence on the operating conditions. The seal manufacturer recommends radial shaft seals with an alternating leading or radial shaft seals according to DIN 3760 (without leading) for such applications. Hard turning is economical The technical success is supported through the high efficiency of the process. 50: Turning of shafts The critical factor is thus the pumping action of the radial shaft seal. Matching to the direction of rotation is important For many application cases. Many attempts under the most varying conditions have shown that Simmerrings on turned shafts function perfectly with the corresponding direction of rotation. There is The pumping effect of the seal is crucial Fig. the process times by up to 40 % and the machine purchase costs by up to 50 %. In comparison to grinding for example. the seal must be capable in all operating conditions of being able to capture the leaked oil quantities and to be able to pump them back into the sealed area.

shows that the turning of soft shafts often proves to be more difficult than the hard machining. KG materials must be utilised depending on the shaft material. Furthermore.2– 0.1– 0. the above mentioned manufacturing parameters cannot always be copied.1 mm) Cutter material: CBN (Cubic Boron Nitride) Due to the variety of offered cutting materials. even values of > 0.03– 0. Experience however.8 mm is favourable) Cutting depth: max. 45 . the following manufacturing parameters are proven: Feed rate: 0. 55 – 65 HCR Hardness: Recommended roughness parameters: Ra 0.4 –1.2 mm (very good results are achieved at 0.Surface treatment processes In practice.8 µm Achievable qualities: Table 3: Proven manufacturing parameters for the hard-turning of shafts Comment: Simmerrings function perfectly on soft-turned shaft surfaces. but larger values should not be specified without testing) 100 –220 m/min (very good results and durability are achieved at 200 m/min) Cutting speed: Cutting edge radius: 0.10 mm/revolution (in the testing field. 0.2 mm (a radius of 0. different cutting © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.1 mm/revolution were tested positively. we recommend contacting the cutting material manufacturer.8 µm Rz 1– 4 µm Rmax < 8 µm Roundness < 2 µm True running < 2 µm Tolerances from IT 5– IT 6 Roughness Rz von 2– 4 µm Roughness Ra von 0. Therefore.

primarily from the circumferential speed. i. 51: REM image of a milled shaft Suitability of Simmerrings even for critical direction of rotation Numerous tests at Simrit have shown that Simmerrings on turned shaft surfaces reliably seal even with "critical" direction of rotation of the shaft. KG Fig. I Depending on the direction of rotation of the shaft. FKM. but also the operating conditions: I I I I I I I Circumferential speed Lubricant temperature Lubricant type Pressure Axial movement Direction of rotation Shaft diameter Furthermore. the radial force and above all.Surface treatment processes influenced by the sealing lip design (profile. various sealing variants were considered in the tests: I Profiles I Pumping features (uni or bi directional) I Materials (NBR. the material. ACM. I feed rate I cutting radius I cutting material were varied for the test. the surface structure can additionally support the sealing effect of the Simmerring. Not only the turning parameters such as I cutting speed 46 . PTFE) The knowledge and experiences reveal that: I Simmerrings are perfectly capable of reliably sealing hard or soft turned surfaces (see also manufacturing parameters attachment). I The friction torque behaviour of Simmerrings on turned shafts is qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with that of ground shafts. the lubricant temperature and thus the lubricant viscosity. lead type). Furthermore. the pumping effect is dependent on the operating conditions themselves. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.e. I If the Simmerring is correspondingly constructed. it can also seal reliably in both directions.

consistently achievable surface qualities lie between Ra 0.2 . he/she should consult with the seal manufacturer [enquiry form at www.].simrit.0. 52: REM image of an improperly machined. The surface quality of turned shafts is significantly influenced by the I machine rigidity I tool cutting geometry/cutting material I stability of machine tool Before the design engineer thus determines the "turning" process and the manufacturing parameters.3 µm. turned shaft surface with typical "chatter marks" which are caused by vibrations Producing high quality surfaces A high quality surface is still a prerequisite for a shaft seal to work reliably.Surface treatment process process is based on the kinematics of the turning space with a linear feed rate and features: I Shorter main times as with conventional turning I High tool service life I Possible integration in CNC machines I Avoidance of disadvantages of plunge-cut turning (chatter marks etc. Fundamental tests at Simrit have confirmed that tangentially turned.) I Almost completely burr free I Processing of hard and soft surfaces The maximum processing width amounts to 28 mm – even for hard shafts. Typical. 53: Tangential turning of shafts 47 . innovative and highly efficient alternative to the manufacturing processes up to now for running surfaces of radial shaft seals. Tangential turning Tangential turning is a new. The © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.6 µm and Rz 1 . hardened shaft surfaces are suitable in principle for Simmerrings. KG Fig.

In addition to straightforward surface strengthening. On a surface which is too smooth. 56].05 mm cut speed: 300 m/min cut radius: 0. we know that a liquid will give relatively poor wetting. the "peaks" are pressed down into the valleys. Due to the high specific pressure on the surface. Tests at Freudenberg have indicated that roller burnished finishes are suitable as counter surfaces for Simmerrings.g. it is convenient to work the seal counter surface at the same time.5 µm Rmax < 7 µm Prior to roller burnishing it is important that the shaft surface is turned under defined conditions e. 54: REM image of a tangentially turned shaft Roller burnishing Roller burnishing promotes a strengthening of the shaft surface. g. this can result in thermal 48 Fig.: Pre-machining of shaft at: feed: 0.1 .8 . The subsequent roller burnishing process must also be performed under precisely controlled parameters. especially step-diameter-changes. though. Depending on the operating conditions. KG . Since this finishing process is often used on shafts. 55: Finish rolling of shafts © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. it is difficult for a lubricant film to form or to be sustained. Thus. at times drastically reducing the surface roughness value and accordingly increasing the load bearing proportion of the profile.8 µm Rz 0.8 m. this process has the advantage of neutralising the lead in the turned basic structure [see Fig.0. e.Surface treatment processes overload at the sealing edge of the shaft seal. this will have the primary effect of. to increase notch impact strength for vibrating loads. In the normal case. If it is possible to ensure that the whole process is reproducible and that the preset parameters can be adhered to. then the following points can be stated: Fig. Adherence to the manufacturing parameters is important A prerequisite is that the surface roughness values should be as follows: Ra 0. under certain loads.

simrit. he/she should consult with the seal manufacturer [you can find an enquiry form for this purpose at www. I The wear caused by the seal into the shaft is reduced because of the strengthened surface. glass or ceramic beads. I Permissable limits with regard to operating conditions have not yet been completely determined. I The magnitude of the frictional torque or power loss is not greater than on ground surfaces. 57]. KG Fig. in]. wet them effectively [see Fig. 57: Blasting of shafts Fig. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. Fig. g. In this process the shaft surface is "blasted" with steel. 58]. 58: REM image of a blasted shaft 49 . This causes surface strengthening depending on the blast energy [see Fig.Surface treatment processes Peening Peening of shafts is also used for strengthening components (e. An addittional effect of this process is that lubricants adhere excellently to the crater-like surface structure. will cause no problems. Before the manufacturer finalises the roller burnishing process and the production parameters. turbine blades). I The function is independent of the direction of rotation. Experience indicates that peripheral speeds of 20 m/s at oil sump temperatures up to 130 °C subject to the correct selection of seal. and. 56: REM image of a finished rolled shaft I Simmerrings work perfectly on roller burnished surfaces.

or to transfer back any micro leakage into the unit being sealed. the pump action of the seal must be large enough to compensate for the lubrication state. Frictional torque and hence the power loss of radial shaft seals on peened surfaces is therefore 10–30 % less than on ground shafts. In the same way as was found on turned surfaces. the surface has to be cleaned of peening shot dust. is substantially increased. because an undefined structure will be produced as the result I peening pressure I peening duration I peening direction Honing. it is advisable to polish the peened surface in order to achieve a slight rounding of the "crater" peaks.Surface treatment processes For shaft seals this is an advantage. the designer should hold consultations with the seal manufacturer when he stipulates "peening" and the process parameters. oil sump temperature). the localised wear on the shaft in the area of the sealing lip is also markedly less. which may actually be too effective. depending on operating conditions. A criss cross structure results which appears neutral at first glance. If axial movement of the shaft is likely to occur. The sealing edge temperature is therefore correspondingly lower. above all. 50 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. The results of this is that the service life of seals. Superfinishing A criss cross surface texture is created through honing or superfinishing. This positive structure for the lubricating film adherence is achieved by the tool performing translatory movement while the shaft rotates. Neutral basic structure necessary The peening process is simple and. This effect also produces a marked reduction in harmful oil carbonisation. KG . because it enables a permanent exchange of lubricant under the sealing contact. Peened structures are also suitable as counter surfaces Process parameters have to be defined and adhered to in order to produce the most favourable surface texture: I peening shot (nature and diameter of beads): corundum or steel chips are not suitable materials. This has the advantage that the lubricant binds well to it and that a sufficient lubrication is ensured even under adverse conditions. Here too. And although no increase in hardness can be measured by means of the normal hardness measurement methods. Damaging oil carbonisation is also significantly reduced. 50 µm). especially at high load (peripheral speed. cost-effective and can be used to coverup minor surface defects (up to approx. This will reduce wear on the sealing edge of the radial shaft seal. After the peening process.

such structures are not suitable as counter direction points for radial shaft seals. the same roughness parameters as for grinding are to be adhered to. the disadvantage of this type of machining is. polishing is still a widely used method for eliminating small damages or removing dirt. 59: Honing process © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. While the occurring leakages are in most cases relatively small.e. Plunge-cut turning Plunge-cut turning creates a „neutral“. The criss cross structures can not be reliably sealed. however.Surface treatment processes Honed or superfinished surfaces are only conditionally suitable as running surfaces The lubrication ratios are excellent and the wear of the mating components is small. Other processes Outer grinding Outer grinding of shafts creates a similar structure as with the honing process. lead-free. KG . the problems are. 60]. however. In the case of repair inparticular. 60: Polishing of surfaces While the polishing of surfaces is a costeffective process. the same as with grinding: A leading structure on the surface can be created by the polishing. Polishing of surfaces In the past it was quite common for the running surfaces of radial shaft seals to be polished. however. If polishing is used as a machining method. Often expensive components that were faultily ground can still be remachined by polishing [see Fig. negligible. 51 Fig. i. surface texture on the shaft surface. This is principally suitable as a counter direction point for Simmerrings. they are not acceptable in most cases. For pure grease sealing. Fig.

Subsequently.Surface treatment processes Quickpoint grinding Empirical data for quickpoint grinding is inconclusive. a deep-drawn plate is drawn on. At the moment. the surface is cleaned and resanded where necessary. Fig. Since a remachining of the shaft is often not possible. Quickpoint ground shafts can only be used for one direction of rotation due to their distinctive leading structure ("conveyance" into the sealed space). machining with hardened material is more difficult due to the tendency to chatter 52 . A prerequisite is no damage of any kind: I No pores or blow holes I No scratches or scoring I No material inhomogenities In order to ensure this. This then represents the running surface for the Simmerring. 61: Plunge-cut turning of shafts. 62: Deep drawn plate as counter direction point of the Simmerring Deep-drawn plates can be sealed Sealing can be just as reliable on such surfaces (depending on the operating conditions) as on ground surfaces. Although the materials used are relatively soft. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. KG Fig. only materials of the correct quality should be used. no wellfounded statements on the general suitability can be given. While successful applications were realised for soft machining. they possess sufficient abrasive wear-resistance due to the reforming process. Deep-drawn plates Deep drawn places are frequently used for repair work.

KG 53 . 63: Determination of lead on the shaft with the thread method © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.Leading test Leading test Movement of the thread = Oil conveyance direction Pencil Mark Shaft with right turning threads = Radial shaft seal with leftleading Movement of the thread = Oil conveyance direction Shaft with left turning threads = Radial shaft seal with right-leading Fig.

There are no measuring methods with which a lead orientation can be reliably measured. With very small or very large lead structures. Rz and Rmax. the method has weaknesses. Despite this. A weight (approx. this method has proven itself in practice. A special thread is wetted with oil and is placed over the shaft to be tested. Fig. the measurement and evaluation times are so high that an implementation in the production is not always cost-effective. as mentioned already. the surfaces from plunge-cut ground shafts. 64: Example of a "calculated" surface structure 54 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co. representative results can be determined using the widely used thread method. this measuring method could help solve many problems or help to understand the influence of the various process parameters on the surface quality. It is applied in slightly varying forms around the world. should be lead-free. The complete test whether the lead-free requirement is fulfilled is difficult to conduct.Leading test Leading measurements Besides the adherence to the specified roughness variables like Ra. 64]. KG . However. All attempts to develop an alternative method of measurement have failed in the past. the thread begins to move axially if a lead is present. the thread does not react demonstrably. If the shaft rotates. Although it is not possible to quantitatively record the slope of the lead. Still. The approach of determining the lead structure using a mathematical description of the surface according to the measurement of the surface texture appears promising [see Fig. surface structures that are damaging to a radial shaft seal can be proven using this simple method. 50 g) ensures an even enlacement of the shaft. In many cases. But if the required hardware and software is developed in the foreseeable future.

Summary Summary The surface texture of the shaft influences the sealing function of a Simmerring significantly. The manufacturer must therefore ensure that the specified manufacturing process and roughness parameters are adhered to and that the process is stable. he/she should define the process parameters together with the seal manufacturer and.simrit. so that we can develop the optimum solution together with you. Besides these requirements. © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & For protection or final verification. Use our fax form at www. considering the actual operating conditions. Alternatives to the proven but expensive plunge-cut grinding exist and were studied. aggregate tests should be performed. KG 55 . the selection of the correct machining method determines the ideal system design in terms of cost-efficiency and technology. But before the design engineer makes a final selection. The design engineer has to determine the most functional and cost-effective combination for the radial shaft seal/machining method during the planning phase. Reliable sealing is achieved when the Simmerring is capable of returning the microleakages created by the shaft surface back into the sealed space. determine the ideal radial shaft seal.

Baden-Baden 2000 [7] H. II. Kunstfeld/W. Schreiber: With Tangential Turning for Lead-Free Surfaces. 13th International Sealing Conference Stuttgart 2004 [4] S.Supplementary literature You can find further information about the topic "Simmerrings and shaft surfaces" in the following literature: [1] Simrit Catalogue (orderable at www. Buhl/T. Vogt/E. Vogt/D. 13th International Sealing Conference Stuttgart 2004 [13] N. RMA 1999 [9] W. Factory and Operation 6/2002 [6] R. Haas: Reliable sealing with radial shaft seals: Alternative manufacturing processes for the creation of shaft running surfaces. 11th International Sealing Conference Dresden 1999 [14] Factory and Operation 1999 [15] Breitmeier: Lead measuring length LMT. Haas: Tribological Partners. Rau/V. Haas: Sealing with radial shaft seals. Rau/V. Vogt: New findings with the surface machining of shafts for radial shaft seals. Schneider/L. Drive Technology 38 (1999) [8] Shaft Requirements for Rotary Lip Seals. 6 [5] J. Johnston: The Sealing Performance of Elastomer Rotary Lip Seals on Turned Shafts. VDI Seminar Reliable Sealing. www. Guth/R. 13th International Sealing Conference Stuttgart 2004 [3] T. Kruppke/M.breitmeier. Seibold: Leading structures on ground sealing surfaces and their effect on the sealing function. Bock: Shaft surface structures and their effect on the tightness and wear behaviour of radial shaft seals. Schreiber: Tangential turning – an innovative manufacturing process for the machining of shaft surfaces for radial shaft seals. KG . Seibold: Measurable observations of the functional behaviour of turned sealing [2] J. Raab/ 56 © Freudenberg Simrit GmbH & Co.simrit. Hamburg Technical Sealing Colloquium 1998 [10] R. SAE-Congress 1998 [11] DIN 3760/DIN 3761 You can find information on new surface measurement procedures at: [12] N. Schneider/L. Drive technology 42 (2003) No. Kruppke/M. Kunstfeld/W. Radial shaft seals and counter surfaces.

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