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**Specific FuelConsumption (1) BrakeTorque,ShaftHorsepower,
**

1) Brake torque (Turning force) to Torque is also calledtumingforce. It is the force needed turn an arm of a speciliclength. as For example, tighteningtorque,neededto tightena bolt with a spanneris e4pressed the the

, force that turns the bolt due to a force applied to one end of the spanner. If the spanner is short in length, a large force must be applied. But if the same force is applied to a long spanner, the brake torque (turning force) incteases. Therefore, brake torque can be found using the following formula: Brake torque : Force x Arm length [rt's apply tbis to tn engine. The force (f) is the explosionpressluegeneratedin the combustion chamber that is applied to the piston, and arm length (r) is e4pressedas

Force x Lengih

|II

Brake Torque

the radius of Lhecrankshaft. This means that the brake torque of an engine is the force that turns the crankshaft,the output shaft.

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EnglneBrake Torque

The unit of brake torque is kgm (kilogrammeter). 2) Shafthorrepower(Brake horsepower) (Brakepower) ge1fain When a stationary objectis moved6 distance applyinga certainforce, the product by of the two is e4pressed work. Usrng the last illustrationis as an example,work can be as expressed the followingformula: by Distanceof movement (Arc length/) " As this formulaindicates, work hasnothi'g to do with the amount time it takesto movcthe of object. When tie time it takesto do the work is addedto the concrptof work,the resultis expressed by the unit calledhorsepower.Horsepowerindicates how long it takesto perlorm the work or how much work an engineperformswirhin a fixed period of time. Horsepoweris expressed in PS (Pferde-Starke, which meanshorsepower German)in countrieswhere the metric system in is adopted. 1 Ps is the force ndededto movea 75 kg object 1 m in L second. L PS : 75 kg.m/sec Work : Force (F)

\fr = 0 9 6 tiP,

t tt? " &,lbW

tfiP, 76 q " H/+

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Therefore, horsepower, work and torque are related and can be expressedby the following [ormulas:

{Z) will be 2 rrRn. Therefore,the If a span.terturns 1 timss,the arc lengthI (moveddistance) total work W wrll be as follows: ! (3) F x Zrftn formula (3) by formula The relationbetween by work and torquecanbe obtained substituting (1). Wo rkW=T xZ rn (4)

BraketorqueT : Forcex Arm length = F xR - F =i R Work I|z : Force x Moved distance(Arc length) : F x I

(1)

into the Work canbe converted horsepower formula(5) by applying followingfwo concepts. by (PS) means do 75kg.m to of.workin L second.""Correctthe numberof rotations "L horsepower per minuls to the numberof rotations second." per r*n (ps) shaft horsepowep =Txztn = s 60x75 7t6.2 (5)

If r and I in formula (5) are the speed(tp*) of the engtneand the brake torque (kgm) of the engine,respectively, shafthorsepower equalto the horsepower the engins. is the of This formula showsthat the shafthorsepower proportionalto the enginespeedif the brake is torque of the engineis fixed. In other words,the shafthorsepower be doubledif the engine will speedis doubled. . 3) Specitic fuel eonsumption The quantityof fuel consumed operationof an engrne for depends the enginssizeand the on operating hours. Therefore,fuel consumption horsepower per per hour is used to compare engiqes. This is e4pressed units of grl"S-hr (gra- PS hour). in

**(2) ThermalEtficiency Efficiency and Mechanical
**

The ratio of the caloriesof suppliedfuel to the calorieschangedinto work is called the themtal eflicienq of a combustionengine. Various types of thermal efficiencyare used to performance. express

f I r'Theorellcalthermal efllclency Actualthermalefflciency f I Indicated thermal efficlency Brake thermalefficlency

Thermal efliclency I

1) Theoretical thermal eftrciency Theoretical thermal efEciencyis the ratio of the calorics that can be changed into work by a theoretical cycle to the calories supplied to this cycle. 2) Indicated thermal e{Iiciency Indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of the work (calories) that the working gas mixture

gives thepiston thecylinder thesupplied to in to calories.

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3) Brake thermal efliciencY Brake thermal efficiency can be erpressed using the following formula: into changed Calories powerby engine of Calories fuel supPlied to engine 7 5 x 3 , 6 0 0x P , 4 2 7 x Hu x B 632 x P" Hu x E

Brake thsrmal efficiencY =

where,P, Hu g

(PS) (Shafthdrsepower) Brake horsepower Low calorific value of fuel (kcaVkg) Fuel consumption(kglbr)

4) Mechanicalelliciency to The ratio of the brake horsepower the indicatedhorsepoweris called the mechanical eJficienqt. It is expressed the followingformula: by Brakehorsepower

Mechanical efficiency : lndicated horsepower

**(3) Mean EffectivePressure and Indicated Horsepower
**

W-hen work that the gaspressure givesto a pistondunog 1 cycle(4 strokes)is divided by the the volt'me stroke by the piston (leveledout to 1 e4pansion stroke) the result is the mean Ar93 shownin the indicator diagramon the ieffectivepressrue. This is equal to -4re14-: previouspage. The meaneffective with of L*p** the performance engines n#",U1-*l;;Ht diffcrent piston displacements and speeds. Brake meaneffectivepressure - Indicated mean effectivepressurex Mechanicalefficiency r Indicatedmeaneffectivepressue- Friction mear effectivepressure The relatiouships between indicatedhorsepower the indicatedmeaneffectivepressure &e and can be e4pressed the followingformulas: by 4-cycleengtne where,Pr : tndicatedhorsepower AxLxnxNxP, Pr = A : Area of piston head (cmz) 2x75x6O L = Pistonstroke(m) }-cycle sngins tl = Numberof cylinders Pr=

AxLxnxNxP, N Pt. E tgl"e speedper minute (rp-) Indicated mean effective pressrue (kg/cm)

75x60

EN G *I 6

, LI ^-^'t-:t .*rrr*r:'.-

(4) Lossesand HeatBalance

f) Heat loss The caloriesthat the coolingwater,coolingair, etc.take awayfrom the burnt gasis calledthe mainlyof coolingloss(heat takenawayby cooling heat loss.Thc heat lossof an engineconsists gas), loss wall), exhaust (heattakenawayby the exhaust water throughthe combustion chamber in and radiation loss (heat dissipated the form of radiation). 2) Frictlonloss hntping loss , Pumprngloss consists the loss that resultsfrom dis'charF"gburnt gas and the loss tlat of resultsfrom intake of fresh air. Mechothal loss pistonthgs, bearings and otherparts, Mechanical lossconsists the friction lossfrom pistons, of and the loss from driving auxiliary equipment,such as fan and generator. Friction loss is inlluencedthe most by the speedof an engine. It is alsoinfluencedby the temperatureof the cooling water aqd the viscosiry of the lubricant. Coollng loss

3) Heat balance

\

tion engine meansto systematicdlycalcu- offuel(100%)N

Finding the heatbalanceof a combus- c"rorrn" ujll,l'

Fadlation loss Mschanlcal loss Effectlve work

late how (in what ratio) the ehcrgyof the luel is distributed betwcen the effective work and tle other losses.

"" I "1::---:---:---:---:-::--''r HeatBalance

The vaiue of the ratio depends on the en&inet1pe, and the speed and tlie load of the engine. An example of a diesel engtne under full load is given below:

. . . ..

Effectivework (Brakehorsepower) Exhaustand radiationloss Coolingloss Mechanicalloss(Friction"pumpinglossetc.)

38-30Vo T - 3A% 3L - 30Vo 7 - 5%

**(5) Air lntakeand Volumetric Etficiency
**

The amountof air intake into the cylindersof a dieselenginedirectly influencesits output. Therefore,air intake must be performedefficiently. 1) Yolumetrlc efliclencyand chargingelliciency Volumetric efficiencycan be usedto comparethe stateof air intake. by enginecanbe expiessed the followingformulq if the of The volnmetricefficiency a 4-cycle of pressure P and the inlet temperature air intakeis L is atmospheric

Volrrrnetricelficiency =.

**Weightof actualair intake at P and I
**

Weigbt of air occupying cylinder volume at P and I

The volumetricefficiencyof a dieselengineis about 0.8 - 0.9. This is becausethe intake manifold has less choke and its speed is lower than the gasolineengins' The volumetric by the efficiencyof a gasoline ensineis about0.65- 0.8 because air intake pressureis lowerecl the resistance the intake manifoldand the carburetor. of

EN G -? 7

air Z) Percentage excess of is to It goeswithoutsalng that whatis needed burn the fuel completely enoughorygen. Since can quantityof fuel that canbe burnt completely the orygencontentof air is fixed,the maximum be calculate{from the weightof the air intakeduringthe intakestrokeof the ongins. The weight burn L kg of light oil is L4.2kg. to necessary complete of the air that is theoretically air : of Percontage excess Weightof actualair intake

**Theoretical "t 1ereht ffd::f#
**

Weightof actualair intake Weightof injectedfuel x 14.2

for complete combustion

combinedwith the fuel most of the orygenin the air can be chemically In a gasoline engine, (burnt) because fuel and air are fully mixedbeforeignition. In a dieselengins,it is hard to the the ftrlly mix &e fuel and air because injectionof fuel into the air takesplace at the sa-e ti"'e than air of as combustion.Therefore,a larger percentage excess is neededfor a dieselengrne air of the for a gasolineengins. GeneraLly, percentage excess for a dieselenglneis about 1.21-.4 under full load (maximuminjectionquantity),and over 2.5 when tle load is small (small injection quantity)at a low speed.

(6) EnginePerformance

its shops. The load test will be e4plained here because resultsare usefirlat maintenance of The purposeof the load test is to test the performance an engineunder loads of.L00Vo, a 75Vo,50Vo alid?SVo variousspeeds.The load testis performedby connecting dynamometer at to the engins.' Measurethe followingitemsduringthis testand enterthe resultsin an enginetest scoretable like the table on page?8. and the end of eachload test: (a) Measurethe followingitemsat the beginning ! Weatherconditions . . Room temperature . flrrmidity . Atnospheric pressure . Time of begrnning . Time at end of test point: (b) Measurethe followingitems at eachmeasurement load ' Dynamometer ' Speed . Fuel sonsrrmption . Lubricanttemperaturc . Coolingwater temperature . Lubricant pressure . Injection timing . Exhausttemperature Observeand record information about tho state of operation, such as exhaustcolor, knocking,vibration,sounds, leakagc, leakage gas and stateof charge. oil * t I I N G E

(71 EnglnePerformance Curves

1) Full load performancecurve This is the most typical curve used to show the performance of an enqine. The following 4 types of performance are showri: Horizontal axis: E"gre speed Left vertical axis: Brake power Upper part of right vertical axis: Brake torque Lower part of right vertical axis: Specific fuel consumption This curve shows general engins performance trends,

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Englne speed(rpm) Curve Full Load Performance

2) Equal specific fuel consumption curves This curveis usedto showthe specilicfuel gss5umption the enginein detail. of Horizontal axis: Enginespeed {1, g Vertical axii: Brake torque I o x Take brake torque valuesat appropriatespce cific fuel consumption points and plot them. This cuwe connectspoints with the same specific fuel consumptioninto contour lines Englno speed like thoseon a map. There is a circleshowing EqualSpeclflcFuel ConsumptlonCurve the minimumspeci{ic fuel consumption the of englneat the centerof the equalspecific fuel consrtmption curves.The outer curvescorrespond to larger levelsof specificfuel consrrmption.

3) Fish hook curve Performance curves at several speeds are drawn on one graph as shown on the riglrt. Horizontal axis: Brake horsepower Vertical axis: Specific fuel gonsrrmption The graph shows how the specilic fuel consumption will change as. the brake horsepowerchangesat a specilic speed.

**This graphis calleda lish ltook curve of it like because looks a group tishhooks.
**

grakc hoJ!.polvor tPsl

ENG -I9

**Flsh Hook Gurve
**

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