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discovered in the 1960s by the very esoteric group of anti-communist intellectual thinkers known as "the dissidents of the right." They were a small circle of people who had conscientiously refused to participate in the "cultural life" of the USSR and who had instead chosen an underground existence for themselves. The disparity between the presented Soviet culture and the actual Soviet reality was almost entirely what made them seek out the fundamental principles that could explain the origins of that evil, absolutist idea. It was through their refusal of communism that they discovered certain works by anti-modernist and traditionalist authors: above all, the books by Rene Guenon and by Julius Evola. Two central personalities animated this group -- the Islamic philosopher Geidar Djemal and the nonconformist poet Eugene Golovine. Thanks to them, these "dissidents of the right" knew the names and the ideas of the two greatest traditionalists of our century. In the 1970s, one of the first translations of an Evola work (The Hermetic Tradition) appeared and it was distributed within the group according to the methods of Samizdat [note: Samizdat was the system in the former USSR through which officially "impermissible" books made their way around the country; generally these were copies of copies and not well-produced, but they tended to get their point across.]. However, the original translations were particularly bad in quality because they were made by incompetent amateurs far removed from the group of authentic intellectual traditionalists. In 1981, a translation of Heidnische Imperialismus appeared in a similar manner as the only book of its type available from the Library of Lenin in Moscow. This time around, the distribution through Samizdat had become much larger and the quality of the translation was much better. Little by little, they moved the true current of traditionalism away from anti-communism and towards anti-modernism by extending their complete refusal of Soviet existence to a rejection of the modern world, very much in accordance with the integral traditionalist vision. It should be noted, though, that the ideas of the traditionalists in question at this particular point in time were very far-removed from the other "dissidents of the right" who were generally orthodox Christians, monarchists, and nationalists. Evola, then, was more popular among those who were interested in spiritualism in a broader sense: yoga, theosophy [note: a religious/philosophical school of thought founded by Russian occultist Helena Blavatsky], psychism [note: a theosophic concept relating to all mental phenomena; C.G. Jung discussed it occasionally as well], and so forth. Throughout Perestroika, all forms of anticommunist dissidence manifested themselves and from the "dissidents of the right" came the current political and cultural ideologies of the Right nationalist, nostalgic, anti-liberal, and anti-Western. In this context and after the development of strict traditionalist ideas as a result of Glasnost, the names of Guenon and Evola were introduced into Russia s cultural ensemble. The first works of Evola s appeared in the 1990s in widely-read parts of the press known to be
one can also see the same diagnoses for the sickness of the modern world -. One can see that they all had the same hate for the rule of the mob -.had 50." but it was a quite separate and altogether different phenomenon from the European ND. the frequent evocation of mythological and mystical goals. Den. Kirievsky. and Merejkovsky among novelists criticized the Western world in almost the exact same language as did Evola. one may be inclined to draw parallels to the "nouvelle droite.. non-conformist. Similarly. A television show devoted to Evola has even been made for a popular channel. improved. one can see that Russia s discovery of Evola has taken place on a rather broad scale." Recently. began to publish fragments of Evola s writings or articles inspired by him or ones in which his name and quotes were referenced. Aksakov. cultural. etc. or even rejected in these circumstances? This requires a brief analysis comparing and contrasting the sacred traditionalism of Evola and the strictly Russian political phenomenon.Heidnische Imperialismus -. it is obvious that the rejection of the profane and venal modern world that manifested itself in Western Civilization in the last few centuries is common to both Evola and the entirety of the intellectual tradition of Russian slavophilia. therefore. Obviously. This. One could categorize this second group of "patriots" as being part of the "Third Way" or "national revolutionaries" and so forth. the first book -. Mily Anguel. the advancement of the plebeian. the reactionary tendency here is shared. and thus Evola s criticism of the West is totally in-step with and acceptable to the party line of Russian conservatism. But it is clear that Evola wrote his books and formulated his ideas in a very different temporal. Little by little. Gogol. The breaking point came exactly over the acceptance or rejection of Evola s ideas or perhaps more appropriately over parts of Evola s ideas that could not be considered "conservative" or "reactionary" in nature. He who once constituted the hypermarginal intellectual nucleus of Russia before Perestroika has now become a significant political and ideological phenomenon. the deification of "reason" -.profane Freemasonry. Thus. and Danilevsky among philosophers as well as Dostoevsky. poses a problem: what parts of Evola s philosophy are relevant to modern Russia and what parts need to be reworked. Leontiev.that is to say.the same type of generalization. the distinct notion that the internal spirit world is organically separated from the . the modern democratic system -. 2) Against the Modern West From the very beginning. Russian authors like Homyakov. deviant Judaism. monarchist Right and the other more open. one can see that Evola s criticisms are more closely related to the Russian mentality rather than the broader European one -. as in the idea of the "Conservative Revolution" and the "Revolt Against the Modern World.in Evola and the "conservative" Russian culture.000 copies published. nostalgic. Nach Sovremennik. historical.and that they regarded it as spiritual degradation and total profanity. and less-orthodox Right sometimes referred to as the "novye pravye" in Russian."patriotic" or "conservative" and the subject of traditionalism became the theme among virulent polemics and was a very big issue in the Russian Right as a whole. More often than not. Papers like Elementy. and ethnic context. the "conservative" camp came to have an ideological structure that produced a separation between the old.
Merejkovsky (whom he personally knew) and several other Russian authors.Great Men and 'individuals in the case of Evola and heroes in the case of the Russians. it s clear that Evola knew relatively little about the Russian conservative milieu. this interpretation of Evola s ideas fits perfectly within the framework of the modern "novye pravye" ideology to the extent that the latter actually brings more to his vision of the degradation of modernity by sometimes applying his ideas more globally. At the same time. To Evola. oppressive castle is always visible from any part of the town but that he can never actually go there to begin his task. In this regard.immediate modern realities of perversion and deviance. 3) Rome and Third Rome One particular layer of Evola's thoughts is felt by the Russians to be of imminent and extreme importance: his praise for the Imperial Ideal. the ruins of Nero's palace and of Roman buildings were like a direct testament to a physical. the compiler of the famous Protocols of the Elders Of Zion. Yet the similarity between his position towards the crisis of the modern world and the anti-modernism of the Russian authors is due largely to the community of organic reactions -. One may also note the influence that Russian conservatives exercised on Evola: in his works. The appeal of the supernatural/irrational level here is in perfect step with the Russian mindset that renders rational explanation the exception rather than the rule. and in fact he was not even particularly interested in it owing to his antichristian idiosyncrasy.his job owing to the opposition from the bureaucracy of his own employer (whom he never meets in-person and only through a proxy or a proxy of a proxy) and who is further frustrated by the fact that the Count's huge. but who is unable to begin -. At any rate. Rome represents the focal point of Evola's worldview. One can also cite his references to Serge Nilus. [NOTE: For those not familiar with Kafka's work. But thanks to this spontaneity of anti-modern convergences. In general. On the other hand. Obviously this is a metaphorical indictment against the overall judeo-christian system and how it relates to . the gravity of Evola s deviation is made all the more interesting and all the more critical.much less complete -. the frequent references he makes to Malynsky and Leon de Poncins partially carry on the counter-revolutionary tradition so typical of being European. he only made a few insignificant comments. the Russian conservative tradition of contemporarily explaining historical events in a mythological sense is somewhat obligatory. this is a reference to his book entitled "the Castle. where anti-Westernism is an extremely potent ideological and political factor. which Evola reedited in Italy. and more deeply." which is about a man who takes what should be a relatively simple job in a distant place surveying the land of a local noble. Evola s theories are very much accepted in modern Russia. more radically. he often cites Dostoevsky. This sacred living power which had manifested itself all across the Empire was to Evola the very essence of the West's traditional heritage. A propos of the Orthodox tradition. organic sanctity whose integrity and continuity had been shattered by the Kafkaesque "castle" of the Catholic Vatican Guelph.
the Second Reich Protestant [NOTE: ie. the ones who believe in personal divine revelation and speaking in tongues] and the prophecies of Joachim de Flora [NOTE: de Flora was the abbot of Corazzo who authored a very prescient essay about the "age of reason" around the year 1200 in which he wrote "in the new day. Van den Bruck -. because the second Rome (or the "new Rome") was Constantinople. Similarly. But a similar line of thought is seemingly naturally felt by the Russians. the catholic separation between the King and the Pope is simply unimaginable and close to blasphemy. whose historical destiny has always been profoundly tied to that of Imperium. And still again." Artur Müller van den Bruck." There is one other important detail that bears mentioning here. The "symphonic imperialism" of the Orthodox Russians easily brings to mind Julius Evola's concept of "pagan imperialism.whose ideas were sometimes cited by Evola -.seemingly unattainable salvation. for whom the concept of "the Third Rome" was vitally significant. Thus the same idea of "Rome" held by the Orthodox Russians corresponds to the understanding of sacrality like the importance of that which is Sacred and such as the necessary and inseparable "symphony" between the spiritual authority and the temporal realm. one can see the perfect convergence between Evola's dogma and the commonplace mindset of Russian conservative thought. Prussia under Friedrich the Great]. the Holy Roman Empire].once remarked that if the First Reich had been Catholic [NOTE: ie. man would not have to rely on faith. the protegé of Nikisch [NOTE: Ernst Nikisch." Again. It's known that the "author of the Third Reich. i. the clear spiritual exaltation of Imperium in Evola's books is of inestimable value to the Russians in terms of what they view as their true and traditional identity.. Guelph refers to a German/Italian coalition of the Middle Ages that supported the royal house of Guelph against the Imperial German Ghibelline dynasty that was hostile to the Pope and to Catholicism." born from a metaphorical convergence between the ideas of the paracletic montanists [NOTE: montanists were the ancient forerunners of the contemporary pentecostal sects."Moscow: the Third Rome. where it was subsequently elaborated upon spiritually and socially by the National Socialists. the Third Reich would have to be exactly Orthodox! But Evola himself participated . the immanent and organic sacrality against the devotational and sentimental abstractions of faith."]. but not priests: Rasputin could be considered one of these] philosophy -. was deeply influenced by the writings of Feodor Dostoevsky. One interesting fact is that Erich Mueller. This notion was dogmatically rooted in the Orthodox Concept of staret [NOTE: the starets were spiritual advisers. Rome against the Vatican. and this very concept is actually called the "Latin heresy.adapted the concept of the Third Rome from the Russian Orthodox tradition and applied it to Germany. implicitly dualist and Phariseean.] His Ghibelline train of thought was clear: Imperium against Church. the capital of the Christian Empire." It should be noted that the "first Rome" in this cyclic orthodox interpretation was not Christian Rome. a German nationalist of the same era] -.who was greatly inspired by van den Bruck -. for everything would be founded on knowledge and reason. but rather Imperial Rome.e. One can see van den Bruck's same eschatological vision of "the Final Empire. For traditional orthodoxy." or rather "Ghibelline imperialism.
Obviously. it's not possible to say their ideas on these particular issues were identical. where its views are far less "extravagant" than those belonging of traditional conservative Europe.com/ultimatebb. and is quite rarely Imperialist. but at the same time.cgi?ubb=get_topic&f=9&t=000017 ." which itself was a continuation of the "Juniklub"founded by van den Bruck) where similary subjects were discussed in a very lively manner. which is by and large contemporarily Catholic and Nationalist.largely in the intellectual debates of German conservative-revolutionary circles (he was a member of von Gleichen's "Herrenklub. It's now easy to see another way in which the Russian conservative mindset is linked to Evola's theories.anus. http://bbs. there are extraordinary connections between the two that help to explain the assimilation of Evola's ideas into Russia's mindset.
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