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Sociology

Society and environment (Effect of environment on society)

(EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SOCIETY) The Meaning of Heredity

The biological and Psychological characteristics which are transmitted by the parents to their offspring's are known as by the name of Heredity.

Mans behaviour is influenced by two forces 1. Heredity 2. Environment

(EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SOCIETY) Effects of Heredity 1. Galtons Studies 2. Karl Pearsons researches Groups of higher intellectual rating produces more persons of genius. Differences in intelligence levels of different occupation groups.

3. But all this is not necessarily due to heredity. 4. Intelligence scores of Negros and whites. 5. Physical traits and heredity. 6. Studies of Some Family

(EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SOCIETY) Controlled Experiments to determine the Respective Role of Heredity and Environment Children of the same heredity have been put under different environments and the differences in their behaviour have been consequently attributes to environment. 1. Environment of twins reared together and apart. 2. Experiments on children under the same environment Heredity and environment are not separable Maclver : Every phenomenon of the life is the product of both, each is as necessary to the result as the other, neither can ever be eliminated and neither be isolated. Altenberg : Each trait requires both heredity and environment for its development. Lumley : It is not heredity or environment , but heredity and environment.

(EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SOCIETY) Social environment The social environment refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact. Solidarity People with the same social environment often develop a sense of social solidarity; they often tend to trust and help one another, and to congregate in social groups. They will often think in similar styles and patterns even when their conclusions differ.

(EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SOCIETY)


Social environment

Milieu/social structure C. Wright Mills contrasted the immediate milieu of jobs/family/neighbourhood with the wider formations of the social structure, highlighting in particular a distinction between "the personal troubles of milieu" and the "public crises of social structure. Emile Durkheim took a wider view of the social environment (milieu social), arguing that it contained internalised norms and representations of social forces/social facts: "Our whole social environment seems to us filled with forces which really exist only in our own minds"

(EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SOCIETY) Phenomenology Phenomenologist's contrast two alternative visions of society, as a deterministic constraint (milieu) and as a nurturing shell (ambiance). Max Scheler distinguishes between milieu as an experienced value-world, and the objective social environment on which we draw to create the former, noting that the social environment can either foster or restrain our creation of a personal milieu. Social surgery Pierre Janet saw neurosis as in part the product of the identified patient's social environment - family, social network, work etc. - and considered that in some instances what he called "social surgery" to create more space in that environment would be a beneficial measure. Similar ideas have since been taken up in community psychiatry and family therapy.

ENVIRONMENT Word "environment" is most commonly used describing "natural" environment and means the sum of all living and non-living things that surround an organism, or group of organisms. Environment includes all elements, factors , and conditions that have some impact on growth and development of certain organism. Environment includes both biotic and abiotic factors that have influence on observed organism. Abiotic factors such as light, temperature, water, atmospheric gases combine with biotic factors (all surrounding living species). Environment often changes after some time and therefore many organisms have ability to adapt to these changes.

Physical Environment: Definition: - consists of physical features that occur naturally - 4 major components : Water(rivers , seas, oceans), Natural Vegetation, Landform and rocks, weather and climate Natural resources are found Examples: rivers, seas , ocean, mountains, rocks, volcanoes, tornadoes

Physical Environment is composed of those that nature provide for man. It includes, according to MacIver the earth surface with all its physical features and natural resources , the distribution of land and water, mountain and plains, plants and animals and all the forces that play upon the earth and affect the life of man.

Physical environment is further divided into two parts Natural(uncontrollable) sun, wind rains, star ,sea, season etc. Artificial (controllable)direct control of man.
Such are vast stretches of land which he brings under cultivation ,the river and streams which he use for dames .

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Physical Environment and Social Environment 1.Housing tenure 2.Accommodation Density 3.Characteristic of Accommodation 4.Region and Area 5. Social capital 6. Public transport 7. Local amenities 8.Frequency of contact with social networks 9.Positive and negative social support

INFLUENCE AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


Population- distribution ,size and density - plains are more dense than mountain other rainfall, desert, humidity PHYSICAL NECESSTIES topography of country affect diet, dress and animal husbandry Examples material used in mountain or Eskimos -snow houses wear animal skins dresses , people eating habits also depend particular animal found in rear spaces as camel in Rajasthan, goats and sheep in hills, cows and buffaloes in plains

OCCUPATION coastal areas fishing, oil wells are in Assam, in northern plain agriculture ,sugar mills in Utter Pradesh PHYSICOLOGICAL CHARATERSTCS topography effect the color of skin, hair ,shape of nose, hieght etc hot climate darker skin HUMAN ACTIVITES ENERGY AND SKILLS CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE valley civilization near river ECONOMIC ORGANISATION if get natural resources

INFLUENCE OF PLAINS
POPULATION ECONOMIC LIFE MEANS OF COMMUNICATION SOCIAL LIFE POLITICAL LIFE

INFLUENCE ON HILLS
POPULATION ECONOMIC LIFE SOCIAL LIFE POLITICAL LIFE

INFLUENCE ON DESERTS
ECONOMIC LIFE SOCIAL LIFE POLITICAL LIFE