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**Harpreetsingh Banvait∗ , Jianghai Hu† and Yaobin chen ‡
**

Abstract—In this paper, a supervisory control of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) using hybrid dynamical systems theory is presented. In hybrid dynamical systems, the state trajectories are described by both differential equations and discrete transitions. A PHEV has different operating modes which are modelled in the hybrid dynamical systems framework, simulated and analyzed. Furthermore, a constrained optimization problem to minimize energy used by PHEV is formulated. Finally, dynamic programming is used to minimize energy consumption. The obtained results are studied to evaluate the performance of supervisory control and hybrid dynamical system.

I. I NTRODUCTION Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles utilizes power from internal combustion engine and electric motor to drive the vehicle. The electric motor is driven by onboard battery, which can be charged through grid power supply. This grid power supply can be obtained through various renewable and nonrenewable energy power plants. As the natural resources of the planet are getting exhausted, demand for renewable energy is increasing very rapidly. Conventional vehicles use nonrenewable energy to drive the vehicles. By using a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, electrical motor can be used which signiﬁcantly reduces the usage of non-renewable energy. PHEVs have two energy sources onboard, hence an efﬁcient use of both sources can further improve the beneﬁt of renewable energy. This problem has been a subject of interest for many researchers. In [1] a rule based algorithm was used to solve the above problem. In [2] authors used the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to obtain a solution to the problem. Xiao [3] used the PSO results to obtain optimal results, before applying them to Artiﬁcial Neural Network which gave suboptimal results. A. Rousseau et al. [4] did a parameteric optimization to optimize control parameters using the Divided Rectangles (so-called DIRECT) method. Similarly, X. Wu [5] employed a control parameter optimization for PHEV using PSO. P. Sharer et al. compared EV and charge depletion strategy option using PSAT for different control strategies of power split hybrid [6]. Baumann [7] used a fuzzy logic controller for nonlinear controller and optimized component sizing of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Musardo [8] designed a real-time Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (AECMS) for an energy management system of HEV. Borhan [9] employed a model predictive control strategy to design a power management system of power-split hybrid electric vehicle. In [10], Stockar designed a supervisory energy manager by applying Pontryagin’s minimum principle to minimize the overall carbon dioxide emissions.

In Plug-in Hybrid Electric vehicles, the vehicle operates in various modes such as EV mode, Battery charging mode, Regenerative mode, etc. In each of these modes, the vehicle dynamics differ. Furthermore, the engine and motor inputs in these modes are very different. Such a system which consists of both discrete and continuous states can be modelled by Hybrid dynamical systems. Yuan [11] demonstrated the application of hybrid dynamical system to hybrid electric vehicles, where sequential Quadratic Programming and dynamic programming were used to obtain an optimal solution to the problem before using fuzzy approximation. In this paper, a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) model is developed using hybrid dynamical system. Section II discuses the modelling part of PHEV. It is divided into a vehicle dynamics section and a hybrid dynamical system section. In the vehicle dynamics section, continuous differential equations are used to model dynamics of the PHEV in each modes. In the hybrid dynamical system section, a hybrid dynamical system framework for PHEV is deﬁned. Section III shows the simulation results for the hybrid dynamical system deﬁned in Section II. In Section IV, an optimization problem is formulated to minimize energy consumption of PHEV. Section V proposes a Dynamic Programming solution to the optimization problem described in Section IV. Finally, in Section VI the Optimization simulation results are shown and analysed. II. M ODEL OF PHEV For the PHEV considered in this paper, a power-split drive train is considered. The power-split drivetrain has a Continuously Varying Transmission (CVT) , which has a planetary gear set. In this planetary gear set, sun gear is connected to generator(MG2); carrier gear is connected to engine; and ring gear is connected to motor (MG1) and drive shaft. Detailed model of the drivetrain is shown in Figure 1. A power-split drivetrain conﬁguration has several modes of operation, for example, EV mode, Battery charging mode, Regenerative Braking mode etc. For each mode, a non-linear mathematical model is derived to describe the dynamics of the vehicle. Mode switching combined with system dynamics models a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle that operates in different modes. This system can be described using Hybrid dynamical systems framework. A. Vehicle Dynamics By applying Newtons second law on the engine we obtain differential equation (1) which relates Engine speed ω e with

ρ} V = {τe .) speciﬁes the set of feasible continuous state.υ = τw − mFres Fres = a0 + a1 υ + a2 υ 2 (4) (5) Equation (4) is obtained from vehicle dynamics which relates vehicle speed υ . For each mode. Discrete states set Q consists of 5 different modes. Equation (5) is a quadratic approximation of the aerodynamic losses and rolling resistance losses Due to planetary gear set the engine speed ω e . Hybrid.3} Dom(Regen) = {x : ωe = 0. Power-split drivetrain ωe ωIdle .) : E × X → 2X Init ⊂ Q × X (7) In equation (7) engine speed ω e . In EV mode and ED mode. (2) and (3) Je . respectively. ρ is required to be between 0. For Batterychg mode dynamics are same as the Hybrid mode but it has different inputs and state constraints which are deﬁned in the domain. Domain Dom(. In the equations (1). Engine torque τ e . 1 > 0. its continuous states follow the dynamics of that mode. vehicle speed υ and State of Charge(SOC) ρ of battery are deﬁned as the continuous states. 1.3 to maintain the SOC. 0.2} n engine torque τ e . applying Newtons law at ring gear we obtain the differential equation (2) which relates ring gear speed ωr with ring gear torque τ r . In equation (11) α and Jr d is given by equation (8) and (9) respectively.) : Q → n Dom(EV ) = {x : ωe = 0. For remaining modes ω e is within its lower bounds of ω Idle and its maximum ω max . otherwise it will reduce the battery life. υ . A hybrid dynamical system for PHEV is deﬁned as equation (7). When the system is operating in a mode. motor torque τ m and wheel torque τw . R. υ > 0.Hs = (Q. wheel torque τ w and losses Fres . ED mode and Regen mode. Function E is deﬁned as a set of transitions as shown in the Figure 2. For EV mode.3 > ρ > 0.3 > ρ > 0. Hybrid Dynamical system Hybrid dynamical system consists of both continuous states and discrete states. Jg and γ are moment of inertia of engine. Rw and m are wheel radius and vehicle mass. f. τg . MG2 torque τ g and MG1 torque τ m are the continuous inputs to the system. The set Init is a set of initial hybrid states. υ > 0. ω e is zero. X. Je . The function G is a set of guards deﬁned for each e = (q. E. In Hybrid and Batterychg modes. Function f deﬁnes the continuous dynamics of states X for each mode Q. ρ is not allowed to discharge more then 0. + Je Jg (8) . υ > 0.2 and 0. moment of inertia of motor. Rw m. ρ is restricted to 0. In Regen mode. For Regen mode and ED mode the dynamics are the same as that of EV mode dynamics equation (10). υ > 0.2} ωIdle . The generator speed ω g is related with generator torque τg and sun gear torque. moment of inertia of generator and gear ratio respectively. 1 > ρ > 0. τm } Dom(.ωe = τe − τr − τs Jm . R(·) is a set of reset maps which are trivial in this hybrid system. For this drivetrain ω r is equal to vehicle speed υ . Init) Q = {Regen. 0. G. Batterychg. 0.ωr = τr + τm − γτw Jg . V. Jm . The continuous dynamics for EV mode and Hybrid drive mode are given in equation (10) and (11) respectively.9 so that battery always has capacity to recover energy into battery. υ > 0.2. sun gear torque τ s and ring gear torque τ r . generator speed ωg and ring gear ω r speed are related by equation (6). EV. ωr = (1 + )ωe − ωg (6) Using the above equations the vehicle dynamics are derived for each and every mode. Dom.2 > ρ > 0.9 > ρ > 0} Dom(Hybrid) = {x : ωemax Fig.ωg = τg + τs (1) (2) (3) Dom(Batterychg ) = {x : ωemax ωe Dom(ED) = {x : ωe = 0.) : E → 2X R(.3} f =Q×X ×V → E ⊂Q×Q G(. B. Discrete states in dynamical systems are often described as modes. ED} X = {ωe . q ) ∈ E . α = Jg Jr ( + 1)2 + Je Jr 2 Similarly to equation (1).

From 30 % to 20 % vehicle will operate in ED mode. Starting from 95 % until 30 % maximum electrical energy should be used by driving the vehicle in only two modes. it can be seen in Figure 3(a) that the vehicle achieves the desired speed and performance. guard conditions and resets for the hybrid dynamical system are deﬁned in Figure 2. Regen mode and ED mode. Figure 3 shows Vehicle speed and battery SOC. Vehicle is simulated for an EPA Urban dynamometer drive cycle. selection of optimum inputs and optimum operating point can be formulated as a optimization problem. Fig 5 shows modes of operation of the vehicle. there are multiple inputs which satisfy the performance requirements. When vehicle is operating in ED mode or Regen mode. Thus. It can be observed that the SOC ρ decreases from 31 % towards 20 %. During mode transitions we can have forced transitions or selective transitions. Hybrid mode or BatteryChg mode depending on the driver demands. P ROBLEM F ORMULATION A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle can be operated in one mode at a time. In this ﬁgure. State response of simulation among Battery charge mode. 50 kWh MG1 motor and 5 kWh battery pack in its simulations. It shows that while SOC ρ is yet to reach 20 % the vehicle operates in ED mode and Regen mode.3 miles for 1370 seconds. It does not go in the Hybrid mode of operation because the demand torque is never so high that it cannot be satisﬁed by the ED mode. The selection of this mode is based on a well-deﬁned supervisory control strategy which triggers the transition from one mode to another. At the same time. III. But in a selective transition we have multiple choices of modes. When SOC reaches 20 % the control system maintains the SOC so that it does not decrease any further. But in Hybrid mode and Battery charge mode both engine and motor MG1 provide power to drive the vehicle. IV. EV mode or Regen mode. For this model. 3. Voc and Pbat are battery internal resistance. simulation results are shown from 31 % onwards. 3 represents Battery charging mode and 5 is Regen mode. The performance of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle can be evaluated in terms . C . the operating mode is forced to be changed to another mode due to constraints. Total distance travelled by the vehicle in simulation is 7.(a) Vehicle speed Fig. 1 represents ED mode. Figure 4 shows the inputs from Rule based strategy provided to the vehicle. Hence. 2. Regen mode. If SOC is decreased further. battery open circuit voltage and battery power respectively. 6 represents Hybrid drive mode. Next section describes this formulation. But when SOC ρ reaches around 20 % the vehicle switches (b) State of Charge of battery Fig. maximum capacity of battery. The hybrid dynamical system of PHEV is modelled in Matlab/Simulink environment to obtain results. the inputs are well deﬁned and we have unique set of inputs that satisfy the vehicle performance demand. State ﬂow Diagram Jr = Jr + m(Rw γ )2 (9) In Equation (10) and (11) R int . PHEV’s primary purpose is to use maximum electrical energy while it is available. Figure 4 shows inputs to the system. In a forced transition. so a suitable choice is made based on an optimum switching policy. These inputs are derived from a rule based strategy. so that it can maintain SOC while operating the vehicle with desired performance. S IMULATION Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle uses 57 kWh engine. Hence. it would decrease the battery life.

σk+1 J (x(t). 2 represents Regen mode. u(t)) = ωe τe dt + ζ (ρ(t)) − ζ (ρ(0)) (13) (12) V. The results obtained from dynamic programming are globally optimal. VI. whereas infeasible states are discarded by assigning inﬁnite cost to them. starting from 95 % SOC the vehicle operates in EV mode and Regen mode according to the stateﬂow Figure 6. To accomplish this. Regen mode. all the value functions are evaluated backward in time at every time interval. DYNAMIC P ROGRAMMING In dynamic programming. minimize u(t) cost w(·) is a function of feasible state x k (k ). Due to these multiple solutions when SOC is between 20 % and 30 %. Vk (xk ) = min [w(xk . The accelerations during the trapezoid drive cycles are 0 m 2 /s. σk+1 ))] (14) After evaluating value functions at each state. an optimal control sequence is obtained using optimal input sequence . emissions. In a PHEV vehicle. The operating mode 1 represents ED mode. fuel consumption. σk+1 )+Vk+1 (xk+1 (xk . As we go backward in time. the second term is energy ζ input by the battery and the third term is initial energy stored in the battery. Then. mode and time. subjected to several constraints as shown in (12). value function of all states are deﬁned as zero. The current . a sequence of trapezoidal desired drive cycle of 78 sec was designed. Thus. For a constrained system. etc. an optimization problem of minimizing the objective function of total energy use has been deﬁned in this paper. the Value function V k (·) is minimum of sum of current time step cost w(·) and cost to go to next state V k+1 (·). 2 m2 /s. Finally. For a PHEV system. 3 m2 /s and 4 m2 /s respectively. DYNAMIC P ROGRAMMING RESULTS To solve this optimization problem. the value functions increase rapidly. As time increases. u(t)) subject to 0 < ωe < ωemax 0<υ 0<ρ<1 ωgmin < ωg < ωgmax τemin < τe < τemax τgmin < τg < τgmax τmmin < τm < τmmax J (x(t). At each time step k . the stateﬂow is deﬁned as shown in Figure 6. The optimal mode of operation of the vehicle is shown Figure 10. Cost to go to next state Vk+1 (·) is a function of x k (k + 1). the fuel consumption is reduced signiﬁcantly due to electrical energy usage. But as soon as the vehicle reaches 30 % it can be operated in ED mode. an optimal control sequence is recovered using forward time evaluation. optimal input u k and optimal mode σ k+1 are obtained at each time step k using equation(14). feasible inputs uk (k ) and mode σk+1 . 3 represents Hybrid mode and 0 represents vehicle standstill. Hybrid mode or Batterychg mode. in each mode only feasible states xk (·)are considered. and can be further improved by optimizing the use of fuel and electrical energy. Figure 8 shows the optimal state results and Figure 9 shows the optimal system input results. the optimization process is carried out within this range. For both ED mode and Regen mode. desired trapezoidal drive cycle was discretized into a reasonable time interval of 1 sec. uk . Once all the value functions are evaluated. which are obtained from dynamic programming. Starting at ﬁnal time. Thus. Operation of vehicle in one of these modes is subject to objective function minimization as deﬁned earlier.ω ˙e = 0 ν ˙= τm Jr + Jg / 1 2Rint C 2 − γ Rw Fresis τg − (Jr + Jg / 2 ) Jr + Jg / 2 Voc 2 − 4Rint Pbat } (10) ρ ˙= ω ˙e = ν ˙= {−Voc + 1 {( 2 Jr + Jg )τe + (1 + ) Jr τg + Jg τm − (1 + )Jg rγF resis } α 2 1 {(1 + )Jg τe + (− Je )τg + ((1 + )2 Jg + α ρ ˙= 1 2Rint C {−Voc + Je )τm − ((1 + )2 Jg + 2 Je )Rw γ Fresis } (11) Voc 2 − 4Rint Pbat } of energy usage. it is desired to maximize the use of electrical energy because it is cost effective and abundantly available. but in this case it is suboptimal because of discretization and objective function approximations. uk . feasible inputs u k (k + 1) and mode σk+1 . the integration term is energy input by the engine. engine torque uk . at every state and at every mode as shown in Figure 7. In equation (13). the value function for every state is evaluated using equation (14) until time step k is zero. In PHEV. using the dynamic programming algorithm a solution to the problem was evaluated.

Whereas for vehicle acceleration demand of 4m2 /s Hybrid drive mode was used to drive the vehicle due to high power demand. C ONCLUSION In this paper. 4. 6. to overcome vehicle losses. Regen braking was used. Hence.(a) Engine Torque input Fig. Vehicle speed follows the desired speed. (c) Motor Torque input Fig. the engine speed ω e is always Fig. In the SOC plot VI the SOC ρ starts from 30 %and goes up until 27. Figure 8(b) shows the desired speed and achieved vehicle speed υ . as shown in Figure VI. For time interval 20 to 30 sec. Figure 10 further shows that for low power demands during acceleration 0 m 2 /s. the vehicle is standstill hence it shows 0 in Figure 10. Vehicle operating mode (b) Generator Torque input Fig. In ED and Regen mode. whereas motor torque is operated at desired torque. hence the desired performance of the vehicle is achieved. Dynamic Programming Evaluation [12] . 7. 5. a hybrid dynamical system model of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle is proposed and dynamics of PHEV are derived for different modes. Simulation Input results VII. The simulation results of this hybrid system model in Matlab/Simulink show that the desired and generator torques are deﬁned as zero. A Hybrid system of PHEV zero. During all the decelerations. 2 m2 /s and 3 m2 /s ED mode was selected to drive the vehicle. vehicle operates in ED mode.35 % for the drive cycle of 78 seconds. Here power required by the vehicle to maintain its speed is very low.

This optimization problem is solved using a supervisory control based on dynamic programmings. optimization results for a trapezoidal drive cycle are shown. 30 2010-july 2 2010.5 0 −100 28 −200 27. 3938 –3943.” in American Control Conference. Anwar. and Y. Chen. .” Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles. 9. Lin. “Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle control strategy parameter optimization. and D. Anwar. 8. X. Simulation Input results R EFERENCES vehicle performance can be achieved while maintaining the SOC within its desired bounds. [3] X. S. In our future work. pp. vol. 1. Banvait. Banvait. 3. and Y.5 200 29 Motor Torque τm (Nm) 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 State of Charge(%) 100 28. “Optimal energy management for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle: Real-time controller. Rousseau. State response of simulation (c) Motor Torque input Fig. no. Pagerit. energy optimization problem is formulated to ﬁnd optimal mode switching and optimal input.120 40 35 100 30 80 Engine speed Ωe (rad/s) Engine Torque τe (Nm) 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 25 60 20 15 40 10 20 5 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 (a) Engine speed 15 Velocity Desired Velocity (a) Engine Torque input 0 −2 Generator Torque τg (Nm) 10 −4 Velocity (m/s) −6 5 −8 −10 0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 −12 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 (b) Vehicle speed 30 400 (b) Generator Torque input 300 29. Gao. To minimize the total energy consumption of the PHEV. Anwar.5 −300 27 −400 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 (c) State of Charge of battery Fig.” World Electric Vehicle Journal. [4] A. june 2009. [2] H. S. 1125–1133. 2010. 6. 2009. pp. vol. 5037 –5042. 2008. H. 2. S. Finally. no. S. pp. Chen. Chen.. and Y. “A rule-based energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (phev). Lin. ACC ’09. dynamic programming results would be obtained for the EPA drive cycle.” in American Control Conference (ACC). Banvait. “Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle energy management system using particle swarm optimization. [1] H. 2009.

” International Journal of Alternative propulsion. 2011. Wu. Kuang. vol. A. Wang. june 2009.” in Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. Staccia. D. sept.” in American Control Conference. 3970 –3976. “Optimisation design of an energy management strategy for hybrid vehicles. and G. 1 –5. 2008. 2006. V. Musardo. and A. pp. IEEE. sept. “Mechatronic design and control of hybrid electric vehicles. pp. Rousseau. Vehicle operating modes [5] X. Z. 1.” in Decision and Control. [10] S. IEEE Transactions on. “Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle control strategy: Comparison between ev and chargedepleting options. J. IEEE/ASME Transactions on. and I. vol. Vahidi. 1. no. CDC-ECC ’05. 47. Zhu. [7] B. Y. Glenn. [6] P. 10. 2009. 2005 and 2005 European Control Conference.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (s) 50 60 70 80 Fig. M. “Quadratic regulation of discrete-time switched linear systems. and Y. [12] J.5 2 Mode 1. Borhan. B. [8] C. 1816 – 1823.” Purdue University Lecture. Canova. Rizzoni. 58 –72. 1. B. Washington. ACC ’09. and B. Baumann. 2011. Rizzoni.3. 2008. mar 2000. G. 01–0460.” Mechatronics. no. 60. Karbowski. 2005. “A-ecms: An adaptive algorithm for hybrid electric vehicle energy management. Rizzoni. dec.” SAE paper. 2949 –2962. Wen. 2008. “Predictive energy management of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle. M. pp. 7. . Phillips. [11] Y. Kolmanovsky. and L. Sharer. pp. 44th IEEE Conference on. Bian. pp. 5. Chen. Stockar. vol. A. Guzzella.” Vehicular Technology. “Particle swarm optimization for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle control strategy parameter.5 3 2. G. Pagerit. G. Wu. Cao. Marano. Hu.. and S. no. “Energy-optimal control of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for realworld driving cycles. [9] H. p. A.5 1 0. VPPC ’08. pp.

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