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Voltage Source Inverter (VSI), flux pulsations due to voltage
harmonics cause extra power dissipation for hysteresis and
eddycurrents in the magnetic core. Based on the expected
inverter output voltage spectrum, a finite element analysis
method is discussed in this paper to predict supplyrelated
additional core losses. The finite element motor model is
tuned based on available ringtest data. Calculation results
are compared to the measurements collected during a real
motor drive testing.
Index Terms—Core losses, PWM inverters, induction
motors.
I. INTRODUCTION
When supplied by a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI), the
induction motor is subject to various kinds of
electromagnetic stress related to power electronic
switching [1]. Current and voltage supply harmonics, in
particular, may cause additional losses that need to be
roughly predicted in the design stage to avoid
overheating.
On one hand, flux pulsations caused by voltage
harmonics lead to extra power dissipation for hysteresis
and eddycurrents in the magnetic core [2]. On the other
hand, copper stray load losses originate due to current
harmonics, but are generally of minor importance thanks
to the filtering effect of motor inductances on voltage
PWM harmonics [1].
Sophisticated methods [3], [4] can be found in the
literature to model and compute hysteresis and eddy
current effects in laminated iron cores. Nevertheless,
although a high accuracy is used to reproduce the physics
of these phenomena, the actual system behaviour will
highly depend on such unpredictable factors as material
defects due to the manufacturing process of magnetic
laminated stacks [5]. Hence, reliable results can be
achieved only if the motor model is adequately tuned
according to past experience or test measurements
collected on technologicallysimilar machines.
Following the above premises, what this paper
presents is a method to compute PWMrelated core losses
in inverterfed induction motors by means of finite
element (FE) analysis, resorting to a preliminary
calibration of the FE motor model based on available
ringtest data.
II. MOTOR MODEL TUNING FOR FE ANALYSIS
After modeling the cage induction motor crosssection
(Fig. 1), stator and rotor magnetic materials need to be
appropriately characterized in terms of electrical and
magnetic parameters.
Fig. 1. Example of induction motor 2D crosssection.
In particular, as regards the magnetic parasitic
behavior (eddycurrents, magnetic hysteresis), only
reference or average performance figures are generally
available from the magnetic sheet supplier and,
additionally, the influence of the magnetic stack
manufacturing process is to be accounted for. To this end,
a possible way to characterize the FE model is to use the
ringtest data collected on the machine under study or on
previouslytested motors built with similar technology
(i.e. with the same magnetic sheet and the same
manufacturing process).
A. Ringtest data processing
The ringtest [5] is an experimental procedure which
allows for a relatively accurate quantification of the
specific losses in a laminated stator core magnetized by a
sinusoidal AC source. Assuming expression (1) for the
specific core losses (W/kg) as a function of the flux
density B
1
(peak value) and the frequency f, [6], the
method provides a way to identify the parameters k
H
, k
E
and α as briefly summarized below.
2 2
1 1
f B k f B k p
E H Fe
+ =
α
(1)
During ringtests the machine stator core, before being
wound and with the rotor removed, is energized by means
of a singlephase AC excitation circuit so that the
magnetic flux lines are coaxial circumferences inside the
joke (Fig. 2). By adjusting the current flowing in the
excitation turns, it is possible to generate the desired flux
density in the joke and to check it by measuring the
induced EMF on a pickup turn (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Cirtcuit schematic for ring test execution.
A Finite Element Approach to Harmonic Core Loss
Prediction in VSIfed Induction Motor Drives
Alberto Tessarolo
*
, Fabio Luise
**
*
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Trieste, via A.Valerio 10, 34127 Trieste, Italy
**
Ansaldo Sistemi Industriali, via G.Marconi 1, 34074, Monfalcone, Italy
SPEEDAM 2008
International Symposium on Power Electronics,
Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion
1309
9781424416646/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE
The total power consumptions P
meas
(B
1
,f), at frequency
f and B
1
yoke flux density, is measured at the excitation
terminals for two different values of B
1
(namely
1
B′ ,
1
B′ ′ )
and two different values of f (namely f′, f″).
Equation (1) is then written for each experiment, so
that an overdetermined system is obtained in terms of the
unknown quantities k
H
, k
E
, α:
     
     
     
     
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
′ ′ ′ ′ + ′ ′ ′ ′ =
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ + ′ ′ ′ =
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ + ′ ′ ′ =
′ ′ ′
′ ′ + ′ ′ =
′ ′
2
2 2
1 1
1
2 2
1 1
1
2 2
1 1
1
2 2
1 1
1
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
f B k f B k
M
f B P
f B k f B k
M
f B P
f B k f B k
M
f B P
f B k f B k
M
f B P
E H
yoke
meas
E H
yoke
meas
E H
yoke
meas
E H
yoke
meas
α
α
α
α
(2)
where M
yoke
is the mass of the stator yoke.
The system (2) can be regarded as a linear one in the
unknown quantities
E
k ,  
α
1
B k
H
′ ,  
α
1
B k
H
′ ′ . The
corresponding system matrices are:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′ ′
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
=
) , (
) , (
) , (
) , (
1
,
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
f B P
f B P
f B P
f B P
M
f f B
f f B
f f B
f f B
meas
meas
meas
meas
yoke
B A (3)
The leastsquare fitting solution [7] is found as:
  B A A A
t t
x
x
x
1
3
2
1
−
=
(
(
¸
(
¸
(4)
Finally, the sought parameters are obtained as follows:
 
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
′ ′ + ′ =
′ ′ ′
=
=
α α
α
) /( ) /(
) / log(
) / log(
1 3 1 2
2
1
1 1
3 2
1
B x B x k
B B
x x
x k
H
E
(5)
The determination of k
H
, k
E
, α leads to plot the
predicted core loss profile versus frequency for any flux
density B
1
(Fig. 5, dashed lines).
The limit of the method is that only the core yoke is
magnetized. Hence, possible extralosses associated to
core defects in the tooth region are not covered.
B. FE loss modelling and parameter calibration
1) Magnetic hysteresis. As regards hysteresis
modelling within FE software tools, the hysteresis cycle
is often approximated as an ellipsis (Fig. 3) or,
equivalently, a frequencyindependent phase lag φ
(0≤φ≤π/2) is supposed to exist, in each point, between the
phasors of B (flux density) and H (magnetic field
intensity):
( ) t H t H ω cos ) (
1
= (6)
( ) φ ω + = t B t B cos ) (
1
(7)
where ω=2πf is the electrical pulsation.
Fig. 3. Hysteresis loop shape in the HB plane for different choices of φ.
The specific hysteresis losses p
H
(W/m
3
) result from
multiplying the frequency f by the hyseresis loop area; to
obtain the value in W/kg one has finally to divide by the
core material density δ
Fe
. Analytically:
) sin(
) sin( ) cos(
) (
) (
1 1
0
1 1
0
φ
δ
π
φ ω ω ω
δ
δ δ
Fe
T
Fe
T
Fe
loop
hysteresis
Fe
H
f B H
dt t t
f B H
dt
t
t B
t H
f
dB H
f
p
=
= + =
=
∂
∂
= =
∫
∫ ∫
(8)
where T=1/f. If saturation is neglected, a constant
magnetic permeability µ can be also introduced so that
(8) becomes:
) sin(
2
1
φ
δ µ
π
Fe
H
f B
p = (9)
Equation (9), along with Fig. 3, shows how it is
possible to tune the entity of the specific core losses due
to hysteresis by adjusting the fictitious phase shift φ.
Moreover, by equalling (9) to the first term of (1),
which expresses the specific hysteresis loss component
according to the traditional model [6], we have:


¹

\

=
⇒ =
−
π
µ δ
φ
φ
δ µ
π
α
α
2
1
2
1
1
arcsin
) sin(
B k
f B
f B k
H Fe
Fe
H
(10)
For example, if δ
Fe
=7850 kg/m
3
, µ=3000×4π10
−7
H/m,
B
1
=1 T, α=1.37, k
H
=6.6×10
−3
J kg
−1
T
−α
, f=20 Hz, the
value of φ will be of 3.6 degrees.
1 − 10
4
× 0 1 10
4
×
2 −
1 −
0
1
2
60°
30°
15°
A/m
T
π
1310
from
through (6)
traditional
φ is chosen
frequency
density waveforms will be discussed in
core
specific resistance
tuning
conditions through
Fig. 4
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
densities (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5
(magneta), resulting from FEA
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
on the inverter to
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
W
Because the practical values of
from 2, one can observe that
through (6)
traditional
is chosen
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
frequency
density waveforms will be discussed in
2) Eddy currents.
core, they
specific resistance
Following the above premises
tuning
conditions through
Fig. 4. FE model reproducing the ring
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
densities (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5
(magneta), resulting from FEA
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
on the inverter to
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
0,00E+00
1,00E+04
2,00E+04
3,00E+04
4,00E+04
5,00E+04
6,00E+04
7,00E+04
8,00E+04
9,00E+04
1,00E+05
W
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
through (6)
traditional
is chosen
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
frequency
density waveforms will be discussed in
2) Eddy currents.
they
specific resistance
Following the above premises
tuning can be
conditions through
. FE model reproducing the ring
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
densities (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
on the inverter to
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
0,00E+00
1,00E+04
2,00E+04
3,00E+04
4,00E+04
5,00E+04
6,00E+04
7,00E+04
8,00E+04
9,00E+04
1,00E+05
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
through (6)
traditional model (1)
is chosen according to (10)
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
frequency f. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
2) Eddy currents.
they depen
specific resistance
Following the above premises
can be
conditions through
. FE model reproducing the ring
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
densities (Fig. 5).
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA
III.
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
on the inverter to
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
0,00E+00
1,00E+04
2,00E+04
3,00E+04
4,00E+04
5,00E+04
6,00E+04
7,00E+04
8,00E+04
9,00E+04
1,00E+05
0
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
through (6)(7)
model (1)
according to (10)
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
2) Eddy currents.
depen
specific resistance
Following the above premises
can be
conditions through
. FE model reproducing the ring
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
densities (Fig. 5).
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA
III. M
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
on the inverter to
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
) is acceptably consistent with the
model (1)
according to (10)
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
2) Eddy currents.
depend on
specific resistance ρ
Following the above premises
performed
conditions through
. FE model reproducing the ring
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
densities (Fig. 5).
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA
MOTOR
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
on the inverter topology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
100
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
is acceptably consistent with the
model (1) regardless of
according to (10)
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
2) Eddy currents. As regards e
d on
ρ of
Following the above premises
performed
conditions through the
. FE model reproducing the ring
and
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA
ring test
OTOR
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
100
0,78 tesla
1,17 tesla
0,78 tesla
1,17 tesla
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
is acceptably consistent with the
regardless of
according to (10)
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
As regards e
d on which value is
of the
Following the above premises
performed
the FE method (Fig
. FE model reproducing the ring
and ρ parameter tuning.
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA
ring test
OTOR FE
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
0,78 tesla
1,17 tesla
0,78 tesla
1,17 tesla
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that
is acceptably consistent with the
regardless of
according to (10).
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
As regards e
which value is
the core
Following the above premises
performed by reproducing the ring
FE method (Fig
. FE model reproducing the ring
parameter tuning.
This enables one to adjust
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
(magneta), resulting from FEA after model tuning (
ring test (dashed line)
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
200
0,78 tesla  FEA
1,17 tesla 
0,78 tesla  test
1,17 tesla 
Because the practical values of
2, one can observe that the
is acceptably consistent with the
regardless of
.
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
As regards e
which value is
core laminated
Following the above premises
by reproducing the ring
FE method (Fig
. FE model reproducing the ringtest on an actual machine for
parameter tuning.
This enables one to adjust φ
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
after model tuning (
(dashed line)
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
200
Hz
FEA
FEA
test
test
Because the practical values of
the modelling
is acceptably consistent with the
regardless of B
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
As regards eddy
which value is
laminated
Following the above premises,
by reproducing the ring
FE method (Fig
test on an actual machine for
parameter tuning.
and
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
after model tuning (
(dashed line)
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
300
Hz
Because the practical values of α are
modelling
is acceptably consistent with the
B and
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in
ddycurrent losses
which value is set
laminated
the
by reproducing the ring
FE method (Fig.
test on an actual machine for
parameter tuning.
and ρ
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
after model tuning (
(dashed line).
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
After the model is properly calibrated,
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
300
are
modelling
is acceptably consistent with the
and f
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
density waveforms will be discussed in Section
current losses
set for the
laminated material
the motor
by reproducing the ring
. 4).
test on an actual machine for
parameters of the
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
after model tuning (full
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
After the model is properly calibrated, t
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
are never
modelling of
is acceptably consistent with the
f, provided that
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
Section
current losses
for the
material
motor
by reproducing the ring
test on an actual machine for
parameters of the
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
full line) and from
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
the first step in
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
inverter with NPC topology is given in Fig. 6.
400
never
of hysteresis
is acceptably consistent with the
, provided that
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
Section IV.
current losses
for the
material
motor FE
by reproducing the ring
test on an actual machine for
parameters of the
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
line) and from
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
he first step in
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
400
never very far
hysteresis
is acceptably consistent with the
, provided that
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
V.
current losses in the
for the electric
material.
FE model
by reproducing the ring
test on an actual machine for
parameters of the
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
line) and from
he first step in
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done b
pology and modulation technique
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
500
very far
hysteresis
is acceptably consistent with the
, provided that
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
in the
electric
model
by reproducing the ringtest
test on an actual machine for φ
parameters of the
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
line) and from
he first step in
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
supply voltage spectrum. This can be easily done based
pology and modulation technique [8]
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
500
very far
hysteresis
is acceptably consistent with the
, provided that
This holds for sinusoidal magnetization at fundamental
. The extension to the case of distorted flux
in the
electric
model
test
φ
parameters of the
model until the experimental behaviour is well matched
in terms of magnetic losses for all frequencies and flux
. Magnetic core losses vs frequency for 0.78 T (blu) and 1.17 T
line) and from
he first step in
the motor FE harmonic analysis is to determine the
ased
[8].
An example of rated output voltage spectrum for a PWM
voltage
relevant frequency
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
effectively
stand
that the
revolving field that rotates at
second
corresponding slip value
if
har
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
Fig. 7
(Fig. 7b
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
F
voltage
relevant frequency
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
effectively
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
stand
that the
revolving field that rotates at
second
corresponding slip value
if the
harmonics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
Fig. 7
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
(Fig. 7b
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
For each significant component
voltage
relevant frequency
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
effectively
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
standstill. This assumption can be justified observing
that the
revolving field that rotates at
second
corresponding slip value
the
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
Fig. 7. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
(Fig. 7b
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
relevant frequency
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
effectively
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
that the h
revolving field that rotates at
(ω=2
corresponding slip value
current
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
(Fig. 7b) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
relevant frequency
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
effectively simulated
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
h
th
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at
=2πf
corresponding slip value
current
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
relevant frequency
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
simulated
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at
πf), being
corresponding slip value
current
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
relevant frequency h
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
simulated
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at
), being
corresponding slip value
spectrum contains only high order
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulation
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
values of rotor slip are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
h f. The phase current
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
simulated.
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at
), being f
corresponding slip value
h
spectrum contains only high order
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
in harmonic simulations.
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
currents induced in the cage
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
. The phase current
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at
f the fundamental
corresponding slip value is close to unity, i.e.:
± ω
h
h
spectrum contains only high order
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
.
a
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
the cage
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
. The phase current
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
can be implemented with
procedure, allows for a voltage
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at
the fundamental
close to unity, i.e.:
±
ω
ω
h
spectrum contains only high order
monics as usually happens in
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
a
. Example of FE analysis outputs
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
the cage
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
. The phase current
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
procedure, allows for a voltageimpressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
revolving field that rotates at hω
the fundamental
close to unity, i.e.:
≅
ω
r
spectrum contains only high order
monics as usually happens in case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
. Example of FE analysis outputs: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
the cage
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
or each significant component V
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
. The phase current
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
ω electrical
the fundamental
close to unity, i.e.:
1 ≅
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
at stand
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor cross
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
V
h
of
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
. The phase current
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
electrical
the fundamental
close to unity, i.e.:
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
at stand
consequence, the flux density and current field
distribution over the motor crosssection due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
of the
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
. The phase current I
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
electrical
the fundamental frequency
close to unity, i.e.:
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
at stand
consequence, the flux density and current field
section due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
calculates the relevant core losses (Fig. 8).
Fig. 6. Example of voltage harmonic spectrum for a three
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
the determined
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
I
h
imposed in
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
electrical radians per
frequency
close to unity, i.e.:
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
at standstill
consequence, the flux density and current field
section due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
are close to zero (Fig. 7a).
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
level PWM
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
determined
spectrum, a harmonic FE analysis is run
imposed in
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a
radians per
frequency
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at stand
: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
still.
consequence, the flux density and current field
section due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
level PWM
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
determined
at the
imposed in
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
order current harmonic produces a MMF
radians per
frequency. The
(
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
This is equivalent to suppose the rotor being at standstill
: magnetic field distribution
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solutio
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
As a
consequence, the flux density and current field
section due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
level PWM
inverter (harmonic amplitudes in percent of the the fundamental)
determined
at the
imposed in
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
so that the induced stator voltage equals the value V
h
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
MMF
radians per
. The
(11)
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
still
b
: magnetic field distribution due
to the fundamental (a) and to harmonics (b) in the supply voltage.
The visualization of the FE magnetic field solution
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
As a
consequence, the flux density and current field
section due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
determined
at the
imposed in
the simulation is adjusted by successive approximations
h
inferred from the spectrum. This iterative process, which
an automatic software
impressed supply to be
In each FE analyses, the rotor is supposed to be at
still. This assumption can be justified observing
MMF
radians per
. The
)
spectrum contains only high order
case of PWM inverters.
still
b
due
n
) highlights how the flux lines of the harmonic
fields are rejected from the center of the rotor by the
As a
consequence, the flux density and current field
section due to
harmonics strongly vary with respect to the fields
produced by the fundamental of the supply, for which the
As an output of each harmonic simulation the FE tool
1311
Fig. 8. Example of FE calculated losses for different harmonic orders.
The losses at the various interesting frequencies can be
summed to obtain the overall power consumption. This is
conceptually correct, because in any system excited by
multiple sources with different frequencies, the total
active power equals the sum of the active power due to all
the sources taken independently. This result will be
formally proven to hold (Section IV) also for the assumed
hysteresis loss model (II.B2).
One could wander if the use of FE analysis tools could
be skipped once an analytical model of magnetic core
losses, as per (1) and (9), has been established and
parametrically identified. The answer is that the
mentioned analytical expressions for the magnetic power
loss have a local meaning, i.e. p
Fe
and p
H
, defined by (1)
and (9) respectively, indicate specific losses within an
infinitesimal machine volume (dV) where the magnetic
flux density and field intensity peak values (B
1
and H
1
)
can be assumed constant. To compute the overall core
losses P
Fe
, though, the specific losses need to be
integrated over the entire stator and rotor core volumes:
∫ ∫
+ =
core
rotor
Fe Fe
core
stator
Fe Fe Fe
dV p dV p P δ δ (12)
where δ
Fe
indicates the core material density. In the ring
test, the flux density inside the motor yoke is almost
uniform (Fig. 4), which allows for (12) to be simplified
into:
( )
2 2
1 1
f B k f B k M p M
dV p dV p
E H yoke Fe yoke
core
rotor
Fe Fe
core
stator
Fe Fe
+ = =
= +
∫ ∫
α
δ δ
(13)
as done in writing (2). The same, of course, does not
apply to normal motor operation, when the flux density
amplitude strongly varies from point to point (Fig. 7),
especially when harmonic exciting fields are present. The
need is then explained for a FE tool capability of
numerically computing integrals (12) over the entire
volume of stator and rotor cores.
IV. INVESTIGATION INTO THE HYSTERESIS MODEL
SUITABILITY FOR HARMONIC FIELDS
In IIB it has been shown how the fact of modeling the
hysteresis process through a fictitious phase shift φ
between B and H sine waves is reasonably realistic as far
as the fundamental magnetizing component is concerned.
In this section the implications of applying the same
hysteresis loss model when the magnetization has time
harmonics will be investigated.
Let us suppose that B in each point of the motor core
contains not only the fundamental B
1
but also some time
harmonics, of amplitudes B
3
, B
5
, B
7
, etc. and phase angles
ψ
3
, ψ
5
, ψ
7
, etc. with respect to the fundamental, as it
actually happens under PWM supply. Neglecting
saturation, this means that, in any given point, the
magnetic field intensity can be written as:
... ) 5 cos(
) 3 cos( ) cos( ) (
5
5
3
3 1
+ + +
+ + + =
ψ ω
µ
ψ ω
µ
ω
µ
t
B
t
B
t
B
t H
(14)
If hysteresis is modeled through (6)(7) and the
fictitious shift angle φ is held the same for all harmonic
simulations (Section III), the equivalent flux density will
be:
... ) 5 cos(
) 3 cos( ) cos( ) (
5 5
3 3 1
+ + + +
+ + + + + =
φ ψ ω
φ ψ ω φ ω
t B
t B t B t B
(15)
The resulting trajectory of the (H, B) point looks like
the plots of Fig. 9, where a 23
rd
order harmonic, of 5%
amplitude, is superimposed to the fundamental as an
example, for different possible angles φ.
1 − 10
4
× 0 1 10
4
×
2 −
1 −
0
1
2
1 − 10
4
× 0 1 10
4
×
2 −
1 −
0
1
2
1 − 10
4
× 0 1 10
4
×
2 −
1 −
0
1
2
Loop due to the fundamental
Loop due to the fundamental with a 23
rd
harmonic
Fig. 9. Example of trajectory of the (H, B) point in presence of a 23
rd
order harmonic, of 5% amplitude, in the flux density.
It is remarked that the BH trajectory around the main
ellipsis is not affected at all by the phase angles ψ
3
, ψ
5
,
ψ
7
, etc.
The specific power consumption (W/kg) associated to
the distorted hysteresis loop (including harmonics) is:
 
  ... 5 3 ) sin(
... ) 3 sin( 3 ) sin(
... ) 3 cos( ) cos(
) (
) (
2
5
2
3
2
1
3 3 1
0
3
3 1
0
+ + + =
= + + + + + ×
×
(
¸
(
¸
+ + + =
=
∂
∂
=
∫
∫
B B B
f
dt t B t B
t
B
t
B f
dt
t
t B
t H
f
p
Fe
T
Fe
T
Fe
H
φ
δ µ
π
φ ψ ω ω φ ω ω
ψ ω
µ
ω
µ δ
δ
(16)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
5
0
0
3
0
0
0
3
5
0
0
4
0
0
0
4
5
0
0
5
0
0
0
5
5
0
0
6
0
0
0
6
5
0
0
7
0
0
0
W
Harmonic order
1312
The term of p
H
pertaining to the h
th
component, i.e.
2
) sin(
h
Fe
B
f h
φ
δ µ
π
, (17)
is exactly the hysteresis loss computed from the harmonic
analysis at frequency h f (Section III), in accordance with
(9). This confirms that the superposition principle for the
total power due to several sources at different frequencies
holds also with the adopted hysteresis loss model.
The problem is that, to the authors’ knowledge, no
significant evidence can be produced on the likelihood of
the assumed hysteresis model in presence of high order
harmonics. References have been found in the literature
[10], [11] demonstrating how, in presence of a distorted
excitation current waveform, the hysteresis loop shape
may significantly vary with respect to the one recorded
under sinusoidal supply; in [10], [11] authors observe the
possible occurrence of “minor loops” around the main
loop, but do not provide any practical or theoretical
criteria to predict the way in which the hysteresis loop
changes with the harmonic content of the excitation
currents. Therefore, the hypothesis of deformed
hysteresis loops as shown in Fig. 9 may constitute a
somewhat arbitrary assumption.
Nevertheless, one should consider that what is of
importance for the subject study is the power loss
computation only. To this end, a reasonable assumption is
that, due to the very small amplitude of motor harmonic
currents in the case of PWM supply, the shape of the
hysteresis loop does not change importantly compared to
the case of sinusoidal supply. In particular, the possible
“minor loops” originating from high order harmonics [10]
are assumed of negligible area compared to the area of
the main loop.
Fortunately, the above assumption is consistent with
the fact that hysteresis power loss, as (9) shows, weights
less and less compared to the eddycurrent loss
component, as the harmonic order h increases. In fact, if
we compute the hysteresis to eddycurrent loss ratio for
the h
th
order harmonic we have from (1) and (9):
h f k
f h B k
B
f h
p
p
Fe E
h E
h
Fe
E
H
1 ) sin(
) sin(
2 2 2
2
δ µ
φ π
φ
δ µ
π
= = (18)
Assuming the same values as in II.B1 for the
parameters in (18), the diagram of Fig. 10 is obtained.
10 20 30 40 50
0
1
2
3
4
h
E
H
p
p
Fig. 10. Hysteresis to eddycurrent harmonic loss ratio versus harmonic
order.
It can be seen that, while for the fundamental (h=1)
hysteresis losses prevail over the eddycurrent ones by a
factor around 3.5, the situation is reversed for high order
harmonics. In particular, the current harmonics produced
by the PWM, which are highorder ones, will cause large
eddycurrent losses and small hysteresis losses. This fact
makes the computation results very little sensitive to the
possible inaccuracies in the model used for harmonic
hysteresis loss computation.
V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The method proposed in this paper was applied to
predict the inverterrelated extralosses in a 5 MW
induction motor (4 poles, 900 rpm, 2400 V) designed to
be supplied by a MV threelevel inverter of known
voltage spectrum (Fig. 6). After the machine test data
were available, the design spectrum was adjusted
according to measurements so as to match the real
voltage distortion, which proved better than predicted
from the design data (Table I).
TABLE I
VOLTAGE DISTORSION FROM MEASUREMENTS
Voltage RMS Voltage fundamental THD Current
V V % A
2461 2343 32,1 426
2442 2323 32,4 369
2631 2533 28,0 592
2229 2094 36,5 277
2441 2344 29,1 417
Because no ring test data were available on the
machine under study, the motor model was tuned, as
described in Section II, based on ringtest data from
previouslybuilt similar machines.
The FE harmonic analysis, repeated for all harmonic
components as illustrated in Section III, led to the power
loss spectrum displayed in Fig. 8. Summing the power
losses over all the frequencies, the total power
consumption due to PWM harmonics was obtained equal
to 6638 W.
The computed value was then compared to the data
collected during the motor noload test. This test was
repeated, at the same speed, in two different conditions,
i.e. with the motor supplied from the grid (sinusoidal
voltage source) and with the motor supplied from the
inverter, obtaining the noload current diagrams reported
in Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Diagrams (interpolation lines) of the stator noload current
(fundamental rms values) versus the stator voltage (fundamental per
unit value) with sinusoidal and inverter supply at noload and at the
same speed.
It is remarked that, for the data processing to make
sense, the fundamental components (and not the total rms
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
0,85 0,9 0,95 1 1,05 1,1 1,15
A
V
Sinusoidal supply
Inverter supply
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values) of both motor currents and voltages had to be
recorded by means of a spectrum analyzer during the test.
The procedure followed to compute the experimental
core losses under inverter supply along with their
increment with respect to the sinusoidal supply is
analytically illustrated in Table II.
TABLE II
CORE LOSS EVALUATION UNDER GRID AND INVERTER SUPPLY
# Description ote
(1) Noload current, sinusoidal supply 383 A At rated V
(2) Noload current, inverter supply 455 A At rated V
(3) Total noload losses, sinusoidal supply 45 kW At rated V
(4) Total noload losses, sinusoidal supply 53,4 kW At rated V
(5) Windage and friction losses 7,1 kW At rated rpm
(6) Stator joule losses, sinusoidal supply 2,63 kW RI
2
(7) Stator joule losses, inverter supply 3,7 kW RI
2
(8) Core losses, sinusoidal supply 35,3 kW (3)(5)(6)
(9) Core losses, inverter supply 42,6 kW (4)(5)(7)
(10) Core loss increase due to inverter (kW) 7,38 kW (9)(8)
(11) Core loss increase due to inverter (%) 20,9 % (10)/(8)×100
The value of windage and friction losses was inferred
from the noload test under sinusoidal supply in
accordance with [9]. It can be seen that a good agreement
is obtained in terms of experimental and computed values
for the core loss increase due to inverter supply: the value
inferred from measurements is 7380 W (Table II), while
the calculated value is 6638 W. According to
measurements the increase equals to 20.9%, according to
calculations to 18.8%.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
A finite element (FE) approach has been discussed in
this paper to compute the magnetic core losses caused in
an induction motor by PWM inverter supply. The FE
model tuning procedure resorts to eddycurrent and
hysteresis loss characterization from available ringtest
data. The magnetic hysteresis phenomenon has been
modeled introducing a frequencyindependent phase lag
between the flux density and field intensity local values.
The appropriateness of this hysteresis model in presence
of time harmonics in the magnetic field has been
critically investigated. It has been concluded that possible
inaccuracies of this modeling approach are beneficially
mitigated by the prevalence of the eddycurrent
component over the hysteresis one in the losses due to
high order harmonics.
The application of the proposed method to a real 5
MW induction motor drive based a threelevel MV
inverter has been finally presented. A good accordance
has been found between test data processing and the
proposed calculation method. In both ways, the extra core
losses caused by the PWM supply are evaluated around
20% of the rated core losses under sinusoidal supply.
REFERENCES
[1] C.J. Melhorn, L. Tang, “Transient effects of PWM
drives on induction motors”, IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, vol. 33, Jul/Aug 1997,
pp.:10651072.
[2] L.T. Mthombeni, P. Pillay, “Core losses in motor
laminations exposed to highfrequency or
nonsinusoidal excitation”, IEEE Transactions on
Industry Applications, vol. 40, Sept.Oct. 2004, pp.:
13251332.
[3] Y. Kawase, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Mizuno, “3D Eddy
Current Analysis in a Silicon Steel Sheet of Squirrel
Cage Induction Motor”, IEEJ Transactions on
Industry Applications, 2003, vol. 123, pp. 323329.
[4] J. Saitz, “Computation of the core loss in an
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[5] G.B. Kliman, Sang Bin Lee, M.R. Shah, R.M.
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[6] A.E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley, A. Kusko, Electric
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[7] E.T. Whittaker, G. Robinson, The Calculus of
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[8] B.K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC
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[9] IEEE Std 1121996, IEEE Standard Test Procedure
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[10] I.A. Mohammed, B.A.R. AlHasemy, M.A. Tawfik,
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398401.
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