D eser t I nvestigations

M edia at Bamburgh

Gloucester Projec t

Louisiana Excavations

Past Horizons
Online Journal of Volunteer Archaeology and Training
M ay 2009

Archaeology and Conser vation in Timbuktu

Issue 8 May 2009 Editors: Felicity Donohoe Maggie Struckmeier Layout: Maggie Struckmeier Graphics David Connolly Past Horizons Traprain House Luggate Burn Haddington East Lothian EH41 4QA Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643 Email: editor@pasthorizons.com Web: www.pasthorizons.com  Contributors: Susan Daniels Gerard Twomey Douglas Post Park Amanda Maples Austin Ainsw orth Jeff Guin Dave Webb

20 Where the Camel meets the Canoe

A team of Yale University academics have set up the Timbuktu Research Project in response to the worsening environmental conditions in this remote region. Their research has led them to conclude this is not the first time Timbuktu has faced this particular dilemma.

Fron t c o v e r : P o u r in g s t r o n g Tu a r e g t e a Phot o g r a p h : A m a nd a M a p l e s

Note Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience sustained by anyone using the resources contained within this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When considering a project, be sure to contact the director with any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team.

12 Bamburgh Research Project

All content is copyright and no reproduction of text or images is allowed without prior permission from the author. Past Horizons 2009

Archaeology is in itself a destructive process and as a result needs to be fully recorded. The media department at the Bamburgh Research Project was created to experiment with video recording as a means to deal more fully with this issue. Gerard Twomey, the media director, explains the ideas behind this successful project.

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Contents

8 The Great Arab Revolt Project

Archaeology in the Jordanian desert through the eyes of volunteer Susan Daniels.

30 Beneath the Bricks

A local group turns potential conflict into a positive outcome for the community in a historic Louisiana town.

26 Gloucester’s Itinerant Diggers

Archaeologist Austin Ainsworth on the launch of an exciting heritage project for Gloucester ’s homeless community.

Reg u l a r s
4 6
Challenge yourself.

Editorial

36 38 39

Culinary escapades from Annie Evans.

Dig Cook

News stories from around the world.

News

Distance learning.

Interested In...

28

Archaeological volunteer digs and field schools for 2009.

Dig In

Viewpoint David Connolly discusses what archaeology means to him.

34 Profile

Archaeologist Douglas Post Park.

40

Back Pages 3
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Alternative Diggers’ Archive.

Take u p the chal lenge...

I have recently had the pleasure of helping to lead a corporate challenge on behalf of the National Trust for Scotland. Our participants, consisting of employees from the banking sector throw themselves at our mercy and emerge at the end of the day wet and muddy but usually contented. This particular challenge revolves around a small 18th century tea house built in the classical style straddling a stream. Sadly, in the late 1960s a tree fell through the structure and a large portion of the beautifully-carved sandstone frontage fell into the stream and has lain there submerged ever since. The remaining shell acts as a reminder of its glory days when tea was so expensive and exotic that it was something to savour after a stroll through the carefully designed landscape of Newhailes Estate, on the outskirts of Edinburgh. These were heady times, the Scottish enlightenment was in full swing and this little tea house may have quenched the thirst of the great thinkers of the day including economist Adam Smith and philosopher David Hume who were frequent visitors to the Estate. There have been no photographs or plans found to show how it looked originally, and indeed no-one is certain who designed the building. However, the Tea House is similar to one of the pavilions at the Palladian bridge, Wilton, near Salisbury, Wiltshire. Each day spent hauling big chunks of masonry out of the stream has produced over 400 blocks, some intact and some badly damaged or eroded, but as a result the jigsaw puzzle is nearing completion providing the team with a tantalising glimpse of the original structure. This is what encourages our team to return to Newhailes year after year and in the process the participants have certainly challenged themselves. They have also learned a bit about archaeology and history, they have had a great time, and if the rebuilding is ever completed they will have the satisfaction of knowing their hard work made it all possible. The success of a project is undoubtedly down to the dedication of the participants and The Great Arab Revolt Project in Jordan (page 8) is no different. Consisting of a mix of volunteers and professionals, project administrator Susan Daniels describes how her initial fears nearly led her to cancel her trip. In the end, though, she decided to meet the challenge and is now a committed team member looking forward to her fourth year of exploration in the desert.

Above: Retrieving a section of column from the stream Top right: The Tea House as it looks today

Read the 2007 report: http://tinyurl.com/qsubje  Read the 2008 report: http://tinyurl.com/o95wbf 

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Sometimes finding yourself in a part of the world you know very little about is certainly a bit of a challenge but it’s all part of the archaeological experience. When you arrive at your destination it is understandable that it might feel a bit alien, but after a while you relax, things get more familiar and the next thing you know it becomes your second home. Each time you return you understand it a bit more, you get to know the locals, you might even start to feel a sense of responsibility towards it. This is how Yale archaeologist Douglas Post Park feels about Timbuktu. In his article, Where the Camel Meets the Canoe (page 20), he describes finding himself in a thrilling and magical place but one which is on the brink of an ecological disaster. Through archaeology, Douglas has discovered that this is not the first time in Timbuktu’s history that this problem has occurred and he is determined to work alongside the locals to help create a future for them free from hunger and deprivation. Intrigued? Well, read on, and hopefully in the near future you will be inspired to take up your own archaeological challenge. There are many to be found at: http://www.pasthorizons.com/ worldprojects 

editorial

Maggie Struckmeier
editor@pasthorizons.com 

A reconst ruct i o n d r a w i n g o f N e w h a i l e s Tea H ou se ba sed o n th e m aso nry re tri ev e d f ro m the s tream

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W W I Au s t ra l i a n a n d B r i t i s h wa r d e a d to b e e xhumed

news

O

x f o r d A r c h a e o l o g y has begun t he exhum ati on of t he r emains of up t o 4 0 0 W W I s o l d ier s kil led i n the di sastr ous Bat tl e of Fromelles in 1916.

The dead, all of whom were A u s t r a l i a n o r B r i t i s h , w e r e p l a c e d i n p i t s b e h i n d G e r m a n l i n e s a few days after the battle. T h e y w e r e b u r i e d w i t h o u t t h e i r d o g t a g s m a k i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n difficult, but it is hoped that a s m a n y a s p o s s i b l e c a n b e n a m e d b e f o r e r e - b u ri a l t a k e s p l a c e next year in the new military c e m e t e r y t o b e b u i l t o n l a n d n e x t t o t h e m a s s g r a v e . In order to prove this was in d e e d t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e b u r i a l s i t e a t P h e a s a n t s Wo o d n e a r the village of Fromelles in no r t h e r n F r a n c e , G l a s g o w U n i v e r s i t y A r c h a e o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h Division (GUARD) was hired b y t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h Wa r G r a v e s C o m m i s s i o n t o c a r r y o u t a three-week long excavation i n 2 0 0 8 . T h i s r e v e a l e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s a l o n g with British and Australian se r v i c e m e d a l s a n d m i l i t a r y b a d g e s . S o w h a t h a p p e n e d i n t h e e a r l y e v e n i n g o f We d n e s d a y 1 9 J u l y, 1 9 1 6 , t h a t c a u s e d s o m a n y t o l o s e t h e i r lives? The Fromelles attack was intended to distract German r e s e r v e s f r o m t h e S o m m e o ff e n s i v e a ro u n d 5 0 m i l e s to the south, and British and Australian infantry were ordered to advance on a notorious German stronghold k n o w n a s t h e ‘ S u g a r L o a f ’ . H o w e v e r, t h e i n c o m p e t e n t planning behind the attack led to the men being in full view of the enemy where they became ‘sitting d u c k s ’ . Wi t h i n a 2 4 - h o u r p e r i o d , 5 5 5 3 A u s t r a l i a n troops lay dead, wounded or were taken prisoner along with 1547 British. For the Australians it was the greatest lost of life in one event in the whole of WWI. A f e w d a y s a f t e r t h e s l a u g h t e r, t h e G e r m a n s p i c k e d u p some of the dead men and carried them back behind their front line for burial, removing most of their personal possessions to return to the families of the Australian and British soldiers. The 2008 excavation confirmed that the shape of the burial cuts were indeed made by German spades, and some metal rings f r o m t h e G e r m a n s t r e t c h e r s u s e d t o c ar r y t h e b o d i e s to the pits were also recovered. I d e n t i f y i n g t h e b o d i e s i s a d i ff i c u l t t a s k a n d w i l l involve cross referencing of casualty records with DNA analysis where possible. Those people whose r e l a t i v e s w e r e l o s t i n W W I a r e b e i n g u rg e d t o l o o k a t their family trees to find possible names that might be traced to Fromelles.

M en o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n 5 3 rd b a t tal ion a t t h e f ro n t l i n e m i n u t e s bef ore launching the attack.

The Commonwealth War Grav e s C o m m i s s i o n h a s a l i s t o f b o t h B r i t i s h a n d A u s t r a l i a n d e a d available to view at http://www.cwgc.org/fromelles/?page=english/homepage 
P h o t o s c o u r t e s y o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n War M emori al

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Controversy over re - opening of Babylon ruins

After decades of turmoil, I r a q i s c e l e b r a t i n g i t s r e n e w e d s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e Babylon archaeological s i t e — b y f i g h t i n g o v e r i t s p a s t , f u t u r e a n d s p o i l s . Read more: http://tinyurl . c o m / c y 7 w ap 

Cache of mummies unear thed at Egypt ’s Lahun pyramid

Archaeologists have unea r t h e d a c a c h e o f P h a r a o n i c - e r a m u m m i e s i n b r i g h t l y painted wooden coffins n e a r E g y p t ’s l i t t l e - k n o w n m u d b r i c k L a h u n p y r a m i d , believed to be built by th e 1 2 t h d y n a s t y p h a r a o h S e n u s r e t I I . Read more: http://tinyurl . c o m / c n k h wf 

D og sacr ifices found in M ediaeval Hungar ian village

A Mediaeval Hungarian v i l l a g e f u l l o f r i t u a l l y s a c r i f i c e d d o g s c o u l d s h e d l i g h t o n mysterious pagan customs n o t f o u n d i n w r i t t e n r e c o r d s f r o m t h e e r a , a n e w s t u d y suggests. Read more: http://tinyurl . c o m / c s z p xm 

Was a ‘mistress of the lionesses’ a k ing in ancient Canaan?

The legend is that the gre a t r u l e r s o f C a n a a n , t h e a n c i e n t l a n d o f I s r a e l , w e r e a l l men. But a recent dig by Te l Av i v U n i v e r s i t y a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a t Te l B e t h - S h e m e s h uncovered possible evide n c e o f a m y s t e r i o u s f e m a l e r u l e r. Read more: http://tinyurl . c o m / c z 9 5 5x 

N ine M ile Canyon: The longest ar t galler y

The Canyon, five times lo n g e r t h a n i t s n a m e i n d i c a t e s , i s c o v e r e d i n t h o u s a n d s o f petroglyphs that date bac k t o t h e m y s t e r i o u s d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f a N a t i v e A m e r i c a n culture. Read more: http://tinyurl. c o m / c b u 4 cu 

Great Wall of China longer than believed

The Great Wall of China i s e v e n g r e a t e r t h a n o n c e t h o u g h t , a f t e r a t w o - y e a r government mapping stud y u s i n g i n f r a r e d r a n g e f i n d e r s a n d G P S d e v i c e s uncovered new sections t o t a l l i n g a b o u t 1 8 0 m i l e s . Read more: http://tinyur l . c o m / c x z p 8u 
For more news stories that are updated constantly, try: Past Horizons News Blog: Stonepages Weekly News and Podcast: CBA Archaeology News Feed: Archaeologica: http://pasthorizons.wordpress.com/category/news-and-articles  http://www.stonepages.com/news  http://www.britarch.ac.uk/newsfeed  http://www.archaeologica.org/NewsPage.htm 

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The Great Arab R evolt Projec t
Scribblings from the spoilheap...

B y S u s a n D a n i els

G

A R P : i t sounds like an exotic species of fish but actually it stands fo r t h e G re a t A r a b R evolt Project which I became involved with four years ago. Th e m a i n a i m s o f G A RP are to evaluate and excavate First World War conflict sites i n s o u t h e r n J o r d a n a l o n g t he route of the Hijaz railway, and to follow ‘Lawrence of Ara b i a ’ a n d t h e A r a b f o rc e s ’ c ampaign against the Ottoman Turks between 1914 and 1918. I h a d n e v e r c ontemplated archaeology in a 2 0 t h c e n t u r y c o ntext until I read an article in C u r re n t Wo r l d Archaeology magazine by one o f t h e p r o j e c t d irectors, Neil Faulkner. L i k e m e , m o s t people I discussed it with a s s u m e d t h a t anything so recent could s u r e ly n o t b e c onsidered archaeology but on r e f l e c t i o n , w h e n does modern blur into old a n d o l d i n t o a ncient? Once living memory s t a r t s t o d i s a p p ear investigation must surely c o n t in u e t h r o u gh the use of contemporary a r c h a e o l o g i c a l methods. past horizons Surprisingly, this revelation w a s n o t m y primary motive for joining t h e p r o j e c t . What really attracted me was th e s h o r t t w o week length of the season and th e e n i g m a o f Lawrence. My first reason for applying migh t s e e m q u i t e strange, but as a frustrated dirt a r c h a e o l o g i s t who has been stuck behind a d e s k a s a n administrator for over 20 year s a n d o n l y having two weeks off at a time, i t m e a n t t h a t I wouldn’t have to tear myself a w a y h a l f w a y though the project to go back to m y d a y j o b .

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Damascus Syria Iraq

Amman

Jordan

Israel

Hijaz Railway

Ma’an Batn Al-Ghoul Wadi Rutm
EGYPT

Saudi Arabia

Aqaba

So I decided to send an e-mail explaining to the project directors that I was interested in joining the expedition. Panic immediately set in, though, when I heard that I had been accepted; just what I had let myself in for? The panic increased at the pre-meeting in London when I found myself surrounded by a host of people who seemed to know far more about excavation, Lawrence and military history than I did.

Two weeks later, that group of strangers had metamorphosed into good companions. I realised that between us all we held such a great wealth of life experience that the 90-minute bone-shaker bus ride to the site packed in like sardines in a tin was never dull, and the before/after dinner anecdotes could fill a book. We all looked out for each other and found the experience deeply rewarding, not just for the pioneering aspect of this 20th century archaeology, but also on I came very close to pulling out that day, a more personal level. Proving this, a core worried about how I would fit in but I pulled contingent from that first year has just signed myself together and reasoned that the team up for their fourth season. directors must have thought me capable of contributing something. So I decided to take a During that first season the good-natured risk and took up the challenge of sharing two banter on site often helped with the slog weeks in a desert environment with a group of of emptying heavy goofers (buckets to the was concentration Intense uninitiated). complete strangers.
continued 

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Susan, O d e t t e a n d B i l l p l a n n i n g a n e x c a v a t e d Tu rkish gun emplacement

n e e d e d , t h o u g h, to try to accurately draw b u i l d i n g e l e v a tions whilst teetering on the e d g e o f a s p o i l - heap with a hand-tape flapping a r o u n d i n t h e b reeze! Not only did we record t h e f o r t i f i e d r a i lway station buildings at Wadi R u t m , w e e x c avated part of the extensive c o m m u n i c a t i o n and firing trench systems that c u t a c r o s s t h e l andscape at Ma’an, an area of s t r a t e g i c i m p o r tance to the Turkish forces.

detritus of camp living, it provi d e d t h e t e a m with a tantalising echo of the s o l d i e r s w h o had occupied this site.

Season three saw us excavatin g m o r e t e n t circles and what we believed w a s a Tu r k i s h command post. Occupying an i m p r e s s i v e hilltop site it had spectacular view s a c r o s s t h e desert. The main site consisted o f d e f e n d e d buildings, trenches and a parade g r o u n d , a n d T h e f o l l o w i n g season saw us actually outside the defensive wall our e x c a v a t i o n s e x c a v a t i n g Turkish tented camps. The located sentry posts, a bread o v e n , g u n s u r v i v i n g s t o n e circles clearly marked out emplacements and mule lines. w h e r e t h e t e n t s had stood and along with the The GARP staff team patientl y t a u g h t u s amateurs new skills and tried to a n s w e r o u r many questions but they also e n c o u r a g e d us to think for ourselves, ena b l i n g u s t o form our own opinions and id e a s o f w h a t we were excavating. It took qu i t e a l e a p o f imagination to consider green b o t t l e g l a s s stamped ‘Made in Scotland’ an d d i s c a r d e d tin cans as archaeological finds r a t h e r t h a n modern rubbish. Over the previous seasons the exc a v a t i o n w o r k and building recording was comp l e m e n t e d b y extensive metal detecting, globa l p o s i t i o n i n g satellite (GPS) plotting and g e o p h y s i c a l survey across the wider landscap e . We w e r e

Paper m o n e y a n d m il i t a r y u n i f o r m ( p o s s i b l y Tu r kish) found i n e x c a v a t e d t e n t c i rc l e a t B a t n a l G h o u l

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Get Inv olv ed
The aim of the project in its first five-year phase is to explore the theme of desert warfare between Ma’an and Mudawwara so work will continue in 2009 to investigate other desert fortifications and camps along the line of the Hijaz Railway. Cost: £2450 for the two-week fieldwork season. Dates: 17 November - 1 December 2009 Contact Susan Daniels: susan@gwag.org Website: www.jordan1914-18archaeology.org 
Early booking is recommended as places are limited.

e n c o u r a g e d t o t ry our hand at these techniques a n d t h e e n d r esults produced an amazing a m o u n t o f v a l u a ble information in such a short t i m e . I t w a s e x citing to see computer graphics e x p l a i n t h a t l a ndscape far more extensively t h a n e x c a v a t i o n or building recording alone e v e r w o u l d o r could. One final thread of t h e p r o j e c t , t h e surviving oral hist ory will t a k e t i m e t o e s tablish. This involves slowly b u i l d i n g u p t r ust amongst local people but w i l l a d d a n e x t ra dimension to the research.

When I first read about GARP I ne v e r e x p e c t e d that I would now be looking fo r w a r d t o m y fourth season and I can say that I t r u l y f e e l part of the team. If this snapshot h a s w h e t t e d your appetite for a bit of adve n t u r e i n t h e desert be warned: the sand doesn’t j u s t g e t i n t o your boots and clothes, it can al s o s e e p i n t o your soul and call you back yea r a f t e r y e a r. So if you think you are too old o r l a c k i n g i n experience to try such a venture, t a k e i t f r o m me, you certainly are not.

S u s a n Daniels is the administrator for G A R P w h i c h i s b a s e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i s t o l , U K , a n d i s s u p p orted by the Jordanian Department o f A n t i q u i t i e s , t h e a l - H u s s e i n b i n Ta l a l U n i v e r s i t y, t h e J o rd a n M u s e um in Amman, the Council for Briti s h R e s e a rc h i n t h e L e v a n t , H R H P r i n c e H a s s an a n d C u r r e n t Wo r l d Archaeology magazine.

The 2008 team photographed in front of original 1914 - 1918 Hijaz Railway wooden carriages

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Oliver B u c k e t , a s t u d e n t o f Yo r k S t J o h n U n i v e r s ity Film & TV course, films a close-up shot of a student excavating a broken m e d i a e v a l p o t i n Tre n c h 1

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B a m b u rgh R e s e a rc h Pro j e c t
For the Record
B y G erard Twomey

B

amburgh Research Project was set up in 1996 to investigate the archaeology of Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, UK. An ancient site with occupation evidence stretching back to the Neolithic, it is most important as the principal royal site of Anglo Saxon Bernicia, and at times, the capital of Northumbria. In 1999, the BBC had come to film the excavation of the Anglo Saxon burial ground for the television series Meet the Ancestors. This experience created a desire to experiment wit h video at Bamburgh and in 2000 I joined the project as an archaeologist who had recently graduated from film school. The plan was to investigate how video could be incorporated into the archaeological process, initially as a recording tool but more recently for socio-historical documentation and as a means of recording the site holistically.
continued 

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York St . J o h n s t u d e n t E l l i e C r i s e l l s e t t i n g u p a v i deo diary

York St. John student Alexander Summ ers id e f il mi ng general views of Trench 3 from the va nt ag e p oi nt o f the windmill

B a m b u rg h i s s u ch an important site that we had From that initial experiment t h e c o n c e p t a h e i g h t e n e d s ense of responsibility towards extended to offer students the cha n c e o f m e d i a d i g g i n g i t , r e a lising that in the process we work experience, help develop t h e a r c h i v e w e r e a l s o d e s t r oying it. Video seemed to offer and to allow new voices to tell t h e s t o r y o f a u n i q u e l y s a t i sfying way archaeology a t B a m b u rg h . o f pr e s e r v i n g by record Providing a f o r u m f o r t h e a r c h a e o l o gical site archaeology students, For media students a n d t h e a r c haeologists volunteers and media the process is an themselves; their students to w o r k t o g e t h e r i ntense and exciting m e t h o d s a n d s kills, their and gain ex p e r i e n c e i n exper ience. d e v e l o p i n g i n t e rpretations recording archaeology a n d t h e o r i e s a n d even their through film m a k i n g , w e m i s t a k e s . T h e more we have develop e d a s t r o n g f i l m e d t h e m o r e we became aware that video hands-on approach preferring sup e r v i s i o n a n d o ff e re d t h e c h a nce to record a valuable social direction in the field rather than f o r m a l c l a s s h i s t o r y. based training. I n t h a t f i r s t y e ar around 11 hours o f digital v i d e o g o t r e c o r ded but there was still the task o f m a k i n g s e n se of the footage, creating a f i l m a n d g e t t i n g it online. Responding to a t e c h n o l o g i c a l r evolution, the project invested i n a h o m e e d i t i n g system and, with some effort d u e t o t h e l i m i tations of the new technology, w e b e g a n p r o d ucing CDs and short mpegs of p r o m o t i o n a l m a terial. past horizons For media students the process i s a n i n t e n s e and exciting experience as the y a r e t r u l y immersed in their subject all day, e v e r y d a y, and really have to put their film-m a k i n g s k i l l s to the test. Planning shots for thei r o w n f i l m s , discovering stories and adding t o t h e v i d e o record of the archaeology itself p r e s e n t s q u i t e a challenge for anyone to underta k e . T h e a i m is to achieve a balance of actua l i t y ( p e o p l e

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w o r k i n g ) , g e n e ral views and feature or deposit We encourage the media students t o m a k e t h e i r s h o t s a s t h e y a re revealed and then removed, own films over the course of thei r p l a c e m e n t , a l o n g w i t h t h e ongoing site interp retation. usually three weeks, and the n u m b e r s a r e A r e c o r d i s k ept of tape content with log deliberately kept small so that e a c h s t u d e n t s h e e t s a n d a r egister, which can achieve thi s g o a l . We a l s o n o t e s t h e timecodes, aim for film d u r a t i o n o f a n d a r c h a e o l o gical context under 10 minute s a s w e h a v e I t will not change how numbers for cross referencing to be realistic a b o u t w h a t a rc haeologists analyse w i t h i n t h e s i t e database. is achievable g i v e n t i m e and wr ite up their and equipment l i m i t a t i o n s , sites. O n v i d e o , t h e students and audience attent i o n a n d f i l e p r o f e s s i o n a l archaeologists size or length co n s t r a i n t s f o r discuss what they are web delivery. M a n y o f t h e d i g g i n g , h o w i t relates to other features or finished films, a copy of which s t u d e n t s g e t d e p os i t s a n d how it is placed in a spatial to keep, are shown on the Bambu rg h w e b s i t e , a n d t e m p o r a l context. Obviously, the level various public video upload cha n n e l s a n d a s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and interpretation varies part of media seminars. e n o r m o u s l y b e tween excavators so the aim is t o g e t a b r o a d range of opinion. Presenting Realistically, though, what b e n e f i t s c a n t o t h e c a m e r a , though, works best with site videography bring to the arc h a e o l o g i s t ? s u p e r v i s o r s a n d directors who have the most Video, like most recording on si t e , i s h i g h l y t o o ff e r i n t e r ms of interpretative opinions. subjective. It is usually less r i g o r o u s a n d O c c a s i o n a l l y l onger interviews are conducted certainly no substitute for conv e n t i o n a l o n c o v er i n g a w i der range of subjects to help site recording and interpretation, s o i t w i l l n o t p l a c e t h e e x c a vated material within a social change how archaeologists analy s e a n d w r i t e a n d h i s t o r i c c o ntext. up their sites. It is impractical to u s e i t l i k e t h e
continued 

Studen t s g e t t h e b e n e f i t o f u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f c a m eras to try differe n t s h o o t i n g s t y l e s f ro m h a n d - h e l d t o t r i p o d

Naomi Smith who recently won a national student television award

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or deposition, strong winds and r a i n , t r e n c h collapses and bioturbation that a l l h a v e a n effect on the archaeological proc e s s . Back in the editing room, it requ i r e s a n o t h e r inquisitive mind to pick apart the p r o g r e s s i o n of interpretation, to make a judg e m e n t a b o u t the veracity of statements, the q u a l i t y o f observations or the digging itse l f . F o r t h o s e students behind the camera it c a n b r i n g a wonderfully rich viewpoint of th e w h o l e s i t e and processes or archaeology, a n d f o r t h o s e in front of the camera it puts them o n t h e s p o t and forces them to confront and e n g a g e w i t h what they are doing and to expla i n i t .

Filmin g b e h i n d t h e ca m e r a l e n s a l l o w s t h e s t u d e nt to obta i n a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e s i t e v e r y q u i c k l y

w r i t t e n a r c h i v e as it contains either too much The short films the students prod u c e a r e a b l e o r t o o l i t t l e i n f o rmation, is not specific enough to reach a wider, non-specialist a u d i e n c e a n d a n d i s n o t a s y et easily searchable. allows the project to make inform a t i o n p u b l i c through internet technology on a n o n g o i n g Vi d e o h o w e v e r, can do what no other current basis rather than waiting for the e x c a v a t i o n s r e c o r d i n g m e t h od can do which is to show the to be finished and the findings pu b l i s h e d . p r o g r e s s i o n o f the excavation in great detail. I f r e q u i r e d i t c ould record every stroke of the As the guardians and destroyers of irreplaceable t r o w e l a n d e v e ry nuance of the excavator. It past resources, archaeologist s h a v e a c a n sh o w t h e s t yle of excavation and skill level responsibility to present their di s c o v e r i e s t o o f t h e a r c h a e o logist and it can demonstrate the rest of the world and quest i o n w h e t h e r h o w t h e r e c o r d i ng had been conducted and can more could be done to aid that pr o c e s s . s h o w t h e p r o g r ession of interpretive thought, a l l c a p t u r e d f o r posterity. Video also records People generally have a sympath e t i c a t t i t u d e t h e e n v i r o n m e ntal factors such as erosion towards archaeology and as a r e s u l t t h e r e

Gerry c h e c k s t h e c a m e r a l e n s f o r s t u d e n t s p re p a ring to shoot Trench 3

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i s a r e a d y - m a de audience. However, rather t h a n j u s t r e l y i n g on mainstream television to p r e s e n t a r c h a e o logy on our behalf, the internet a l l o w s u s a s archaeologists to gain much m o r e c o n t r o l o ver content and thus to deliver a n d d i s c u s s t h eories and ideas glo bally to s p e c i a l i s t a n d non specialist audiences alike. A t t h e B a m b u rgh Research Project we are p r o u d o f o u r participation in this media r e v o l u t i o n . I t h as enabled us to engage with o u r st u d e n t s a n d volunteers in a new way, and h a s a l l o w e d e a ch of us the chance to speak up f o r t h e a r c h a e o logy before it is lost f orever.

After studying archaeology at Yor k U n i v e r s i t y, UK, Gerard Twomey worked for s e v e r a l y e a r s in field archaeology before purs u i n g a n M A in screenwriting at the Northern F i l m S c h o o l , Leeds, UK. He joined the Bamburg h R e s e a rc h Project in 2000 as the project film m a k e r. N o w the media director and a proj e c t d i re c t o r, he has contributed to a feature d o c u m e n t a r y Reclaiming the Blade and is in pos t - p ro d u c t i o n on another co-produced with U S c o m p a n y Galatia Films. This document a r y, L e g e n d Castle, will explore the history o f B a m b u rg h Castle and showcase the proje c t ’s w o r k t o date.

A video presentation of the Bamburgh R esearch Projec t

I f you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then you will not be able to see the video. Yo u can view it on either the full flip page version of the magazine: www.pasthorizons.com/magazine

T

he Bamburgh Research Project field school is open to students and volunteers. Training is provided in all aspects of practical fieldwork techniques including excavation, drawing, photography, site recording, survey, post excavation analysis, databasing, sampling and environmental processing, artefact recognition and processing, and site interpretation. The media department encourages participation in recording the site and the social history. Dates: 8 June - 26 July 2009 Cost: £150 per week (£5 per night extra for campsite; bring your own tent) Apply online: http://www.bamburghresearchproject.co.uk 

Ge t In v o l v ed

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E ssential To o l s fo r t h e First-Time D i g g e r
If y o u h a v e s i g n e d u p f o r y o ur first excavation and are confused about the tool s t o t a k e w i t h y o u , t h e n P ast Horizons is here to help.

A

s a v o l unteer or student you will not n o r m a l ly be expected to turn up with y o u r o wn spade or expensive GPS s y s t e m b u t y o u might be asked to bri ng along the basics.

to work with no need to continuo u s l y b o r r o w the site equipment. The items y o u w i l l f i n d most useful include the 0.5mm a n d 0 . 7 m m Rotring Tikky pencils (remember b r i n g s o m e spare leads, at least 3H), an eras e r, a S h a r p i e permanent marker, two or thre e b l a c k B I C T h e t o o l t h a t r epresents the archaeologist is, biros and a scale ruler. Having t h e s e i t e m s o f c o u r s e , t h e trowel. There are on ly a few to hand will help you to draw p l a n s , w r i t e m a k e s o n t h e m arket to choose out record sheets , m a r k f i n d s f r o m a n d a l l s hare the same bags and even ke e p y o u r d i a r y b a s i c c h a r a c t eristics: they up to date. The direc tor will be a r e d r o p f o rg e d , which means i m pressed that you are t h e y a r e p a r t i c ularly durable The hand tape is a n o t h e r v i t a l s e r i ous enough to tur n a n d s t r o n g , a n d the blade is tool that you sim p l y c a n ’t b e b e t we e n 4 - 4 ½ inches long without. It shou l d b e e i t h e r up ready to wor k . ( c . 11 c m ) . T he three main 5 or 8 metres an d i t i s w o r t h t y p e s w h i c h are favoured spending a bit e x t r a o n a b y a r c h a e o l o gists are the decent hand tape s u c h a s t h e M a r s h a l l t o w n (USA), the Battiferro (Italy) hard-to-beat Stanley. The cheap e r v e r s i o n s a n d t h e W H S (UK). Choosing your trowel are floppy and have a tendency t o j a m a f t e r i s a m a t t e r o f personal taste and varies from using them a few times. c o u nt r y t o c o u ntry but be warned, a cheap w e l de d t r o w e l or one with a long blade will do A few extras that may not be esse n t i a l b u t m a y y o u n o f a v o u r s and will probably break within certainly prove useful include: t h e S t a n l e y t h e f i r s t f e w w eeks of punishing work. aluminium line level (a small sp i r i t l e v e l t o provide horizontal lines on sectio n d r a w i n g ) ; O t h er e x c a v a t i on tools that are always handy a plumb bob for vertical measur e m e n t s ; t w o t o k e e p i n y o ur toolkit are the trowel and bulldog clips which have variou s u s e s f r o m s q u a r e o r l e a f and square. These are small clipping tapes to survey pins o r h o l d i n g p l a s t e r e r ’s t o o l s with a thinner, smaller blade drawings onto planning board s . A n d l a s t t h a n t h e s t a n d ard trowel and great for more but not least, four six-inch nail s , u s e f u l f o r d e l i c a t e w o r k . The best make on the market laying out trenches, setting out s e c t i o n l i n e s , i s t h e Ty z a c k . marking find spots and holding d o w n c o n t e x t sheets. A s w e l l a s d i gging you will also need to r e c o r d , s o w h e ther it is writing or drawing, Finally, you will want to keep you r e q u i p m e n t h a v i n g y o u r o wn items to hand will prove neat, tidy and always to hand, a n d f o r t h a t i n v a l u a b l e . T h e director will be impressed you can’t beat a tool roll. t h a t y o u a r e s e rious enough to turn up ready Happy digging! past horizons

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Past Horizons
where quality matters

toolstore

www.pasthorizons.com/shop

We only sell the best equipment for the job and everything is tried and tested in the field, we send anywhere in the world. Order and pay online and leave the rest to us. Our customers include museums, universities and archaeological companies around the world as well as community groups and individuals.

whs 4inch wood handled tr owel whs 4inch soft handled tr owel t yzack leaf & square t yzack tr owel & square stanle y br a ss plumb bob stanle y aluminium line le vel sm all tools set stanle y powerwinder stanle y mea suring tapes

tool r olls dr afting film r otring mechanical pencils blundell harling scale ruler japanese pot tery combs finds bags t y vek l abels m a sking tape Sharpie indelible m arkers

SPEAR & JACKSON

Tyzack

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Pouri n g s t ro n g Tu a re g t e a

Photographs: Amanda Maples

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Where the Camel M eets the Canoe
Ti m b u k t u’s R ediscovered Past

B y D ouglas Post Par k

T

i m b u k t u used to exist in my head as remote, distant and exotic. College le c t u r e s m a d e m e n t i o n of its libraries, wealth and decline. I could point to it on a map , p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y of Mali, West Africa, on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert , j u s t b a r e l y t o u c h i n g t h e n orthernmost point of the Niger River, where the camel meets the c a n o e , b u t I k n e w l i t t l e m o r e. A c c o r d i n g t o my lecturers, Timbuktu, an a ff l u e n t c i t y, s o mehow grew out of a s and dune s u r r o u n d e d b y a mysterious mist of intrigue a n d i n a p p r o a c h ability but in reality it had a h i s t o r y t o o f a r removed from Western culture t o e x a m i n e t h e topic in any great det ail. trade set up to supply a Europe a n t h i r s t f o r precious metal.

Some years later I found myself s t a n d i n g o n a dune on the outskirts of Timb u k t u i n 1 2 0 degrees of oppressive heat. I r e m e m b e r e d these lectures and smiled to mys e l f b e c a u s e I T h e t e n e t s o f Western colonial thought still had come to realise that here in t h i s r e m o t e s t p e r v a d e d t h e b asic literature of the time. West of places I had discovered that an a n c i e n t p a s t A f r i c a w a s , i t seems, of no real consequence had remained hidden from the wo r l d f o r m o r e u n t i l t h e e s t a b l ishment of the mediaeval gold than a thousand years.
continued 

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L o c a l o r a l h i s tory describes Timbuktu as a t r a d i n g p o i n t founded some time in the 1 2 t h c e n t u r y A D by the nomadic Tu aregs. A c r o s s r o a d s f o r t he salt, gold and slave trade, it d e v e l o p e d g r e a t wealth between the 14th and 1 6 t h c e n t u r i e s . It is told that around two thirds o f a l l g o l d t o r each Mediaeval Europ e passed t h r o u g h i t l a d e n onto Tuareg camel caravans t h a t s t r e t c h e d like great serpents slowly w i n d i n g t h e i r way around sandy dunes for up t o 6 0 d a y s a t a time, heading northwards to A l g e r i a o r M o r occo and returning with great s l a b s o f s a l t , a product worth its weight in g o l d t o t h e s u b -Saharan region.

However, some would say that Ti m b u k t u ’s greatest treasures were its libr a r i e s ( w h i c h still exist) and universities whi c h g a v e r i s e to advanced learning in theology, a s t r o n o m y and jurisprudence. Considered o n e o f t h e leading beacons of Islamic kno w l e d g e , t h e city produced and consumed the m o s t v a l u a b l e of all trade goods: books. The U n i v e r s i t y o f Sankore, the largest university i n t h e w o r l d at the time, was built around A D 1 3 0 0 a n d housed some 25,000 students f r o m a s f a r afield as Cairo and Saudi Arabia. The decline came in the 16th c e n t u r y w h e n the Moroccan army crossed the Sa h a r a n d e s e r t and invaded the city. The Por t u g u e s e a l s o established a maritime gold, ivo r y a n d s l a v e trade route from the coast of We s t A f r i c a t o Europe which diminished the im p o r t a n c e o f trans-Saharan trade. Neverthele s s , o n e c a n still see camel caravans entering t h e c i t y w i t h 200 pound blocks of salt, and m a r k e t d a y s still bustle with commotion and e x p l o d e w i t h colour. The smell of the pungent f i s h m a r k e t and the aromatic pleasures of the s p i c e m o n g e r s are guaranteed to enliven all the s e n s e s . My primary interest in Timbuktu, t h o u g h , l i e s a little deeper beneath the sur f a c e . R e c e n t archaeological investigations le d b y m y s e l f and a team of specialists have unc o v e r e d s o m e impressive pre-Islamic cities in th e i m m e d i a t e vicinity of Timbuktu. Based o n t h e 1 9 8 4 archaeological survey of Roderic k a n d S u s a n McIntosh who were the first to p r o p o s e t h a t Timbuktu’s antiquity reaches back f u r t h e r t h a n

A sa n d d u n e j u s t o u t s i d e Ti m b u k t u

Excavations at Tumbouze, seven miles sout heast of Timbuktu

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An 11 00 -year-o ld pot and a 1 50 0year-ol d bea d neckla ce reco vered from exca vat io ns near Tim bu ktu

i t s Tu a r e g o r i gins, our excavations confirm The population appeared to hav e e x p a n d e d t h a t p e r m a n e n t large-scale urban settlements massively by 600 AD and an a r e a a s l a rg e d e v e l o p e d a s early as 200 BC. In fact, as 50 square kilometres (19 sq u a r e m i l e s ) p r e l im i n a r y r e s ults from ceramic similarities became densely inhabited. Recen t l y, c u l t u r a l s u g ge s t t h a t t h e region was mounds aver a g i n g 38 s e t t l e d i n t h i s early period hectares (100 a c r e s ) i n s i z e by G a r a m a n t ian tribes and over six met r e s ( 2 0 f e e t ) Timbuktu was already par t f r o m t h e c e n tral Sahara. in height have b e e n e x p o s e d of the trans-Saharan trade O t h e r p i e c e s of evidence by landscape d e f l a t i o n a n d by about 500 AD. s u c h a s N o r t h African style erosion. Up unt i l t h e 1 9 8 0 s g l a s s b e a d s and copper many of the sites n o w v i s i b l e f o u n d i n b u r i a l s lead to the were hidden by stable c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Timbuktu was already part of dunes covered in fairly dense v e g e t a t i o n t r a n s - S a h a r a n t rade by about 500 AD. but as a result of overgrazing a n d f i r e w o o d
continued 

One of t h e m a n y m a s s i v e c u l t u r a l m o u n d s n e a r Ti mbuktu covered in a carpet of ceramics

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Djinga re y b e r M o s q u e b u i l t i n 1 3 2 7 i s o n e o f t h ree madrasas of the University of Sankore

h a r v e s t i n g , m a inly due to an increase in the m o d e r n p o p u l a tion, the dunes have literally b l o w n a w a y. I n the vicinity of Timbuktu eight s u c h c u l t u r a l mounds have been identified w i t h m o r e e x p e cted to surface as the stability o f t h e l a n d s c a p e worsens. R e t r a c t i n g b y about 700 AD and collapsing 2 0 0 y e a r s l a t e r around 900 AD it is likely that t h e r e m a i n i n g population would have been r e d u c e d t o l i v i ng in small village sites along t h e r i v e r, a s i tuation that may have existed u n t i l t h e Tu a r eg arrived to establish their o w n t r a n s - S a h aran trading point. The ancient a b a nd o n m e n t of the large archaeological s e t t l e m e n t s i t e s is thought to be a combination o f u n s u s t a i n a b l e natural resource exploitation a n d a l o n g p e r i od of drought.

livestock or face starvation. If t h e r e i s n o intervention the archaeological s i t e s i n t h e region will disappear again but t h i s t i m e f o r good. Preventing this from happ e n i n g w i l l b e a major focus for the archaeolog i c a l r e s e a r c h plan at Timbuktu with a detailed s t u d y o f t h e social collapse at around 900 AD .

By understanding what went wro n g , a n d h o w the ancient collapse could have b e e n a v o i d e d , the team will use its findings t o i m p r o v e contemporary landscape manage m e n t h o p i n g to motivate the local leaders in t o b e c o m i n g involved with conservation activ i t i e s . T h e r e is a short window of time in whic h a l o t m u s t be accomplished. From the geo m o r p h o l o g i c studies of the Timbuktu region it i s c a l c u l a t e d that it has taken about 25 yea r s f o r m a n y of the sites to become fully ex p o s e d a n d i t W h i l e p r e s e n t ing the archaeologist with will take approximately 30 years f o r t h e m t o a n o p p o r t u n i t y to study an indigenous and completely disappear. c o m p l e x We s t African civilisation buried in t h e s a n d f o r o ver a 1000 years, the erosion To tackle the immediate prob l e m s f a c i n g a n d d e f l a t i o n problem creates a dilemma. greater Timbuktu, the research tea m , p r i m a r i l y M o r e s u s t a i n a b le ecological practices need to made up of Yale University aca d e m i c s , h a s b e i m p l e m e n t e d to stop the Saharan desert’s formed a non-profit organisatio n c a l l e d t h e c r a w l s o u t h , c l ogging the streets and forcing Timbuktu Expedition Project ( T E P ) w h o s e f a r me r s a n d h e rders to either flee with their mission is to create long-term en v i r o n m e n t a l past horizons

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a n d s o c i a l s u s t ainability through the research o f a r c h a e o l o g y, environment and cultural p a t r i m o n y. T h e task at hand needs a longt e r m c o m m i t m ent to tackle a precarious s i t u a t i o n t h a t will no doubt get wors e before i t g e t s b e t t e r, b ut there is confidence that real p r o g r e s s i s p o s sible. O n e a c h r e t u r n to Timbuktu there have been d i s c o n c e r t i n g changes. More vegetation h a s d i s a p p e a r e d, accounts of violent acts in t h e d e s e r t a r e discussed and desperation is s e t t i n g i n w i t h famine a real and immediate t h r e a t . To u r i s m is also diminishing due to u n f a v o u r a b l e international news reports c o n c e r n i n g r e b el attacks on military bases. T h e r e i s n o e s c aping the truth, Timbuktu is in d i r e s t r a i t s a n d yet there is so much to preserve. T h e s t r e e t s s t i l l flow with the ritual of daily l i f e . T h e d i s t i n ctive bay of the camel can still b e h e a r d , i t s disgruntled behaviour almost c o m i c a l . P e o p l e are interested, inquisitive and a l w a y s r e a d y t o share a glass of strong Tuareg t e a . C h i l d r e n f i ll the madrasa schools, reading f r o m p l a n k s o f wood on which phrases from t h e K o r a n a r e written in dark, purple ink. All o f Ti m b u k t u s t ops for afternoon prayer, the s h o p s c l o s e , r a dios are turned off and people

file into 700-year-old mud-bu i l t m o s q u e s diligently cared for by the entire c i t y. When I look back at Timbuktu f r o m d i s t a n t dunes remembering an arboreal fact that I learnt as a child – the part of the tree th a t c a n n o t b e seen is larger than the part that c a n – w h a t I

Douglas with some local children

see is the result of over 2000 yea r s o f h i s t o r y whose roots originated from an i m p r e s s i v e indigenous West African civilisation. Because of this knowledge, I fe e l I h a v e a responsibility to do everything I c a n t o m a k e sure Timbuktu is around for anothe r 2 0 0 0 y e a r s .

D o u g l a s P o s t Park a PhD candidate in anthropological archaeology, Yale Unive r s i t y, U n i t e d S t a t e s , h a s d i rected two field seasons for TEP. He has eight years of excavatio n e x p e r i e n c e i n c o u n t r i e s r anging from China to Greece. His primary skill is geospatial an a l y s i s u s i n g A rc G I S a n d E R Mapper, with seconda ry skills in faunal and ceramic analysis.

Ge t In v o l v ed

I f y o u w o u l d like to support TEP as an individual or institution y o u c a n d o s o by direct funding or volunteering. There are various p o s i t i o n s a n d directions volunteers can take. Help with fundraising i s t h e m o s t i mmediate concern in o rder to train local archaeologists, a n d i m p l e m e nt social work and public outreach. I f y o u a r e i n t erested in fieldwork you are welcome to come and work o n a v a r i e t y of projects ranging from archaeological excavation, e n v i r o n m e n t a l sustainability studies to public outreach. The living c o n d i t i o n s a r e tough, but if it’s real adventure that you are interested i n t h e r e a r e f ew places in the world that can thrill like Timbuktu.
Email: doug@timbuktuexpeditionproject.org TEP website: http://timbuktuexpeditionproject.org 

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G lo ucester ’s I ti nera nt D ig ge rs

tro In

ing uc d

H

B y Au s t i n A i n s wor th

omele s s a n d v u l n e r a b l e p e o p l e o f t e n s u ff e r f r o m a g e n e r a l m i s c o nc eption tha t they h a v e f e w i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s o r a s p i r a t i o n s a n d c a n b e s o c i a lly e xclude d from m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y a s a r e s u l t . T h e r e a l i t y c o u l d n o t b e f u r t he r from this image, howeve r, a n d a l t h o u g h t h e y m a y n o t h a v e a p e r m a n e n t h o m e f r o m w hich to ba se their hobbies a n d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e r e m a i n s s t r o n g .
Wi t h t h i s i n m i nd, Gloucestershire Emergency A c c o m m o d a t i o n Resource (GEAR), supported b y G l o u c e s t e r City Council’s Heritage S e r v i c e s b a s e d in southwest England, has d e v i s e d a g r oundbreaking project that is a l r e a d y p r o v o k ing interest countrywide. problems, achieve sustainable te n a n c i e s a n d form stable relationships.

Many GEAR users have significa n t p ro b l e m s with alcohol and substance abu s e , c ri m i n a l histories and mental health issu e s . I n o r d e r to minimise potential problems , a s w e l l a s M e e t i n g t h e s pecific needs of those people highlight specific individual t a l e n t s , t h e w h o u s e G E A R ’s services and facilities, this involvement of experienced GE A R s t a ff i s p r o j e c t i s d e s i gned to help pave the way to vital to the success of the projec t . i m p ro v e t h e i r quality of life. Par ticipants e n g a g e i n a w i de range of skills that allows The participants are free to choos e fr o m f o u r t h e m t o b u i l d up confidence and self-esteem distinct but linked elements that m a k e u p t h e l e a d i n g t o b e t t er employment and educational programme and will have acces s t o t r a i n i n g p r o s p e c t s , i m p r oved ability to tackle personal workshops. past horizons

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M osaic The construction of a mosaic w i t h i n t h e Vaughan Centre garden forms the t h i r d e l e m e n t of the programme. Linked to the d o c u m e n t a r y research, a piece will be created b a s e d o n l o c a l Roman examples previously ex c a v a t e d a n d 19th/20th century shop doorstep d e c o r a t i o n s still in situ around Gloucester. Th o s e w i s h i n g to be involved can attend a mosa i c w o r k s h o p to advance their practical and de s i g n s k i l l s . Painting, Photography, Poetr y This element is intended to d o c u m e n t progress of the project by creatin g p a i n t i n g s , photographs and poetry. GEAR already has an active art workshop and to herald the launch of the project, works completed by its Vaughan Centre artists will go on show from the 6 June 2009 at Gloucester City Museum and Art Gallery. If this fledgling project flourishe s i t w i l l l e a d to a rolling programme of commun i t y h e r i t a g e engagement by GEAR. What h a p p e n s i n subsequent years will be for the p a r t i c i p a n t s to decide. The reconstruction o f l i f e s k i l l s attained as a result of this trainin g w i l l a l l o w Gloucester ’s itinerant diggers to c o n f i d e n t l y choose their own direction and P a s t H o r i z o n s will be charting the progress o f b o t h t h e diggers and the project in the mo n t h s a h e a d . Austin Ainsworth is the historic e n v i ro n m e n t assistant for the Heritage Services D e p a r t m e n t of Gloucester City Council and is t h e e q u a l i t i e s officer for the Gloucester City Co u n c i l b r a n c h of Unison.

T h e G E A R d i gging team

D o c u m e nt a r y R esearch T h e d o c u m e n t a ry research forms an important p r i m a r y e l e m e nt. Research skills workshops, d e s i g n e d t o t e a ch how and where to look for r e l e v a n t i n f o r mation, will be provided. The r e s u l t i n g r e s e arch will inform the initial archaeological desk-based assessment, t h e e x c a v a t i o n report, the post-excavation a s s e s s m e n t a n d the mosaic project report. A rc h a e o l o gi c a l Training Excavations Tw o p h a s e s o f training excavations will be h e l d a t t h e Va u g han Centre (GEAR day centre) g a r d e n a n d t h e GEAR Saintbridge allotment. T h e Va u g h a n Centre phase is intended to t e a c h t h e b a s i c s of excavation and recording m e t ho d o l o g y in a little archaeologically u n d er s t o o d a r e a to the south of Gloucester city c e n t r e . T h e s e cond phase, at the Sai ntbridge a l l o t m e n t , w i l l build on the skills learned f r o m t h e f i r s t excavation. It is hoped some e v i d e n c e o f t h e eastern extent of a known q u a r r y s i t e a n d the western extent of an Iron A g e /R o m a n o - B ritish settlement and field s y s t e m w i l l b e uncovered.

To find out more about the project contact Saul Hughes, senior project worker at GEAR: saul.h u g h e s @ g e a r p r o j e c t s . o rg o r Austin Ainsworth: austin.ainsworth@gloucester.gov.uk Future project updates will be available on the GEAR website: http://www.gearprojects.org 

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D ig In

A s e l e c t i o n of archaeological projec ts around t he wor ld

S er bia - Pax Or thodoxa 20 0 9 Fi e l d Tr i p

This is a study trip to around 25 mediaeval Orthodox chapels, churches and monasteries in eastern Serbia to identify frescoes, ‘chant keepers’ and to study local traditions. Cost: €675. Dates: 3 - 14 October 2009
We b : h t t p : / / w w w. b h f i e l d s c h o o l . org/paxo09.html 

Bu l gar ia - Vratsata Archaeological Fiel d S c h o o l

Search for proof of the theory that Vratsa was the capital of the Tribali tribe where generations of Thracian rulers lived. Last year archaeologists found a pentagonal citadel. Cost: 15 day field school €899. Dates: 1 - 14 June and 15 - 28 June 2009
Web: h t t p : / / v r a t s a t a . a r c h b g . n et 

A lbania - Butr int

The excavations will focus on the Vrina Plain on the opposite side of the channel to walled Butrint, where there are a series of Roman buildings, a necropolis and Mediaeval structures. Cost: €2110. Dates: 5 - 25 July 2009
We b : h t t p : / / w w w. a u r. e d u / a c a d e mics/art_archeological_fieldwork.html 

Is rael - A pollonia-Arsuf

Mapping the furnaces of an important glass production site from the Byzantine period and the excavation of the moat and several halls of a Crusader castle. Cost: $575. Date s: 29 June - 31 August 2009
Web: h t t p : / / w w w. t a u . a c . i l / h u m a n i t i e s / a r c h a e o l ogy/projects/proj_apollonia.html 

Sicily - M oyta Under water A rc h a e o l o g y a n d S u r ve y Pro j e c t

Study a submerged stone causeway that connected Moyta to the mainland. Moyta was founded by the Phoenicians in the 8th century BC and destroyed by the Greeks in 397 BC. Cost: €300 for one week & € 450 for two weeks . Dates: 24 May - 7 June 2009
We b : h t t p : / / w w w. s y s . eu 

I t a ly - Vultur Projec t

This survey and excavation in northern Ba silicata will focus upon the Lucanian Frontier as a sphere of pre-Roman cultural interaction and Late Roman stability. Dates: 10 Aug - 2 Oct 2009 Cost: Free accommodation for experienced people and $900 (three weeks) for inexperienced.
Web : h t t p : / / w w w. v u l t u r p r o j e c t . c om 

S cotland - Sunnyside Villa

Students will gain experience of excavating, site recording, find recording, basic survey techniques, photography and some post-excavation work at this early 19th century villa. Cost: £300. Dates: 22 June - 4 July 2009
E m a i l : s t e p h e n . c l a n c y @ u w s . a c . uk (University of the West of Scotland)

K a zak hstan - G eoarchaeological and Pa l a e o e nv i ro n m e nt a l S t u d i e s

Land and aerial mapping of areas in Kazakhstan covering all periods from Palaeolithic to modern. Volunteers and students of archaeology are welcome. Cost: $350 per week. Dates: 1 June - 1 December 2009 (see website for specific projects)
Web : h t t p : / / w w w. l g a k z . o rg / Vo l u n t e e r C a m p s / Volunteer.html 

R omania - Car pathian Anc i e nt R e s o u rce a n d Te c h n o l o g y Pro j e c t

This field season will invest igate flint mining techniques of the Cotofeni people at Piatra Tomii (Alba county), a late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age settlement site. Cost: €150 per week. Dates: 1 - 31 July 2009
Web : h t t p : / / c a r t p r o j e c t . 2 2 w e b . n et 

M ore projec ts can be found at http://www.pasthorizons.com/worldprojects 

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Advertising Feature

NORTH PENNINES ARCHAEOLOGY LIMITED &
NORTH PENNINES HERITAGE TRUST EDUCATION SERVICE

The 2009 Archaeological Fieldschool run by North Pennines Archaeology Limited and North Pennines Heritage Trust Education Service is due to commence on the 1st June, running through to the 2nd August 2009. 2009's Field School will continue to investigate the Jacobean Hall and Service Range at Dilston Castle (continued from 2007 and 2008 seasons), Northumberland. The project aims to provide archaeology students, and prospective entrants into archaeology courses at university, the opportunity to gain valuable fieldwork experience by participating in the project. Skills available to be taught are:  Topographical Surveying Techniques  Excavation Techniques  Archaeological Planning Techniques  Environmental and Finds Processing Techniques  Building Recording Techniques  Computer Aided Drawing (Digitising)  Geophysical Surveying Techniques Weekend events are planned throughout the season and include underground mine trips and field excursions.

Accommodation provided at Nenthead Mines Heritage Centre Bunkhouse Tuition and Supervision, Advice and Training Guided underground trips and trips to other sites of interest. Cost: £15/day for tuition; £70/week for accommodation. Fieldschool runs from 1st June-2nd August 2009 Contact: Andrew Wardlaw on 01434 382294 or e-mail: fieldschool@nparchaeology.co.uk Or visit the website http://fieldschool.nparchaeology.co.uk

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past horizons

B eneath the Br icks
B y Jeff Guin

W

hen a s t r e e t i n a s m a l l t o w n i n s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s f o u n d i t self in need of so m e u rg e n t r e p a i r s , t h e r e s u l t i n g – a n d s t a t e - r e q u i r e d – a r chaeological inves t i g a t i o n s t h r e a t e n e d t o d i v i d e t h e c o m m u n i t y. T h e b r i c k - l i n ed historical Front Street of N a t c h i t o c h e s , L o u i s i a n a , w a s a l s o t h e h u b o f b u s i n e s s a n d t ourism, and with several we e k s ’ c l o s u r e s c h e d u l e d , m e r c h a n t s w e r e n o n e t o o h a p p y.

Above: A rc h a e o l o g i s t s i n v e s t i g a t e b e n e a t h t h e b ricks of Front Street Top lef t : L a y i n g t h e F ro n t S t re e t b r i c k s i n 1 9 0 4

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Breda Town

Oklahoma

Arkansas Mississippi

Texas

New Orleans Louisiana Florida

Natchitoches

Martin Lu ther King

Natchitoches

Mexico

Gulf of Mexico
Univ ersit y Pa

Front Street

rkwa

y

T h e i n h a b i t a n t s of Natchitoches (nak-i-toec h u s ) h a d n o objections to the re-laying of F r o n t S t r e e t ’s bricks which were first placed i n 1 9 0 4 . I n d e e d, the community had called f o r s o m e t h i n g t o be done to the spine-jarring s t r e e t s i n c e t h e 1950s, but archaeological i n v e s t i g a t i o n o n top of the repairs posed a p o t e n t i a l l o s s of income for businesses that l i n e d t h e m a i n thoroughfare of the town, p i t t i n g t r a d e r a gainst heritage enthusiasts.

The group’s first task, the e r e c t i o n o f information panels along the p a v e m e n t o f Front Street, addressed the histor y o f t h e a r e a and helped to create excitement s u r r o u n d i n g the potential finds. Through N a t c h i t o c h e s Preservation Network website, pro j e c t u p d a t e s were announced and information g i v e n a b o u t how to work out where the ar c h a e o l o g i c a l hotspots would be. Through the website the grou p w a s a b l e to discuss the research carried o u t b y s t a t e project archaeologist Thurston H a h n I I I s i n c e 2003 that led him to conclude th a t t h i s m a y be a site of Native American o c c u p a t i o n . In fact, the town of Natchitoch e s , f o u n d e d as a French outpost in 1714, tak e s i t s n a m e from an Indian tribe belonging t o t h e C a d d o Confederacy who were native to t h i s a r e a o f Louisiana and traded with the S p a n i s h a n d French at that time.

I n o r d e r t o t u r n this potential conf lict into a p o s i t i v e o p p ortunity a small group formed i n t h e s p r i n g of 2008 to discuss ways to e a s e c o m m u n i ty tensions. By encouraging l o c a l p a r t i c i p a tion and thereby enhancing t h e u n d e r s t a n d ing of their town’s past it w a s h o p e d e v e ryone would unite behind the p r o j e c t s i m p l y titled ‘Beneath the Bricks’. A c o m m i t t e e , i n c luding some local historians w a s t h e n s e t u p to look for ways to interpret t h e a r c h a e o l o g ical investigations that would h e l p l u r e p e o p le downtown to shop, eat and His investigations also includ e d s t u d y i n g e x p l o r e t h e p a s t. historic photographs, deeds, c o m m e r c i a l
continued 

Kaleigh Guin examines the different soil types

G uessing the age of local artefacts

Learning about soil types of the area

D emonstrating a Native American drill

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Cane River

Alabama Georgia

Dr

r e c o r d s , d i a r i e s and maps which led him t o b e l i e v e t h e excavations would produce r e m a i n s o f c o l onial habitations, ea rly 19th c e n t u r y d w e l l i ngs and businesses as well as e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t ury automobile service sites. T h e m a p s p r oduced by U.S. insurance c o m p a n y S a n b orn for the fire insurance i n d u s t r y p r o v i d ed a lot of evidence. Sanborn d i s p a t c h e d l e g ions of surveyors to gather d e t a i l e d i n f o r mation regarding buildings for a b o ut 1 2 , 0 0 0 t owns and cities between 1867 a n d 1 9 7 0 . T h e se maps exist for portions of N a t c h i t o c h e s f r om 1892 to 1930. A s t h e e x c a v a t i on progressed, the Beneath the B r i c k s g r o u p d esigned and set up a series of e x h i b i t s f u n d e d by the Cane River National H e r i t a g e A r e a at shops along Front Street. T h i s e n c o u r a g ed people to walk downtown t o l o o k a t t h e many historic photographs and p o t t e r y d i s p l a y s.

Following this a heritage educ a t i o n e v e n t was staged, with interactive stati o n s t e a c h i n g about soil types, artefact reco g n i t i o n a n d demonstrations on the use of anc i e n t t o o l s . To gain more attention for suffering businesses, organisers set up a scavenger hu n t t h a t t o o k families through several establ i s h m e n t s i n a quest for prizes, a popular a c t i v i t y t h a t continued throughout the life of t h e p r o j e c t . The excavation concluded just a s 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 tourists flooded the tiny town o f 1 8 , 0 0 0 inhabitants for its Christmas ‘ F e s t i v a l o f Lights’ in December. Thanks to this small but passio n a t e g r o u p , potential conflict was turned int o a p o s i t i v e experience for the community, a n d a s t h e downtown area of Natchitoche s d e v e l o p s , Beneath the Bricks continues to h e l p i n t e r p r e t new archaeological projects as t h e y h a p p e n , keeping civic pride alive and wel l .

J e f f G u i n , a resident of Natchitoches, is instructor of journalism at Northwe s t e r n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Louisiana, and in his role as public information officer at th e N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r P reservation Technology and Training has pioneered the use of so c i a l m e d i a t e c h n o l o g i e s to communicate heritage values. He is the executive producer of P re s e r v a t i o n To d a y, a h e r i t age social networking website http://www.preservationtoday.com 

If you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then you will not be able to see the video. You can view it on either the full flip page version of the magazine: www.pasthorizons.com/magazine

past horizons

32

Advertising Feature

U

Birmingham provides the ideal footing for anyone wanting to begin a career in archaeology or the heritage environment. Along with diverse skills and opportunities provided, I also got to experience city life in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the course, I have been employed in archaeology since I graduated in 2007. Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

B
past horizons

The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches available to heritage practitioners. All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time degrees. Campus-based programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments MA in Conflict Archaeology M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice Distance Education programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE) MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments (DE) To find out more, go to http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/ or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk

Emma holding a medieval leather shoe recovered from excavations in Birmingham

33

Profile
D
ouglas Post Park lives in New England in the United States and is a PhD candidate in anthropological a r c h a e o l o g y a t Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y. H e i s d i r e c t o r o f t h e Ti m b u k t u E x p e d i t i o n P r o j e c t , a n o n - p r o f i t o rg a n i s a t i o n whose mission is to create long-term environmental and s o c i a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y t h r o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h o f a r c h a e o l o g y, e n v i r o n m e n t a n d c u l t u r a l p a t r i m o n y.
Your first archaeological experience? When I was 18 years old I decided that I needed to get some travelling experience and so I set off for a three month trip to China and ended up working on an excavation there at Zoukoudian, which is the site where China’s oldest hominids, around 500,000 years old, are located. What do you love about the desert? At night when the wind dies down the Sahara Desert becomes devoid of all sound, and the stars shine brighter than any place I have ever been. What book are you reading right now? For pleasure I am reading Against Empire by Michael Parenti. I am very interested in modern politics and world history. Top three essential items for travelling? Malaria medication, a Leatherman and one hip flask full of Dewar ’s Scotch Whisky. What country do you enjoy visiting and why? I have a serious obsession with Greece. I lived there for three years in my early 20s and became fully immersed in the language and culture. Every time I go back I feel completely at ease, like a second home. Have you had any near death experiences? I have had a few. The only one I am willing to mention is the time I was glacier climbing on Fox glacier in New Zealand and took a bad fall into an deep and narrow ice crevice. Because I was wearing a large backpack when I fell I became wedged in the crevice before I hit the bottom, some 100 feet below. I was pulled out with help from my friends and sustained only strains in my hands and feet. What historical character would you like to have met? I would have really liked to know my ancestor, Mungo Park, who was the first European to reach the Niger River and come back alive. Unfortunately he died on his second trip to the Niger and I am trying my best not to repeat family history. Plane, train or automobile and why? I really despise planes, not because of the whole flying thing, but because of the airports and the great deal of stress that goes along with trying to check in. When abroad I prefer four-wheel drive trucks, which allows me to explore the countryside. How do you relax? After a hard day’s work at the excavation site, I like to sit down with friends and have a nice cold beer. A beer tastes better if it has been earned. What is your current obsession? Rock climbing. It has been my obsession for a while. What gets you out of bed in the morning? My alarm clock and a deep-seated guilt that I didn’t get enough done the day before. What new skill would you like to learn? I would like to learn how to fly, and I am enrolling in flight training classes next summer in Guatemala. Do you have any heroes or heroines? My friends and family. What is the most interesting excavation you have been part of? One of my good friends directs an excavation at a pre-Inca site in the Peruvian Amazon. Working there was extremely difficult but the archaeology was amazing. Of course, I think my excavations at Timbuktu are just as cool! What is the worst job you have ever done? Bartender at a Georgetown pub in Washington DC. Bartending wasn’t bad, but cleaning up after closing time was horrible. Do you prefer survey or excavation? I like to combine both during my field seasons, but perhaps I enjoy survey better, mostly because it takes less logistical planning than excavation. Also, I like to use the fancy survey equipment I borrow from my university. What do you see out of your window just now? The Yale School of Management, the building just across the yard from my office in the Anthropology Department. There is a fancy tent party going on there right now and I am thinking of sneaking in for some tasty snacks after I’m done with this interview. If you weren’t an archaeologist what would you do instead? I can’t answer that easily, but I can only assume that I would just be a poor vagabond aimlessly travelling the world and sneaking into tent parties for the free snacks!

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Advertising Feature

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MA Archaeology The MA Archaeology is designed to teach the methods and practice of contemporary archaeology. It is suitable for both volunteer and professional archaeologists. Our MA in Archaeology has been designed to fit around the lives of working people. Core course and options modules take place over the weekend and in one week slots. The MA course runs from October to July and is undertaken over two years on a part-time basis. Interviews for the MA in Archaeology are between July and September. For more information please go to: http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ce/archaeology/ma_archaeology.html  T: 020 7631 6627 E: archaeology@FLL.bbk.ac.uk For a copy of the new 2008/2009 prospectus please telephone 020 7631 6627 or 0845 601 0174 or go to: www.birkbeck.ac.uk/ce/archaeology where you can enrol directly online by completing the online form beside each module description or by calling central enrolment on 020 7631 6651.

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Recipes for Archaeologists
“Eat your veggies! ” i s a c r y t h a t m a n y of us heard as child r e n . L i t t l e w o n d e r, then, that a lot of pe o p l e h a v e g r o w n u p with a bad attitude a b o u t v e g e t a b l e s . obtain his or her produce right from t h e g r o w e r. I ’ v e b e e n f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h in the Mediterranean to find produce that was picked just a few hours before it went into my pots. This is the way things ought to be. Over the years I’ve worked out a few tricks that I use to give vegetables a l i t t l e e x t r a b o o s t . Yo u d o n ’t h a v e t o do much to add some extra sparkle to carrots, beans and cabbages – to name j u s t a f e w. T h e s e i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f f l a v o u r a n d n u t r i t i o n s h o u l d n ’t h a v e t o play second fiddle to the main course of m e a t , f i s h o r w h a t e v e r. N o r ( s h u d d e r ! ) should various vegetables be cooked in the same pot at the same time. Getting all the elements of a meal t o g e t h e r a t t h e s a m e t i m e c a n b e d i ff i c u l t when you’re working in a basic kitchen with not much in the way of stovetop or o v e n s p a c e . Yo u c a n g e t a r o u n d t h i s b y cooking the vegetable components of the meal earlier in the day and serving t h e m c o l d . T h i s a p p r o a c h d o e s n ’t w o r k with every vegetable but it can solve problems for the busy cook.

Annie Evans The Dig Cook

Even lovers of vege t a b l e s h a v e b e e n p u t off by the way in wh i c h s o m e e x t r e m e l y dull cooks treat t h e u n f o r t u n a t e cabbages, beans and o t h e r f r e s h p r o d u c e that passes through t h e i r k i t c h e n . W h e n vegetables have had t h e b e j e s u s c o o k e d out them there’s ver y l i t t l e n o u r i s h m e n t or taste left to enjoy. O v e r c o o k e d b e a n s or any other vegeta b l e a r e a t o t a l w a s t e of time, lacking cri s p n e s s , f l a v o u r a n d the goodness that t h e y o u g h t t o b r i n g to the plate. Ideally, vegetables s h o u l d s p e n d a s l i t t l e time as possible g e t t i n g f r o m g a r d e n to the table. This i s o f t e n d i ff i c u l t t o achieve today when p r o d u c e i s s h i p p e d or flown around the g l o b e . B u t i n m a n y parts of the world w h e r e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s work we are often f o r t u n a t e i n f i n d i n g local sources of p r o d u c e w h i c h m a y have very few midd l e m e n i n t h e c h a i n of supply. Every c o o k w o r t h p u t t i n g in a kitchen is thr i l l e d t o b e a b l e t o

If you have silverbeet (spinach) available, it can be used in the following recipe as a delicious and filling accompaniment to the main course: 250g dried chickpeas, soaked overnight and cooked 2 tins of cherry tomatoes or chopped fresh tomatoes 4 cloves of garlic, crushed Salt and pepper 1 dessertspoon of sugar 1 large bunch of silverbeet, finely chopped Empty tomatoes into a large pot, add garlic, salt and pepper, chickpeas, sugar and spinach, and simmer for 10 minutes. May be served hot or cold. Quantities are for 10 people. This also makes a delicious lunch with some crusty bread. I like to cook beans and peas quickly then combine them with fresh chopped spring onions, chives or other fresh herbs, and dress them with a vinaigrette of olive oil, lemon juice or white wine vinegar, salt and pepper and crushed garlic.

The Dig Cook’s website
http://www.digcook.com 

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Another delicio us dressing for green veggies, such as steamed beans or zucchini, is the following: Good handful of fresh oregano leaves (removed from stalks) ½ cup olive oil Salt and pepper to taste 2 cloves garlic, crushed Juice of a large lemon 60 grams good feta cheese, crumbled 60 grams black olives, pips removed, and chopped

Method
Process oregano leaves, oil, salt and pepper, garlic and lemon juice until well chopped, or pound together using a mortar and pestle. Add crumbled feta and chopped olives and pour over warm green veggies. Serve cold. You can use dry oregano but fresh is best. Ca rrots that have been cooked until just tender are delicious with a sprinkling of toasted sesame seeds, a few drops of sesame oil, a knob of butter, a spoonful of honey and a little salt and pepper.

T h e main recipe is a crowd-pleaser an d o n e t h a t c a n b e s e r v e d w i t h c h i c k e n o r m e a t d i s h e s . I t s o r i g i ns are in Turkey and the story go e s t h a t i t o b t a i n e d i t s n a m e ( ‘ t h e p r i e s t f a i n t e d ’ ) w h e n i t w a s served to an imam who swooned ou t o f s h e e r d e l i g h t .

Imam Baye l d i ( s t u ff e d e g g p l a n t o r a u b e rg i n e ) 5 medium-sized eggplant cut in half lengthwise Half a cup olive oil 5 cloves garlic (crushed) 5 brown onions thinly sliced 2 green peppers se eded & thinly sliced 2 red peppers seed ed & thinly sliced 2 cans chopped tomatoes 4 tbsp sugar 3 tsp ground coriander (cilantro) Half a bunch fresh coriander chopped Salt & freshly ground black pepper

ser ves 1 0 p e o p l e

Method
Slash the flesh of the eggplants a few times in a diagonal pattern. Sprinkle with salt and leave for 30 minutes. Rinse well and pat dry. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (180 degrees C). Heat oil in a frying pan and fry eggplant in batches, cut side down, till nicely coloured. Using tongs or slotted spoon, remove to a shallow, heatproof dish. Add onions, garlic and peppers - and a bit more oil if needed - to the frying pan and cook for 10 minutes or until vegetables have softened. Add the tomatoes, sugar, ground coriander with salt and pepper to taste. Cook for 5 – 10 minutes until liquid has reduced by a third. Stir in chopped coriander. Spoon this mixture on top of eggplant. Cover and bake for 30 to 40 minutes. Can be served warm or chilled. Sprinkle with more chopped coriander. This tastes best with a bowl of yoghurt and warm, crusty bread.

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Interes ted In...

Distance Learning

I f yo u wo u l d l i k e to study archaeology through distance l e a r n i n g t h e re a re now a few institutions that provide t hi s o p t i o n . B e l ow i s a selec tion of some of the courses on offer.

I nt ro d u c to r y Courses in Archaeology - Universit y of Leicester, UK A s e r i e s o f m o dules that can be studied purely for interest or as part of a program m e t o w a r d s a c e r t i f i c a t e i n archaeology. Equivalent to a first year UK degree course. We b : http://w w w.le.ac.uk/ar/dl/dl_intro.html  N o n c re d i t - b e aring courses in British Archaeology - Universit y of Exeter, U K O n l i n e t u i t i o n in British archaeology, the Bronze Age, the Vikings and Roman Br i t a i n a s w e l l a s a n i n t r o d u c t ion to the techniques archaeologists use to learn more about the p a s t . L e a r n f o r y o u r o w n p ersonal development rather than for academic credit, and study w i t h g u i d a n c e f r o m a n e x p e r i enced tutor without the pressure or additional costs of exams and e s s a y s . We b : http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/list_courses.php?code=lla  Wo r l d Arc h a e ology - O pen Universit y L e a rn a b o u t t h e human past on a global basis, from the last Ice Age to historic times . T h e c o u r s e p r o v i d e s a d e e p time perspective and global awareness of cultural and social d e v e l o p m e n t . I t w i l l b e o f p a rticular interest for students who have studied or are thinking ab o u t s t u d y i n g h i s t o r y, h i s t o r y of science, technology and medicine, classical studies or art his t o r y. We b : http://w w w3.open.ac.uk/employment/tutors/courses/A251.shtm  Arc h a e o l o g y Sk ills and Techniques (1 & 2) - College on the Net T h e s e c o u r s e s are non-accredited. They are particularly useful for those who do n o t w i s h t o s t u d y f o r a f o r mal exam. However, students who decide they would like to take a n e x a m a t a l a t e r d a t e c a n upgrade to other cours es on offer. We b : http://w w w.college - on-the -net.co.uk  M A a n d P G D i p in Prac tic al Archaeology - Universit y of Birmingham, UK T h i s o n e - y e a r p rogramme at both MA and Postgraduate Diploma (PG Dip) levels off e r s i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n a l l areas of practical archaeology, including project planning and m a n a g e m e n t , e x c av a t i o n , f i e ld survey, post-excavation work and research issues. We b : http://w w w.iaa.bham.ac.uk/arch/pprac tical.htm  M A i n Ci v i l i s ations of the Mediterranean - Universit y of Wales L ampeter, U K E x p l o r e s t h e h istory and culture of the Mediterranean world, ancient and mod e r n . T h e M A i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i nary, encompassing archaeology, anthropology, ancient history a n d I s l a m i c s t u d i e s , a n d d raws upon current research and teaching expertise in the De p a r t m e n t o f A r c h a e o l o g y a nd Anthropology in the University. We b : http://w w w.lamp.ac.uk/archanth/postgrad/M editer ranean  Arc h a e o l o g y by D istance Learning - National Park S er vice, United States o f Am e r i c a C h a l l e n g e y o u r self with in-depth info rmation, interactive quizzes and fascinating c a s e s t u d i e s , a l l at y o u r o w n learning pace. We b : http://w w w.nps.gov/histor y/archeology/tools/distLear n.htm  past horizons

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Viewpoint
W
Wh at a rc h a e o l o g y m e a n s to m e
hile writing a n e w g u i d e t o g e t t i n g i n v o l v e d i n a r c h a e o l o g y, m y t h o u g h t s turned to how I s t a r t e d n e a r l y t h r e e d e c a d e s a g o a n d h o w t h a t e x p e r i e n c e shaped my lif e f r o m t h a t m o m e n t o n . A s a f o u r t e e n - y e a r- o l d m y m o t h e r gave me permission go o n a c h i l d - f r i e n d l y d i g i n t h e Wy e Va l l e y t o i n v e s t i g a t e a Palaeolithic cave perch e d h i g h o n a c l i ff a b o v e t h e t i n y v i l l a g e o f S y m o n d s Ya t i n Herefordshire, England . It was my first taste of r e a l e x c a v a t i o n a n d I w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o a r a n g e o f s k i l l s . I t was here that I was taug h t a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l a n d s l o w c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f e v e r y c l u e , absolutely vital on a Pa l a e o l i t h i c s i t e . I t m a y h o r r i f y y o u t h a t a f o u r t e e n - y e a r- o l d was allowed to dig such d e p o s i t s , b u t y o u c a n b e a s s u r e d t h a t e v e r y p i e c e o f f l i n t debitage or tiny fragme n t o f b o n e w a s c a r e f u l l y e x c a v a t e d a n d r e c o r d e d . I t w a s explained to me that co l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n s i t e w a s a ‘ o n e c h a n c e ’ e v e n t , a n d plans, sections, photog r a p h s , r e c o r d s h e e t s a n d s a m p l e s h a d t o b e d o n e p r o p e r l y. I became familiar with c a m e r a s , d r a w i n g a n d l e v e l l i n g . I l e a r n e d h o w t o q u e s t i o n each stroke of my trowe l , t o i n t e r p r e t a n d r e - i n t e r p r e t , t o a d m i t w h e n I w a s w r o n g then move on, creating i n m e a n o rg a n i s e d m i n d . My home for the durati o n o f t h e d i g w a s a r o c k s h e l t e r. We a t e a n d c o o k e d a r o u n d an open fire and slid do w n t h e c l i ff t o t h e l o c a l p u b w h e r e I h a d m y f i r s t t a s t e o f cider. We were all stran g e r s t o e a c h o t h e r a n d t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s w e r e r o u g h , b u t I loved it and was thril l e d t o b e p a r t o f t h i s b i g f a m i l y. T h i s w a s c le a r l y a l i f e I could enjoy, and full of e n e rg y a n d e n t h u s i a s m I r e t u r n e d t o E d i n b u rg h w h e r e m y mother spotted that spa r k l e i n m y e y e . S h e e n c o u r a g e d m e t o j o i n t h e E d i n b u rg h Archaeological Field So c i e t y w h e r e I c o u l d m i x w i t h l i k e - m i n d e d p e o p l e o f m y o w n age, hone my new-foun d s k i l l s a n d l e a r n f r o m t h e m u c h m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d a d u l t s . Thirty years later I am p l e a s e d t o s a y t h a t I a m n o w i n a p o s i t i o n t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h the society on many of m y o w n p r o j e c t s a n d w e a l l s t i l l e n j o y t h a t s h a r e d p a s s i o n that brought us together i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . Leaving school, I went o n t o s t u d y a r c h a e o l o g y a t E d i n b u rg h U n i v e r s i t y a n d I h a v e to admit that I quickly r e a l i s e d a c a d e m i a w a s n o t f o r m e . S o r e t u r n i n g t o m y f i r s t love of field archaeolog y, I k n e w t h a t I h a d c o m e h o m e . I t w a s t h e p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s of the field archaeologi s t t h a t I e n j o y e d a l o n g w i t h t h e e n d l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h m y fellow diggers about ho w a n d w h a t w e w e r e e x c a v a t i n g . A g a i n , j u s t l i k e b e i n g i n that cave in the Wye Va l l e y, t h e r e w a s t h a t f e e l i n g o f b e i n g p a r t o f o n e b i g f a m i l y. We might not live toge t h e r f o r l o n g b u t w e w e r e s a f e i n t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t w e would meet up at some o t h e r s i t e t o c o n t i n u e w h e r e w e l e f t o ff , s o w e n e v e r s a i d goodbye. Now in my 40s and no l o n g e r t h e i t i n e r a n t d i g g e r, I l o o k b a c k o n t h e s e d a y s w i t h fond memories and a se n s e o f n o s t a l g i a . L i f e c o u l d b e t o u g h t h e n b u t I h a d a h u g e amount of fun, visited m a n y a m a z i n g p l a c e s a n d m e t s o m a n y i n t e r e s t i n g p e o p l e . A s a result I like to think of m y s e l f a s a n a l l - r o u n d e r a n d t h e s k i l l s t h a t I w a s i n t r o d u c e d to all those years ago h a v e m a d e m e i n t o t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t t h a t I a m t o d a y.
David Connolly is the direc tor of Br itish Archaeological Jobs and R esources (BA JR)

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B a ck Pages

Alternative Diggers’ Archive

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Dave We b b, a p ro fe s s i o n a l archaeological photographer in the UK , has pho to gra p h e d t h e d i g g e r s t h at he has wor ked alongside over many years. Whil e t h e re i s o f te n a n e xce l l e nt photographic record of the site itself there is neve r a ny re a l re co rd o f t h e s k illed people who car r ied out the recording. Past H o r i zo n s h a s i n c l u d e d a s mall selec tion of his photographs. To see more imag e s g o to : http : / / w w w. a rc h d i g g e r s. co. u k /diggers/frameset.html 

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PAST HORIZONS
Journal of Volunteer Archaeology

Share your Projects with the World
Past Horizons is a unique online publication aimed at anyone who has an interest in archaeology and heritage conservation. Our remit is to inform people about projects around the world where you can participate either as volunteers with no previous experience, students looking for more fieldwork experience or professionals who need a break on an exciting excavation. Articles are written by project organisers or the participants in the project giving unique insights into what to expect. Topics range from the discovery of mysterious features in Cornwall to rock art survey in Nicaragua, restoring Ottoman period houses in Albania and surveys in the deserts of Jordan. We encourage PhD students to contribute stories about projects they are involved in, such as the recent article on Rwandan archaeology from two University College London researchers. Using the latest technology, with Pageflip, embedded videos and sounds, as well as live weblinks, this is an online magazine like no other, so log on to Past Horizons today and get involved in a world of archaeology and heritage conservation.

past horizons

If you want to write an article for Past Horizons, contact us at: editor@pasthorizons.com

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