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STRUCTURAL CONCRETE REPAIR BY MEANS OF MACHINES SIKA CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGY
Philippe Doriot Civil Engineer HES-UTS. STM Manager Sika Limited (Vietnam)

Introduction More and more often old concrete structures need either maintenance work or even sometimes replacement of the existing structural concrete. Indeed, nowadays, concrete structures are exposed to various external or internal aggressions that would lead to the deterioration of the concrete structure. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce an efficient and economical concrete repairs system using machines for the application of the repair materials. The Sika Concepts would give guidance on the correct procedure and on the appropriate repairs systems selection, while the Sika Technology would present in which manner the application of the repairs system should be performed. In addition, several International case studies will support this paper proving that nowadays such concrete repairs system should be used when economical and high quality repairs are required. 1. CONCRETE DAMAGES The successful repair and protection of concrete structures that have been damage or have been deteriorated require professional assessment, then design, supervision and execution of a technically correct strategy. Prior to see how to conduct a proper assessment of the conditions of the structure, it seems important for us to remind that concrete damage occurs under different conditions. Concrete, damage and defects Basically in this category we can summarize 3 main causes leading to the deterioration of the concrete structures. Concrete structures can be Mechanical, Chemical or Physical attacked.

direct chemical exposure or even the too well know alkali aggregate reaction (AAR/ASR or AAR/ACR). Such damage is commonly calling “Stray/Electrical current” damage. under certain circumstances this protection might disappear and corrosion of the steel would be developed. At the steel surface. Another damage is the results of metals of different electropotential that are connected to each other in the concrete and corrosion would occur. that is Physical damage. The Contamination by corrosives like Chlorides is carried into the concrete in solution in water. The development of steel corrosion would lead to the spalling of the concrete. Abrasion or wear’s solicitations might lead as well as to mechanical damage. Damage by Carbonation. . This section would be not complete if overloading solicitations are not mentioned. However. In countries where cold winter seasons is part of the normal weather conditions. physical damage or does it the results of reinforcement corrosion damage? Determination of the Objective regarding the Repairs and Protection. it is required to determine the “root of cause”. salt crystal expansion and freeze thaw action would be as well as a kind physical damage to concrete structures. Following the review of the assessment survey in terms of original design and construction methods. The third common damage. Concrete damage due to steel reinforcement corrosion Most of the concrete structures are steel reinforced structures. rust staining for instance. MANAGEMENT IN CONCRETE REPAIRS In order to conduct a proper and correct repair work. the steel is normally protected against corrosion by the passivating alkalinity of the cement matrix. would be the results of thermal movement on the structures. they attach and break down the passivating layer and then accelerate the steel corrosion process. Assessment Survey of the existing structures: This process should always include investigations on the current conditions of the visible and non-visible defects. current and/or future exposures. chemical. Diagnostic of the Causes of the Deteriorations. In reinforced concrete. even in alkaline concrete. 2. The questions that we need to answer are: does the identified damage is the result of mechanical. It is as well as interesting to be able to know the “history” of the use of the structure in order to be able to appreciate the past. The carbon dioxide ingress causes carbonation of the cement matrix. it is required to process systematically a certain strategy by observing the following rules. erosion or even efflorescence/leaching.The Mechanical damages are the results of solicitations provoked by impact. vibration or even explosion. The Chemical damages can be the results of the action of bacterial.

By order we can summarize the following:  Remove damage concrete to exposed steel. typically how the repair system would take form. exposures. methodology. we are going to see. The Selection of the Repair products system will have an influence on the application system. all defected concrete must be removed up to the steel. . the application method can be chosen disregarding the type of repair products.The Owner has obviously a number of options that will effectively decide the appropriate repair and protection system meeting his further requirements. Then by hand or by means of machine the removed concrete volume would be replaced by a repair product that meets the requirements particularly in terms of durability. it is required to protect them against further corrosion development  Replacement of the damaged concrete. that there is really a need of “managing” the repair work. Implementation. We can mention:  Do nothing. SIKA® REPAIR PRINCIPLES In this Part. The last part of the “management in concrete repairs” is its implementation.  Leveling of the surface and pores sealing on the surface.  Demolish the existing structure. Once the steel has been protected against corrosion and the damaged concrete replaced.  Improve. curing time and cost. This part would be detailed in the part No 4 of this paper. This part is exposed on the part No 5 – Repair System application selections 3.  Prevent or reduce further damage without repairs. stresses. at that stage the Selection of the Repairs system can take place. Prior to place the repair material.  Protection against development of latent damage. This management can be efficient only if clear communication and information exchanges between all parties are efficiently implemented.  Downgrade the structure. what are the principles of our repair system. it is possible to even add additional protection in order to prevent the development of latent damage typically like carbonation attacks. If the last option is retained. It must be understood that in some cases it is the repair product that would dictate the application method. appearance.  Protect exposed steel. This demonstrates once again. By mechanical means. while in others cases. Once the steels are exposed and cleaned. refurbish or strengthen all or part of the structure. suitable surface preparation and cleaning would be performed.

Exposures and stresses on the structures. without or with minimum disturbance. A typical requirement would be that the repair work requires to be conducted as quick as possible. tensile. it is required to know what is the life expectancy of the repair in terms of durability. To select appropriate repairs system products. bonding and shear strength. We can see from this aspect that curing and the achievement of the mechanical properties of the repair material take their importance. What kind of aspect and/or quality of the finishing surface is required are some of the parameters that need to be known in order to determine the suitable repair products. dynamic or even mechanical solicitations? Durability and maintenance.  Sealing and protective coating application preventing direct aggressive influence Typically hydrophobic impregnations or anti-carbonation coating complete the latest part of the Sika® Repair Principles. In place cost. Typically parameters that need to be confirmed are: mechanical strength requirement such as compressive. it would be rather judicious to establish various repair systems corresponding to certain designated properties for a certain cost in order to let the Owner decide. cost related matters should not be the first and the parameter that would dictate the repair choice. Does the repair material would be subject to special chemical.Depending on the repair system choice. we would have to take it into consideration. We would see in the part No 5 – Repair System application selection. curing and environmental constraints. Appearance of the finishing surface. At the end of they day. supports. It is required to identify the type of the substrate. Here below are stated the parameters allowing the selection of the Sika® Concrete Repair Products: Nature and conditions of the structures. SELECTION OF THE SIKA® CONCRETE REPAIR PRODUCTS Prior to decide on the application method. The dimensions and positions of the repair are parameters that need to be known. it might be required if the system includes a protective coating to seal or level the material that replaced the damage concrete. Does the strategy consider possible future maintenance? These parameters and consequently the resulting product’s choice would have an impact on the over all cost of the repair. 4. Application timing. Indeed. as cost matter nowadays is always one of the most influencing parameter. However. . physical. it is rather advisable to determine the system of products for the repair.

 Out-put:0. V= 20m  Suitable for: Sika® MonoTop®R and Sika® MonoTop® 615 HB  Pneumatic roughcast applicator  Wet applied sprayed of fine or coating repair. By machine applied we consider in this paper the following systems:  Shotcrete rotor type spraying machine  Dry sprayed applied repair mortar Aliva AL 246:  Dry rotor spraying machine.  Out-put:1. V= 80m  Suitable for: Sika® MonoTop® 610 and SikaTop Armatec® 110 EpoCem® .4 m3/h  Maximal aggregate size: 8 mm  Conveying distance: H= 60 m. REPAIRS SYSTEM APPLICATION SELECTION As mentioned earlier.5 mm  Conveying distance: H= 300 m. Aliva AL 1150:  Pneumatic gun spray. V= 80m  Suitable for: Sikacrete®-Gunite 103 and SikaCem®-Gunite 133  Mortar pump  Wet applied cementitious repair mortar Aliva AL 2000:  Screw pump type machine.3 l/min  Nozzle plate: 5-9.  Out-put:0. depending of the final mechanical properties of the repair material in some cases the product would be either hand or machine applied.0 m3/h  Maximal aggregate size: 16 mm  Conveying distance: H= 300 m.4 – 4.3 – 2.5.

SIKA® CONCRETE REPAIR SYSTEMS . noise (*) High Density (*) High early Strength (*) Compaction (*) Bond strength +++ = Most suitable in terms of quality and cost. the product to be chosen must be of the related application type. when considering the repair of a concrete structure. Actually.Dust. overhead Small. we have to deal with more than one single product. (*) Typically when looking for such properties. The type.Here below a chart guiding in which conditions the application of the repair should be performed for a designated product allowing both types of application. In that case. the repair work would consist of a Repair system consisting of various products. .PRODUCTS As we have previously seen. understanding that the volume to be applied is large and allow considering an application by means of machine. The product would be either a hand or machine applied product. this chart would as well as give guidance. Criteria (*) Repair Volume . individual patches ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ ++ +++ + + + Environmental . their chemical base of products would depend and vary according the following:  Sika® Repair Principles  Suitable products as per the type of application in term of Nature of the repair. ++ = Suitable. if the repair should be hand or machine applied. based on the criteria. However. 6. + = Applicable possible under certain circumstances.Daily application volume > 6 man hand applied Machine applied +++ Hand application Repair Profile Thick. a sprayed applied cementitious repair material would be the best solution.

Sikacrete®. Can be trowelled once applied. Sika® MonoTop® 610: 1 components Cementitious polymers modified containing silicafume for Bonding Slurry and reinforcement Corrosion Protection.  Selection of the Application System  Suitable products as per the Application method. . SikaCem® -Gunite 133: 1 component polymers modified cementitious repair gunite containing silicafume for dry spraying repairs.Gunite 103 Silicafume Cementitious SikaCem® -Gunite 133 Sika® MonoTop® (***) SikaGrout® (***) Modified Amino Alcohol Sika® FerroGard 903 (ACCI) EpoCem Sikagard® (***) EpoCem® Sika Refit®. Sika® Concrete Repair Systems – Summary as per Sika® Repair Principle Action Protect Exposed Steel Material Base EpoCem Product SikaTop®-Armatec EpoCem® Application 110 Gun Spray Or Brush Spraying Dry Spraying Dry Hand Hand Hand Roller Polymers modified + Sika® MonoTop® 610 Silicafume Cementitious Polymers modified + Sikacrete®.Gunite 103: 1 component cementitious repair gunite containing silicafume for dry spraying repairs.2000 Polymers modified + SikaTop® -Seal 107 Silicafume Cementitious Replace Damage Concrete Protect Latent Damage Pore filling Gun Spray Or Spraying Wet Prevent Siloxane Aggressive Ingress Sika® Aquastop S Sikagard® (***) W Hand Roller SikaTop®-Armatec 110 EpoCem®: Cement based epoxy modified 3 components anti-corrosion coating and bonding agent. Sika® Concrete Repair Systems  Suitable products as per the requirement dictated by the Objectives. Can be trowelled once applied.

Sikagard® (***) EpoCem®: 3 components cement based epoxy modified pore sealer Sika Refit® 2000 : 1 component polymers modified containing silicafume pores sealer SikaTop® -Seal 107: 1 component flexible protective and waterproofing coating. Sika® FerroGard 903: 1 component corrosion inhibitors for reinforced concrete. would be compacted efficiently onto the prepared substrate. REPAIR SYSTEM PRODUCTS APPLIED BY MACHINE: PRINCIPLES OF WORKING In this part. compaction and consequently meeting the Objectives requirements. The “dry spray method” is particularly suitable for major repair projects where dust and rebound can be effectively confined or protected against and where the environment and appearance are not unduly sensitive. The mortar being sprayed with a minimum of 2 bars pressure. we would see how sprayable repair products could be efficiently applied insuring perfect bonding. Closed to the nozzle the water is manually added according to the consistency wished. Sika® Aquastop S / Sikagard® (***) W: Siloxane base water Repellent Impregnation. SikaGrout® (***): Non shrink cementitious grout for pourable repair.Sika® MonoTop® (***): 1 component polymers modified repair mortar for hand of wet spraying applied. Principle: The Dry mix mortar is transported by means of air under pressure. 7. . a) Dry spraying applied method. b) Wet spraying applied method.

It must be stated that general rules and practices regarding repair work remain valid and must be performed prior spraying any mortar. In relation with the Objectives of the repair (in terms of durability.Principle: The repair mortar is first mixed as per the recommended water dosage and fed in “softplastic” consistency into the pump’s hopper. Air is added at the nozzle. which then dissipates and compacts the mortar onto the prepared surface. By dense stream. Indeed. etc. All the wet sprayed applied repair mortar would allow the possibility to be trowelled after being applied. exposure. the application of the mortar required a proper surface preparation in order to get perfect bonding properties between old concrete (the substrate) and the new applied mortar.). Here below guidance chart. particularly in confined spaces and where appearance is important. The “Wet mix mortar” is suitable for most types of concrete repair. chemical attack. the pump will transport the material to the point of use. we can chose different kind of repair products that can be either dry applied or wet applied. showing suitable application choice when the Application principle of the repair work is decided. However the choice between a wet or a dry machine application would depend on the additional criteria stated below: Wet mortar application Low Dust generation Mortar consistency Aesthetic (Trowel) In confined spaces Minimum rebound Dynamic load Hand applied possible Dry mortar application Long transport No premixing Thick layer High out-put No primer required Easy cleaning Start/stop easy 8. For instance when large volume of repairs products would need to be applied. CONCLUSION AND INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE PROJECT LIST .

timing. plant. and cost. this solution remain the most suitable solution.Nowadays. 670 W Switzerland (Zurich) & Concrete damage by Sika®MonoTop®-610 and R France (nice. It is even more interesting to consider the implementation of them due to the constant increase of constraints regarding quality. Miria Island Chloride attack repair water tank repair. Tas of SikaCem®-Gunite-103 SikaCem®-Gunite-133 SikaTop® Armatec-110EC Sikacrete® Gunite-103 Sika® MonoTop®-615HB Malaysia. the constant improvement and development of new construction repair materials and the efficiency of the spraying equipment allows the application of repair material by means of machines meeting Owner’s expectations. Port Large sections of spalling SikaTop® Armatec-110EC August Rail bridge on concrete piers Sikacrete-Gunite-103 Australia. deteriorating building Australia. Prai Concrete Jetty For Tenega spalling Nasinal Berhad erosion and Sikacrete® Gunite-103 Malaysia.A Australia. Monaco) erosion and bacterial attack SikaGrout® 212/214-11 Waste water drainage SikaCem® Gunite 133 Heating Poor concrete carbonation . S. LRT Transfer Large Honeycomb Tunnel Sikacrete® Gunite-103 Tunnel lining repair China. already implemented for more than 10 years in certain countries prove that when large repair volumes need to be applied with high quality requirements. Sika®MonoTop®-610 and R Sikagard®-720 EpoCem® Sikagard® 701 W. Woomera External concrete repair water tanks. Xiaolandgi Dam Switzerland. Zurich Spalling concrete due to Sikacrete® Gunite-103 fire quality. International reference project list of Sprayed applied repairs (Extract) Project name Requirement / Problem Products used South Australia. Such techniques. TNB. aqueduct. durability. Annandale Carbonation affected steel Sika®MonoTop®-610 corrosion SikaCem®-Gunite-103 Sikagard®-680S Australia St Columbians Complete restoration College restoration.

Silvertown Concrete spalling due to SikaTop® Armatec-110EC Viaduct. Kingdom Seattle Carbonation. London carbonation and Chlorides Sikacrete® Gunite-103 . concrete spalling SikaTop® Armatec-110EC Sikacrete® -Gunite-103 England. sewage Chemical attack. thermal Sika®MonoTop®-610 and R treatment plant movements Sikagard-720 EpoCem USA.Germany.

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