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The cell wall is a rigid and protective layer around the plasma membrane which provides mechanical support to the cell. 0 Certain prokaryotic cells, whereas all plant cells, among eukaryotic cells possess a cell wall. The cell wall also determines the shape of plant cells. Dueno the shapes of cell wall many types of plant cells such as the parenchym us, collenchymatous, etc. have been recognised. The cell pkielackle5hipEdAlcaotiOnnown as cellulose. Besides the cellulose, various chemical substances such as hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, coin and chitin also occur singly or along with the cellulose. The cell wall also contains certain minerals such as Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) In the form of carbonates and silicates. The cellulose Is a polysaccharide and it is the most abundantly occurring chemical substance of most plant cell w%tkokrgodfcem long chains of the molecules of glucose.

2-ULU SUMMARY C Many chains of cellulose molecules lie parallel to each other to form the bundles. A
bundle of 100 chain molecules of cellulose forms the elementary fibril known as the rnIkelle. The 20 micelles, when get arranged parallely, form the fibrils of 250 A thick known as microfibrils. 0 The microfibrils form large-sized bundles of cellulose fibres to form the macrofibrils. The macrofibrils, consisting of many cellulose fibrils, form the main framework of the cell walls. 0 T. yhro rnr. tga tmitshartatrftase :Lb inose macrofibrils of the cellulose. 0 The pectin is chemically composed of glecuronlc and galacturonic acid, whereas the lignin Is composed of conifers/ alcohols. The cut. comprises of many fatty acids and the chitin is a polymer of glucosamine. cTehrl OZ:yPct'rlrrPaVestMtitr laYe' Pr'"

3-Eiga SUMMARY The first formed cell wall Is known as the primary cell wall. It is the outermost layer
of the cell and in case of the immature meristematic and parenchymatous cells it forms the only cell wall. 0 The primary cell wall is comparatively thin and permeable. Certain epidermal cells of the leaf and the stem also possess the tulle and oath, waxes which make the primary cell wall impermeable. 0 The primAlof yeast and futaomposed cd the chitin. The primary cell weal o tlieratriernnicrofibrils in a gel-like arranged lit vadisus manners. 1

0 Cellulose rnicrofibrils are connected AO the help of xyloglucan chains through hydrogen bonds. Thus, a complete and continuous lattice Is formed which is embedded in a second network. The pectic polysaccharides forrn the second network which is rich in galacturonic acid resrhyponiktemprpes.e*pased on calcium bridges and other iconic Interactions.

G Structural protein is the third interlocking network which is composed of structural proteins that Interweaves through the other two networks of microfibrils. It forms the warp and weft structure. ei When a cell is young and small, the cellulose fibres are loosely packed and crosslinking of the cellulose fibres Is not complete. Howeveh in mature cells, due to crosslinking of fibres present in the wall, the cell is able to grow further. cA.7,7,pc.'OtteltktszEcturaticutronfmrd 4. The secondary cell wall Is thick. permeable and lies near the plasma membrane or the tertiary cell wall. lithe latter occurs, it Is composed of three concemric layers (Si, 52 and 53) which occur one after the other. el In certain plant cells, there occurs another cell wall beneath the secondary cell wall which a known es tertiary cell wall. It differs from the primary and secondary cell wall irowntAitattikplty,fhernistry and staining properties.

Bt Besides the cellulose, the tertiary call wall consists of another chemical substance known as the xylan. 0 The cells of plant tissues are generally cemented together by an intercellular matrix known as the middle lamella. It is mainly composed of the pectin, lignin and some protWns. 0 The cell walls and the middle lamella of plants never occur in the form of :of :Imo Mx% masany figinaes tthrtopughnwhich the cells 0 Such cytoplasmic junctions or bridges between the adjacent cells are known as plasmodesmata. The plasmodesmatas of meristematic cells have been found to be continuous with the plasmodesmatas of adjacent cells.

0 Through these plasmodesmatas, the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum remain continued to the adjacent cells. Most probably through the plasmodesmatas, th~leolgstirthverof solutionxcontaining nutritional products, dissoltred-gases, ions or other substances take place.

rts The cell walls are the products of the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic organelles such as endoplasmic reticulurn, Golgi apparatus, etc. play a very Important role in the formation of cell wall. 0 The cell wall formation is started by the formation of phragmoplast cell plate. The cell plate is formed by the small vesicles of endoplasmic reticulum which cut off from the endoplasmic reticulurn and migrate from the pariphery to the equator of the cell. ,eGcolol$2dIt0tntodaoghte,r parts of cyt asm. Later on, all the vesicles, except a few which form the plasmodesmata, fuse with one another to form a discontinuous cell plate. 0 The cell plate In later stages develops pectin and changes into the middle lamella The formation of the middle lamella is also accompanied by some large vesicles known as phragmosomes and the vesicles of Golgi apparatus which provide non-cellulose material. 0 Then, the fibrils of thmovoistmsttwesefflyen both sides of the middle lamella and form the primary cell wall.

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o The walls of xylem vessels, tracheids and sieve tube allow movement of materials to a long distance. Besides that, cut. and soberbn deposits check loss of water from the cell surface by evaporation. ej Also, the orientation of cellulose microfibrils helps to control cell growth and shape. The pits present In the wall help produce a protoplasmic continuum or symplast amongst cells. ei De pe n d Otionticiranjaliory=ft timapneprmonetle. Even a p The .bsta into and out of the cell.