Action Verbs for Teaching Science and Mathematics When we teach, we ask our students to perform tasks of different

levels of difficulty. We use different action verbs to express these tasks. Match the following action verbs with their definitions. Then, try to construct sentences that you could use in the classroom with these action verbs. memorize name recall show state define label identify list

demonstrate discuss describe determine

express classify select review

compare explain translate summarize

differentiate interpret visualize report

interpret choose

illustrate calculate

apply use

solve act

relate modify

examine contrast organize

deduce test experiment

question categorize appraise

criticize analyze

plan set up

prepare support

propose manage

formulate hypothesize

construct create

defend assess

value justify

estimate predict

or action • to organize or plan something such as an event or system set up • to build a structure. but without knowing whether the explanation is really true • to show that there is a good reason for something. or problem in order to make a judgment • to calculate what something costs or is worth • to create something such as an idea or system by making various things fit together • to draw a shape in geometry • to make something new or original that did not exist before • to say things to support someone or something that is being criticized • to write or talk about a subject in detail • to say what you think an amount or value will be. either by guessing or by using available information to calculate it • to develop a plan. theory etc is true or correct • to examine something to find out if it is satisfactory. or proposal carefully. person. thinking about all of its details construct create defend discuss estimate formulate • to prepare a product by combining substances or chemicals in the right amounts • to express an idea or opinion in a careful organized way hypothesize justify manage plan predict prepare propose • to suggest a possible explanation for something based on the information you have.assess • to carefully consider a situation. statement. or to put it in a particular place • to make a piece of equipment ready for use • to make something start to happen support test value • to show that an idea. idea. and to draw a picture of how it will look • to say what you think will happen in the future • to make something ready for use • to make a medicine or chemical by mixing substances together • to suggest a plan. system. or if it has a particular quality • to state how much something is worth . especially something that other people think is wrong • to deal successfully with a problem or difficult situation • to think carefully about a series of actions that you need to take in order to achieve something • to think about something that you intend to build or make.

especially in order to improve it or to make it less extreme • to put things into a sensible order or into a system in which all parts work well together • to have or express doubts about something • to show or make a connection between two different things • to find the reason or explanation for something • to find the answer to a problem in mathematics • to do something using a machine.act analyze apply appraise calculate categorize choose contrast criticize deduce differentiate discuss examine • to do something for a particular reason or in a particular way • to study or examine something in detail in order to understand or explain it • to use a particular method. skill. lists of numbers etc • to explain the meaning of something • to change something slightly. methods. diagrams. or to show that something is true • to show something by using pictures. or activities in order to find out what results they will have experiment • to perform scientific tests in order to find out what happens to someone or something in particular conditions • to show what something is like. tool. law etc • to form an opinion about how successful. process. effective etc someone or something is • to discover a number or amount using mathematics or with a piece of equipment such as a calculator • to put people or things into groups according to their qualities • to decide which you want from a number of people or things • to compare two things in order to show how they are different • to consider something carefully and judge what the good and bad aspects of it are • to know something as a result of considering the information or evidence that you have • to see or show a difference between things • to write or talk about a subject in detail • to look at something carefully in order to find out about it or see what it is like • to study a subject or consider an idea or plan carefully • to try new ideas. method etc in order to do a job or to achieve a result illustrate interpret modify organize question relate solve use .

especially when this is not easy to understand • to show a quantity or problem in a particular way. or to discover it by examining evidence • to give a reason for something that happens. according to the particular features they have • to consider how things or people are similar • to say that one thing or person is similar to another • to describe clearly and exactly what something is • to show clearly that something is true or that it exists • to give details about what someone or something is like • to say that someone or something is a particular type of person or thing • to calculate something. especially in a definite or formal way • to provide a short account of the most important facts or features of something • to cause a particular situation or result • to change something into a different form. one after another • to learn something so that you remember it perfectly • to remember something • to provide information about something that exists or has happened • to examine all the information that is relevant to a situation or subject compare define demonstrate describe determine explain express identify label list memorize recall report review select state summarize translate visualize • to study or examine a situation. or idea again in order to decide whether it is suitable or satisfactory • to choose someone or something from a group • to give information • to express something in speech or writing.• to put people or things into particular groups according to the features that they have classify • to decide which group someone or something belongs to. or to express something in a different way • to form a picture of someone or something in your mind . policy. especially in mathematics • to recognize something and understand exactly what it is • to use a word or phrase to describe someone or something • to mention or write a list of things.

"the student will demonstrate his knowledge of vowel sounds. First. object properties. or situations that are included in the class or category. APPLY A RULE: To state a rule as it applies to a situation. we can use them to devise activities that make the student an active participant in his or her learning. The first section includes general definitions that describe only the observable behavior and do not include linkages to any specific content. objects. spoken. Graphic charting and mapping are types of diagramming. musical or artistic form. DEMONSTRATE: The student performs the operations necessary for the application of an instrument. Secondly they may be used to help to translate our course goals and objectives into situations that are more concrete to the student and others. Logical techniques of estimation. together with the name or statement of the rule that was applied. "The student will describe this order. To define is to set up criteria for classification. model. DIAGRAM: To construct a drawing with labels and with a specified organization or structure to demonstrate knowledge of that organization or structure. words. DESCRIBE: TO name all of the necessary categories of objects. The objective is of the form. series of objects. or situation in a category or class. word. object or event that is being analyzed. math. social sciences) are provided at the end of the handout. See MEASURE. NOTE: There is a temptation to use demonstrate in objectives such as. or event properties that are relevant to the description of a designated situation. this is improper use of it. event or condition without applying a standard scale or measuring device. Examples in selected discipline areas (science. or situations that are excluded in the class or category. COMPOSE: To formulate a written composition in written. The criteria must be made known to the student. or event. CLASSIFY: To place objects. (2) the characteristics of the words. or situations into categories according to defined criteria for each category. DISTINGUISH: To identify under conditions when only two contrasting identifications are involved for each response. such as are involved in mathematical interpolation. device. DEFINE: To stipulate the requirements for inclusion of an object. Their use also facilitates assessment because it allows us to make inferences about student learning through observable student behavior or products. CONSTRUCT: To make a drawing. because they describe an observable product or action. or implement. and these terms maybe used where more exact communication of the structure of the situation and response is desired. or model that identifies a designated object or set of conditions. object. The statement must convey analysis of a problem situation and/or its solution. may be used. ESTIMATE: To assess the dimension of an object. if any.Action Verbs with Examples Using behavioral verbs in our course and assessment activities has a number of benefits for engaging students in the learning process. Specific or categorical limitations. objects. structure. . are to be given in the performance standards of each objective. Elements of one or both of the following must be included: (1) the characteristics of the words." As the verb is defined." and does not limit the categories that may be used in mentioning them.

order arrangements and time may be used to describe location. persons. The problem solution must contain all the elements required for the requested solution. construction. etc. The problem must be posed in such a way that the student that the student is able to determine the type of response that is acceptable. or other responses.EVALUATE: To classify objects. marking. place. people. or events. SOLVE: To effect a solution to a given problem.. MEASURE: To apply a standard scale or measuring device to an object. graphs. class of objects. REPRODUCE: To imitate or copy an action. situations. STATE A RULE: To make a statement that conveys the meaning of the rule. or events which are pointed out or described. conditions. or event in relation to other specified objects. theory or principle. and may contain extraneous elements that are not required for solution. charts. according to practices accepted by those who are skilled in the use of the device or scale. according to defined criteria of quality. places. in writing or orally. by pointing. INTERPRET: To translate information from observation. series of objects. . Ideational guides to location such as grids. underlining. PREDICT: To use a rule or principle to predict an outcome or to infer some consequence. in oral or written form for an object. Evaluation differs from general classification only in this respect. places. Indication of quality must be given in the defined criteria of each class category. NAME: To supply the correct name. It is not necessary that the rule or principle be stated. TRANSLATE: To transcribe one symbolic form to another of the same or similar meaning. or conditions. and written material in a verifiable manner. tables. or object that is presented. conditions. IDENTIFY: To indicate the selection of an object of a class in response to its class name. ORDER: To arrange two or more objects or events in accordance with stated criteria. LOCATE: To stipulate the position of an object. Note: Locate is not to be confused with IDENTIFY. picking up. events.

The faster the shot travels and the greater the weight of the shot. Locate: The student could be asked to locate the position of chlorine on the periodic table. the student could be asked to distinguish between the metallic and non-metallic element in each pair. Construct: The student could be asked to construct a model of a carbon atom. Describe: The student could be asked to describe the conditions essential for a balanced aquarium that includes four goldfish. they will be very similar to their parent organisms. sun. Predict: From a description of the climate and soils of an area.Examples of Activities: Science Apply a Rule: The student could be asked to explain why a shotgun "kicks" when fired. the greater the "kick" of the gun. Evaluate: Given several types of materials. or solid. . His response would include a statement to the effect that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (Newton's Law of Motion). Classify: Given several examples of each. Define: Given several types of plant leaves. Estimate: The student could be asked to estimate the amount of heat given off by one liter of air compressed to one-half its original volume. the student could be asked to evaluate them to determine which is the best conductor of electricity. the student could be asked to predict the plant ecology of the area. Demonstrate: Given a model of the earth. Identify: Given several types of materials. Measure: Given a container graduated in cubic centimeters. NOTE: To locate is to describe location. liquid. the student could be asked to classify materials according to their physical properties as gas.e. Diagram: The student could be asked to diagram the life cycle of a grasshopper. Interpret: The student could be asked to interpret a weather map taken from a newspaper. It is not identification of location.it is creating definitions.000. Name: The student could be asked to name the parts of an electromagnet. the student could be asked to identify those which would be attracted to a magnet. Distinguish: Given a list of paired element names. Translate: The student could be asked to translate 93. and moon so devised that it may be manipulated to show the orbits of the earth and moon. the student could be asked to demonstrate the cause of various phases of the moon as viewed from earth. i.000 into standard scientific notation. the student could be asked to measure a specific amount of liquid. Order: The student could be asked to order a number of animal life forms according to their normal length of life. NOTE: Defining is not memorizing and writing definitions created by someone else -. Solve: The student could be asked to solve the following: How many grams of H2O will be formed by the complete combustion of one liter of hydrogen at 70 degrees C? State a Rule: The student could be asked to state a rule that tell what form the offspring of mammals will be. the student could be asked to define at least three categories for classifying them. and that the "kick" of the shotgun is equal to the force propelling the shot toward its target.

or four groups of three each. in the second row. His response should include a statement to the effect that the same numbers are to be added in each equation. Or all the coins containing silver could be put in one pile and those that don't into another pile. Distinguish: Given pairs of numbers. His response would include placement of twelve objects in three groups of four each." Demonstrate: Given a sufficient number of concrete objects and an equation such as 3 x 4 = 12. Interpret: Given a bar graph showing the per unit cost of food products when purchased in various size packages. Describe: The student could be asked to describe a method of determining a number of groups of five objects in a collection of 45 objects. from the east wall. all of the dimes. The response would include a statement that groups of five members would be counted out and then the number of groups could be counted. Identify: The student could be asked to point to the numeral ninety-four on a numeration chart. the student could be asked to classify them into categories of even divisibility by 2. Solve: The student could be asked to solve the following: 2 + 3 = ____. the student could be asked to define some categories into which the coins could be classified. John.1000. the type of operation is clearly indicated.x + 3. Bill. compass. the student could be asked to construct an equilateral triangle. the student could be asked to use the objects to demonstrate that multiplication is repeated addition. he could be asked to solve the following: "Jimmy. Define: Given an assortment of various kinds of coins. Therefore. the student could be asked to identify the prime number in each pair. Estimate: Given multiplication examples with three-digit numerals in both the multiplier and multiplicand. and 7 + 2 + 4 = ___. 14 ____." Order: Given a number of objects of different lengths. Classify: Given a series of numbers drawn at random from 1 . 9. Predict: The student could be asked to predict the next term in an increasing arithmetic series such as 2. the student orders them from lesser to greater length. 3. the student could be asked to apply a rule that would give him the solution to the second equation of the pair without adding the factors. The student may also be asked to demonstrate the process he described. and paper." What is the name of this type of equation? Answer: "A quadratic equation. 4. Or. "John's desk is the fourth one from the front. In this example. the student estimates the products to the nearest thousand. etc. but in different order (analysis) and that the order of addition makes no difference in the solution of the equations.. 5. John gave Bill two of his marbles. How many marbles did Jimmy and Sam have together then?" In this . the student interprets it by stating the lowest and highest per unit cost and by describing the relationship between increased package size and per unit cost of the product. Locate: The student could be asked to locate a particular desk in his classroom by stating the row it is in and the ordinal position from the front of the room. and Sam each had three marbles. could be put in separate piles." Name: What is the name of this collection of objects? Answer: "A set. "All of the pennies. He may also be asked to describe how the demonstrations show repeated addition. His response would include definitions such as.Examples of Activities: Mathematics Apply a Rule: Given a pair of equations such as 2 + 4 + 7 = 13. Diagram: The student could be asked to graph the equation y = 2x2 . all of the nickels. Construct: Given a straight edge. and so on. one number of each pair a prime number. the sum of both equations is the same.

State a Rule: In response to the question: "Why is the sum of two numbers no different if the order of adding them is reversed?" The student answers: "Because of the commutative principle." or "Because the order makes no difference in addition.example. the operation to be performed is not specified." . and extraneous factors are introduced.

the student will be able to recognize foreshadowing in various works of literature. After this unit. . By completing the activities.Learning Objectives: Stems and Samples Generally. learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes: What do you want your students to learn as a result of the lesson? Follow the three-step process below for creating learning objectives. compare. . For a list of action verbs see below. . . list. etc. After you create the stem. 2. the student will . . recognize. . Below you will find numerous examples of learning objectives used by teachers. . One you have a stem and a verb. 3. the student will be able to . add a verb: analyze. At the conclusion of the course/unit/study the student will . determine the actual product. Action Verbs for Learning Objectives Abstract Activate Acquire Adjust Analyze Appraise Arrange Articulate Assemble Assess Assist Associate Breakdown Calculate Carry out Build Catalog Categorize Change Check Cite Classify Collect Combine Compare Compute Contrast Complete Compose Compute Conduct Construct Convert Coordinate Count Criticize Critique Debate Decrease Define Demonstrate Describe Design Detect Develop Differentiate Direct Discuss Discover Distinguish Draw Dramatize Employ Establish Estimate Evaluate Examine Explain Explore Express Extrapolate Formulate Generalize Identify Illustrate Implement Improve Increase Infer Integrate Interpret Introduce Investigate . provide. Modify them as necessary. the student will have . Stem Examples: After completing the lesson. . Create a stem. or outcome: After completing these lessons. 1. process.

the student will be able to: • sort _____ by _____ (color.) • use a spreadsheet to calculate . interpret. addition. etc. • discuss. size. • explain the elements of _____ (a pictograph. .Judge Limit List Locate Maintain Manage Modify Name Observe Operate Order Organize Perform Plan Point Predict Prepare Prescribe Produce Propose Question Rank Rate Read Recall Recommend Recognize Reconstruct Record Recruit Reduce Reflect Relate Remove Reorganize Repair Repeat Replace Report Reproduce Research Restate Restructure Revise Rewrite Schedule Score Select Separate Sequence Sing Sketch Simplify Skim Solve Specify State Structure Summarize Supervise Survey Systematize Tabulate Test Theorize Trace Track Train Transfer Translate Update Use Utilize Verbalize Verify Visualize Write Math Examples After completing the lesson. . • plot a set of points of graph paper . .) • calculate . .) • use collected data to answer the question(s): _____ • construct _____ (picture graphs. • solve a numerical expression using _____ (the standard order of operations.) • follow directions to create _____ (a product) • acquire data by measuring with _____ (a yardstick. etc. . . . .) • create a series of mathematical steps to be used to . .) • display data using _____ (a graph. etc. . . . • interpret the results of the calculations . . and ascribe meaning to the organized data . bar graphs. etc. . • exercise the skills of _____ (multiplication. etc. . . • identify and describe _____ (polygons) using the language of _____ (geometry) • record observations of .) to . . etc. etc.

the student will be able to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • recall information about the reading . develop a basic knowledge of _____ (the solar system. etc. .) collect. etc. identify relevant questions for inquiry sequence and categorize information . organize. .Science Examples After completing the lesson.) understand the basic structure of _____ (an atom) identify states of matter .) record observations about . display. etc. . . . . . . demonstrate learning by producing a _____ present their findings of _____ to the class . moon. and interpret data about _____ demonstrate an understand of _____ in terms of _____ create a visual representation of _____ (the water cycle. . . create a concept map of . record and compare facts about _____ (the sun.

Evaluation differs from general . event or condition without applying a standard scale or measuring device. and a professional vocabulary. specificity. The statement must convey analysis of a problem situation and/or its solution. which are in turn the core component of effective lesson plans. etc. series of objects. "the student will demonstrate his knowledge of vowel sounds. object or event that is being analyzed. DEMONSTRATE: The student performs the operations necessary for the application of an instrument. When using this verb in an objective. click here. as a minimum. they are a highly effective way to indicate. or model that identifies a designated object or set of conditions. DEFINE: To stipulate the requirements for inclusion of an object. there is no substitute for clarity. if any.Definitions of Behavioral Verbs for Learning Objectives Behavioral verbs are the heart of learning objectives. specific. or situation in a category or class. Indication of quality must be given in the defined criteria of each class category. Graphic charting and mapping are types of diagramming. CONSTRUCT: To make a drawing. Learning objectives based on a set of verbs that have some measure of agreement as to meaning can provide a useful vehicle for the purpose of developing performance-based curriculum. are to be given in the performance standards of each objective." and does not limit the categories that may be used in mentioning them. Teachers and others constantly make inferences about student learning on the basis of what students do or produce. words. CLASSIFY: To place objects. rewriting or selecting learning objectives can lead to improvement in efforts to change and reform education in general and curriculum in particular. Specific or categorical limitations. object properties. spoken. musical or artistic form. Consistent use of defined behavioral verbs in composing. The following verbs and their definitions can be helpful when composing learning objectives. These are general definitions that describe only the observable behavior and do not include linkages to any specific content. together with the name or statement of the rule that was applied. people. Logical techniques of estimation. If defined and used consistently. (2) The characteristics of the words. or event properties that are relevant to the description of a designated situation. it is helpful to include a statement to the effect of what the description. The objective is of the form. or situations that are included in the class or category. according to defined criteria of quality. device. word. NOTE: There is a temptation to use demonstrate in objectives such as. Behavioral verbs describe an observable product or action. this is improper use of it. structure. "The student will describe this order. APPLY A RULE: To state a rule as it applies to a situation.. To define is to set up criteria for classification. or situations into categories according to defined criteria for each category. and these terms may be used where more exact communication of the structure of the situation and response is desired." As the verb is defined. or implement. such as are involved in mathematical interpolation. Such stipulations are usually in the form of written descriptions. Elements of one or both of the following must be included: (1) The characteristics of the words. assess is rarely used as a verb in learning objectives at the elementary school level. or situations that are excluded in the class or category. The criteria must be made known to the student. Valid inferences can only be made when there is little or no doubt regarding what is intended. must reference. See MEASURE. situations. or event. objects. ESTIMATE: To assess the dimension of an object. may be used. DESCRIBE: To name all of the necessary categories of objects. object. COMPOSE: To formulate a composition in written. conditions. and communicate to others. objects. that one way to define curriculum is in terms of intended student behavior. EVALUATE: To classify objects. For obvious reasons. ASSESS: To stipulate the conditions by which the behavior specified in an objective may be ascertained. To see examples of these verbs used in specific content areas. DIAGRAM: To construct a drawing with labels and with a specified organization or structure to demonstrate knowledge of that organization or structure. model. observable student behavior. DISTINGUISH: To identify under conditions when only two contrasting identifications are involved for each response. In education. It follows then. These definitions are provided for those who seek a basis for a technical vocabulary regarding student performance.

ORDER: To arrange two or more objects or events in accordance with stated criteria. MEASURE: To apply a standard scale or measuring device to an object. conditions. The problem must be posed in such a way that the student that the student is able to determine the type of response that is acceptable. and may contain extraneous elements that are not required for solution. However. graphs. Please click here for details. construction. a person should be able to classify the learning behavior of any student he observes. in oral or written form for an object. PREDICT: To use a rule or principle to predict an outcome or to infer some consequence. or composition that contains information relative to the known. It is not necessary that the rule or principle be stated. or conditions. Labeling is a complex behavior that contains elements of naming and identifying. Be sure to also see the generic definitions of the behavioral verbs . in writing or orally. Both of these are required for the interpretation of student behavior. class of objects. Note: Locate is not to be confused with IDENTIFY. they are not complete objectives. STATE A RULE: To make a statement that conveys the meaning of the rule. theory or principle. . or object that is presented. or compositions. by pointing. For example. They are missing one component. none contains criteria of acceptable performance. drawing. drawings. Please send any comments or questions to Dr. SOLVE: To effect a solution to a given problem. With a clear knowledge of the meaning of these verbs. a person who observes a student pointing out on a chart of atomic diagrams. It's all about understanding what a student is doing that shows the intended behavior. the diagrams that represent elements named by the teacher. but unspecified structure of these objects. The purpose of these examples is to clarify the meaning of the definitions of behavioral verbs. or events. LABEL: To stipulate a verbal (oral or written) response to a given object. series of objects. picking up. underlining. charts. as they will help you put the examples below in the proper context. INTERPRET: To translate information from observation. Although these examples could be turned into behavioral learning objectives rather easily. places. LOCATE: To stipulate the position of an object. TRANSLATE: To transcribe one symbolic form to another of the same or similar meaning. and written material in a verifiable manner. Ideational guides to location such as grids.classification only in this respect. whether or not he knows the learning objective. NAME: To supply the correct name. according to practices accepted by those who are skilled in the use of the device or scale. or event in relation to other specified objects. Examples of Behavioral Verbs and Student Activities The following examples of student activities are meant to illustrate the uses of the defined behavioral verbs in classroom settings involving the specific subject content areas listed below. or events which are pointed out or described. the third segment of a behavioral objective. REPRODUCE: To imitate or copy an action. A very popular new program that expands on this list within the context of lesson planning is available now from ADPRIMA. persons. or other responses. and an expanded list of verbs! Most of the examples contain descriptions of student behavior and the general conditions under which it occurs. place. Bob Kizlik at ADPRIMA. tables. The problem solution must contain all the elements required for the requested solution. Learn how to write lesson plans that use these. order arrangements and time may be used to describe location. will be able to classify the behavior as identifying. marking. places. IDENTIFY: To indicate the selection of an object of a class in response to its class name. events.

000. Evaluate: Given several types of materials. Translate: The student could be asked to translate 93. and that the "kick" of the shotgun is equal to the force propelling the shot toward its target. the greater the "kick" of the gun. Distinguish: Given a list of paired element names.000 into standard scientific notation. Diagram: The student could be asked to diagram the life cycle of a grasshopper.e. the student could be asked to apply a rule that would give him the solution to the second equation of the pair without adding the factors. Describe: The student could be asked to describe the conditions essential for a balanced aquarium that includes four goldfish. The faster the shot travels and the greater the weight of the shot. they will be very similar to their parent organisms. liquid. the student could be asked to demonstrate the cause of various phases of the moon as viewed from earth. the student could be asked to predict the plant ecology of the area. Construct: The student could be asked to construct a model of a carbon atom.1000. Name: The student could be asked to name the parts of an electromagnet. Classify: Given several examples of each. Measure: Given a container graduated in cubic centimeters. and 7 + 2 + 4 = ___. the student could be asked to define at least three categories for classifying them. Estimate: The student could be asked to estimate the amount of heat given off by one liter of air compressed to one-half its original volume. Predict: From a description of the climate and soils of an area. the student could be asked to evaluate them to determine which is the best conductor of electricity. Order: The student could be asked to order a number of animal life forms according to their normal length of life.it is creating definitions. It is not identification of location. Define: Given several types of plant leaves. the student could be asked to classify materials according to their physical properties as gas. Therefore.Examples of Activities : Science Apply a Rule: The student could be asked to explain why a shotgun "kicks" when fired. Solve: The student could be asked to solve the following: How many grams of H 2O will be formed by the complete combustion of one liter of hydrogen at 70 degrees C? State a Rule: The student could be asked to state a rule that tells what form the offspring of mammals will be. Interpret: The student could be asked to interpret a weather map taken from a newspaper. NOTE: Defining is not memorizing and writing definitions created by someone else -. Demonstrate: Given a model of the earth. or solid. His response should include a statement to the effect that the same numbers are to be added in each equation. i. but in different order (analysis) and that the order of addition makes no difference in the solution of the equations. NOTE: To locate is to describe location. Classify: Given a series of numbers drawn at random from 1 . the student could be asked to classify them into categories of even . Examples of Activities: Mathematics Apply a Rule: Given a pair of equations such as 2 + 4 + 7 = 13. the student could be asked to distinguish between the metallic and non-metallic element in each pair. Locate: The student could be asked to locate the position of chlorine on the periodic table. sun. Identify: Given several types of materials. the sum of both equations is the same. and moon so devised that it may be manipulated to show the orbits of the earth and moon. the student could be asked to identify those which would be attracted to a magnet. the student could be asked to measure a specific amount of liquid. His response would include a statement to the effect that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (Newton's Law of Motion).

and extraneous factors are introduced. the student could be asked to identify the prime number in each pair. compass. the student estimates the products to the nearest thousand. one number of each pair a prime number." What is the name of this type of equation? Answer: "A quadratic equation. the operation to be performed is not specified. 3. Diagram: The student could be asked to graph the equation y = 2x 2 . Solve: The student could be asked to solve the following: 2 + 3 = ____.x + 3. Predict: The student could be asked to predict the next term in an increasing arithmetic series such as 2. the student could be asked to measure the interior angles. John gave Bill two of his marbles. etc. 4. John. the type of operation is clearly indicated. His response would include definitions such as. Construct: Given a straight edge." Measure: Given a protractor and a set of obtuse and acute triangles. Describe: The student could be asked to describe a method of determining a number of groups of five objects in a collection of 45 objects. His response would include placement of twelve objects in three groups of four each. all of the nickels." . could be put in separate piles. from the east wall. and Sam each had three marbles. Identify: The student could be asked to point to the numeral ninety-four on a numeration chart. the student orders them from lesser to greater length. Define: Given an assortment of various kinds of coins.divisibility by 2." or "Because the order makes no difference in addition. 14 ____. The response would include a statement that groups of five members would be counted out and then the number of groups could be counted. 5. "All of the pennies. Locate: The student could be asked to locate a particular desk in his classroom by stating the row it is in and the ordinal position from the front of the room. "John's desk is the fourth one from the front. the student could be asked to use the objects to demonstrate that multiplication is repeated addition. Bill." Demonstrate: Given a sufficient number of concrete objects and an equation such as 3 x 4 = 12. 9. and paper. In this example. He may also be asked to describe how the demonstrations show repeated addition. Name: What is the name of this collection of objects? Answer: "A set. the student could be asked to define some categories into which the coins could be classified." Order: Given a number of objects of different lengths. State a Rule: In response to the question: "Why is the sum of two numbers no different if the order of adding them is reversed?" The student answers: "Because of the commutative principle. the student could be asked to construct an equilateral triangle. How many marbles did Jimmy and Sam have together then?" In this example. The student may also be asked to demonstrate the process he described. all of the dimes. in the second row. Interpret: Given a bar graph showing the per unit cost of food products when purchased in various size packages. the student interprets it by stating the lowest and highest per unit cost and by describing the relationship between increased package size and per unit cost of the product. he could be asked to solve the following: "Jimmy. Or. Or all the coins containing silver could be put in one pile and those that don't into another pile. Distinguish: Given pairs of numbers. Estimate: Given multiplication examples with three-digit numerals in both the multiplier and multiplicand. or four groups of three each. and so on..

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