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The Nature of Light: What is a Photon?

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You are on page 1of 21

**The Nature of Light
**

Riccardo C. Storti www.deltagroupengineering.com

dgE

**What are we going to cover?
**

What is a Photon? …. (Historically) Does it have mass & size? How do we calculate these from 1st principles? What else can we learn from its mass & size? What other particles can we determine the mass & size of based on our Photon method? What particle predictions have been experimentally verified to high precision by our Photon method? And much more ….

dgE

**What is a Photon? …. Historically
**

A mass-less “Packet” of light (standard definition) A Photon behaves like a particle (has momentum) Many Photons behave as a wave They can be represented mathematically as sinewaves

π 2 .π

y( x )

x

dgE

**Does it have mass?
**

The Particle Data Group (PDG) estimates its mass-energy threshold to be “< 6 x10-17(eV)” We calculate the mass-energy threshold to be “< 5.75 x10-17(eV)” → within 4.3(%) of the PDG figure Consequently, we calculate its mass-energy to be “3.2 x10-45(eV)”

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://pdg.lbl.gov/index.html
**

dgE

**Does it have size?
**

Yes, it has size …. Why? Because Quantum Physics, The Uncertainty Principle & common sense dictates that “0 anything” isn’t an engineering option for application We calculate its diameter to be the Planck Length This calculation is in agreement with (& supports) Quantum Physics models

dgE

**How did we calculate it from 1st principles?
**

Apply Dimensional Analysis Techniques, Buckingham's Π Theory and similarity principles to combine Electricity, Magnetism and resultant ElectroMagnetic acceleration Apply the equivalence principle to the Π groupings Apply Fourier Harmonics to the equivalence principle Apply Zero-Point-Field Theory (ZPF) to Fourier Harmonics Apply the Polarisable Vacuum model of gravity to the ZPF

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**What else can we learn from its mass & size?
**

That the Euler-Mascheroni Constant (Euler’s Constant) is defined naturally at a quantum level: γ ≈ 0.5772156649015 Euler stated that it was “worthy of serious consideration” This constant is extremely important in mathematics and cuts across many areas, e.g.. the Reimann zeta function Physical verification of our Photon mass-energy equation suggests that “γ” has a natural physical limit

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Euler-MascheroniConstant.html
**

dgE

**What other particles can we determine the mass & size of based on our Photon method?
**

ALL OF THEM ! AS LISTED BY THE PDG

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/theory/fundamental.html
**

dgE

**What particle predictions have been experimentally verified to high precision by our Photon method? …. 1
**

The Root Mean Square (RMS) Charge Radius of the Proton “rπ” as determined by the SELEX Collaboration

(http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0106053)

The Classical RMS Charge Radius of the Proton “rp” as defined by the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) (http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants) The Electric & Magnetic Radii of the Proton (rπE & rπM) and the Magnetic radius of the Neutron “rνM” as reported by Hammer & Meißner (http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0312081)

dgE

**What particle predictions have been experimentally verified to high precision by our Photon method? …. 2
**

The Neutron Mean Square (MS) Charge Radius “KX” as reported by Karmanov et. al. (http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0106349) The Top-Quark mass-energy “mtq” as determined by the D-ZERO Collaboration (http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0406031)

dgE

**What errors are associated with our Photon method?
**

Note: EGM is the name we have given our Photon method

Particle Proton (p) EGM Prediction rπ = 830.6769 x10-16(cm) rπE = 848.6103 x10-16(cm) rπM = 850.0287 x10-16(cm) rp = 874.6721 x10-16(cm) rν = 826.9187 x10-16(cm) KS = -0.1134 x10-26(cm2) rνM = 879.0424 x10-16(cm) mtq(GeV) ≈ 178.4543 Exp. Measurement rπ = 830.6624 x10-16(cm) rπE = 848 x10-16(cm) rπM = 857 x10-16(cm) rp = 875.0 x10-16(cm) rν ≈ 825.6176 x10-16(cm) KX = -0.113 x10-26(cm2) rνM = 879 x10-16(cm) mtq(GeV) ≈ 178.0 (%) Error < 0.0018 < 0.072 < 0.82 < 0.04 < 0.1574 < 0.32 < 0.005 < 0.2553

Neutron (n)

Top Quark (tq)

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**What particle predictions are experimentally implied by our Photon method?
**

The RMS Charge Radii of all Quarks as generalised by the ZEUS Collaboration → whilst satisfying all PDG massenergy ranges (http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0401009) The MS Charge Radii of all Neutrino’s based on experimental results by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory & analysed by Hirsch et. al. & Joshipura et. al. → whilst satisfying all PDG mass-energy ranges

(http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0210137 & http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0108018)

**The RMS Charge Radius of an Electron from scattering experiments as reported by Milonni et. al.
**

(The Quantum Vacuum, Academic Press: pg 403)

dgE

**What is the mathematical pattern responsible?
**

The specific equation that describes the mass-energy & radius relationship between all particles may be written simply as:

2 5

ω Ω r 1, M 1 ω Ω r 2, M 2

M1 M2

9

.

r2 r1

9

St ω

(i) “ωΩ” denotes the harmonic cut-off frequency (ii) “Stω” is a harmonic value & is the ratio between 2 spectra

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**What harmonic patterns form?
**

Existing & Theoretical Particles Proton (p), Neutron (n) Electron (e-), Electron Neutrino (νe) ν L2 (Theoretical Lepton) L3 (Theoretical Lepton) Muon (µ-), Muon Neutrino (νµ) µ ν L5 (Theoretical Lepton) Tau (τ-), Tau Neutrino (ντ) τ ν Up Quark (uq), Down Quark (dq) Strange Quark (sq) Charm Quark (cq) Bottom Quark (bq) QB5 (Theoretical Quark or Boson) QB6 (Theoretical Quark or Boson) W Boson Z Boson Higgs Boson (H) (Theoretical) Top Quark (tq) x ωΩ(rπ,mp) 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140 x ωΩ(rε,me) 1/2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 x ωΩ(ruq,muq) 1/14 1/7 2/7 3/7 4/7 5/7 6/7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**Particle mass & size summary
**

Existing Particle Proton (p), Neutron (n) Electron (e-) Muon (µ-) µ Tau (τ ) τ Electron Neutrino (νe) ν Muon Neutrino (νµ) ν Tau Neutrino (ντ) ν Up Quark (uq) Down Quark (dq) Strange Quark (sq) Charm Quark (cq) Bottom Quark (bq) Top Quark (tq) W Boson Z Boson Higgs Boson (H) (Theoretical) Existing Particles Photon (γ) γ Graviton (Theoretical) ew Particles (Theoretical) L2 (Lepton) L3 (Lepton) L5 (Lepton) QB5 (Quark or Boson) QB6 (Quark or Boson) EGM Radii x10-16(cm) rπ = 830.6769 rν = 826.9187 rε = 11.8067 rµ = 8.2176 rτ = 12.2432 ren ≈ 0.0954 rµn ≈ 0.6557 rτn ≈ 1.9591 ruq ≈ 0.7682 rdq ≈ 1.0136 rsq ≈ 0.8879 rcq ≈ 1.0913 rbq ≈ 1.071 rtq ≈ 0.9294 rW ≈ 1.284 rZ ≈ 1.0617 rH ≈ 0.9404 EGM Radii rγγ = ½Kλλh rgg = 2(2/5)rγγ EGM Radii x10-16(cm) rL ≈ 10.7518 rQB ≈ 1.002 EGM Mass-Energy PDG Mass-Energy Range Mass-Energy is precisely known See: National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) men(eV) ≈ 3 - δm mµn(MeV) ≈ 0.19 - δm mτn(MeV) ≈ 18.2 - δm muq(MeV) ≈ 3.5052 mdq(MeV) ≈ 7.0103 msq(MeV) ≈ 113.9181 mcq(GeV) ≈ 1.183 mbq(GeV) ≈ 4.1196 mtq(GeV) ≈ 178.4543 mW(GeV) ≈ 80.425 mZ(GeV) ≈ 91.1876 mH(GeV) ≈ 114.4 + δm EGM Mass-Energy mγγ ≈ 3.2 x10-45(eV) mgg = 2mγγ EGM Mass-Energy mL(2) ≈ 9(MeV) mL(3) ≈ 57(MeV) mL(5) ≈ 566(MeV) mQB(5) ≈ 10(GeV) mQB(6) ≈ 22(GeV) men(eV) < 3 mµn(MeV) < 0.19 mτn(MeV) < 18.2 1.5 < muq(MeV) < 4 4 < mdq(MeV) < 8 80 < msq(MeV) < 130 1.15 < mcq(GeV) < 1.35 4.1 < mbq(GeV) < 4.4 169.2 < mtq(GeV) < 179.4 80.387 < mW(GeV) < 80.463 91.1855 < mZ(GeV) < 91.1897 mH(GeV) > 114.4 PDG Mass-Energy Threshold mγ < 6 x10-17(eV) mg < 7.6 x10-20(eV) PDG Mass-Energy Range or Threshold Not predicted or considered Not predicted or considered Not predicted or considered Not predicted or considered Not predicted or considered

dgE

**What else does our Photon method predict? … 1
**

“π” as a geometric ratio of fundamental particle RMS Charge Radii The Fine Structure Constant “α” utilising the RMS Charge Radii of the Electron, Proton, Neutron, Muon & Tau particles with the exponential function “e” according to:

α rε rπ

FOR MORE INFO...

2

.e

3

rε rπ rν

rµ

π

α

rε rν

.e

rτ

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**What else does our Photon method predict? … 2
**

The Casimir Force [to within 0.01(%)] of the classical parallel plate equation Experimental verification has been determined to within 5(%) of the classical representation Our equation predicts different Casimir Forces on different planets, the classical representation does not

Classical

F PP π .h .c .A PP

4 480.∆r

**Our Photon method
**

F PV A PP , r , ∆r , M A PP .∆U PV( r , ∆r , M ) . N C( r , ∆r , M ) N X( r , ∆r , M )

2

.ln

N X( r , ∆r , M ) N C( r , ∆r , M )

4

dgE

**What else does our Photon method predict? … 3
**

An experimentally implicit calculation of the Planck Length based on experimentally verified Proton & Neutron radii calculations etc. This results in an increase in the Planck Length by (π/2)1/3 [≈ 16(%)] A gravity experiment (but that’s a discussion for another day)

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**Photon method summary points
**

We have “quasi-unified” particle physics by considering all particles to be Photon radiators producing mass-energy & radii predictions We have derived the Casimir Force based on Photons and made new predictions We have derived an experimentally implicit definition of the Planck scale based on Photons

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

**So what does all this mean?
**

That Photons are the “quintessential” particle from which all others may be described The gravitational spectrum is a simple, but extreme, extension of the EM spectrum There may be “5+” undiscovered particles based on our harmonic interpretation of Photons Photonics is important !

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

The End

I hope you’ve enjoyed the show …. Feel free to talk with me after the presentation or you can contact me by: E-Mail: rstorti@deltagroupengineering.com Phone (Oz): +61 410-493-087

FOR MORE INFO...

**http://www.deltagroupengineering.com/publications.htm
**

dgE

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