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8 Effect of transactions on various financial ratios Indicate the effect that each transaction/ event listed here will have on the financial ratio listed opposite it, and provide an explanation for your answer. Use 1 for increase, - for decrease, and ( NE) for no effect. Assume that current assets exceed current liabilities in all cases, both before and after the transaction/ event. Transaction/ Event Financial Ratio a. Purchased inventory on account. b. Sold inventory for cash, at a profit. c. Issued a 10% stock dividend. d. Issued common stock for cash. e. Sold land at a gain. f. Purchased treasury stock for cash. g. Accrued interest on a note payable. h. Accrued wages that have been earned by employees. i. Purchased equipment for cash. j. Issued bonds at an interest rate that is less than the companys ROI. Financial Ratio Number of days sales in inventory Inventory turnover Earnings per share Debt ratio Return on investment Debt/ equity ratio Times interest earned Current ratio Plant and equipment turnover Return on equity

P 11.10 Prepare a common size balance sheet, 2011 Solve the requirements of Problem 11.9 for the year ended July 31, 2011. P 11.14 Ratio analysis comprehensive problem, 2011 data This problem is based on the 2011 annual report of Campbell Soup Company in the appendix. Required: a. Compute the following profitability measures for the year ended July 31, 2011: 1. Return on investment, based on net earnings ( perform a DuPont analysis). 2. Return on equity, based on net earnings and total equity. 3. Price/ earnings ratio. Use \$ 33.05 as the year- end market price. 4. Dividend yield. 5.

Dividend payout ratio. b. Compute the following liquidity measures at July 31, 2011: 1. Working capital. 2. Current ratio. 3. Acid- test ratio. c. Compute the following activity measures for the year ended July 31, 2011: 1. Number of days sales in accounts receivable, based on a 365- day year. 2. Number of days sales in inventory, based on a 365- day year. 3. Accounts receivable turnover. 4. Inventory turnover. 5. Turnover of net property, plant, and equipment. d. Compute the following financial leverage measures at July 31, 2011: 1. Debt ratio. 2. Debt/ equity ratio. e. Compute the following physical measures of Campbells profitability at July 31, 2011: Net sales per employee. 2. Operating income per employee. ( Note: In a page not reproduced in the appendix, Campbells 2011 annual report disclosed that on July 31, 2011, the company had approximately 17,500 employees.) P 12.17 High low method A department of Alpha Co. incurred the following costs for the month of September. Variable costs, and the variable portion of mixed costs, are a function of the number of units of activity: Activity level in units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,000 Variable costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 10,000 Fixed costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30,000 Mixed costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,000 Total costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 60,000 During October the activity level was 8,000 units, and the total costs incurred were \$ 70,500. Required: a. Calculate the variable costs, fixed costs, and mixed costs incurred during October. b. Use the high low method to calculate the cost formula for mixed cost. 12.20 Prepare a contribution margin format income statement; answer what- if questions Shown here is an income statement in the traditional format for a firm with a sales volume of 15,000 units: Revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 105,000 Cost of goods sold (\$ 8,000 1 \$ 3.60/ unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62,000 Gross profi t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 43,000 Operating expenses: Selling (\$ 1,500 1 \$ 0.80/ unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,500 Administration (\$ 4,000 1 \$ 0.50/ unit) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,500 Operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 18,000 Required: a. Prepare an income statement in the contribution margin format. b. Calculate the contribution margin per unit and the contribution margin ratio.

c. Calculate the firms operating income ( or loss) if the volume changed from 15,000 units to 1. 20,000 units. 2. 10,000 units.

Refer to your answer to part a when total revenues were \$ 105,000. Calculate the firms operating income ( or loss) if unit selling price and variable expenses do not change and total revenues 1. Increase by \$ 15,000. 2. Decrease by \$ 10,000. P. 12.24 CVP analysis what- if questions; sales mix issue Miller Metal Co. makes a single product that sells for \$ 32 per unit. Variable costs are \$ 20.80 per unit, and fixed costs total \$ 47,600 per month. Required: a. Calculate the number of units that must be sold each month for the firm to break even. b. Assume current sales are \$ 160,000. Calculate the margin of safety and the margin of safety ratio. c. Calculate operating income if 5,000 units are sold in a month. d. Calculate operating income if the selling price is raised to \$ 33 per unit, advertising expenditures are increased by \$ 7,000 per month, and monthly unit sales volume becomes 5,400 units. e. Assume that the firm adds another product to its product line and that the new product sells for \$ 20 per unit, has variable costs of \$ 14 per unit, and causes fixed expenses in total to increase to \$ 63,000 per month. Calculate the firms operating income if 5,000 units of the original product and 4,000 units of the new product are sold each month. For the original product, use the selling price and variable cost data given in the problem statement. f. Calculate the firms operating income if 4,000 units of the original product and 5,000 units of the new product are sold each month. g. Explain why operating income is different in parts e and f, even though sales totaled 9,000 units in each case. P 12.28 CVP analysis effects of change in cost structure; breakeven Austin, Inc., produces small- scale replicas of vintage automobiles for collectors and museums. Finished products are built on a 1/ 20 scale of originals. The firms income statement showed the following: Revenues ( 1,500 units) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 840,000 Variable expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462,000 Contribution margin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 378,000 Fixed expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290,000 Operating income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \$ 88,000

An automated stamping machine has been developed that can efficiently produce body frames, hoods, and doors to the desired scale. If the machine is leased, fixed expenses will increase by \$ 30,000 per year. The firms production capacity will increase, which is expected to result in a 20% increase in sales volume. It is also estimated that labor costs of \$ 28 per unit could be saved because less polishing and finishing time will be required. Required: a. Calculate the firms current contribution margin ratio and break- even point in terms of revenues. ( Round your answer.) b. Calculate the firms contribution margin ratio and break- even point in terms of revenues if the new machine is leased. c. Calculate the firms operating income assuming that the new machine is leased. d. Do you believe that management of Austin, Inc., should lease the new machine? Explain your answer.