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SIMULATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN WELDED P91 PIPES
A. Yaghi1, T.H. Hyde1, A.A. Becker1*, W. Sun1, J.A. Williams2, and B. Pathiraj3 1 School of Mechanical, Materials & Manufacturing Engineering University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK 2 Independent Consultant, East Leake, Leicester LE12 6LJ, UK 3 METSEARCH B.V., Netherlands Email: (*)firstname.lastname@example.org
SYNOPSIS Residual stresses can be responsible for altering the performance of their engineering components; therefore it is important to be able to predict such stresses. In this study the FE method has been applied to simulate residual axial and hoop stresses generated in the weld region and heat affected zone (HAZ) of a P91 steel welded pipe. Both the pipe and circumferential butt-weld are assumed to be axisymmetric. The outer diameter of the pipe is 145mm and its wall thickness is 50mm, the weld having 50 beads. The FE simulation consists of a thermal analysis, revealing the temperature history of the FE model, followed by a sequentially-coupled structural analysis, giving residual stress results. A user subroutine within the ABAQUS FE code adjusts the temperature history of the FE model to match certain welding conditions. The thermal analysis has revealed temperature contours which indicate the size of the weld region and the heat affected zone (HAZ). Residual axial and hoop stresses obtained from the analysis are shown in the form of stress contours through the pipe wall thickness and stress curves at the outside surface of the pipe. Trends of behaviour of residual stresses have emerged for the set of preliminary material properties implemented in the FE analysis. NOTATION С DFLUX E h HAZ I PM Q Ri T TSOFT U v V WCL WM α specific heat capacity (kJ/kgK) distributed heat flux (W/m3) elastic modulus (Pa) heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K) heat affected zone current (A) parent metal net line energy (J/m) pipe inside radius (mm) pipe wall thickness (mm) or temperature (oC) softening temperature (oC) voltage (V) weld electrode speed (m/s) weld pass volume (m3) weld centre line weld metal coefficient of linear thermal expansion (1/K)
Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design
the complex fluid and thermo-dynamics local to the weld pool are modelled by looking at the weld pool and the heat affected zone (HAZ). Teng and Chang  state that a thermomechanical model was developed by Friedman  using the FE method to calculate temperatures. ships. and that temperatures and stresses were analysed by Karlsson  and Karlsson and Josefson  in single-pass girth butt welding of carbon-manganese pipe using the FE codes ADINAT and ADINA. Residual stresses are important in the consideration of cracking and fracture problems in welded structures. Meguid . stress relief cracking and. paying special attention to the heat source. stresses and distortions during welding. Due to the high temperatures introduced during welding and the subsequent cooling of the welded metal. Firstly. 2]. Their evaluation can help resolve problems. momentum and heat together with the latent heat and surface tension boundary conditions are equated to represent the physical phenomena of the molten weld pool and thermal behaviour of the HAZ. Such stresses can be simulated for the process of welding to delineate the ensuing residual stresses and deformations and for use in the prediction of the behaviour of welded structures. bridges. for example. to some extent. thermal and structural. the solid mechanics approach is adopted by modelling the global thermo-mechanical behaviour of the weld structure. fatigue strength. 24-26 July 2006 ∆t η λ ν σy duration of the triangular time function (s) arc efficiency thermal conductivity (W/mK) Poisson's ratio yield stress (Pa) 1 INTRODUCTION The process of welding is an integral manufacturing procedure in the production of many engineering and structural components. In their brief review of weld simulation. 2 Editors: J. that residual stresses were estimated by Josefson  in a multi-pass weld and in a spot-welded box beam with SOLVIA and ABAQUS. A variety of simplified heat source models can be used in the simulation of welding. Brickstad and Josefson  simulate residual stresses due to welding using the ABAQUS FE code consisting of two main parts. pressure vessels. They use a technique called ‘element birth’ to represent the laying of weld beads to avoid any displacement or strain mismatch at the nodes connecting the weld elements to those of the base material.F. which are commercially available FE codes for non-linear analyses. Welded structures are an essential part of many buildings. welding can produce undesirable residual stresses and deformations. Fanous et al  have introduced another technique for metal deposition using element movement. the accuracy of which relying on the theoretical and empirical parameters describing the weld pool size and shape. The numerical simulation of the process of welding can take place in two alternative ways . nuclear reactors and other engineering structures [1. hydrogen-induced cracking. Temperature dependency of material properties is taken into account in the latter two papers. Circumferentially welded pipes are often used in oil transport systems and steam piping for conventional and nuclear systems. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. having a direct influence on the integrity of the components and their thermal and mechanical behaviour during service. The conservation of mass. that elastoplastic FE computer programs were developed by Muraki et al  to monitor welding thermal stresses and metal movement.Porto-Portugal. pipes. related to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Secondly.
and uses them as input data to calculate a range of stress contours at the end of the analysis which remain in the modelled component as residual stresses. 9. so that the number of passes in the FE model is equal to the number of beads in the simulated weld. The structural analysis takes the temperature contours. it is often considered sufficient to represent a pipe weld with an axisymmetric FE model [8. The corresponding FE mesh is shown in Figure 2. sequentially coupled and modified by a user’s subroutine to manipulate the temperature field in the material. to adjust the temperature values at certain times and locations before being utilised in the structural analysis. He has conducted a careful parametric investigation using his research results and other data published in literature to find characteristic trends for through-thickness residual stresses due to welding.1 Model Geometry The simulation of the process of welding has been performed on P91 steel pipes with outer diameter of 145mm and wall thickness of 50mm. the weld having 50 beads. an ABAQUS FORTRAN program. Although in reality welding is a three-dimensional procedure. 14].5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design Dong  performed FE analyses on stainless steel and carbon steel welded pipes with different geometries. The process of welding includes the melting of metal and then allowing it to cool down and solidify to form beads in the weld region connecting both parts of the steel pipe. Although in reality welding is a threedimensional procedure. 2. The results are then presented in the form of temperature contours and residual axial and hoop stresses throughout the pipe thickness. made available by the thermal simulation. which represents the thermal process during welding culminating in revealing the temperature contours associated with welding. starting with an FE thermal analysis and ending with an FE structural analysis. In addition. the root bead (first bead) protrudes by 1mm and the last layer of beads (weld crown) protrudes by 5mm. a sequentially coupled thermal-stress analysis is adopted since the stress or displacement solution is dependent on a temperature field with no inverse dependency . obtaining a range of through-thickness residual stresses. it is often considered sufficient to represent a pipe weld using an axisymmetric FE model. Each bead in this work is considered to be a pass. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FE weld simulation in principle consists of a thermal analysis. The sequence of laying the weld passes is shown in Figure 1. twodimensional simulations are much faster and easier to perform. To conduct this type of FE analysis. The welding specifications are provided in Table 1. In the FE simulation. A specific set of preliminary material properties have been generated for P91 steel. which has been drawn by the welder. It is also stated to be acceptable sometimes to Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 3 . The modelled weldment consists of two P91 steel pipes circumferentially welded with P91 weld metal with slightly different material properties. This paper describes the numerical methodology for obtaining residual stresses in a multi-pass butt-welded P91 steel pipe using the techniques as described in references  and . which has been adopted throughout this work. therefore the methodology described here is based on an axisymmetric model. followed by a structural analysis which is based on the thermal findings. The types of welding which have been modelled using the FE technique are the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) for weld beads 1 to 7 and the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for weld beads 8 to 50. For accurate simulation of the temperature history it is important to use a user subroutine.
Figure 2-Axisymmetric FE mesh of the modelled single-U multi-pass butt-weld of a P91 steel pipe 4 Editors: J. 9]. The FE mesh models a welded pipe which has the weld crown machined off at the end of the welding process. This is represented in the numerical simulation by removing the FE elements which make up the weld crown at the end of the FE structural analysis.Porto-Portugal. This results in the residual stresses redistributing in order to allow for such a geometric change. supplied by the welder. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. Table 1 Welding Process Specifications (*see sketch of weld sequence in Figure 1) Figure 1-Weld sequence sketch of modelled single-U multi-pass butt-weld of a P91 steel pipe.F. Meguid . 24-26 July 2006 simplify the model and assume that a pass can represent more than one bead [8.
Although not an ideal method.018 and it is 3. Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 5 . a two material weldment model has been assumed. The density of the material has been assumed to be constant at a value of 7770 kg/m3. To make some allowance for the actual material mechanical properties. where possible. the weld metal and any structures deemed important within the weldment. a latent heat capacity of 260 kJ/kg has been assumed together with a solidus temperature of 1420oC and a liquidus temperature of 1500oC. As these data had not been available at the inception of this FE study for the P91 pipes. The analysis method also allows for a HAZ region. namely weld metal.0E-5 /K) ν (1. a general P91 parent metal data base has been generated from the available literature and. and parent metal.0E+1 W/mK) С (kJ/kgK) 1500 2000 Figure 3 Mechanical and thermal material properties. which has been used throughout the FE analysis. has been modified to take some account of any material data for the actual cast and the weld metal. against temperature.5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design 2. The latter is a lower estimate as there is a minimum strength requirement for the weld metal. this does give a reasonable view of the data for the actual cast and a minimum correction for the weld metal data. the basic P91 strength curves have been proportioned using the cast certificate data for the parent material and using the manufacturer’s data for the weld metal over the complete temperature range. In addition to the properties given in Figure 3. A set of mechanical and thermal material property data is shown in Figure 3. only. used in the FE analysis of the P91 steel pipe No explicit account is taken of any phase transformation that will occur other than the effect that will be incorporated within the coefficient of thermal expansion values where a non linearity occurs near the expected transformation temperature.2 Material Properties Detailed thermal and mechanical property data are needed for the material cast being considered. 6 Material properties for P91 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 500 1000 Temperature ( C) o E (1. It should be noted that properties are quoted for temperatures in excess of the melting point of approximately 1500oC. For this work. WM.0E+8 Pa) σy(WM) (1.0E+8 Pa) α (1. The applied ratio of the hardening modulus to the elastic modulus for the temperature range 20oC to 650oC is 0.0E-1) λ (1. PM. the low strength values are generally to allow efficient operation of the FE analysis. but no allowance has been made for properties in this region.0E+11 Pa) σy(PM) (1. whereas the actual weld metal value is generally higher.0×10-4 for the temperature range 650oC to 2000oC. The type of hardening in the ABAQUS input file for the structural analysis has been specified to be KINEMATIC. The basic parent metal data have been generated as described in a previous publication . for the parent and weld materials.
From that point in time the heat flux remains zero until the end of the particular weld pass 360o cycle. Brickstad and Josefson  suggest that a fraction of the circumference equal to 1/16 to 1/2 of a radian can be used to estimate V. DFLUX. since it relates to the effective volume of weld material directly influenced by the heat flux in the axisymmetric simulation.F. One of the most prominent features of the current FE simulation is the use of a technique called “element birth”. Once the last pass has been laid enough time is prescribed for the weld to cool down to ambient temperature. the welding process is primarily simulated by applying a distributed heat flux to the weld elements and is a triangular function of heat per unit volume against time. η is the arc efficiency and V is the weld pass volume. Another important indication which is used to modify DFLUX is the distance of penetration of the weld metal into the parent material. The triangular time variation of the heat flux corresponds to the approach and passing of the welding torch. as detailed in section 3. The HAZ is typically 2 to 4mm from the weld metal. The heat flux is assumed to reach its peak value from zero in a straight line during the up-ramp of the triangular time function. If the temperature results are not satisfactory. The net line energy is given by Q = U⋅I⋅η/v From equations (1) and (2). Then the whole model is gradually heated up to a desired service temperature by applying a constant distributed heat flux to all the elements of the model. is related to the duration ∆t of the triangular time function by assuming that ∆t is equal to the time taken by the weld electrode to move around volume V. causing it to melt. during which time the weld is allowed to cool down. is given by DFLUX = U⋅I⋅η/V (1) where U is the voltage.2. A provisional simulation is performed with a first estimation for DFLUX. followed by a straight line from its peak value back to zero.3 Thermal Analysis In the thermal analysis. the distributed heat flux is given by DFLUX = Q⋅v/V (3) (2) The value of V can only be estimated. In addition to the use of latent heat properties to describe heat effects relevant to the molten metal of the weld pool. the value of the heat flux is adjusted accordingly. The temperature results are then checked after the thermal analysis to verify that the molten zones throughout the analysis are realistic and the temperatures reached in the heat affected zone (HAZ) are reasonable. thermal conductivity for molten metal is doubled to allow for its convective stirring effect . The distributed heat flux. For any set of DFLUX values for the weld passes produced by the same welding process. as it travels around the circumference at speed v. Meguid . the area under the heat flux triangular function must remain constant (DFLUX⋅∆t/2). The thermal boundary conditions are taken into consideration by allowing for convection and radiation and their combined effect to be represented by specifying an equation for the temperature-dependent heat transfer coefficient . The weld pass volume. which is a three-dimensional parameter. As a guideline. which allows the structural analysis to be conducted without 6 Editors: J. 24-26 July 2006 2. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. V. I is the current. producing the shape of an isosceles triangle as the down-ramp reaches zero.Porto-Portugal. signifying a constant total amount of thermal input energy per unit volume. This is assumed to be 1mm which is confirmed by the welder. until the next weld pass cycle begins.
0E+00 0 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 16 Figure 4 . time being depicted from the beginning of each weld pass application As for the boundary conditions during the thermal analysis. The weld simulation consists of a set of time steps. The FE continuum solid element type used in the thermal analysis is an 8-node quadratic axisymmetric diffusive heat transfer quadrilateral. The maximum allowable change in temperature in an increment has been set at 40oC. The FE mesh also contains 6-node quadratic axisymmetric diffusive heat transfer triangular elements for geometric reasons.231⋅T – 82.0E+10 Pass 10 Pass 45 2. 5.DFLUX against time for five weld pass depositions. convection and radiation are both taken into consideration and their combined effect is represented in the following two equations  for the temperature-dependent heat transfer coefficient. which is reflected in the constant triangular area for the GTAW of the first seven weld beads and another constant area for the SMAW of the remaining 43 weld beads. The interpass temperature has been checked for each STEP and confirmed to fall within this temperature range. The area under any one of the triangular curves is constant as long as the type of welding remains the same. The thermal aspect of the element birth technique is to change the thermal conductivity of the relevant part of the FE mesh corresponding to the weld passes that have not been laid yet. The other material properties relevant to the thermal analysis are the density of the metal. At the time of application of each weld pass. the thermal conductivity is made to change from air value to that of steel.0E+10 0. each STEP representing the application of a weld pass. the latent heat capacity and the solidus and liquidus temperatures.0E+10 1.1 (W/m2 oC) when 0 ≤ T ≤ 500oC when T ≥ 500oC (4) (5) The time duration of each STEP is controlled in order to keep the interpass temperature within the practical temperature range between 250 and 300oC. Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 7 .0668⋅T (W/m2 oC) h = 0. The thermal conductivity and thermal heat capacity are usually temperature dependent. h. the time on the xaxis being the time from the beginning of each weld application for every weld pass. In the thermal analysis. The application of each pass includes a series of time increments.0E+10 Pass 1 4. The final set of values for DFLUX for the FE model is shown in Figure 4.5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design incompatibility problems. The triangular curves correspond to two different types of welding process. the elements which correspond to the weld passes before being laid are given a value for thermal conductivity equivalent to that of air. the specific heat capacity. h = 0.0E+10 DFLUX (W/m3) Pass 2 Pass 7 3.
The structural analysis uses the temperature distributions obtained from the thermal analysis as input data. 35 and 50 in Figures 5. 3 FINITE ELEMENT RESULTS 3. The temperature contours indicate the region experiencing melting and the zones which are heat affected. as pointed out in a previous publication . TSOFT.F. but they reach higher values at certain nodal points. 8 Editors: J. These geometric and thermal considerations contribute to the variable nature of the peak temperatures in the HAZ. strains and deformations. In order to avoid this. is also not constant. and then the weld elements are kept at an assumed softening temperature. 24-26 July 2006 2. typical examples of temperature contours are presented. The metal volume surrounding the weld beads. 15. Penetration into the parent metal causing its boundary near the HAZ to melt can be seen in the figures. 7 and 8 respectively. occurring in every time step representing each weld pass. A 6-node quadratic axisymmetric stress/displacement continuum triangular element has also be used in certain parts of the mesh for geometric reasons. The FE continuum solid element type used in the structural analysis is an 8-node biquadratic axisymmetric stress/displacement quadrilateral with reduced integration. The HAZ is assumed to experience at least a temperature between 800oC and 900oC for the P91 steel material in consideration. particularly at the outer and inner surface positions. The element birth technique has been utilised in the structural analysis to avoid the incompatibility which would be introduced due to the thermal analysis producing strains in the parent material which would not be compatible with the strain-free weld elements during their application to bring them to existence in the structural analysis.Porto-Portugal. This is true particularly towards the beginning and end of the welding procedure. Meguid . In addition. which demonstrate that the penetration distance is consistent with a realistic expectation of around 1mm. the FE mesh including all the elements are generated before the FE analysis is carried out. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. which acts as a heat sink. The formation of stresses begins only when the material starts to cool down. In this section. At TSOFT. or just after.4 Structural Analysis The thermal analysis processes DFLUX as the input data and delivers a set of temperature contours as the output file.1 Temperature Contours The temperature contours should be examined at the time of peak temperature. until the moment of weld application in the structural analysis. The volume of the weld beads is not entirely constant. The temperature contours are shown in the FE model when peak temperatures are reached in weld beads 1. as would be realistically expected in a typical welding experience. 6. the distance between the beads and the defined HAZ line is variable. but it can reach significantly higher temperatures in certain parts. They are read by the structural input file and then sent to a user subroutine for amendment before being processed to finally provide a structural output file containing the required residual stresses. The incompatibility would be due to the weld material being applied in the structural analysis to a region which had already experienced significant strain caused by high temperatures. the Young’s Modulus and the yield stress of the material are so low that the weld can be applied without suffering from any stresses. The peak temperatures in the HAZ in the FE model are within the wider range of 800 – 1200oC and are mainly between 800oC and 900oC as has been suggested before .
Figure 6 Temperature contours (oC) for the FE model during the laying of the fifteenth weld pass. Figure 7 Temperature contours (oC) for the FE model during the laying of the thirty fifth weld pass. Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 9 .5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design Figure 5 Temperature contours (oC) for the FE model during the laying of the first weld pass.
Although the corresponding part of the FE mesh is still shown in Figures 9 and 10. Meguid .F.Porto-Portugal. at the weld region. Figure 9 Residual axial stress contours (N/m2) at the FE weld region and HAZ. Figures 9 and 10 depict residual axial and hoop stress contours respectively. Both these are tensile at the outside surface and compressive at the inside surface in the weld region and HAZ. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. 3. 10 Editors: J. exhibiting the most relevant stresses. The crown part of the weld has been effectively removed at the end of the FE structural analysis to simulate the case of the weld crown being machined off once the process of welding had been completed.2 Residual Stress Contours Residual stresses obtained from the structural analysis have been plotted to show sections of the FE models. 24-26 July 2006 Figure 8 Temperature contours (oC) for the FE model during the laying of the fiftieth weld pass. in the numerical simulation no material exists in the weld crown at the end of the FE analysis.
It is also equal to the width of the mesh along the outside surface of the pipe shown in Figures 2. In addition. the midpoint of which coincides with the weld centre line (WCL). For the purpose of being used in the FE analysis. the surface stresses are all tensile. respectively. The residual hoop stress curve in Figure 12 shows that. The residual axial stress curve in Figure 11 shows that. at the outside surface of the pipe. The stresses shown are those after the weld crown has been removed. except at the interface between the weld metal and parent material.5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design Figure 10 Residual hoop stress contours (N/m2) at the FE weld region and HAZ. The stress is tensile with the exception of a moderate dip in the compressive range only at the interface between the weld metal and the parent material. 4 DISCUSSION Residual stresses have been numerically calculated for an axisymmetric single-U butt-weld having 50 beads in a P91 steel pipe. a general P91 parent metal data base has been generated from the available literature and.The temperature contours have been checked during the deposition of every Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 11 . the weld region has a hoop stress which is significantly higher than that found in the parent metal on the outside surface of the pipe in the pipe section shown in the figure. where possible. The length of the line along which the residual stresses are plotted is just over three times the width of the weld at the outside surface. the weld region has areas with a tensile stress magnitude significantly higher than that occurring in the parent metal also on the outside surface of the pipe. 3.3 Values of Residual Stresses Figures 11 and 12 present residual axial and hoop stresses. has been modified to take some account of any material data for the actual cast and the weld metal. plotted along a straight line on the outer surface in the axial direction. at the outside surface of the pipe. 9 and 10.
along a straight line on the outside surface in the axial direction. The molten zones.F. the midpoint of which coincides with the WCL. 12 Editors: J. The residual axial and hoop stresses are depicted through the pipe wall thickness (Figures 9 & 10) and on the outside surface at the weld region and the HAZ (Figures 10 & 11). along a straight line on the outside surface in the axial direction. Figure 12-Residual hoop stress curves (N/m2) for the FE model against distance (m). Figure 11-Residual axial stress curves (N/m2) for the FE model against distance (m). Meguid . the midpoint of which coincides with the WCL. 24-26 July 2006 weld bead and typical examples have been shown in Figures 5-8. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. after removing the weld crown. where both residual stresses are tensile at the outside surface and compressive at the bore. after removing the weld crown. weld penetration distance into the parent metal and the temperature range at the HAZ have all been checked and they comply with general thermal expectations.Porto-Portugal.
In addition. However. the position of the maximum stresses relative to the outer surfaces will be important as this can influence the nucleation of damage and the ease of detection. cracks/damage will tend to be driven by stresses normal to the maximum stress axis. Thus. Examples are the stress relief cracking can occur in ferritic CrMoV welds welded with ferritic 2. • Residual stresses in welds will be present after the initial fabrication and. if a ductility criterion for failure is used. it is helpful to briefly consider effects of residual stress on weld performance. since the outside surface seems to be the area at the highest risk of damage. the welds are normally post weld heat treated. Other examples exist in. Furthermore.  although others exist. and thus crack orientations will often identify the form and orientation of the driving stresses. the effects of residual stress are generally more critical when they are linked with metallurgical features such as low ductility or with processes/mechanisms that contribute to ductility reductions. AISI 347 austenitic stainless steel welds. or coarse grained regions adjacent to the weld metal interface but in the weld metal which had been poorly post weld heat treated . PWHT. Thus. These examples are outlined below. for example outer surface damage is always easier to detect than that on the bore.5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design Before discussing the specific results obtained here. With this in mind. for example pressure and system. and any cracking will generally occur towards the outer surface. • The former effects are the formation of low ductility coarse grained un-tempered Bainite in the HAZ . This damage can then grow during service under the action of the operational stresses. Two typical examples of mechanisms can be identified that are residual stress sensitive although others will exist. The above inference has been made by assuming that solid-state phase transformation (SSPT) is not required to be explicitly included in the FE simulation of the welded pipe although this Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 13 . failure will be initiated when the total strain exceeds the local ductility. residual stress can be a contributing factor for the nucleation of damage in the low ductility regions of the weld. for example. This could make the detection of cracks or damage a more achievable field task. Before use. Similar effects could be expected within the HAZ region based on these calculations although the HAZ properties are not specifically included within the FE analysis. For example. generate very low ductility structures within the HAZ which can initiate damage during the fabrication and the early stages of PWHT. hoop or axial stress driven. the residual stresses shown in Figures 9-12 can be considered and the location of the peak tensile stresses can be observed to try to correlate it to any field data about cracked or damaged P91 pipes in power plants. the HAZ structures will be in an un-tempered state with a lower ductility. thereby allowing a structured view of the calculated stress effects.  and to a lesser extent in P91 welds and hydrogen cracking in P91 weldments. This would seem to be intuitively correct as the locked in elastic strains which generate the residual stresses will be of the order of the yield strains as a maximum. The peak residual tensile stresses appear at the outside surface for both axial and hoop stresses suggesting that any low ductility regions within the weld metal will be sensitive to cracking during post weld heat treatment. in addition.25Cr1Mo weld metal. and thus interaction of these stresses with the low ductility or embrittled regions will give the largest effects. PWHT. The influence of residual stress on integrity is a complex problem. and the orientation. there are certain materials which. to both relax the residual stress by creep and to temper the HAZ structures to improve the local ductility. when welded.
-Karlsson C T. which will be the subject of a future publication. [-Friedman E. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 1975. predicting residual stresses through the pipe wall thickness. REFERENCES -Teng T and Chang P. Acknowledgements: The authors wish to acknowledge the EU financial support through a WELDON project (GRD2-2000-30363).96:81-84.132:235-241. -Sahin S Toparli M Ozdemir I and Sasaki S. However. it is important for completion to explicitly allow for SSPT in the FE analysis. Prediction of residual stresses and distortions in welded structures. Eng Comput 1989. ASME Journal of Engineering Materials Technology 1975.75:237247. Silva Gomes and Shaker A. -Muraki T Bryan J and Masubuchi K. Three-dimensional thermomechanical analysis of circumferentially welded thin-walled pipes. Finite volume methods applied to the computational modelling of welding phenomena. in which residual axial and hoop stresses both have kept their general shape but the magnitude of their tensile stresses have substantially been reduced. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 1998.115:52-57. Applied Mathematical Modelling 2002. 5 CONCLUSIONS • The FE study described here presents the methodology of numerically simulating residual stresses in an axisymmetric single-U multi-pass butt-weld of a P91 steel pipe. 24-26 July 2006 transformation effect is implicitly included within the coefficient of thermal expansion term. at some peak locations even changing from tensile to compressive. 14 Editors: J.97:206-213.F. Analysis of thermal stresses and metal movement during welding. -Taylor G A Hughes M Strusevich N and Pericleous K. • Residual axial and hoop stresses in the P91 pipe weld are tensile on the outside surface and compressive on the inside surface of the pipe.Porto-Portugal. Although this current study provides a clear description of numerically predicted residual stresses in welded P91 steel pipes. Thermomechanical analysis of the welding process using the finite element method. Meguid .6:133141. Modelled and measured residual stresses in a biomaterial joint. taking temperature dependency of material properties into consideration but without explicitly allowing for solid-state phase transformation. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2003.26:309-320. Finite element analysis of temperatures and stresses in a single-pass buttwelded pipe – influence of mesh density and material modeling. The peak residual stresses are close in magnitude to the yield stress values for the relevant materials as expected. it has been demonstrated that the residual stress field can be significantly influenced by explicitly allowing for SSPT during the numerical simulation of a multi-pass butt-welded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe . -Josefson B L. ASME J Offshore Mech Arct Eng 1993.
The structure of weldments and its relevance to high temperature failure. Prediction of welding residual stress in multi-pass buttwelded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe considering phase transformation effects. 1990.442:165-172. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2005. General Electric Co. UK. -Fanous I F Younan M Y and Wifi A S. Conference “Rupture Ductility of Creep Resistant Steels”. London. Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP 2002. -Yaghi A H Hyde T H Becker A A Williams J A Sun W. 1991. -Pickering F B. USA.3. UK. London.167:480-487. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of temperatures and stresses in a single-pass butt-welded pipe. 10-12 November 2003. Schenectady. version 6. -Coleman M C.75:1125. New York. International Journal of pressure Vessels and Piping 1998. The mechanics of residual stress distributions in girth welds. Chapter IV: Welds at High Temperature (WELDON) in Design 15 . -Dong P. Lake George. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Integrity of High Temperature Welds. A parametric study of residual stresses in multi-pass buttwelded stainless steel pipes. Residual stress simulation in welded sections of P91 pipes. Some aspects of creep deformation and fracture in steels.112:76-84. 5th Bolton Landing Conference “Weldments: Physical Metallurgy and Failure Phenomena”. Karlsson & Sorensen. -Brickstad B and Josefson B L. NY. -Deng D and H Murakawa. 185-196. USA. Inc. Computational Material Science (in press) accepted 17 June 2005. Hibbitt.5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design -Karlsson R I and Josefson B L. Institute of Metals. -ABAQUS User Manual. 2002. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology 1990. 3D finite element modeling of the welding process using element birth and element movement techniques. 1978. York.
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