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tgl EnginePerformance

(1) BrakeTorque,ShaftHorsepower,SpecificFuelConsumption
1) Brake torque (Turning force)
Torque is also calledtumingforce. It is the force neededto turn an arm of a speciliclength.
For example,the tighteningtorque,neededto tightena bolt with a spanneris e4pressedas the
, force that turns the bolt due to a force applied
to one end of the spanner. If the spanner is
short in length, a large force must be applied.
But if the same force is applied to a long span-
ner, the brake torque (turning force) incteases.
Therefore, brake torque can be found using
the following formula:
Brake torque : Force x Arm length
[rt's apply tbis to tn en-
gine. The force (f) is the ex-
the combustion chamber that lL\tl
is applied to the piston, and
arm length (r) is e4pressedas
Force x Lengih the radius of Lhecrankshaft.
This means that the brake
Brake Torque torque of an engine is the EnglneBrake
force that turns the crank-
shaft,the output shaft.
The unit of brake torque is kgm (kilogrammeter).

2) Shafthorrepower(Brake horsepower)(Brakepower)
When a stationaryobjectis moved6 ge1faindistanceby applyinga certainforce, the product
of the two is e4pressedas work. Usrng the last illustrationis as an example,work can be
expressedby the followingformula:

Work : Force (F) Distanceof movement(Arc length/)

As this formulaindicates,work hasnothi'g to do with the amountof time it takesto movcthe
When tie time it takesto do the work is addedto the concrptof work,the resultis expressed
by the unit calledhorsepower.Horsepowerindicateshow long it takesto perlorm the work or
how much work an engineperformswirhin a fixed period of time. Horsepoweris expressedin
PS (Pferde-Starke, which meanshorsepowerin German)in countrieswhere the metric system
is adopted. 1 Ps is the force ndededto movea 75 kg object 1 m in L second.

L PS : 75 kg.m/sec
tfiP, 76 q " H/+
\fr = 0 9 6 tiP,
t tt? " &,lbW
Therefore, horsepower, work and torque are related and can be expressedby the following

BraketorqueT : Forcex Arm length = F xR - F =i (1)

Work I|z : Force x Moved distance(Arc length) : F x I {Z)
If a span.terturns 1 timss,the arc lengthI (moveddistance)will be 2 rrRn. Therefore,the
total work W wrll be as follows:
F x Zrftn (3)

The relationbetweenwork and torquecanbe obtainedby substitutingformula (3) by formula


Wo rkW=T xZ rn (4)

Work canbe convertedinto horsepowerby formula(5) by applyingthe followingfwo concepts.

"L horsepower(PS) meansto do 75kg.mof.workin L second.""Correctthe numberof rotations
per minuls to the numberof rotationsper second."

r*n (ps)
s p =Txztn =
shaft horsepowe (5)
60x75 7t6.2

If r and I in formula (5) are the speed(tp*) of the engtneand the brake torque (kgm) of
the engine,respectively,the shafthorsepoweris equalto the horsepowerof the engins.
This formula showsthat the shafthorsepoweris proportionalto the enginespeedif the brake
torque of the engineis fixed. In other words,the shafthorsepowerwill be doubledif the engine
speedis doubled.
3) Speciticfuel eonsumption
The quantityof fuel consumedfor operationof an engrnedependson the enginssizeand the
operating hours. Therefore,fuel consumptionper horsepowerper hour is used to compare
engiqes. This is e4pressedin units of grl"S-hr (gra- PS hour).

(2) ThermalEtficiencyand MechanicalEfficiency

The ratio of the caloriesof suppliedfuel to the calorieschangedinto work is called the
themtal eflicienq of a combustionengine. Various types of thermal efficiencyare used to

f Theorellcalthermal
I efllclency
Thermalefliclency I f Indicated
r'- Actualthermaleffl-
ciency I Brakethermalefficlency
1) Theoretical thermal eftrciency
Theoretical thermal efEciencyis the ratio of the calorics that can be changed into work by a
theoretical cycle to the calories supplied to this cycle.

2) Indicated thermal e{Iiciency

Indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of the work (calories) that the working gas mixture
givesto thepistonin thecylinder
to thesupplied
E N G .* g S

3) Brake thermal efliciencY

Brake thermal efficiency can be erpressed using the following formula:

powerby engine 7 5 x 3 , 6 0 0x P , 632 x P"
Brake thsrmal efficiencY =
Caloriesof fuel supPlied 4 2 7 x Hu x B Hu x E
to engine

where,P, Brake horsepower(Shafthdrsepower)(PS)

Hu Low calorific value of fuel (kcaVkg)
g Fuel consumption(kglbr)

4) Mechanicalelliciency
The ratio of the brake horsepowerto the indicatedhorsepoweris called the mechanical
It is expressedby the followingformula:
Mechanical efficiency : lndicated horsepower

(3) Mean EffectivePressureand IndicatedHorsepower

W-henthe work that the gaspressuregivesto a pistondunog 1 cycle(4 strokes)is divided by
the volt'me stroke by the piston (leveledout to 1 e4pansionstroke) the result is the mean
effectivepressrue. This is equal to -4re14-: Ar93i- shownin the indicator diagramon the
previouspage. The meaneffectiven#",U1-*l;;Ht L*p** the performanceof engineswith
diffcrent piston displacementsand speeds.
Brake meaneffectivepressure
- Indicated mean effectivepressurex Mechanicalefficiency
r Indicatedmeaneffectivepressue- Friction mear effectivepressure
The relatioushipsbetween&e indicatedhorsepowerandthe indicatedmeaneffectivepressure
can be e4pressedby the followingformulas:
AxLxnxNxP, where,Pr : tndicatedhorsepower
Pr = A : Area of piston head (cmz)
L = Pistonstroke(m)
}-cycle sngins tl = Numberof cylinders
AxLxnxNxP, N E tgl"e speedper minute (rp-)
75x60 Pt. Indicated mean effective pressrue (kg/cm)

EN G *I 6
, LI ^-^- 't-:t .*rrr*r- :'.-
(4) Lossesand HeatBalance
f) Heat loss
The caloriesthat the coolingwater,coolingair, etc.take awayfrom the burnt gasis calledthe
heat loss.Thc heat lossof an engineconsistsmainlyof coolingloss(heat takenawayby cooling
water throughthe combustionchamberwall), exhaustloss(heattakenawayby the exhaustgas),
and radiation loss (heat dissipatedin the form of radiation).
2) Frictlonloss
hntping loss ,
Pumprngloss consistsof the loss that resultsfrom dis'charF"gburnt gas and the loss tlat
resultsfrom intake of fresh air.
Mechothal loss
Mechanicallossconsistsof the friction lossfrom pistons,pistonthgs, bearingsand otherparts,
and the loss from driving auxiliary equipment,such as fan and generator. Friction loss is
inlluencedthe most by the speedof an engine. It is alsoinfluencedby the temperatureof the
cooling water aqd the viscosiry of the
lubricant. Coollng loss

3) Heat balance \
Fadlation loss
Finding the heatbalanceof a combus- c"rorrn"
ujll,l' Mschanlcal loss
tion engine meansto systematicdlycalcu- offuel(100%)N
Effectlve work
late how (in what ratio) the ehcrgyof the
luel is distributed betwcen the effective "" I
work and tle other losses. HeatBalance
The vaiue of the ratio depends on the en&inet1pe, and the speed and tlie load of the engine.
An example of a diesel engtne under full load is given below:
. Effectivework (Brakehorsepower) 38-30Vo
. Exhaustand radiationloss T - 3A%
. Coolingloss 3L - 30Vo
.. Mechanicalloss(Friction"pumpinglossetc.) 7 - 5%

(5) Air lntakeand VolumetricEtficiency

The amountof air intake into the cylindersof a dieselenginedirectly influencesits output.
Therefore,air intake must be performedefficiently.

1) Yolumetrlc efliclencyand chargingelliciency

Volumetric efficiencycan be usedto comparethe stateof air intake.
The volnmetricefficiencyof a 4-cycleenginecanbe expiessedby the followingformulq if the
atmosphericpressureis P and the inlet temperatureof air intakeis L

Weightof actualair intake at P and I

Volrrrnetricelficiency =.
Weigbt of air occupying cylinder volume at P and I

The volumetricefficiencyof a dieselengineis about 0.8 - 0.9. This is becausethe intake

manifold has less choke and its speed is lower than the gasolineengins' The volumetric
efficiencyof a gasolineensineis about0.65- 0.8 becausethe air intake pressureis lowereclby
the resistanceof the intake manifoldand the carburetor.
EN G -? 7
Z) Percentageof excessair
It goeswithoutsalng that whatis neededto burn the fuel completelyis enoughorygen. Since
the orygencontentof air is fixed,the maximumquantityof fuel that canbe burnt completelycan
be calculate{from the weightof the air intakeduringthe intakestrokeof the ongins. The weight
to completeburn L kg of light oil is L4.2kg.
of the air that is theoreticallynecessary
Weightof actualair intake
Percontageof excessair :
Theoretical for complete
1ereht"t ffd::f#

Weightof actualair intake

Weightof injectedfuel x 14.2

In a gasolineengine,most of the orygenin the air can be chemicallycombinedwith the fuel

(burnt) becausethe fuel and air are fully mixedbeforeignition. In a dieselengins,it is hard to
ftrlly mix &e fuel and air becausethe injectionof fuel into the air takesplace at the sa-e ti"'e
as combustion.Therefore,a larger percentageof excessair is neededfor a dieselengrnethan
for a gasolineengins. GeneraLly, the percentageof excessair for a dieselenglneis about 1.2-
1-.4under full load (maximuminjectionquantity),and over 2.5 when tle load is small (small
injection quantity)at a low speed.

(6) EnginePerformance
The load test will be e4plainedhere becauseits resultsare usefirlat maintenanceshops.
The purposeof the load test is to test the performanceof an engineunder loads of.L00Vo,
75Vo,50Voalid?SVoat variousspeeds.The load testis performedby connectinga dynamometer
to the engins.'
Measurethe followingitemsduringthis testand enterthe resultsin an enginetest scoretable
like the table on page?8.
(a) Measurethe followingitemsat the beginningand the end of eachload test:
. ! Weatherconditions
. Room temperature
. flrrmidity
. Atnospheric pressure
. Time of begrnning
. Time at end of test
(b) Measurethe followingitems at eachmeasurement point:
' Dynamometerload
' Speed
. Fuel sonsrrmption
. Lubricanttemperaturc
. Coolingwater temperature
. Lubricant pressure
. Injectiontiming
. Exhausttemperature
Observeand record information about tho state of operation, such as exhaustcolor,
knocking,vibration,sounds,gasleakagc,oil leakageand stateof charge. * t I
(71 EnglnePerformanceCurves
1) Full load performancecurve
This is the most typical curve used to show o)
the performance of an enqine. (D
The following 4 types of performance are s) cr
o. o
showri: o J
3 qt
Horizontal axis: E"gre speed o
o- tn
Left vertical axis: Brake power l4
C' E
(n ch
Upper part of right vertical axis: q-
Brake torque
Lower part of right vertical axis: eq
Specific fuel consumption ()(/,
This curve shows general engins perfor- o-o
a o.
mance trends, 8@ rO@ 1200 14@ 16@ r@ ?c@ 22@


Full Load PerformanceCurve

2) Equal specificfuel consumption curves

This curveis usedto showthe specilicfuel
gss5umptionof the enginein detail.
Horizontal axis: Enginespeed {1,
Vertical axii: Brake torque I
Take brake torque valuesat appropriatespc- x
cific fuel consumptionpoints and plot them.
This cuwe connectspoints with the same
specific fuel consumptioninto contour lines Englno speed

like thoseon a map. There is a circleshowing

EqualSpeclflcFuel ConsumptlonCurve
the minimumspeci{icfuel consumption of the
englneat the centerof the equalspecificfuel consrtmption curves.The outer curvescorrespond
to larger levelsof specificfuel consrrmption.

3) Fish hook curve

Performance curves at several speeds
are drawn on one graph as shown on the
Horizontal axis: Brake horsepower
Vertical axis: Specific fuel gonsrrmption
The graph shows how the specilic fuel
consumption will change as. the brake
horsepowerchangesat a specilic speed.
This graphis calleda lish ltook curve
becauseit lookslikea groupof tishhooks.
grakc hoJ!.polvor

ENG -I9 Flsh Hook Gurve ,t j