(1) What is leadership? State and explain four (4) different leadership styles that are being practised in today’s world of management.

What is leadership
Leadership is, most fundamentally, about changes. What leaders do is create the systems and organizations that managers need, and, eventually, elevate them up to a whole new level or . . . change in some basic ways to take advantage of new opportunities. —John P. Kotter Leadership has long been a major area of interest among social scientists and in particular psychologists. However, the field of leadership in organisations seemed to be in a trough in the early 1980s. For some time there has been a feeling that the field had lacked an agreed upon framework (a paradigm) within which research took place and that the findings of a century of research were trivial or contradictory. Nonetheless, new approaches continued to surface (e.g. Hunt et al. 1982) but the field seemed to lack coherence and there was a sense of despondency about its future direction. There was even a call for the temporary abandonment of the concept (Miner 1982), but such extreme views did not find many adherents, because, for all the undoubted problems with the area in those years, the notion of leadership is one that continued to attract generations of writers, in large part because we tend to view leadership as an important feature of everyday and organizational behaviour. Leadership, as one might anticipate, is not an easy concept to define. Its widespread currency and use in everyday life as an explanation affects the way it is defined and indeed probably makes it more difficult to define than a concept that is invented as an abstraction ab initio (Latin term meaning "from the beginning"). Gary Yukl (2006) defines leadership as ―the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives‖. Peter Northouse (2010) defines leadership as ―a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal‖. These definitions suggest several components central to the phenomenon of leadership. Some of them are as follows:

Look into the soul of any great leader and you will find a good leader. leadership and management are different on more dimensions than they are similar. while managers only change their behaviour. presidents. CEOs. The very act of defining leadership as a process suggests that leadership is not a characteristic or trait with which only a few certain people are endowed at birth. generals. . But if only that were the case! Some leaders. makes them great! Difference between Management and Leadership: Leadership is similar to. The term "Great Man" is used because. and (e) These goals are shared by leaders and their followers. However. management. in the end. This face stresses commitment. views organizations with an integrative perspective. and operates with words and numbers of rationality. Their tools include coercion. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic. 1888) concurs with the statement mentioned above. especially in terms of military leadership. views an organization as components of a portfolio. (b) Leadership involves influencing others. They both involve influencing people. Mintzberg (1998) contends that managers lead by using a cerebral face. they do so with minimal emotional involvement. Zaleznik (1977) believes that managers and leaders are very distinct. while leaders work to expand the number of alternatives to problems that have plagued an organization for a long period of time. who are highly effective (and modest) and possess the five key characteristics this author describes. and persuasion. makes them great! Look into the soul of any great leader and you will find a good leader. The Great man theory (Carlyle. and while they are willing to work with people to solve problems.(a) Leadership is a process. mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. in the end. Heads of organizations—be they popes. (c) Leadership happens within the context of a group. He suggests that leaders lead by using an insightful face. and different from. or general secretaries— must coordinate their followers to produce desired actions and outcomes. at the time. On the other hand. Others. He argues that managers are reactive. Others. Leaders change people’s attitudes. but in what combination and to what effect leaders rely on these tools are variable. and being one precludes being the other. are good leaders first and foremost—which is what. who are highly effective (and modest) and possess the five key characteristics this author describes. Managers limit choice. (d) Leadership involves goal attainment. those who crave and bathe in the spotlight. Both are concerned with the achievement of common goals. leaders are emotionally involved and seek to shape ideas instead of reacting to others’ ideas. This face stresses calculation. are in fact not so great. It assumes that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born not made. are in fact not so great. those who crave and bathe in the spotlight. are good leaders first and foremost—which is what. leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality. incentives. They both require working with people. and is rooted in the images and feel of integrity. But if only that were the case! Some leaders.

strong leadership with weak management is no better and may be worse. not by making decisions for people. Kotter (1998) argues that organizations are over managed and under led. because the focus is on short-term tasks. inspiration. It can feel stifling. they inspire people with a shared vision of the future. aligning people. Although this might sound controlling and paternalistic. they manage delivery. LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. The "transaction" usually involves the organization paying team members in return for their effort and compliance. He associates leadership with vision. while leadership is essentially committed to social change.He argues that managers need to be two faced. and controlling and problem solving. The leader has a right to "punish" team members if their work doesn't meet an appropriate standard. On the other hand management can be defined as getting things done in a way that makes best use of all resources. This is why it's useful to gain a thorough understanding of other leadership styles. All employees can promote new directions. . the more approaches you're familiar with. The downside of this leadership style is that team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction. It works through influence. it can be effective in other situations. Adapting Your Approach to Leadership In business. Leadership can be shown bottom-up or sideways. Northouse (2006) observes a tendency pro status quo present in management. often. a leadership style called "transformational leadership" is often the most effective approach to use. promoting new directions by example or advocating by a better way. Managers are needed to handle complexity by instituting planning and budgeting. and they communicate well with their teams. they set clear goals and motivate people towards them. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work. Transactional Leadership This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader when they accept a job. For one. Leadership is. after all. Another benefit is that. leadership is not "one size fits all" thing. because transactional leadership judges team members on performance. and motivating and inspiring people. transactional leadership offers some benefits. the more tools you'll be able to use to lead effectively. Transactional leadership is really a type of management. this leadership style clarifies everyone's roles and responsibilities. Leaders are needed to handle change through setting a direction. Transformational leaders have integrity. He suggests that organizations need strong leadership and strong management. people who are ambitious or who are motivated by external rewards – including compensation – often thrive. not a true leadership style.) However. He argues that organizations need people who can do both—they need leader-managers. you must adapt your style to fit a situation or a specific group. However. and it can lead to high staff turnover. (You can find out more about transformational leadership at the end of this article. They need to simultaneously be managers and leaders. organizing and staffing. However.

Therefore. . Autocratic Leadership Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership. The benefit of autocratic leadership is that it's incredibly efficient. Charismatic leaders are often focused on themselves. The downside to charismatic leaders is that they can believe more in themselves than in their teams. The downside of this leadership style is that it's ineffective in teams and organizations that rely on flexibility." They follow rules rigorously. Transformational leaders want to transform their teams and organizations. where leaders have complete power over their people. However. Much of the time. Charismatic Leadership A charismatic leadership style can resemble transformational leadership because these leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward. A charismatic leader might believe that she can do no wrong. when decisions must be made quickly and without dissent. and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely. The difference between charismatic leaders and transformational leaders lies in their intention. with toxic substances. 4. in the followers' eyes.2. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions. or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved. and may not want to change anything. the military often uses an autocratic leadership style. success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. creativity. the style can be effective for some routine and unskilled jobs: in these situations. The downside is that most people resent being treated this way. 3. autocratic leadership often leads to high levels of absenteeism and high staff turnover. bureaucratic leaders achieve their position because of their ability to conform to and uphold rules. and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader. Decisions are made quickly. top commanders are responsible for quickly making complex decisions. Bureaucratic leadership is also useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks (as in manufacturing). even when others are warning her about the path she's on. Also. Autocratic leadership is often best used in crises. the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages. This can cause resentment when team members don't value their expertise or advice. As such. and work gets done. For instance. this feeling of invincibility can ruin a team or an organization. This can create the risk that a project or even an entire organization might collapse if the leader leaves. charismatic leadership carries great responsibility. This excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous benefit. Bureaucratic Leadership Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book. This is an appropriate leadership style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery. not because of their qualifications or expertise. which allows troops to focus their attention and energy on performing their allotted tasks and missions. or innovation. even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest.

) These subsets of leadership style in the path goal theory are adaptable to different situations and not mutually exclusive. It may bother me a little. they may give occasional encouragement or pave the way with gold. In removing roadblocks. leaders: Clarify the path so subordinates know which way to go. with a strong relationship between the leader and the group. In particular. There are four roles the leader can play within this theory (as defined by Robert House. .) What it means: Path goal leadership theory encourages a strong communication about goals and direction.(ii) Describe the Path-Goal theory of leadership and discuss how the four leadership styles described under the theory might assist or hinder in the process of leading people using this model of leadership. the leader can build a string of successes toward the end target. they may scour the path or help the follower move the bigger blocks. This interpretation holds that the leader empowers the group to reach their goals. no matter how long they stay in front of you.   Using the Path Goal Leadership Theory Path goal leadership is a very personal theory. In increasing rewards. sometimes I feel like life is constantly dangling a carrot from a stick right in front of my face.  Increasing the rewards along the route. In clarifying the path. As the leader you are not only charged with giving your team the carrot. and ensures that they share an awareness of what those goals are. is that you keep going after them. For instance. It is the strategy of leadership that makes the leader’s task to motivate and clarify the group’s goals. With a clear set of requirements and providing the tools to complete them. an organizational theorist who first coined the term. so leader’s can adjust to fit their needs. but making sure that carrot is what they really want (and that they can eventually get it. Leaders can take a strong or limited approach in these. DEFINITION The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership was developed to describe the way that leaders encourage and support their followers in achieving the goals they have been set by making the path that they should take clear and easy. they may be directive or give vague hints. Remove roadblocks that are stopping them going there. but it doesn’t stop me from going after it. essentially making them a coach. The path goal leadership theory plays on this concept. That’s the great thing about goals.

With ease to visualize goals.The four styles:  In achievement-oriented leadership. Supportive leadership is useful with a team that is new. making the team members more comfortable to pursue their own goals. . the leader is friendly and approachable. and the direction to achieve them. In supportive leadership. The leader shows concern for the followers’ psychological well being. the leader sets challenging goals for followers.    How to use it: If you have a good understanding of what the needs of the group are. you can create a sort of small-scale mission that is easier to communicate to the team and get buy in for. or otherwise lacking confidence. Participative leadership involves leaders consulting with followers and asking for their suggestions before making a decision. expects them to perform at their highest level. and shows confidence in their ability to succeed. In directive leadership. It is a highly structured form of the path goal leadership theory. or whose goals have become unclear through a significant change in the environment. path goal leadership is a great way to get everyone back on agreeable terms. then you can adapt to the styles as the situation demands:  Achievement oriented works best when the staff suffers from lack of challenge and boredom. inexperienced. When working with a team that has lost motivation. It is similar to the democratic leadership style.    Directive leadership helps workers cope with otherwise vague and unclear job responsibilities Participative leadership is effective in situations where the follower is making poor decisions or improper procedure and the leader can take steps to help them improve. the leader lets followers know what is expected of them and tells them how to perform their tasks.

in the decision. you must be trustworthy. When you exude confidence in yourself. you must strive to have these essential leadership qualities. At the same time. If you have lived with this feeling many times in your career. Do you stand up and speak out for what you believe? Do you demonstrate the courage to stay the course when the going gets tough and the outcome looks uncertain? What makes a good leader is the ability to stay calm and in control. state the activities is already in place and what other activities remain to be done in terms of developing leadership skills to achieve the desired results. Looking at the situation in your organization. the essential goodness of your products and services. You must believe in yourself. Leaders have what is called ―courageous patience. when you just focused intently on the person speaking with you. you need a combination of two ingredients: character and competence. What Makes a Good Leader? To be successful as a leader. By saying what you’ll do and then doing what you say. To be a successful leader. you’re in good company. You must lead by example and obtain management skills that inspire others to join you in the exciting project of building a great company. ignoring all else? The Most Essential Leadership Qualities Integrity is perhaps the most valued and respected quality of leadership and one of the most importantmanagement skills you need to attain. your company. there is always a period of uncertainty when no one knows if the effort is going to be successful. You need to be a person of integrity. To be trusted in business. and in the people around you. What makes a good leader is the use of effective management skills such as spending 50 percent or more of their time listening carefully.QUESTION 2 A Good manager without good leadership skills will face continual challenges in motivating his/her team and producing results. You need to believe that you are offering an excellent product or service in every way. you will build trust around your team. you instill the same feelings and attitudes in others. and in your people. . especially when everyone around them is wondering whether it’s the right decision or if it was a mistake to commit to a particular course of action. one that makes a difference in the lives of your customers. you must become excellent at the key capabilities and functions of leadership and set yourself on a course of continuous improvement throughout your career.‖ Between the decision and the result. Someone people trust and are willing to follow. Great leaders understand that some of the best leadership qualities entail listening to others with undivided attention. When was the last time you actually listened single-mindedly to one of your staff members? Can you remember when you last listened to someone without interruptions or distractions from either telephone calls or drop-in visitors.

. or any other skill. Look for one from an author or organization you trust. There are so many people that need to lead. these sorts of conferences can benefit your growth immensely. but so few who consider taking the steps to improve their skills at leading. Leadership Conferences: We do some of our best thinking in groups. so it’s important to identity which is the most helpful. Leadership is a lot like golf (I imagine I’m not much of a golfer) in that it takes some dedicated effort and motivation to become a true star. their leadership awareness. one that comes with a referral. Unfortunately. If you are professionally invested in the development of better leadership practices. It just takes effort. But there are almost as many books as there are leadership specialties. and review the schedule of events carefully. Consider contacting your HR or Organizational Development department for recommendations. and even some flashy new tricks: Leadership Seminars: Leadership is starting to find its way into college curriculums. They can vary in quality and methodology (a lot like books on the topic). but some of them can be very worthwhile. Luckily we have an alternative. But like golf. reaching that stardom is not out of reach. a lot of us missed the chance to get that formal education. or better yet. Being able to bounce ideas off one another usually makes the end result better than the sum of the parts. Leadership development conferences offer great opportunities if you can find the right people. you are ahead of the game. Leadership seminars are classes that are geared toward polishing your skills in a classroom like setting. Look into organizations that fill the right need. but something a little more personal could be for you if you just want some perspective for yourself. a clinical study of leadership might be in order if you are looking to create a training program for managers.How to grow: Leadership development. I’d like to start with a metaphor. possibly in training some of your own staff. Leadership Books: Books are usually the first line of defense against leadership ignorance. They may even help you pay for them. Just by searching for a way to improve. Leadership conferences help people who actively pursue the field of leadership share their views and hammer out best practices. Tools for Developing Leaders: There are many tools that an aspiring leader can use to develop their fundamentals.

Leadership Articles: Articles might be the most time-effective solution to your leadership questions. If you have enough information to decide what it is exactly that you need help with. and that can make them incredibly useful. By using stories that illustrate their point in practical and noticeable terms. or blinding psychotic insight (whichever term you prefer) . How-to: These books are the most direct. and brief articles can provide them.Here are some of the different types of leadership texts: Parables: Every since we were little we were taught important lessons through stories. Inspiration: These books can put you in the right frame of mind to learn think about leadership development. they also read quickly. the reader can almost experience the situation being described. they can be the key. They are usually very focused and direct. a how-to might fit the bill. In addition to be more focused. and they address one distinct issue. There is no reason leadership should be any different. epiphany. Biography: Learning about the great leaders of the past can be a great step forward on your own path to leadership development. The added upside is you get to see how things turned out without the pesky experimentation. Leadership development has a lot to do with building a strong set of tools to solve problems. This means you don’t have to pore over an entire encyclopedia on leadership to get to the point you needed to have your breakthrough. If you know what you’re looking for and need a straight-forward answer. Case Studies: Learning from history is almost as good as experience.

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