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When attending the Kiwanis Medieval Faire Thy Old English Tutorial
DON'T SAY... Do you know the time? You are very pretty. Your pants are purple. You are quite handsome. I have been admiring you. Where is the restroom? Let's go there. Come here. Do as you will. I'll see you later. Perhaps we'll meet then. Maybe I'll bring the beer. What do you say? Alright! Cool! He has a lot of money. Good morning, ma'am. Good day, sir. Good evening, bud. Get lost, bud. Greet\ladies / gentlemen. It's quite beautiful. Yes, I think so. No, I don't think so. Why do you need it? I ask you. Please, what is the cost? Thank you, you are kind. I think we're late. I swear! Truly, that's a fact. Do / Dost You are / Thou art Your / Thy You / Ye You / Thee Where / Whither There / Thither Here / Hither Will / Wilt Later / Anon Perhaps / Perchance Maybe / Mayhap or Belike You say / Say you Alright / Splendid Has / Hath Morning / Morrow Day / Den Evening / Eventide or E'en Bud / Sirrah Gentlemen / Good Gentles Beautiful / Beauteous Yes / Yea or Aye No / Nay Why / Wherefore Ask You / Bid You Please / Prithee or Pray Thank You / Grammarcy I Think / Methinks Swear / Troth Truly / Verily
INSTEAD SAY YE THIS... Dost thou knowest the time? Thou art very pretty. Thy breeches are purple. Ye art quite handsome. I have been admiring thee. Whither is the privy? Let us go thither. Come hither. Do as thou wilt. I will see you anon. Perchance we will meet then. Mayhap I will fetch the ale. What say you? 'Tis most splendid! He hath a lot of money. Good morrow, my lady. Good den, my lord. Good e'en, sirrah. Make your leave, sirrah. Greetings, good gentles/ladies. It is most beauteous. Yea, methinks so. Nay, methinks not. Wherefore needest it thou? I bid you. Prithee, what is the cost? Grammarcy, you are most kind. Methinks that we are late. By my troth! Verily, it is so.
A long time ago. Hey King Hey Queen The Queen is coming. Good afternoon, Duke. Good evening, sir. Good morning, ma'am. Hello, Constable (or Knight). Good Morning My friend, how are you? Come here, kid. What's your name, kid? Waitress, drinks all around! I don't know him. I have but nothing. Goodbye, my friend. Goodbye, ladies.
Long / Goodly Length Addressing the King Addressing the Queen Speaking of the Queen Addressing a Duke/Duchess Addressing Nobility Addressing Nobility Addressing Officeholders Addressing Well-Dressed Addressing an Equal or Addressing Children Addressing Children Addressing Serving Woman Don't know / Know Not Nothing / Naught Goodbye / Fare Thee Well Goodbye / Adieu
A goodly length in times past. Your Majesty or Majesty Your Highness or Your Grace Her Grace cometh. Good den, Your Grace. Good eventide, My Lord. Good morrow, My Lady. Your Honor (or Your Worship) Good Morning Sir (or Mistress) Goodman/wife, how fare thee? Come hither, my lad/lass. What be your name,? Wench, beakers all around! I know not that name. I have but naught. Fare thee well, My Goodman. Adieu, My Good Ladies.
Embellish thy language! If one word wouldst do, be thou sure to use two! Pepper thy speech by inserting "right", "well", and "most" whitherto possible
Guide to speaking Old English (medieval era) •START WITH THE BASICS- The Old-English (O.E.) language is just that, old. No one talks that way anymore. But what if you found yourself in a century when they did speak this language? As with learning any new language, you have to start with the basics. "Yes" and "No" vs. O.E. "Yea" and "Nay." "Goodbye" vs. O.E. "Good day" or "God be with ye." The simple forms of communication will get you off to a great start. •2 AVOID WORDS THAT WILL OFFEND- Be careful that you aren't offensive! If you were to walk up to a man/woman in the early Medieval times and tell them they look nice, you are in fact telling them they look "foolish." The same with the word "pretty," which meant "cunning and tricky" until the late 1400s. •3 WATCH OUT FOR MODERN WORDS AND PHRASES- Every word has a history, and original meaning. Words traveled from all over the globe and had to become known and popular before they were recognized. For instance, "hello" is the adaption for the 16th
Listen to how you talk and the words you use. Study the differences and think about how you might say it differently so that the same message gets across to someone from the 900s. but it completely different from how we see and spell the word today. •9 LISTEN AND CONSIDER. to see if you can't make it work. However. most likely. and try from another angle. "hurt" wasn't until the 1200s. and that includes the way they speak." Do not use it here! Keep everything flowing and full." Try to keep to the more simple words. "I worry about your safety. language. "I care for you to be well. Everyone in Medieval England substituted "you" with "ye. And you wouldn't go around Medieval England spouting phrases like "I'm going to brain you." vs. so try to change it around completely." •4 BUILD YOUR VOCABULARY. while the lower classes spoke English.So. After the invasion of the AngloSaxons into England. Find online resources and dictionaries that record the historical information of words and bookmark it. and now its time to build your vocabulary. and was not recorded until the late 19th century. Keep it in a notebook so you can have it handy to review. The upper class did not speak as the lower." or "you've got to be kidding me.century word "hollo.E. What are some of the most common phrases you would need to know when visiting a foreign country? You couldn't ask someone in Medieval England "Where's the bathroom?" because. You might think of a phrase you want to say and find that none of the words will work. •6 FROM THE NOBLES TO THE COMMONERS. you begin learning a language by starting with the basics. How would you communicate that you needed help if you were injured? Good news! "Help" is in the O. you'll notice the nobles spoke more French. For example "It is" was often contracted to "'Tis" and so on. People wrote how they thought a word sounded. •5 THROW AWAY CONTRACTIONS. Use something more simple like "sick" or "wounded. this was actually two words "Ealne Weg. that is always the best when you are unsure what is appropriate.Look at documents and letters written in Old English. rather than how they'd been told was the proper way to spell it. This way you aren't having to research it every time you want to use it." ." (which was the shout to grab someone's attention). •8 JOURNAL IT.We might be lazy with the English language today by shortening words like "do not" to "don't" and "you would" to "you'd.It is important to write down whenever you learn something new about a word. The contractions of past centuries are not the same as those we use today. Notice the spellings. Notice words like "Always"-which were not used in this form until 1350-and how in O. common folk did." It means the same thing.E.It is important to learn your history." upper class included. they'd point you to a nearby river for you the bathe in. •7 READ. Remember that the lower class are not as educated.
An achievement of arms The amount of land which one team can plough in a day. worn under or instead of plate or mail a walkway on the battlements of a castle The Lord Almoner of England was responsible for receiving property forfeit to the crown and the belongings of suicides. 120 was the average to maintain one family but this varied depending on the land. These were given as alms to the poor. usually of linen.Anon (Until later) Morrow (day) E’en (Even/Evening) Fare-Thee-well (Goodbye) Ne’r (never) Mayhap/Perchance/Belike (Maybe) A achievement acre a full display of an entire coat of arms. a piece of leather or parchment laced to the shoulder. right of presentation to a church dignitary armour . probably more decorative than protective and usually bearing the arms of the wearer a padded and quilted garment. penance imposed by a priest on a member of the nobility requiring payment of a sum of money to the benefit of the poor advowson ailette aketon allure almoner alms .originally meaning little wing.
A bill passed by Parliament acting as judge and jury and imposing sentence on a single person. Sometimes fitted with a small bar at the sealed end which was placed against a surface maker of arrowheads smooth and flat masonry blocks bill of attainder. the maximum death a cupboard designed to show off fine silver and pewter Blue in heraldry arrowsmith ashlar attainder aumbry azure B bailey baldaquin banker barbican an enclosed courtyard a canopy over the highest place on the top table in dining embroidered cover for a bench or chair a projecting outwork designed to protect a gateway . The Bill required signing by the monarch and the minimum sentence was loss of all titles and lands.amercement ancere angel argent ark armiger arquebus a fine in law tub for washing etc. English gold coin worth 6/8 (6 shillings and 8 pence 33p). Also a messenger of God Silver in heraldry a wooden coffer (see coffer) a person who has been granted and is entitled to bear a coat of arms early firearm consisting of a tube sealed at one end with a touch-hole.
and dealer in. Sometimes called a hand and half sword bastion batter belfry bellows part of the defences of a castle standing proud from the wall and giving a good field of coverage for defenders a sloping thickening at the base of a wall a mobile wooden tower used to transfer troops onto a wall armour . diamond sectioned blade bastard sword long double edged sword which can be used single or doubled handed. leather Thrusting sword used in Europe having a strong. A perpetual right which could be bequeathed and inherited. short.a visor which is named because the alternate raised and lowered horizontal ridges resemble those in the leather bag of traditional fire bellows the space between a ditch and a wall plate protection for the neck and chin forming a complete closure with the helmet a pole weapon based on a hedging tool having a straight blade and one or more hook-like blades see blank-manger unlike the sweet pudding of today this was made from pounded poultry or other white meat boiled with rice and almond milk and sweetened with honey the description of an armorial bearing land given by the king and recorded in a book (bookland). Sometimes recorded as berm bevor bill blancmange blank-manger blazon bocland .barker baselard A worker of.
shield eight gallons a generic middle English name for a flatfish. sharply pointed arrowhead designed to concentrate all the power of the arrow into a single point to open mail or puncture plate armour highly decorated book containing the prayers required for each hour of the day.plate covering the upper chest down to the diaphragm wide arrowhead with a sharpened edge used mainly for harassing horses at a distance sword having a double edged. bodger bodkin one who makes rough and ready items from rough hewn timber long. This was combined with the middle English haly meaning holy to give the name for the largest flatfish which was book of hours bookland bordar borough bracer braies brattice breastplate broadhead broadsword buckler bushell butte ."Buckland" as in Devon. Common term for the medieval arming swords small. wide blade. usually round. This was usually commissioned for or by a single person see bocland cottager a town which has been granted a royal charter giving it the right to self government small arm protector for archers short underpants tied at the waist wooden hoarding built out from a battlement armour .
the halybutte (halibut) buttery buttery buttress storage for wet goods such as ale. particularly. From the latin cannon meaning a reed the church bell was rung eight times at each of the following . horses hollow tube used to launch a missile using gunpowder. the arms of the Queen Mother show bows and a lion reflecting her name Bowes-Lyon as much land as a team can plough in a year a freeman who is not a noble see mail A toll for obtaining right of way for land travel a fine paid by men to the lord of the manor for illicitly impregnating his bondswomen a repairer of footwear as opposed to a maker of footwear the cheapest white wheat bread (see also pain demain and wastel) canting arms carucate ceorl chainmail cheminage childwite cobbler cocket .midnight (matins). 3 pm (nones). 6 pm (vespers) and 9 pm (compline) arms which are designed as a pun on the name of their bearer.favourite dish on holy days . beer a stone support built against a wall C caltrop cannon canonical hours spiked device which always presents an upward facing spike used to impede men and. 9 am (tierce). beer storage for wet goods such as ale. midday (sext). wine. 3 am (lauds). wine. 6 am (prime). For example.
a hundred or a town a stone bracket maker of fine shoes using soft Cordovan leather outside slope of a ditch (see scarp) armour .plate covering the upper leg.coffer coif constable corbel cordwainer counterscarp couter cranage crenel crenellation cresset cuirass cuisse curtain a chest usually of metal (see ark) a cap made of linen which covers the head. cresset lamp plate armour for the body generally consisting of breast and back plates and protection for the hips armour . thigh to knee a wall surrounding a castle enclosure D demesne distrain donjon the manor house and adjoining lands which the lord of the manor kept for his own purposes to compel the performance of a duty great tower or keep (usually) but can also be a lord's . also a mail hood the principle officer of the household of a noble or king.articulated plate covering the elbow a fee paid for the use of a winch to load or unload a ship the open section of a battlement a battlement a projecting stone which is hollowed out to take oil and a wick.
27 inches (68. especially from attending court records of the excuses offered for failure to attend court when summoned long.private area dosser ornamental cloth on a chair E ell ell embrasure embrasure enceinte essoin essoin rolls estoc a measure of length for cloth equal to one and a quarter yards a cloth measure of 45 inches (114.3 cms) or.58 cms) opening in the defences of a castle used for shooting at attackers an opening in a wall soetimes for the use of archers an area enclosed by castle walls an excuse or exemption. straight and sharp thrusting sword. if the cloth is Flemish. First mentioned in the latter part of the fourteenth century and used for attacking the joints in plate armour a jug for pouring water over the hands when washing before and after a meal a servant who assists in the washing of hands before and after a meal ewer ewerer F falchion fief a heavy broad-bladed sword designed for hacking blows an estate which could be anything from a small plot of land to a whole country which is held by homage and .
glued and bound on another name for frumenty a dish made from wheat meal boiled with water or milk and seasoned an estate held without any feudal obligation A dealer in frippery. usually. fletcher fletchings flummery freehold fripper fructed frumenty fuller G gallon gambeson garderobe gathering gorget liquid measure which differed for win.service to a lord fistmeile a measurement derived from making a fist with the thumb raised. ale and beer. in medieval times. Sometimes erroneously called a blood groove. One who deals in old clothes bearing fruit in heraldry a dish made from wheat meal boiled with water or milk and seasoned groove in a blade to strengthen and lighten it. usually with arming points to actually hang armour a toilet in a castle a collection of pages forming part of a book before binding plate armour protecting the throat and neck above the . heavy jacket designed to fit under armour. The distance between the lower part of the little finger and the tip of the thumb maker of the arrow shaft including applying the feathers to the shaft the feathers on an arrow. Also one who prepares wool by combing it to thicken it.
plate covering the lower leg. knee to anke English silver coin worth 4d (4 pence .25p) a two handled drinking cup a frame supporting candles a tribute or service rendered to a feudal lord on the death of a tenant the amount of land needed to support the family of a freeman.about 1p). English gold coin worth 3/4 (3 shillings and 4 pence about 17p) Also known as a ha'penny (pronounced haypenny). Also used as haberden English gold coin worth 3/4 (3 shillings and 4 pence 17p) English silver coin worth 2d (2 pence .(5 shillings .about 1½p) Red in heraldry H haberden haberdine half angel half groat half noble half penny half ryal hanop herce heriot hide cod especially in its salted form. Also used as haberdine cod especially in its salted form. English silver coin worth ½d English gold coin worth 5/. This varied from place to place depending on the quality of the land the handle or grip of a sword hilt .breast plate greave groat gules armour .
an initial letter which contains an illustration within itself a ceremony where a tenant aknowledges his allegiance to his lord an area of land equal to a hundred hides hundredweight in mediaeval times this was a measurement of exactly 100 pounds I illuminator impleaded indenture artist who applied decoration including gold to a manuscript instituted and prosecuted a plea at law a written legal agreement so called because two copies were made on a single sheet and these were cut in an indented pattern so that they could be shown to fit together. having a conical crown and wide brim a long gown or dress . open-faced helmet. Used mainly by wedging into a hole in the writing slope inkhorn J jack defensive coat. either of several layers or quilted leather or linen.historiated capital homage hundred on a manuscript page. This was necessary in a time when only a few could read and the fact that the indents fitted was proof of agreement. the top of a horn used to contain ink or paint. often reinforced with metal studs or small plates a tightly fitted garment worn over armour (particulary mail) in the 14th century jupon K kettle hat kirtle light weight.
This is usually shown as torn and ripped in battle when displayed in heraldry. mantling . especially Welsh and English. Linked metal rings which are assembled into garments as armour. sometimes extremely elongated. hung from the torse on the helmet as an aid to identification.klappvisier visor for a bascinet featuring a pointed (pignose) or rounded (roundnose) snout to deflect arrows and bolts and a raised area around the eyes L lastage lawmoot liripipe livery longbow a fee paid for storage of goods General court session for the presenting of offences against the community elongated point of a hood. Usually made from a single bough of yew and usually the height of the archer plus a fistmeile an opening in a wall which is wider internally designed to admit light or for archers A toll on the value of a cargo loop wastage M machicolation battlement supported on corbels (see corbel) to allow command of the base of a wall mail from the medieval French maille meaning net. short lengths of cloth. the provision of food and clothing to retainers. An early form of armour which was gradually replaced by plate. bow. Also refers to distinctive clothing worn by retainers traditional. usually in the livery colours.
always kept in grass to provide hay when mown a massed combat at a tournament where individuals or groups of individuals meet together a dealer in cloth and fabrics solid section of a battlement a dwelling house and its adjacent buildings and the adjacent land used by the household a ditch either dry or full of water a mound of earth a toll to pay for upkeep of the town wall paid by visitors maslin mazer mead meadow melee mercer merlon messuage moat motte murage mural chamber a vaulted chamber in the thickness of a wall mural passage a passage in the thickness of a wall mural tower a tower on a curtain wall . The silver mark had a value of 13 shillings and 4 pence (about 66p) while the gold mark's value was £6 bread made from a mix of rye and wheat silver bound drinking vessel alcoholic drink made from fermenting honey and water.march marcher lord mark borderland usually used to refer to the Welsh and English border the lords holding lands usually on the Welsh and English border money of account (not a physical coin). sometime flavoured with the meadowsweet plant a vital piece of land for a farming community.
A commission for judges on circuit P pain demain pannage pantler pantry parapet parchment the finest white wheat bread (see also wastel and cocket) a toll on imported cloth one who prepared bread for trenchers and soft bread for sopping up food storage for dry goods such as bread. This term is completely interchangeable with vellum though some schools of thought regard the cheaper "split" skins as parchment an undersole usually of wood which was strapped under the normal footwear to protect it in wet conditions a toll to pay for upkeep of the streets paid by visitors large free-standing shield used primarily by crossbowmen a vertical pole designed for sword training. Practice at patten pavage pavise pell .about 33p). goat.N noble an English gold coin worth 6/8 (six shillings and eight pence . Common skins were sheep. Also a person of high birth O or Oyer and Terminer Gold in heraldry Legal term. calf and rabbit. literally to hear and determine. spices. table linen the outer wall of a walkway along a main wall the skin of any animal which has been prepared as a writing medium.
This obviously varies between areas.the pell. In the UK this term became the common name for any small knife carried about the person (USA pocket knife) English silver coin worth 1d (1 penny .articulated plate covering the knee counter balance weight at the hilt of a sword designed. along with the rest of the hilt. The distance between the back of the plough and the nose of the ox armour . considered a delicacy a small rear door penny pickerel pilaster pipe plackart plate ploughland pole poleyn pomell pontage portcullis posset postern .plate covering the lower torso below and overlaping the breastplate the generic term for armour made from metal plates. measurement of land. the amount of land ploughable by a team of eight oxen in a year.½p) small pike (fish) a shallow pier against a wall to strengthen it barrel containing 105 gallons armour . to balance the weight of the blade a toll paid to cross a bridge a lattice made of metal or wood which is dropped to block a passage a drink made from hot mlk curdled with wine and sweetened. articulated at the joints. Pell-mell is derived from this word penknife small knife used to cut and trim quills.
stone or some other material raised vein in a sword blade designed to give extra revetted riser . Used in combat training another term for hundredweight. etc widely regarded as being from the body. in mediaeval times. clothing or associated artifacts of a saint the side of a ditch which is faced by wood. This term was not used until the sixteenth century so is inappropriate when describing swords prior to around 1530.potell purpure a measure of liquid equal to four pints. a measurement which. was exactly 100 pounds to add or remove someone from the title of property quintain quintel quitclaim R rampart reeve relic a bank of earth the chief magistrate of a town or village or the supervisor of an estate piece of material such as wood or bone. half a gallon Purple in heraldry Q quarrel quarter noble quarter ryal quillon short square headed bolt or arrow used in a crossbow English gold coin worth 1/8 (1 shilling and 8 pence about 8p) English gold coin worth 2/6 (2 shillings and 6 pence 13p) cross guard on a sword. The original cross guard or simply cross is usually used prior to that date dummy with a shield mounted on a post.
The host and his favoured guests sat one side of the salt (above the salt) while lesser guests sat below the salt Murrey or dark red in heraldry Fee for the inspection of goods by customs officials the side of a ditch a writer.(10 shillings . An English gold coin worth 10/. A scrivener on the other hand was literate.strength when thrusting rubricator ryal specialist artist or scribe whose task it was to apply red to a manuscript Also known as the rose noble.50p) S sable Black in heraldry sake and soke a grant which allowed the granter to intercept fines relating to his own estate which would otherwise have gone to the crown sallet salt an open faced helmet usually favoured by archers as well as the obvious reference to the condiment (which was very expensive in medieval times) this term also meant the large decorated container for the salt which was placed on the table. In monastaries no fire was permitted in the scriptorium for heat or light for fear of damaging the valuable original manuscripts from which copies were sanguine scalage scarp scribe scriptorium . Someone who can copy pages of text. Some monks were scribes and copied religious texts although they may not have been aware of the actual content. room or building devoted to the production of manuscripts. able to write original material and tended also to be numerate.
together with mantling.plate hinged from the fauld.(20 shillings or �1) a fee paid to have a stall at a market scutage sendal serf sheriff shilling sovereign stallage T tapet targe tasset tenné tithe torse a bed cover made of carpet round or oval shield armour . Usually employed as a clerk or accountant. later the silver coin worth 12d (12 pence modern day 5p) English gold coin worth 20/. money paid by a feudal landowner to a lord in lieau of service a very fine silk a tenant who is not a freeman. aided identification. mock combat for knights tourney . in charge of a shire (shire reeve) unit of weight equal to 1/20th of a pound. The serf went with the land if ownership changed the country equivalent of a town reeve.made scrivener able to write original material (unlike a scribe who was usually just a copier). Usually of the livery colours this. overlapping the cuisse and covering the upper leg Tawney brown in heraldry one tenth of a persons income given to the church winding of coloured cloth worn around the crown of a helmet.
This term is completely interchangeable with parchment though some schools of thought regard the lower quality "split" skins as parchment. Common skins were sheep. Green in heraldry a spiral stairway a tenant farmer (a free man until late 13th century after which a serf) vert vice villein W wardship warhammer wastel control of an estate by its landlord during the minority of an heir pole weapon having a blunt hammer head backed with a spike. lower cannon of plate covering the forearm a person holding land under feudal tenure the skin of any animal which has been prepared as a writing medium.upper cannon of plate covering the upper arm. Later became the term for wooden or other platters Payment by a vassal to his lord usually to ensure protection A fee or toll for the weighing of bulk merchandise a large bucket resembling a barrel with handles V vambrace vassal vellum armour . goat. Sometimes topped with a spike second best white wheat bread (see also pain demain .trebuchet trencher tribute tronage tyne siege engine operated by a counterweight large slice of hard bread used as a platter for food. calf and rabbit.
and cocket wether wharfage a castrated ram a fee paid to use the wharf .
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