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SPIE Conference (San Diego): August 27, 2007

The Nature of Light
Riccardo C. Storti www.deltagroupengineering.com

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What are we going to cover?
The derivation of the mass & size of all existing fundamental particles & the prediction of new ones The derivation of the Hubble constant The derivation of the CMBR temperature The derivation of the ZPF energy density threshold The Cosmological evolution process

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How did we calculate Particle properties from 1st principles?
Apply Dimensional Analysis Techniques, Buckingham's Π Theory and similarity principles to combine Electricity, Magnetism and resultant ElectroMagnetic acceleration Apply the equivalence principle to the Π groupings Apply Fourier Harmonics to the equivalence principle Apply ZPF Theory to Fourier Harmonics Apply the Polarisable Vacuum model of gravity to the ZPF

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What errors are associated with our Photon method?
Note: EGM is the name we have given our Photon method

IST

IST

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What is the mathematical pattern responsible?
The specific equation that describes the mass-energy & radius relationship between all particles may be written simply as:
2 5

ω Ω r 1, M 1 ω Ω r 2, M 2

M1 M2

9

.

r2 r1

9

St ω

(i) “ωΩ” denotes the harmonic cut-off frequency (ii) “Stω” is a harmonic value & is the ratio between 2 spectra

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What harmonic patterns form?

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How did we calculate Cosmological properties from 1st principles?
The primary tool employed to achieve our objectives is similitude, subject to the following simplified constraints:
The Cosmos at an instant prior to the “Big-Bang” is termed the “Primordial Universe”. It was characterised by a single wavefunction with maximum permissible energy density distributed homogeneously, analogous to a Planck scale particle such that it was dynamically, kinematically and geometrically similar to a “Schwarzschild-Black-Hole” (SBH) The relationship between the “Primordial Universe” and its present visible size obeys the EGM harmonic representation of fundamental particles The “Milky-Way” (MW) Galaxy may be represented as a Planck scale particle of homogeneous energy density and equivalent total mass. This configuration has been termed the Galactic Reference Particle (GRP), such that dynamic, kinematic and geometric similarity exists between the “Primordial Universe” and the GRP

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How did we derive the Hubble constant?
The derivation of the Hubble constant may be simplified to the following process:
Treat all matter as radiators of Gravitons Transform gravitational frequency to intensity - expressed in “Jansky’s” Derive the minimum gravitational lifetime of starving matter: “TL = h / mγγ” Relate the EGM harmonic representation of fundamental particles to the gravitational intensities of the “Primordial Universe” & the “Milky-Way” (i.e. GRP) Solve for Hubble’s constant

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How did we derive the CMBR temperature?
The derivation of the CMBR temperature may be simplified to the following process:
Derive an expansive scaling factor “KT” utilising the ratio of the Hubble constant at the instant of the “Big-Bang” (i.e. “Hα”) to the derived Hubble constant Derive a thermodynamic scaling factor “TW” based upon the red-shifted wavelength of a “Big-Bang” Photon after Hubble time “KT” multiplied by “TW” yields the CMBR temperature in terms of the derived Hubble constant

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What numerical results did we achieve?
A Hubble age of “14.6 Billion years” A Hubble constant of “67.1(km/s/Mpc)” [i.e. to within “5.5(%)” of the very rough community agreed value] A CMBR temperature of “2.7248(K)” [i.e. to within “0.01(%)” of the highly accurate physical measurement by WMAP] A Galactic radius of “8.1(kpc)” & total mass of “6.314x1011(Solar masses)” [i.e. to within “1.34(%)” & “5.24(%)” of standard community estimates respectively]

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What do the results demonstrate?
The influence of “Dark Matter / Energy” upon the Hubble constant and CMBR temperature is “< 1(%)” The constitution of the Universe is: – “> 95(%)” Photons – “< 1(%)” Dark Matter / Energy – “4(%)” Atoms The average Cosmological value of Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) energy density is “–2.52x10-13(Pa)” hence, commercial energy extraction from the ZPF (i.e. the Casimir Force) is unlikely because the available ZPF energy is limited to “–0.252(mJ/km3)”

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What is the mathematical key?
The mathematical key is the derived relationship between the Hubble constant “H” and CMBR temperature “TU2” as follows (µ = 1/3),
2 5

ω Ω r 1, M 1 ω Ω r 2, M 2

M1 M2

9

.

r2 r1

9

St ω

.H → T U2( H ) K W . St T . ln H
2 .µ 2

5 .µ

2

2 λ x. ω h . St T µ π ( 4.µ ) .c

4.µ

ω h λ x

λ x

. . 2µ 4 π
µ

ω h

c G. h

5

where: “StT”, “Hα”, “λx” and “µ” are derived constants

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31 3.5 .10 Hα 1 t1

Av. Cosmological Temp. vs. Hubble Cons.

Max. Cosmological Temp.: 3.2x1031(K)

31 3 .10

T U3 H β Av. Cosmological Temperature (K) 1 T U3 e 5 .µ 2

31 2.5 .10

31 2 .10 10 .µ 2 1 1 31 1.5 .10 2 3 2 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ

T vs. H
T U3 H β K W .St T .ln 1 Hβ . H .H β α
5 .µ 2

T U3 e

2 2 15 .µ . 5 .µ T U3 e 2 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ . 5 .µ

2

31 1 .10

30 5 .10

43 1 .10

1 .10

42

41 1 .10

1 .10

40 H β .H α

39 1 .10

38 1 .10

1 .10

37

36 1 .10

Big-Bang: 0(K), Hα ≈ 0.37ωh ω

Hubble Constant (Hz)

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Graph 1
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72 1 .10 t1 t2

1st Derivative of Av. Cosmological Temp.

71 8 .10

71 6 .10

71 4 .10

71 2 .10 dT dt H β .H α 1 0

dT/dt vs. t

dT dt t 1 (K/s) dT dt t 2 dT dt t 3 71 2 .10

71 4 .10

71 6 .10

dT dt ( t )

71 8 .10

2 5 .ln H α .t .µ K W .St T . 2 5 .µ . t t

1

72 1 .10

72 1.2 .10 42 1 .10

1 .10

41 H β .H α 1

1 .10

40

1 .10

39

Max. Cosmological Temp.: 3.2x1031(K)

Cosmological Age (s)

t = (HβHα)-1

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Graph 2
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113 5 .10 t2 t3

2nd Derivative of Av. Cosmological Temp.

0

113 5 .10

d2T/dt2 vs. t

dT2 dt2 (K/s^2)

H β .H α

1 114 1 .10

dT2 dt2 t 1 dT2 dt2 t 2 dT2 dt2 t 3 114 1.5 .10

114 2 .10

114 2.5 .10

dT2 dt2 ( t )

2 2 5 .µ . ln H α .t . 5 .µ K W .St T . 2 5 .µ . 2 t t
9 .10 H β .H α 42 1 1 .10 41 1.1 .10 41 1.2 .10 41 1.3 .10 41

1

2

1

114 3 .10 42 2 .10

3 .10

42

4 .10

42

5 .10

42

6 .10

42

7 .10

42

8 .10

42

1.4 .10

41

1.5 .10

41

Cosmological Age (s)

t = (HβHα)-1

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Graph 3
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1st Derivative of the Hubble Constant
84 2 .10 1 Hα 84 1 .10 0 0 η 1 .10 1 dH dt e (Hz^2) 5 .µ 2 1 2 .10 1 dH dt e 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ 1 3 .10 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ dH dt e 4 1 2 2 84 4 .10 84 84 84 t1

t4

dH dt H β

2 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ . 5 .µ

dH/dt vs. t
Cosmological Inflation Cosmological Expansion

Hγ = Ηβη

5 .10

84

84 6 .10

7 .10

84

Max. Cosmological Temp. Line: 3.2x1031(K)
43 1 .10 42 1 .10 41 1 .10 40 1 .10 39 1 .10 38 1 .10 37 1 .10 36

1 .10

Big-Bang: 0(K), Hα ≈ 0.37ωh ω

1 η H β .H α Cosmological Age (s)

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Graph 4
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2nd Derivative of the Hubble Constant
125 8 .10 t5 125 7 .10

125 6 .10 η 125 5 .10 1 dH2 dt2 e (Hz^3) 5 .µ 2 1 1 dH2 dt2 e 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ 1 125 3 .10 4 1 2 2 125 2 .10 125 4 .10

d2H/dt2 vs. t
dH2 dt2 H γ
3 2 H α .H γ . 5 .µ 2 . ln 1 . 5 .µ 2 2 Hγ 5 .µ Hγ

dH2 dt2 H β

1

2

1

2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ dH2 dt2 e

2 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ . 5 .µ

125 1 .10

Hγ = Ηβη
0 1 .10 125

0

1 .10

42

1 .10

41

1 .10

40

1 η H β .H α Cosmological Age (s)

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Graph 5
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Mag. of Hubble Cons. vs. Cosm. Age
1 2.5 .10 42 Hα

t1

Max. Cosmological Temp. Line: 3.2x1031(K)

Primordial Inflation Thermal Inflation
dH dt H β η 42 2 .10

√|dH/dt| vs. t
Hubble Inflation Hubble Expansion
t4

1 dH dt e (Hz) 5 .µ 2 1 1.5 .10 1 dH dt e 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ 1 42

4 1 2 2 1 .10 42

2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ dH dt e

2 2 2 5 .µ . 5 .µ . 5 .µ

5 .10

41

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1 .10 42 1 .10 41 1 .10 40 1 .10 39 1 .10 38 1 .10 37 η H β .H α Cosmological Age (s) 1 .10 1 36 1 .10 35 1 .10 34 1 .10 33

0 43 1 .10

1 .10

Big-Bang: 0(K)

Gr ap h 15  dgE
32 1 .10 31

1 .10

30

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Graph 6
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Standard Model

Photon method summary points
We have “quasi-unified” particle physics by considering all particles to be Photon radiators producing mass-energy & radii predictions (see: Proceedings) The Casimir Force is also derived based on our Photon method (see: “Quinta Essentia – Part 3”, includes new predictions) We have derived two of the most important Cosmological parameters & made new predictions (see: “Quinta Essentia – Part 4”)

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So what does all this mean?
The gravitational spectrum is a simple, but extreme, extension of the EM spectrum There may be “5+” undiscovered particles based on our harmonic interpretation of Photons The Hubble constant & CMBR temperature are related Matter is just a condensed form of Photons …. Hence, a Photon is a propagating “piece” of matter!