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INDEX

Abdessalam, 36
Abd al-Ahad, Amir, 27
abolition, 1115, 16, 75, 85, 105, 109
apprenticeship, 81
Atlantic slave system, 12, 20
British, 15, 28, 40, 47, 83, 154
Chinese, 27
colonialism, 1113, 1415
indentured servants, 82
Indian, 11920
Islamic, 21, 23, 28
non-slave forced labour, 1314, 16
Abu Dhabi, 110, 111
Aceh, 24
Act for the Regulation of Chinese Passenger
Ships to Southeast Asia, 161, 163
Afghanistan, 11, 27
Africa, 1, 2, 5, 9, 12, 15, 18, 76, 86
see also East Africa, Southern Africa, SubSaharan Africa, Uganda, West Africa
Ajman, 111
Akbar, 27
Akulukoloma, 41
Albay, 97, 98
alcalde mayor, 978, 1001
Al-Nasiri, Ahmad b. Khalid, 23
America, British, 7980
Amoy, 17, 15461, 163, 164
daotai (Circuit Intendant), 158, 160, 162
Amoy riot, 158, 159, 164
Andriamasinavalona, 47, 49
Andrianampoinimerina, 456, 47, 48, 50
Ankova, 45
Anna of the Cape (Anna van der Heyde),
624

Anna Rebecca of Bengal, 59, 60, 61, 66,


6871, 73
Antananarivo, 13, 47, 48, 50
apprenticeship, 7681
April of Ceylon, 68, 69, 73
Arabia, 24, 32, 33, 104, 109
see also Arabs, Bahrain, Hijaz, Oman,
Trucial Coast
Arabian Gulf, see Persian Gulf
Arabs, 26, 36, 3940, 42, 77, 82, 105
Asia, 1, 9, 18
see also Central Asia, Inner Asia, South
Asia, Southeast Asia
Aurora of Batavia, 67
Australia, 17, 110, 154, 155

Copyright
Babylonia, 3
Backer, Noach, 71
Bagamoyo, 357, 40, 42
Bahrain, 29, 103, 105, 106, 110, 111, 112,
113
Bakufu, see Kamakura Bakufu and Tokugawa
Bakufu
Baltimore, 80
Baluchis, 28, 105, 106, 110
Baluchistan, 21, 110
Bandar Abbas, 111
Bangkok, 17
banyaga (slaves), 88, 90, 945, 99100, 101
barracoons, 156
Basilan, 99
Batavia, 16, 602, 65, 668, 69
Batinah, 106, 110
Bedouin, 24, 38, 105, 113
Bena, 35
Bengal, 5, 11
Bengali, 16

233

234

Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World

Berlin, 35
Bin Mubarak, Marzuq, 1034, 11317
Bin Muhammad el Murjebi, Hamed, 35
Bin Mwinyi Bakari, Mtoro, 356, 42
Bin Said, Barghash, 34
Bin Salem, Sultan, 111
Bin Sanqah, Ismail, 108
Bin Saqar Al-Qasimi, Sultan, 103, 11112
Bin Thani, Muhammad, 1045
Bin Umran bin Abdullah, Bashir, 1078
Bisa, 3940
Bourbon Island, see Runion
Britain, 16, 467
army, 11, 18
child labour, 767, 79, 80
contracts, 7781
convicts, 16
fugitives, 77, 80, 81
penalties against workers, 779
poor, 78, 79, 83
population, 9
servants, 7781
trade, 467, 1823
see also abolition, British, colonialism,
workhouse
Britanno-Merina treaty of 1820, 46
British, 1534
Buddhism, 24
Theravada, 24
Buganda, 42
Buginese, 89
Bukhara, 27
Bunyoro, 42
Burdalah, Sidi al-Arabi, 22
Burma, 5, 13, 18
Bushire, 104, 111, 112

Orphan Masters, 703


slave lodge, 62, 64
capitalism, 7, 1212, 128, 1335
Cebu, 97, 99
Central Asia, 27
see also Kazakhs
Ceylon, 11, 62, 110
Chatterjee, Indrani, 150
Chavacano, 100
child labour, 19, 58, 623, 80, 119, 1245
Chilengwe (Litete, Mtalika), 412
China, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 27, 879, 95, 98,
177
Communist Party, 165
migration, 1718, 81, 100, 139, 15364,
1834
piracy, 156, 160, 163
population, 11
smuggling, 156, 160
trade, 173
see also Chinese, Qing dynasty, South
China
Chinese, 17, 18, 81, 100
coolie brokers, 154, 156, 157, 15964
coolies, 15364, 1834
traders, 92, 93, 94, 160, 17880
see also Cantonese, Fujianese, Hui
cholera, 1011
chonmin (despised people), 1667, 170
Chosun dynasty, 34, 1657
Christianity, 15, 148, 1778
chungin (middle people), 166
Circassians, 21
Cirebon, 26
Coelho, Gaspar, 174
colonialism, 2, 14, 20
American, 142
British, 1213, 16, 18, 25, 28, 7586,
87, 105, 10913, 1356, 158, 1604,
184
Dutch, 1213, 25, 5773, 87
French, 9, 12, 14, 17, 82, 155
comfort women, 4, 13745, 1501
Comoro Islands, 40
coolie trade, 83, 1537, 158, 15964, 1834
fraud, 153, 159
kidnapping, 153, 158, 159, 164
Cotabato, 98, 99

Copyright
Cairo, 11
Calcutta, 28
Caledon Code, 16
California, 154
Cambodia, 5
Canada, 154
Cannel, Fenella, 144, 1489
Cantonese, 156, 157, 160, 161, 164
Cape Town, 12, 14, 15, 16, 5871
Church Poor Fund, 58, 59, 70
Orphan Chamber, 58

Index
Cox, Percy, 111
Crawford, T. J., 158
cruzameintos (crossing over), 889
Cuba, 155, 156, 158
dar al-harb (abode of war), 23, 29
dar al-Islam (abode of Islam), 23, 24, 29
Dar es Salaam, 110
Darius I, 3
dates, 107, 109
datus (chiefs), 89, 93, 94, 95, 97
De la Fontaine, Jan, 65, 71, 73
Delhi sultanate, 27
De los Santos, Manuel, 889
Democratic Republic of Congo, 32
De Santa Eulalia, Pedro, 90
Deshima, 17780, 183
dhimmi (people of the book), 8, 22, 23, 24
diamonds, 10910
Digo, 34
Djajadiningrat, Hoesein, 25
Doe, 37
Domingo, 90
Dubai, 104, 107, 110, 111
Duke of Argyle, 158, 159
Dutch, 173, 177, 179, 1823
Dutch East Indies, 12, 13, 16, 87, 93
Dutch Reformed Church, 59, 66, 71

235

Emancipation Decree for Female Performers


and Prostitutes, 1834
Embu, 39
emigration
contract, 154
credit ticket system, 155, 159, 163, 164
Enlightenment, 15, 135
ENSO effect, 10
fanompoana (forced labour), 3, 45, 4951,
52, 54, 55
Farquhar, Robert, 12
Fatawa Alamgiri, 28
Fiji Islands, 1617
Finley, M. I., 135
France, 47, 55, 76, 161, 182
see also colonialism
French, 47, 49, 78
Frere, Sir Bartle, 28
Fujian, 1546, 161, 163
Fujianese, 156, 157, 160, 163
Futa Jalon, 26
Fuzhou, 155

Copyright

East Africa, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 1920, 26,


3143
adultery, 35
blood-debt, 35, 38, 401
famine, 349, 423
kidnapping, 36
migration, 82, 110
pawnship, 6
see also Madagascar, Mozambique,
Nyasa-Tanganyika Corridor, Somalia,
Tanzania, Zanzibar,
East India Company
British, 12, 16, 28, 88
Dutch, 57, 64, 66, 71, 182
Edo, 1745, 178, 182
Edo period, 1737, 183, 185
Egypt, 9, 11, 14, 21, 29
see also Mamluk dynasty

Germany, 8, 9
Goa, 16
Guangdong, 154, 155, 161
Guangzhou, 155, 156, 161
Gulf of Oman, 110
Guyana, British, 81

Hadj, 11
Hakodate, 182
Havana, 158
Hendriksz, Jacobus, 60, 68
Henson, Don Jose Pepe, 13940, 145,
1501
Henson, Maria Rosa, 13746, 14952
grandparents, Alberto Luna and Carmen
Salas, 1389, 14550
mother, Julia Luna Salas, 13840, 1423,
14550
Hijaz, 18
Hinduism, 21, 24, 26, 28
Hirado, 177
Hong Kong, 18, 154, 159, 161
Hui, 27
Hukbalahap, 1402, 145

236

Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World

human trafficking, 1, 153, 155, 15962


Hurgronje, Christiaan Snouck, 24
Hyderabad, 28
Hyder Ali, 21
Ibn Battuta, 27
Ibn Taymiyya, Taqi al-Din Ahmad, 23
Ileto, Reynaldo C., 144
Il-jae, Jong, 165
Imerina, 3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 16, 456, 4950, 54
Inasa, 183
India, 1, 3, 17, 1819, 20, 58, 76
British, 16, 28, 84, 1356
castes, 5, 14
disease, 11
Independence, 19, 28
law, 26
migration, 826
population, 9
trade, 12, 105
see also Delhi sultanate, Hyderabad, Indians, Mughal dynasty, South India
Indians, 17, 77, 81, 82, 836
Indochina, French, 1213, 18
Indonesia, 5, 11, 13
see also Java, Sumatra
Industrial Revolution, 77, 79
Inner Asia, 24, 27
see also West Turkistan
Iranun, 88, 901, 97, 99
Islam, 12, 4, 6, 78, 2130, 88, 90
ada (custom), 24, 25, 26
ban on riba (lending money at interest),
22
hadith (tradition), 21, 22
Surraq, 22, 28
qadi (judge), 24
qanum (statute law), 24
ShiI, 8
Sunni, 8
urf, see ada
see also dar al-harb, dar al-Islam, dhimmi,
Hadj, madhhab, sharia law, Quran,
ulama

brothels, 173, 1756, 17885


contracts, 1734, 176, 1801, 1845
licensed quarter, 1747, 1803
patriarchal families, 1746, 185
prostitution, 6, 18, 100, 138, 1739,
1815
smuggling, 180
see also Edo period, Japanese, Kamakura
Bakufu, Meiji government, Tokugawa
Bakufu, yjo, ykaku
Japanese, 81, 138, 1401
JapaneseDutch peace treaty, 183
Java, 5, 256, 29
Jesuit, 174
see also Society of Jesus
Jolo, 87, 88, 90, 91, 924, 95, 96, 99, 100
Jumaat, 90
Kaje wa Mwenye Matano, 34
Kamakura Bakufu, 173
Kamba, 38
Kami, 37
kamuro (girls under fifteen), 178, 180
Kanaidish, Jumah, 108
Kanazawa, 175
Kazakhs, 24
Ke-ryong, 168
Kilwa, 31, 39
Kiungani, 37, 3941
Kobe, 182
Koevoet, Christina, 61, 66, 70
Koevoet, Diana (also known as Johanna), 59,
61, 66, 70, 71, 73
Korea, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16572
emancipation of public nobis, 168
Gabo reformation of 1894, 170
interest rates, 166
marriage laws, 169
wife-lending, wife-mortgaging and wifeselling, 165
see also chonmin, Chosun dynasty, chungin, nobis, yangban, yangmin
Krapf, J. L., 34
Kunduchi, 110
Kurds, 29
Kwere, 37
Kyoto, 175, 178
Kyushu, 177

Copyright

Jamaica, 81
Japan, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, 139, 1405, 1734,
17780, 184

Index
Lake Nyasa, 41
Langenberg, Maria Magdelena, 61, 63, 64,
66
Laos, 5
Latin America, 1545
see also Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Venezuela
League of Nations, 28, 109
Lele, 32
Linga, 111
Litete, Mtalika, see Chilengwe
Little Ice Age, 10
Livingstone, D., 41
London Missionary Society, 49, 50, 51
Lorimer, J. G., 105
Louis of Bengal, 59
Luguru, 35, 37
Luwaran code of law, 25
Luzon, 15, 89, 97, 138, 1489
Maasai, 38
Macao, 93, 154, 157, 159, 161
MacArthur, Douglas, 140
Madagascar, 9, 12, 14, 32, 82
autarky, 45, 467, 48, 50, 51, 53, 55
castes, 49, 50, 54
foreign artisans, 49, 50
interest rates, 534, 55
trade, 468, 48, 49, 53
see also Imerina, Merina regime
madhhab (school of Islamic law), 23
Hanafi, 23
Hanbali, 23
Maliki, 23, 26
ShafiI, 23
Madras, 28, 85
Majaliwa, 34
Makassar, 93
Makua, 40, 54
malaria, 1011, 51, 1435
Malaya, 3, 25, 87
Maldive Islands, 27
Maluso, 99
Mamluk dynasty, 21
Mandoor, 63
Manila, 923, 956, 978, 100, 13941,
149, 1556
Governor General, 98
Mantasoa, 47, 49, 50

237

manumission, 14
Muslim societies, 8, 21, 29, 103, 109,
111, 112
Southern Africa, 58, 59, 625, 68
Southeast Asia, 879, 100
Maranao, 25
Maria Luz, 183
Marivales, 90
Maruyama-machi, 177, 183
Mascarene Islands, 1, 32, 467, 51, 76
see also Mauritius, Runion
Masters and Servants Act, 779, 823
Mauritius, 12, 15, 16, 46, 47, 757, 79, 826
contract, 75, 76, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86
fugitives, 82, 83
middlemen, 823
penalties against workers, 83, 85, 86
plantations, 76, 79, 823, 845, 86
servants, 826
Mazrui, 34
Mecca, 11, 18
Meiji government, 1834
Mekran, 106, 110
Melaka, 25
Menado, 92, 93
Merina regime, 457, 4950, 55
abolition, 13
aristocracy, 48
army, 51, 523, 55
convicts, 16
see also fanompoana
Mesopotamia, 3, 6
see also Babylonia
mestizo (mixed race), 89, 93
Mexico, 105, 110
Middle East, 2, 5, 78, 13, 29
see also Arabia, Egypt, Mesopotamia,
Ottoman empire, Persian Gulf
migration, 75, 85, 119, 123, 1259, 1314
Mijikenda, 334
Mindanao, 25, 88, 98
Mito, 175
Mombasa, 324
monsoon system, 1
Morgh, Andries, 63, 66
Morgh, Johannes, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67,
72

Copyright

238

Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World

moros (inhabitants of Mindanao, Sulu and


Palawan), 88, 90, 100
Mozambique, 16, 31, 40, 82
Mozambiques, see Makua
Mrima, 35, 36, 378
Mughal dynasty, 278
Muhammad Ali, 21
Muscat, 11, 105, 108, 11013
Mwali, 40
Nagasaki, 173, 175, 17785
Chinese compound, 178, 180
see also Deshima
Najd, 112
nakhuda (diving captain), 1034, 1067,
111, 113
see also pearl divers
Napoleonic Wars, 46
Narwimba, 41
nazuke-yjo (concubine), 181, 183
Negros, 97
neo-bondage, 1223
Neolithic Revolution, 2
Nepal, 11, 20
Netherlands, 58, 64, 182
see also Dutch
Netherlands Indies, see Dutch East Indies
Ngao, 110
NGO, 123, 125, 132, 134
Niigata, 182
Ningpo, 155
nobis (slaves), 13, 16572
externally resident, 166
fugitive, 170
debt, 166, 168
private, 166
public, 1667
self-sale, 171
Nyamwezi, 39
Nyasa-Tanganyika Corridor, 35, 41
Nyiginya kingdom, 33
Nyoro, 43

Ottoman empire, 21
Pakistan, 20
palace slaves, 77
Palais, James, 166
Pangani, 35, 37
partus sequitur ventrem, 168
payday loans, 113, 11617
pawnship, 6, 78, 18, 26, 29, 3243, 76,
1734, 181
pearl divers, 7, 14, 29, 10317
African slaves, 10513, 11617
free Africans, 105, 10713, 11617
pearls, 8, 88, 93, 1045, 10910, 116
Pedder, W. H., 162
Pemba, 32, 37, 110
Persia, 28, 29
see also Persians
Persian empire, 3, 11
Persian Gulf, 7, 11, 28, 29, 10417
African slaves, 29
see also nakhudas, pearl divers, Persian
Gulf Administration
Persian Gulf Administration, British, 109,
110
Political Resident, 104, 11113
Persians, 105, 110
Peru, 154, 156
Pieters, Cornelius Zacharias, 89, 90, 912
Pietersz, Christijn, 62, 63, 66
Philippines, 3, 7, 13, 15, 25, 87, 92, 956,
100, 110, 13751
revolution of 1896, 144
see also Basilan, cruziamentos, Jolo,
Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, utang na
loob, Visayas
Portuguese, 16, 82, 174, 177
Prakash, Gyan, 1356
Prize Negroes, 15

Copyright
Oman, 104, 110
Omura, Sumitada, 177
opium trade, 14, 91, 156
Opium War, 155, 156
Osaka, 175, 178, 182

Qatar, 104, 112


Qing dynasty, 27, 153, 1601, 163
Quezon, Manuel, 140
quffal (celebration of the end of the
pearling season), 107, 108
Quran, 8, 21, 25, 29

Index
Radama I, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54
Radama II, 47, 55
Rafael, Vicente L., 1478
Ranavalona I, 47, 48, 49, 53
ransoming, 1415, 8795, 1001
rape, 13851
Ras Al-Khaimah, 110, 111
Ras Madraka, 110
Ras Ndege, 110
Reid, Anthony, 1367
Runion, 46, 47, 1545
Ridel, Flix-Claire, 171
Rigby, C. L., 38
rinderpest, 9, 11, 38
Roman law, 24
Rouwennoft, 65
Ruganzu Ndori, 33
Russia, 27, 1823
law, 24
Russians, 27
Rwabugiri, 33
Rwanda, 33
see also Nyiginya kingdom

239

migration, 17, 58, 1535, 159, 1614


see also Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia,
Laos, Malaya, Philippines, Thailand,
Vietnam
Southern Africa, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16
free blacks, 59
manumission, 58, 59, 634, 70
South India, 21, 11934
brick kilns, 11934
capitalism, 121, 134
castes, 21, 119, 123, 126, 1313
child labour, 110, 1245
exploitation of labour, 120, 121, 126,
128, 133, 134
feudalism, 121
freedom, 1202, 124, 126
government, 1213, 12831
industrialization, 119, 1225, 1289
law, 11920
production processes, 12731, 133
recruiters, 120, 121, 123, 1259, 131,
134
rice mills, 11934
social hierarchy, 131, 133
sugar cane, 11934
unfree labour, 1201
wages, 11921, 123, 1257, 130, 134
see also Tamil Nadu
Sri Lanka, see Ceylon
Statute of Artificers, 77
Statute of Labourers, 77
Straits Settlements, 1545, 1613
Sub-Saharan Africa, 9, 26
see also Democratic Republic of Congo,
Rwanda
Sudan, 12
Sulawesi, 25, 90
Sulu Sultanate, 3, 4, 15, 878, 90, 93, 97, 98
Sulu Zone,
assisted passage scheme, 957, 99, 1001
captives, 87, 889, 90101
commodities, 878
manumission, 889, 100
presidio, 96, 98100
ransoming, 878, 8994, 95
slave raiding, 878, 8991, 95, 98, 99,
100
slave trade, 87

Copyright

Said b. Sultan, Seyyid, 34


Salifah court, 111, 113
Samal Balangingi, 88, 967, 99
Schot, Robbert of Bengal, 60, 72
self-enslavement, 24, 25, 28, 165, 168,
1701, 1734
sharia law, 4, 7, 8, 2230
see also ada, madhhab, qanum, ulama
Sharjah, 1034, 110, 111
Shanghai, 155
Singapore, 16, 18, 93, 155, 156, 1623
Society of Jesus, 177
see also Jesuit
soldier slaves, 77
Somalia, 12
Somes, M. A., 92
South Asia, 278
migration, 82
see also Bengal, Ceylon, India, Pakistan
South China, 5, 10, 17, 15364
see also Cantonese, Fujianese
Southeast Asia, 5, 20, 88, 1367
cholera, 11
Islam, 7, 256

240

Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World

warships, 95, 98
see also banyaga, datus, moros
Sumatra, 24, 25
Sur, 110
Swahili, 26, 345, 46, 48, 82
Swatow, 154, 161
Swema, 31, 34
Sydney, 162
Syme, F. D., 160
Syme, Muir & Co., 155, 160
syphilis, 183, 185

Van Heemert, Pieter, 73


Van Helena Titus, Pieter, 66
Van Reede tot Drakestein, Hendrik Adriaan,
62
Van Thiel, Anna Maria, 61, 68, 69
Van Thiel, Otto, 68
Van Thiel, Pieter, 61, 69
Venezuela, 110
Vietnam, 5
Visayans, 89, 97
Visayas, 89, 96, 97, 99, 100

Tagalogs, 89, 148


Tait & Co., 155, 157, 158
Taiwan, 155, 157
Tamil Nadu, 19, 11934
Tanaka, Captain, 140, 1426
Tanzania, 33, 35, 39, 412
Taosug, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 956, 99, 100
Tayabas, 90
Thailand, 3, 5, 13, 18
Ticao, 901
Tippu Tip, see Bin Muhammad el Murjebi,
Hamed
Tokugawa Bakufu, 1745, 17780, 1823
Tondo, 978
Toombo, 38
Toyotomi, Hideyoshi, 174, 177
Treaty of Kanagawa, 182
Trinidad, 81
Trucial Coast, 104, 105, 110, 111

Wadai, 26
wage advances, 1819, 20, 76, 146, 157
British empire, 81, 84
coolies, 17, 157
England, 77
Europe, 756
pearl divers, 103, 1078, 11116
sex slaves, 18, 173, 176, 1801, 1845
South India, 119, 12330, 134
West Africa, 6, 11, 21, 26, 82
West Indies, 69, 154, 158
see also Cuba, Jamaica, Trinidad
West Turkistan, 29
Wijnantsz, Christiaan, 60, 68
Winchester, C. A., 155
Winstedt, Richard, 25
workhouse, 80
Wyndham, William, 89, 93

Uganda, 42
see also Buganda
ulama (religious scholar), 21, 23, 245, 26,
28, 30
Umayyad dynasty, 223
Umm Al-Qaiwain, 111
United States, 8, 9, 12, 154, 183
immigration, 162
military, 140
slavery, 1, 8
South, 8
Unkud, 912
Unyamwezi, 39
utang na loob (debt of the inside), 1478

yangban (scholar-officials), 166


yangmin (commoners), 1667, 171
Yao, 31, 36, 38, 401
Yaoland, 39
Yokohama, 182, 184
Yoriai-machi, 1778, 183
Yoshiwara, 175, 178
Young-hoon, Yi, 166, 168
yjo, 175, 17783
ykaku, 175, 1778

Copyright

Van Bllen, Jacobus, 62


Van Bllen, Jan Jans, 62
Van Diana van de Caab, Maria, 66, 6970

Zamboanga, 90, 92, 967, 98101


governor, 90, 967
Zanzibar, 31, 323, 368, 40, 42, 53, 103
Zaramo, 357, 412
Zigua, 41
Zimrilim, 3
Zuniga, Jaochim, 90