BHARAT ELECTRONICS

PROJECT REPORT

SUBMITTED BY: NAME : NARENDER KUMAR ROLL NO: 2724031002 INSTITUTE: SUNDERDEEP
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ENGINEERING COLLEGE

CONTENTS

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CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PREFACE BHARAT ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY COMPANY PROFILE FORMATION OF GZB. UNIT ROTATION PROGRAME INTRODUCTION TO RADAR PROJECT ON IFF UNIT

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CERTIFICATE
TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that VISHAL RAJWANSHI, student of B.tech Electronics and Communication Engineering from VIRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING (UTTAR PRADESH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY) LUCKNOW has undergone an industrial training on project titled ‘Study of

IDENTIFICATION OF FRIEND AND FOE of INDRA RADAR PC ’ at BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED, GHAZIABAD w.e.f
June 15, 2009 to july 25, 2009 under the guidance of Mr. BHUPINDER

KUMAR Sr ASST ENGR and Mr ADESH KUMAR, J S O
They worked diligently and made valuable contribution during this period. All their works are genuine and original.

PROJECT GUIDE)

BHUPINDER KUMAR JASSAL (SR ASST ENGR) PA-R1,INDRA TESTING BHARAT ELECTRONICS LTD GHAZIABAD-201010

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Roll No…………. Manager. Finally. Further I would like to thanks Mr.. Name……………. P K CHANGOIWALA. Bharat Electronics. I would like to thanks each and every member of BEL family for making me feel comfortable and helping me in every possible manner.2. Adesh Kumar jso. Bhupinder Kumar Jassal. Sr Asst Engineer. and Mr.Sr DGM. Ghaziabad for accepting my letter and allowing me to complete my training in Bharat Electronics. 4 . Ghaziabad and also to Mr. for their kind help extended during the entire period of training. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards institute…………………for forwarding my training letter to Bharat Electronics. PA – R1 Mr. Tapas Bose.

Excellence is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with. It provides a linkage between a student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving. the student gets the real experience for working in the industry environment. it is impossible to keep pace with the emerging trends. Apart from this the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology. properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in collocating a professional attitude. And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Limited. During this period. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. which increased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and also interfaced too many instruments. 5 . PREFACE With the ongoing revolution in electronics and communication where innovations are taking place at the blink of eye. A well planned.3. based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. which immensely helps in them in building their career.

with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements. ABOUT BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED (BEL) BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED THE INDUSTRY After Independence India had many responsibilities from basic necessity to telecomm & defence equipment so after adoption of its constitution in 1950. Under this a Professional Electronics company in India incorporated that was front. It was recognized that in certain core sectors infrastructure facilities require huge investments. BEL was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountain head to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. broadcasting. multi-unit and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU. selfsufficient Modern India. Over the years. has met the requirements of state-of –art professional electronic equipment for Defence. BEL has grown to a multi. On the industrial announced in the year 1952.4. 6 . industrial policy resolution ( IPR) was BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED. Civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. the government was seized with the plans to lay the foundation of a strong. the idea of Public Sector Enterprise (PSE) was mooted. BEL. which cannot be met by private sector and as such.product.

its manufacturing and product assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. Radars. Sound and Vision broadcasting. solid-state discrete component to the state-of-art integrated circuit technology. Over the years. its engineers have fructified it into a world-class organization. the company established its own electron valve manufacturing facility. In the component arena also. The design groups have CADD’s facility. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the product ranges like Defence Communications. Optical & Opto-electronics. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France. BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and Radar Systems Consultancy. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL grade systems. Telecommunications. etc. environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions are there. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Product mix of the company are spread over the entire electromagnetic (EM) spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. Contract Manufacturing. BEL has progressed manufacturing state-of-the-art products in the field of Defence Electronics like Communications including encryption.BEL was born to meet the growing needs of Indian Defence services for electronic systems. BEL has diversified to meet the needs of civilian customers as well and has provided products and network solutions on turnkey basis to customers in India and abroad. Central Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as 7 . To keep in pace with the component and equipment technology. the company’s equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid. the company is installing MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National Airport Authority (NAA). Radars and strategic components. the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility. Electronic components. etc. With the Research & Development efforts. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment. BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO labs for a wide range of products. and QC checks are performed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines. Employing the best engineering talent available in the country. Automatic testing machines. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to manufacture of Integrated circuits. Calibration of test& measuring instruments. Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. At the moment. Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products.

BEL was ranked no. Today.) BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution. BEL was listed 3rd among the Mini Ratna’s (category II) by the Government of India. BEL has set up impressive infrastructure spread in 9 location with 29production division and manufacturing facilities in their ISO-9001/9002 certified production units around the country. 49 th among Asia's top 100 Electronic Companies by the Electronic Business Asia and within the top 100 worldwide Defence Companies by the Defence News. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL. This organization also stands on number 7 th position in the best 100 public and private companies according to the "electronic for u" in 2002. Productivity. the company continued to develop computers based application. Machilipathnam (A. They are –Bangalore. BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution. BEL was amongst the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970’s.) and Kotdwara (U. EMCCA. Productivity. software intensive naval ships control and command system is probably one of the first project of its nature in India and Asia. BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. following Government’s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL. About 70% of BEL‘s products are of in-house design. Hyderabad. Most of its software requirements are in real time. 8 . Quality.independent agency to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. Panchkula (Haryana).P. However. Taloja (Maharashtra). Ghaziabad.P. Safety Standardization etc.1 in the field of Electronics and 46 th overall among the top 1000 private and public sector undertakings in India by the Business Standard in its special supplement "The BS 1000 (1997-98)". Safety etc. USA. As many of its equipment were microprocessor based. Quality. Chennai. Pune. both hardware and software.

These are distributed in all over the India as: • • • • • • • • • GHAZIABAD PANCHKULA MACHILIPATNAM PUNE HYDERABAD CHENNAI KOTDWARA TALOJA BANGALORE (Corporate Office) 9 . Ghaziabad is the second largest unit of BEL and it specializes in radars. This unit’s product range covers over 300 Defence and Civilian products. Bangalore complex is the BEL’s first and largest unit and it accounts for two-thirds of both the company’s turnover and manpower.VARIOUS UNITS Its corporate office is at Bangalore. In total BEL has got 9 units. communication equipments & microwavecomponents.

Meteorological Dept. Civil Aviation. AIR and Doordarshan. the Bangalore Complex has grown to specialize in communication and Radar/Sonar Systems for the Army.Bangalore (Karnataka) BEL started its production activities in Bangalore in 1954 with 400W high frequency (HF) transmitter and communication receiver for the Army. As an aid to Electorate. Since then. ISRO. Navy and Air Force. and Railways. VSNL. 10 . The Unit has now diversified into manufacturing of electronic products for the civilian customers such as DOT. the unit has developed Electronic Voting Machines that are produced at its Mass Manufacturing Facility (MMF).. Police. BEL's in-house R&D and successful tieups with foreign Defence companies and Indian Defence Laboratories has seen the development and production of over 300 products in Bangalore alone.

Bangalore. BE-Delft Electronics Limited BE-Delft Electronics Limited. and other users. JOINT VENTURES 1. a JV with General Electric Medical Systems. professional grade Antennae and Microwave components. The Unit's product range included Static and Mobile Radars. Troposcatter equipment. USA has been established in 1997-98 for manufacture of High End Rotating Anode Medical Diagnostic X-ray tube called CT MAX. security and commercial systems.Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh) The second largest Unit at Ghaziabad was set up in 1974 to manufacture special types of Radars for the Air Defence Ground Environment Systems (Plan ADGES). 2. the first joint venture of the company with Delft Instruments. Holland and UTI was established in the year 1990 for conducting research. night vision weapon sights and low light level input applications. The Unit provides Communication Systems to the Defence Forces and Microwave Communication Links to the various departments of the State and Central Govt. which is used in CT Scanners. GE BE Private Limited GE BE Private Limited. The joint venture unit will also establish a reloading facility for X-ray tubes 11 . Its products include night vision goggles and binoculars. Pune. development and manufacture of Image Intensifier Tubes and associated high voltage power supplies for use in military.

Corporate Mission Corporate Objectives 12 . the joint venture company is in a position to offer tailor made solution to the Mobile Communication needs at workplace in various market segments. South ast Asia market are addressed by this joint venture. UK has also been established in Bangalore in 1997-98 to manufacture state-of-art Mobile Communication for the workplace.Multitone Private Limited A joint venture between Bharat Electronics and Multitone Electronics Plc.and will also market the conventional X-ray tubes made at Pune Unit of BEL. MISSION AND OBJECTIVES The passionate pursuit of excellence at BEL is reflected in repulsion with its customers that can be described in its motto. Technology and Innovation” To be the market leader in DefenceElectronics and in other chosen fields and products. BEL. mission and objectives : Corporate Motto “Quality. CORPORATE MOTTO. in the field of Radio Paging. With the strength of Bharat Electronics in the Radio Communications field and the technology of Multitone. London. Thomas Hospital. Multitone invented paging in 1956 when it developed the world's first system to serve the "life or death" environment of St.

13 . In order to meet the Nation's strategic needs. to strive for self reliance by indigenization of materials and components. expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor. To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization. Universities and Academic institutions. Enhanced customer satisfaction by on-time delivery of defect free products and effective life cycle support. International Companies. To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services. To create an organizational culture which encourages members of the organization to realize their full potential through continuous learning on the job and through other HRD initiatives. through continual improvement of our products and processes. considering the present and future needs of customers. (g) (h) Quality Policy BEL is committed to consistently deliver enhanced value to our customers. Research and Development as well as through collaboration/cooperation with Defence/National Research Laboratories. To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional electronics industry in the country. Quality Objectives (a) (b) Effective and Efficient design and development process. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other chosen fields of electronics through in-house.(a) To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices at the expected time and providing excellent customer support.

Accordingly. Each of the nine manufacturing units of BEL is having its own in-house R&D Division to develop new products in its field of operations. Naval Systems. an institute called Bharat Electronics Quality Institute (BEQI) was established in 1999. Continual improvement of processes through innovation. Electronic Warfare Systems. Opto Electronic Products. Sound and Vision Broadcasting Equipment and Systems. technology and knowledge management.(c) (d) e) Continual upgradation and utilization of infrastructure and human resources. VLSI designs. (BEL). in the company. to address futuristic technologies of interest to BEL. The management of BEL is convinced of the need for Quality Enhancement. a premier Professional Electronics Company of India. Military Communication Products. Besides. There are about 1000 engineers working in BEL on various D&E projects. Radar Signal Processing. BEL's R&D Units have state-of-the-art R&D infrastructure. Telecommunication products. has established and nurtured a strong in-house R&D base over the years to emerge and remain as a market leader in the chosen areas of business in professional electronics. and manpower with relevant technical expertise for product development. Main areas of R&D activities at BEL include development of Military Radars. there are two Central Research Laboratories (CRL) located at Bangalore and Ghaziabad. Software modules etc. on a continuous basis. CRL performs the dual role of carrying out blue sky research for the development of future technologies and supporting the D&E Divisions of BEL's nine units with state-of-theart core technology solutions in areas like Embedded Computers and applications. Need was felt to impart Education / Training to all the officers on the various facets of quality management. facilities.. RF & Microwave Communication Technologies. Bharat Electronics Ltd. Mutually beneficial alliances with suppliers. and Electronic Components. BEL spends around 14 .

Battlefield Surveillance Radars. computers & workstations. Stabilizer Systems. Secrecy Equipment. 5. Torpedo Decoys. SONAR Systems. Opto-Electronic Instruments. BEL R&D Units are recognized by the Department of Scientific & Industrial Research under the Ministry of Science & Technology. Tank Fire Control Systems. MW. Digital Switches. Communication Equipment and Systems. Communication Equipment and Systems.5 % of company turnover for the year on R&D every year. Navigational. EW Systems. Display Systems. IFF. Surveillance and Tracking Radars. test equipment. Govt. Stimulators and Trainers. are augmented every year for the R&D divisions. HRD Divisions of BEL take adequate initiatives for the all round development and expertise upgradation of R&D human resources. Flight and On-Board Sub-systems. Air Defence and Fire Control Radars. Software packages etc. Ground Electronics. Low. State of the art infrastructures. Studio 15 Navy Air Force Non-Defence Para-Military Space Department All India Radio Doordarshan . Medium and High Power Transmitters. IFF and EW Systems. Simulators.  Defence Army CUSTOMER PROFILE Equipment Tactical and Strategic Communication Equipment and Systems. Fire Control Radars. Surveillance. SW & FM Transmitters. of India. Precision Tracking Radars. Communication Equipment and Systems.

Transmitting Tubes. Components Defence Non-Defence All India Radio. and Vacuum Tubes. MCPC VSATs. Transmission Equipment (Microwave and UHF) and PCM Multiplex. Mobile and Transportable Satellite Uplinks. Communication Systems. Silicon Transistors. Semiconductors-Discrete. Hub Stations. Up/Down Convertors. Flyaway Earth Stations. Bipolar and CMOS. Flyaway Satellite Terminals. Rural and Main Automatic Exchanges. Antennae. Radars. Secondary Surveillance Radars. Hybrid and Integrated Circuits. Communication Systems. Piezo Electric Crystals. Doordarshan (TV Network). Transmitting Tubes. Digital Microwave Radio Relays. Ceramic Capacitors and SAW Filters. Cameras. Satellite Communication Equipment. Crystals. Microwave Radio Relays. OB Vans. Lasers. Integrated Circuits. TV Studios on Turnkey Basis for Educational Programs. 16 .(TV Network) NCERT Department of Telecommunications Videsh Sanchar Nigam and other Corporate Bodies Civil Aviation Meteorological Department Power Sector Oil Industry Forest Departments. SCPC VSATs. Department of Telecomm and Civil Industries Entertainment Industry Telephone Industry Switching Industry B/W TV Tubes. Batteries. Clinical and Surgical Microscope with Zoom. Communication Equipment for Metros. Microwave Tubes. Vacuum Interrupters. 3. LNA Modems Airport Surveillance Radars. Irrigation & Electricity Boards Medical & Health Care Railways Equipment. Integrated Circuits. Solar Panels for Rural Exchanges. Microwave Tubes. Cyclone Warning and Multipurpose Meteorological Radars.

This led to the 17 . Office Automation Software.Instrumentation Industry Medical & Health Care Liquid Crystal Displays. the government focused its attention to strengthen the air defence system. X-ray Tubes. 6 Formation of unit In the mid 60's. LCD On-line Public Information Display Systems Communication Networks / VSAT Networks. for the air defence network. while reviewing the defence requirement of the country. 4. in particular the ground electronics system support. Systems / Network • • • • Identity Card Systems Software.

CS.e.formulation of a very major plan for an integrated Air Defence Ground Environment System known as the Plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer of the apex review committee. Radar. MM. the industrial license for manufacture of radar and microwave equipment was obtained. It has four major manufacturing divisions i. At about the same time. sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. P&A.P&M. The Unit enjoys a unique status as manufacturer of IFF systems needed to match a variety of Primary Raiders. the Unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of equipment needed for defence and civil use. 1972 saw the commencement of construction activities and production was launched in 1974. The operations at BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with Additional / Deputy General Manager heading various divisions . MKTG & CC. In 1971. F&A PRODUCT RANGE The product range today companies: 1. Communication. supply and Turn-key execution of Radars. BEL was then entrusted with the task of meeting the development and production requirement for the Plan ADGES and in view of the importance of the project it was decided to create additional capacity at a second unit of the company. It has also installed and commissioned a large number of systems on turnkey basis. Antenna & Microwave Components with support divisions like D&E. Over the years. SYSTEMS . Communication equipments & Antennas /Systems for defence as well as non-defence sectors. The ministry of defence immediately realized the need to establish production capacity for meeting the electronic equipment requirements for its Plan ADGES. More than 30 versions of IFF’s have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum technology to solid-state to latest Microwave Component based system. In December 1970 the Govt. Public attention was focused on the report of the Bhabha Committee on the development and production of electronic equipment. Radar Systems:  3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force. Ghaziabad unit is primarily engaged in manufacture. 18 . Development and Engineering-R. QA&T. Development and Engineering-C and Development and Engineering-Antenna.Design & Engineering Divisions.

Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers. Turnkey Communication Systems Projects for defence & civil users. 6. Active Microwave components like LNAs. 4. Microwave Component: 1. Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems. Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems. 11. etc Most of these products and systems are the result of a harmonious combination of technology absorbed under ToT from abroad. Antennae for Radar. 2. 4. 1. Antenna: 9. Bulk Encryption Equipment. 8. IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and Export 2. Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications. Synthesizer. Telemetry/Tele-control Systems. defence R&D Laboratories and BEL's own design and development efforts. Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence 1. Organization: The operations at BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with Additional / Deputy General Manager heading various divisions as follows: 19 . 3. Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force. Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems. Digital Mobile Troposcatter Communication System for the Air Force and Army. VHF. Digital Static Troposcatter Communication Systems for the Air Force. Communications: 3. ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation. UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment.  Tactical Control Radar Systems for the Army  Battlefield Surveillance Radar for the Army 1. 10. 7. 5. and Receivers etc. 2.

e. This is all the more important in the area of defence Electronics.and microcomputers and dedicated design application. • Systems. • Antenna. f. c. g. About 70% of its manufacture today relate to items developed in-house. Management Services. Quality Assurance & Torque. Microwave Components. Personnel & Administration. 20 .   Equipment Manufacturing Divisions : 1) Radar. Design & Engineering: The pace of development and technological obsolescence in their field of electronics necessitates a strong Research and Development base. PCB & Magnetics. I. Development and Engineering-Antenna.  a. Finance & Accounts. h. Development and Engineering-C. a. Information Systems. Design & Engineering Divisions : 1. d. Design facilities are also constantly being modernized and substantial computeraided design facilities are being introduced including installation of mini. 1) Communication. BEL was awarded the Gold Shield for Import Substitution. b. Development and Engineering-R. 1. Central Services. 1. 1. For the development and production of the Mobile Troposcatter System and the IFF equipment. Support Divisions : Material Management. About 170 graduate and post-graduate engineers are working on research and development and indication of the importance R&D has in BEL's growth. BEL Ghaziabad has since its inception laid a heavy emphasis on indigenous research and development. Marketing & Customer Co-ordination.

2. strict adherence to specifications and tolerances has to be in-built into the design and manufacturing process. directional couplers. Communication. The manufacturing facilities of hybrid microwave components available at BEL. Each of them has a drawing office attached to them. assembly of miniaturized component viz. Works Assembly. BEL is currently setting up a modern MIC manufacturing facility at a planned expenditure of Rs. A central Records & Printing section takes care of the preserving the engineering documents and distribution thereof. Owing to the crucial and building block nature of the technology involved.Three Design and Engineering groups are product based viz. BEL's own homegrown ERP system. BELMAC. Ghaziabad includes facility for preparation of substrates. phase shiftier. 2 crore. this facility will be the main centre for the MIC requirements of all the units of the company. When in full operation. These divisions are further divided into different departments to look after products of a particular nature. The PCB layout and PCB master making is done at CADD Centre. 3. The manufacture and control of production is through a central system. Microwave Component Group: Frequencies greater than 1 GHz is termed as Microwaves. Apart from conventional machines. which are equipped with latest drafting and engineering software. BEL Ghaziabad has been equipped with several Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines for ensuring repeat occurrences and increased throughput. Activities are divided into various departments like Production Control. Equipment Manufacturing Divisions: As a supplier of equipment to the defence services and professional user. Most of the engineering documents are available online. etc SPECIFIC PRODUCT OF ‘BEL’ Electronics Voting Machine 21 . low noise amplifiers. A separate NC programming cell has been set up to develop the programs for execution on the CNC machines. Radar and Antenna. and QC WORKS. For this BEL Ghaziabad has well defined standards and processes for as well as manufacturing and testing activities. Microwaves Integrated Circuits (MIC) used extensively in the production of subsystems for Radar and Communication equipment constitutes a very vital part of the technology for these systems and is generally imported.

INDRA.IRMA. Reporter. Flycatcher Simulators & Trainers Secure Facsimile (SECFAX) Integrated Fish finder Cum Navigational Guidance Systems (IFFNGS) GPS Based Vehicle Tracking Systems Energy Savers for Air Conditioners Alarm Systems for Railway Unmanned Level Crossings Pager Amplifier/UHF Paging Transmitter Cockpit Display System for LCA Automatic Test Equipment Cellular Antenna PC Mother Board SIMPUTER X-Ray Cables Television Receive Only Antenna Electronic Warfare Equipment Train Actuated Warning System Magnesium Manganese Dioxide Battery Packs Dosimeter Locket Telemedicine System VLSI & ASCIs 7 ROTATION PROGRAMME 22 .

who allowed me to know more about the company in a very short time. MAGNETICS 5. I had to go to various departments. MICROWAVE LAB 6. ENVIRONMENTAL LAB 7. 23 . WORKS ASSEMBLY-RADAR During the rotation period .ELECTRICAL 8. The several departments where I had gone under my rotational program is as follows: 1. The co-operative staff at various department made the learning process very interesting. The various departments are now given in detail. P. TEST EQUIPMENT & AUTOMATION 2. QUALITY CONTROL (WORKS) 4.C.Under this the students are introduced to the company by putting them under a rotation program to various departments. listed above to get some introduction about the work that is being done in that particular department. CS.B FABRICATION 3.

TEST EQUIPMENT & AUTOMATION
This department deals with the various instruments used at BEL. There are three hundred equipments and they are of sixteen types. Examples of some test equipment are: 1. Oscilloscope (C.R.O) 2. Multimeter 3. Signal Analyzer 4. Logical Pulsar 5. Counters 6. Function Generator etc. Mainly the calibration of instruments is carried out here, they are compared with the standard of National Physical Laboratory (NPL). So it is said to be one set up down to NPL. As every instrument has a calibration period after which the accuracy of the instrument falls from the required standards. So if any of the instruments is not working properly, it is being sent here for its correct calibration. To calibrate instrument software techniques are used which includes the program written in any suitable programming language. So it’s not the calibration but the programming takes that time. For an industry to gets it’s
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instrument calibrated by NPL is very costly, so it is the basic need

for every industry to have it’s own calibration unit if it can afford it. Moreover those who have this unit can make memory by providing their standards to others. Test equipment and automation laboratory mainly deals with the equipment that is used for testing and calibration.This section calibrates and maintains the measuring instrument mainly used for Defense purpose. A Calibration is basically testing of equipment with a standard one. It is done with the help of standard equipment should be of some make, model and type. The national physical laboratory (NPL) New Delhi provides the standard values yearly. BEL follows International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. The test equipment is calibrated either half yearly or yearly. After testing, different tags are labeled on the equipment according to the observations. • GREEN • YELLOW • RED ---O.K, Perfect --- Satisfactory but some trouble is present --- Cannot be used, should be disposed off.

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PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (P.C.B.)
INTRODUCTION:As the name suggests, printed circuit board refers to a board on which a circuit is imprinted. The circuit appears as copper tracks on non conducting surface. Here the surface or the board is a glass epoxy sheet with copper coating on either both sides or on one side only. The board material is not restricted to glass epoxy only, it can be any hard surface (non conducting) with copper coating. In some cases we use Teflon sheets also. Generally the PCBs can be categorized in three forms viz.: • SINGLE SIDED PCB • DOUBLE SIDED PCB • MULTI LAYERED PCB In the following sections we would consider the various steps which come together to fabricate a single or double sided PCBs :1-Launching 2-C.N.C. Drilling 3-Through Hole Plating 4-Photo Tool Generation 5-Photo Resist Printing 6-Pattern Plating 7-Resist/Tin Stripping & Etching 8-Solder Masking
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C. Shearing & Deburring 12-Inspection QUALITY CONTROL(WORKS ASSEMBLY) According to some laid down standards . purchased are inspected according to the specifications by I. D & E mistakes 2. department . work department inspects all the items manufactured in the factory. After a mistake is detected. Inspection mistakes The process card is attached to each PCB under inspection. The assembly inspection department inspects all the assembled parts such as PCB . painting . The mistakes in the PCB can be categorized as1.G. Any error in the PC is entered in the process card by certain code specified for each error or defect. modules . cable assembling . plating and stenciling etc are done as per BEL standards . cable form . following action are taken: 27 .9-Hot Air Leveling 10-Reverse Marking 11-Routing. The raw materials and components etc. Shop mistakes 3. The fabrication department checks all the fabricated parts and ensures that these are made according to the part drawing .racks and shelters as per latest documents and bel standards. similarly Q. the quality control department ensures the quality of product .

1. This department basically consists of four sections: 1. ac/dc impedance . Moldings section 4. dielectric strength . insulation between layers . gapes in core . leads are taken out and checking of specification is done . Change code is prepared 5.Open type transformer 2.Moulding type transformer 4. Inspection The D & E department gives the following description – numbers of layers. MAGNETICS This department is making all types of transformers and coils that are used in various equipments. Mechanical assembly section 3.Oil cooling types transformer 3. Observation is made 2. Recommended action is taken. electrical parameters and earthing. Planning section 2. 28 .PCB moulding type transformer The transformer is mechanically assembled. The various types of transformer being made are: 1. Object code is given 3. types of winding . Division code is given 4. numbers of turns /layers.

Variable winding 6. LC control machine 3. Hand-winding 2. Pitch-winding 5. 2. Then air is blown to remove the humidity. reheated and put into vacuum. Torroidal machines having 32 operations from winding to mechanical assembly. Winding 3. Impregnation various varnished coils are heated. Heavier one – DNR for 0. The various types of windings used are :- 1. Varnishing 5. Core winding 4. 29 . Wave winding Two types of cores used are : 1. C-type for singal phase Various procedures involved in the manufacture of transformers are. E-type for 3-phase 2. Sector-winding 4.1 to 0. Torroidal-winding 3.Winding machines are of three types: 1. Formers of glass – expoxy 2.4 mm diameter.1. than cooled.

8. the following characteristics are checked :(a)Turn ratio (b)DC resistance of or each coil (c) Inductance (d)No load voltage (e)Leakage 30 . A RDB compound is used for leakage production . Moulding is done at 120 degrees centigrade for twelve hours.6. Moulding-araldite mixed with black dye is used to increase mechanical as well as electrical strength. 7. During inspection. Painting 9. Mechanical assembly 10. oil is boiled at 70 to 80 degrees under vacuum conditions to remove air bubbles . Testing: dielectric testing is done at 50 KV voltage applied for a minimum of one minute. after the is the cols are dipped in varnish and core is attached. Termination 11.

The testing of microwave components is done with the help of various radio and communication devices.Waveguides work as high pass filters to waves passing through them. Different type of waveguides is tested in this department like rectangular waveguides. Power measurements are done for microwave components because current and voltage are very high at such frequencies. These waveguides can be used to transmit TE mode or TM mode. Phase and magnitude measurements are done in this section.MICROWAVE LABORATORY This section deals with very high frequency measurements or very short wavelength measurements.This depends on the user’s requirements. A good waveguide should have fewer losses and its walls should be perfect conductors. 31 . circular waveguides.

In rectangular waveguides the distortion is minimum. Circular waveguides are used where the antenna is rotating. are checked. In the antenna section as well as SOHANA site various parameters such as gain. reflection etc. phase. The power measurement being done in microwave lab.ATP (Acceptance Test Procedure) 2.Network Analyzers 5.Reflectors 4. return loss. VSWR.Filters 2.Amplifiers and Accessories 32 . are in terms of Sparameters. The instruments used for this purpose are as follows:1.Isolators 3. Mainly the testing is done on coupler and isolators and parameters are tested here. PTP (Production Test Procedure) Drawings of various equipments that are to be tested is obtained and testing is performed on manufactured part. bandwidth. There are two methods of testing: 1.Spectrum Analyzers 6.

This department is arranged into one main station and five sub stations at different locations in the company. At the main station the power is stepped down to 11KV using 33/11KV step down transformer. administrative block and other parts of the factory.CS -(ELECTRICAL) The main task of this department is to supply power to the all production units. air circuit breakers (ACB). 33 . The power is received from the Uttar Pradesh Vidyut Board through 33 KV power line at the main station. oil circuit breaker (OCB). The main station is provided with gangoperated switch.

large amount of sparks will be produced. Like the main station these stations are also provided with lighting arresters.The air circuit breaker being used is of rating 11000 V . Lighting arresters are used at the main station to protect the station and all the electrical equipments from being damaged.e. For extra security two different set of lighting arresters are used one above the other so that station is not damaged at any cost and the excess charge gets grounded. i. These generators are imported from Czechoslovakia and are 34 . These sub stations provide power to different divisions of the factory. There are two transformers at the main station. It is operated in case when first transformer does not work properly. The gang operated switch is to be operated always OFF-load. This is operated when there is some fault in the incoming power line. In case we operate the gang operated switch ON-load. OCB’s and gang operated switches. In case of power failure there are two generators. The transformers being used at various sub stations are of rating1600 KVA. ACB’s. Current transformers are used at the main station for the measurement of power consumption. 800 A. and some other important sections. There are five sub stations at BEL which receive the power from main station at 11 KV and stepped down to 433 V for the use of various machines in the factory. which can supply the power to production divisions only. Out of these two only one is used at a time and second one is standby transformer.

These generators are air starting type and need a pressure of 1000 Pound for starting.This voltage is stepped up by a transformer to 11KV and supplied to the sub stations ENVIRONMENTAL LAB Various tests are conducted in the environmental lab in BEL in order to ensure reliability.of Ascorda make. Reliability is defined as the probability of a device performing its purpose adequately for the period intended under the given operating condition. And consume 400 Litres/Hr. Each generator is having 6 cylinders. of diesel each. These have a firing order of 15-36-24 to operate the cylinders in the same order. These can develop a power of 325 bhp. These are of capacity 860 KV and each generator generates 400 V at 50 Hz. In a given reliability is given as The standards available here are: 35 .

Transportation Test 12. Shock Test 13. High Temperature Operate and Storage 3.Joint services specifications ( Military Standard of India) MII Standards – U. Burn in Test WORKS ASSEMBLY This department plays an important role in the production.S Military standers QM333 – Civil Avitation and police VARIOUS TESTS :1. Tropical Exposure Test 8. Humidity Test 10. Salt Spray Test 7.JSS55555. Its main function is to assemble various components. Thermal Shock Test 2. Bump / Vibrations Test 6. It has been broadly classified as : 36 . Rain Test 9. equipments and instruments in a particular procedure. Dust Test 11. Altitude Test 5. Low Temperature Operate and Storage 4.

37 . 3. 4. REPORTER The stepwise process followed by work assembly department is: 1. Tinning: The resistors. capacitors and other components are tinned with the help of tinned lead solution. Preparation of part list that is to be assembled. part list drawing and bringing all the components before doing the work. Schematic diagram to depict all connect to be made and brief idea about all components. 2. In work assembly following things are done. Writing list of all components.WORK ASSEMBLY RADAR e. Preparation of general assembly.g.:INDRA-2. The wire coming out from the component is of copper and it is tinned nicely by applying flux on it is so that it does not tarnished and seventh soldering becomes easy. Preparation: This is done before mounting and undertakes two procedures. Bending: Preparation is done by getting the entire documents j.

Fluxer 3. Lacquering: Lacquering is only done on the components. Conveyor 2. Heater 4. one of the wires of the components is soldered so that they don’t move from their respective places on the PCB plate. Flux Cleaner Touch up: This is done by hand after the finishing is done. Wave soldering machine consists of following parts 1. which are tinned. Inspection: This comes under quality work. Heat ageing: This is done in environment lab at temperature of 40 0C for 4 hrs and three cycles. Wave Soldering: This is done in a machine and solder sticks on the entire path. which are not variable. On the other hand of the component is also adjusted so that the PCB does not burn. The soldering irons are generally of 25 W and are of variable temperature.Mounting: It means soldering the components of the PCB plate with the help of soldering tools. 38 .

It operates by transmitting a particular type of waveform. APPLICATION OF RADAR has been employed on the ground. where it is processed. as found on many merchant ships. and an energy detecting device or receiver. 2. These are:1. It is an electromagnetic system for detection and location of object. The receiving antenna collects the returned energy and delivers it to a receiver. on the sea and in space. has three main parts. 39 . the transmitter/receiver or transceiver and the visual display unit. A position of the transmitted signal is intercepted by a reflecting object (target) and is reradiated in all the directions. The direction or angular position of the target may be determined from the detection of arrival of the reflected wavefront . An elementary form of radar consists of a transmitting antenna emitting electromagnetic radiation generated by an oscillator. Antenna unit or the scanner. in air. The distance to the target is determined by measuring the time taken by the radar signal to travel and come back. Some important areas of applications are :Air traffic control ( ATC ) A ir craft navigation Ship safety Space Remote sensing Military WORKING OF A SIMPLE RADAR A simple RADAR system.8 INTRODUCTION TO RADAR : RADAR :RADAR is an abbreviation of word RADIO DETECTING AND RANGING. a receiving antenna.

the antenna is rotated at the speed of 10 to 25 revolutions per minute so that the radar beam sweeps through 300 degrees all around the ship out to a range of about 90 kilometers. The transmitted power is generated in a device called ‘magnetron’. by means of a duplexer. which consist of an electron gun in its neck. An important part of the transceiver is the modulator circuit.000 MHz. Though it is varied to suit requirements. The phosphorescent screen glows when hit by the electrons and. another device called duplexer is used. for exactly the right length of time. The display unit usually carried all the controls necessary for the operation of the whole radar. longer pulses are better for long range. or pulses. Between each pulse. The pulses so generated are video pulses. This keys the transmitter so that it can oscillate. These pulses are generated by means of a local oscillator. These pulses are short range pulses and hence cannot serve out purpose of long-distance communication. the resulting spot of light can be 40 . we need to generate power. the transmitter is switched off and isolated. a signal is produced in the output witch is of intermediate frequency range or IF range. The gun shoots a beam of electron at a phosphorescent screen at the far end. and then passed to the display unit. The RF echoes emerging from the duplexer are now fed into the mixer where they are mixed with pulses of RF energy. Everything depends on accurate measurement of the time which passes between the transmission of the pulse and the return of the ECHO about 1. undisturbed. The IF signals is received by a receiver where it is demodulated to video frequency range. which can handle these very short pulses and very high oscillations. The frequency of the radio waves is usually about 10. It has a cathode ray tube. two-way communication is established. In all RADARS it is vital that the transmitting and receiving in the transceiver are in close harmony.000 pulses per second are transmitted. Once the two are mixed. The weak echoes from the target are picked up by the antenna and fed into the receiver. Thus. amplified. In order to modify these pulses into radio frequency pulses or RF pulses. Short pulses are best for short-range work. To avoid overlapping of these echoes with the next transmitted pulse.The antenna is about 2 or 3 meters wide and focuses pulses of very high frequency radio energy into a narrow vertical beam.

The electron beam travels out from the center to the edge. and its distance from the center of the tube corresponds exactly with the time taken for the radar pulse to travel to the target and return. when the trace is at zero degrees on the tube calibration. secondary radar operates with a co-operative ACTIVE TARGET while the primary radar operates with a PASSIVE TARGET. SECONDARY RADAR A PRIMARY RADAR locates an object by transmitting a signal and detecting the reflected echo. But in cases such as controlling of air traffic. PRIMARY RADAR AND 2. the controller must be able to identify the air craft and know whether it is of a friend or a foe. TYPES OF RADAR Based on its functions. a complete picture is built up from the coating of the tube. RADAR may be classified as: 1. This is a blip. known as the trace. When an echo is received it brightens up the trace for a moment. a second radar called a ‘secondary surveillance radar’ (SSR) is used. This works differently and needs the help of the target aircraft. The basic operation of a secondary radar is as follows: 41 . To give the controller this information. It is also desired to know the height of the aircraft.seen through a glass surface. In other words. The beginning of each trace corresponds exactly which the moment at which the radar energy is transmitted. The screen is circular and is calibrated in degrees around its edge. the antenna is pointing dead ahead. This random motion of the electron beam. so that on the same source but flying at different levels can be kept apart. It senses out the sequence of pulses to an electronic black box. called an transponder fitted on the aircraft. So that blip on the screen gives the range and bearing of the target. This type of display is called a PPI (plane position indicator) and is the most common form of presenting radar information. A SECONDARY RADAR SYSTEM is similar in operation to primary radar except that the return signal is radiated from a transmitter on board the target rather than by reflection. is matched with the rotation of the antenna. As the trace rotates. So.

In the Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR). on board the aircraft. The transponder. on receipt of a chain of pulses from the ground interrogator. The reply. This enables the interrogator transmitters to be of lower power and the ground equipment simpler. IFF ANTENNA RF SWITCH UNIT TRANSMITTER RECEIVER MK X DECODER MODE S DRAWER REMOTE CONTROL PANEL CONTROL UNIT (INTERROGATOR – DECODER) GROUND / SHIP INTERROGATOR PPI 42 . automatically transmits a reply.SECONDARY RADAR SYSTEM The secondary radar system consists of an INTERROGATOR and a TRANSPONDER. coded for purposes of Identification is received back at the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation. The secondary radar gives the aircraft identity code and height data derived from a pressure capsule in the aircraft. The interrogator transmitter in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft. providing a two way data link to separate transmit and receive frequencies. by providing the interrogation pulses above the minimum triggering level. the transponder makes a powerful reply.

coded for purposes of identification. it operates with a co-operative ‘active’ target while the primary radar operates with ‘passive’ target.e. The beacon system when used for the control of civil air traffic is called as secondary surveillance radar (SSR). Primary radar locates an object by transmitting a signal and detecting the reflected echo. ADVANTAGES OF SSR OVER PRIMARY RADAR: a) Reply pulses are stronger than the echo signals of primary radar. providing a two way data link on separate transmitting and receiving frequencies. on receipt of a chain of pulses from the ground interrogator. automatically transmits a reply. i. 43 . on board the aircraft. The interrogator transmitter in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft. Secondary radar system consists of an interrogator and a transponder. is received back at the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation. The transponder. A secondary radar system is similar in ration to primary radar except that the return signal is radiated from a transmitter on board the target rather than by reflection.9 PROJECT ON IFF IFF SYSTEM BASIC PRINCIPLE (THE IFF UNIT) GENERAL The identification of Friend and Foe (IFF) is basically a radar beacon system employed for the purposes of general identification of military targets.

mode C is the automatic altitude mode. spaced at multiples of 1. Interlacing of two modes is done to update identity and altitude data on each scan of the ground based antenna. The transmitter can be triggered either internally or externally. azimuth and altitude are derived. 44 .g. The interrogator transmitter operates in S Band at 1030 MHz and the airborne transponder operates at 1090 MHz. special identification of a particular aircraft when the same identify code has been used by two or more aircraft. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS: The SSR interrogate transponder equipped aircraft with coded pulses train whose spacing denotes whether identity or altitude replies are being requested. Thus range. Two pulses in this code train define the pulse train and the other pulses contain the code data these positions provide up to 4096 discrete identify codes including the altitude. Interrogations are pre-triggered with respect to the primary radar pulse transmission (external triggering) to provide for a timing match between radar echoes and SSR replies at the PPI display. d) Interrogation and reply path coding provide discrete target identification and altitude data. The PRF of the interrogation transmission is either the same as the primary radar or counted down to maintain a nominal value as the case may be. c) Reply signal is independent of target cross section. The elicited reply comprises up to 14 pulses. The position of the scanning antenna and the elapsed time between the interrogation and receipt of the transponder reply give the azimuth and range. For e.45 microseconds. OPERATION The SSR system can operate in association with both static and mobile primary radar or independently with its own monitor display. The interrogation modes provide for separation of replies by function.b) Separate transmitting and receiving frequencies eliminate ground clutter and weather return problems.. Special code provisions enable to declare an emergency or communication failure.

PURPOSE The IDENTIFICATION FRIEND AND FOE (IFF) is basically a Radar Beacon System employed for the purpose of general identification of Military targets. P3 are produced to achieve the 3 pulse side lobe suppression. The Beacon System when used for the control of civil air traffic is called as secondary surveillance Radar (SSR). The Beacon System is designated in general as Secondary Radar and the normal radar as Primary Radar for distinguishing. P2 and P3 as shown in the figure above. The P1 and P3 pulses occur at discrete pulse intervals and the P1. The P1 and P3 pulses are known as the INTERROGATE PULSES and pulse P2 is known as the CONTROL PULSE. P2 and P3 are of same width viz 0. The three pulses viz P1. The aircraft transponder on receipt of 45 . TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS INTEROGATION AND RESPONSE SIGNALS INTERROGATION SIGNAL P1 P2 P3 IFF INTEROGATION SIGNAL The interrogation signal of the IFF ground equipment consists of a signal consisting of 3 pulses are designated as P1. P3 combination is known as MODE.8 microseconds each. The pulses P1. P2.

P2 and P3 are transmitted in succession in different directions in such a manner that amplitude of P1 and P3 are greater than that of P2 only along the direction of the main beam of the signal. the aircraft transponder uses side lobe suppression technique to inhibit the reply. The interrogation is done on a particular mode to obtain a desired response from the airborne transponder. MODE PULSES The combination of P1 and P3 interrogation pulses is known as MODES. control pulse.the mode pulses P1and P3 recognizes the mode and responds with its suitable reply code. If the interrogation is false. The target is required to respond only when it finds the amplitude of the P1 and P3 greater than that of P2. amplitude of P2 is greater than that of the other pulses. P1. The P2 pulse determines whether the interrogation is true or false. is always positioned at 2 microseconds from P1 and is used for achieving the 3 pulse side lobe suppression. MODE 1 46 MODE 2 . P3 pulse pairs signify the mode of interrogation of the ground transmitter. P1. NOTE: THE CONTROL PULSE P2 DOES NOT CARRY ANY SIGNIFICANCE TO THE DECODING EQUIPMENT (VIDEO PROCESSOR). The pulse interval between P1 and P3 ranges from 3 microsecond to 21 microsecond to form 4 different modes. The pulse P2. In all other directions. The mode pulse pair protects against random signal pulses eliciting a response from the transponder. In this technique.

47 . MODE 1 2 3/A C P1 P3 INTERVAL (IN µ SECS) 3 5 8 21 PURPOSE Defence Air Craft Defence Air Craft Civil/International Altitude-Height To each proper interrogation the aircraft transponder transmits a reply containing the required data for the particular mode of interrogation.The MODE 1 MODE 2 MODE 3/A MODE C MODE S following are the different modes employed in IFF MK 10 ground equipment.

3 microsecond apart (between leading edges). are known as frame pulses. The designation and position of these information pulses are as follows: PULSES C1 A1 C2 A2 C4 A4 X B1 D1 B2 D2 B4 D4 POSITION (µSECS) 1. are an essential part of the response code and are always present. representing coded intelligence. The other pulses making up the actual code are the information pulses.45 microseconds from the first frame pulse F1.80 7.90 4. The bracket pulses. contained within a pair of bracket pulses spaced at 20.60 13.3 microsecond apart and form the most elementary code.The reply pulse code train consists of twelve information pulses bracketed between the two frame pulses F1 and F2.70 10.35 5.The complex code trains consist of a series of pulses.25 8. The information pulses are spaced in increments of 1.85 48 .45 2.40 18.95 17. The framing pulses F1 and F2 are spaced at 20.50 15.05 14.15 11. F1 C1 A1C2 A2C4A4 X B1D1B2D2B4 D4 F2 The bracket pulses or frame pulses are designated as F1 and F2 .

15 microsecond.15 microsecond. The pulse amplitude variation of one pulse with respect to any other pulse in a reply train does not exceed 1dB. eliminating the pulse X.1 microseconds. 1 microsecond and pulse rise time between 0. a special position identification pulse (SPI) which may be transmitted with any of the other information pulses.The position of the X pulse is specified only as a technical standard and at present is not used. It is reserved for future use.35 microseconds following the last framing pulse F2.05 to 0. The pulse interval tolerance of the SPI pulse with respect to the last frame pulse of the reply group is ±0.1 microsecond. is positioned at a pulse interval of 4. the reply code train consists of 12 pulses formed by A B C D combination and bracketed within F1 and F2 pulses. All reply pulses have pulse duration of 0.45 ±0. DIGIT First (least significant) Second Third Fourth PULSE GROUP A B C D 49 . The pulse spacing tolerance of any pulse in the reply group with respect to any other pulse (except the first frame pulse F1) does not exceed + -0. The pulse spacing tolerance for each pulse including the last frame pulse F2 with respect to t he first frame pulse F1 of the reply group is ± 0. Thus. SPECIAL POSITION IDENTIFICATION In addition to the information pulses provided.1 microseconds and pulse decay time between 0. CODE NOMENCLATURE The code designation consists of digits between 0 and 7 inclusive and consists of the sum of the subscripts of the pulse numbers.05 and 0.

and the designation of the PI codes for specific aircraft varies in different areas or zones. The different types of reply received are: a) NORMAL REPLY The normal reply consists of the F1.Thus. Besides distinguishing the aircraft as friendly. there are 8 possible ABCD combinations. F2 spaced at 20. making 4096 total code possibilities extending from 0000 to 7777. which consists of P1 and P3 pulses spaced 3 microseconds apart. It would be practically impossible for any unfriendly aircraft to know the frequency and codes with which we were expecting the friendly aircraft to reply. the SIF reply codes tell its type and mission. the aircraft transponder replies with a PERSONAL IDENTITY (PI) code train. the transponder sends back accede train with the characteristics of the SI code train. Different aircraft return different codes.45 microseconds apart. consisting of P1.3 microseconds apart. The code train consists of the two frame pulses F1. The reply signal consists of the framing pulses F1 and F2 spaced at 20. e) MODE 3 REPLY 50 . c) MODE 2 REPLY When the IFF ground interrogator transmits a mode 2 interrogation.The returning SI code train is the basic “FRIEND AND FOE” identification. F2 frame pulses bracketed the code pulses appropriate to that particular aircraft for the mode of interrogation b) MODE 1 REPLY When an aircraft is interrogated in mode 1.45 microseconds.45 microseconds and 1. The IFF MK 10 with SIF (SELECTIVE IDENTIFICATION FEATURE) has the ability to change operating frequencies for security and also has complex coded replies to positively identify the aircraft as friendly. with pulse duration of 0.3 microseconds apart with all the pulses having pulse duration of 0. SI is another designation for mode 1 and is the abbreviation for “SECURITY IDENTIFICATION” . P3 spaced at five microseconds apart.

The mode 3 reply is assigned differently in certain areas or zones. P3 spaced at 21 microseconds apart.3 microseconds apart bracketing the information code pulses.altitude is reported in 100 ft increments by selection of pulses. The replies on the above modes of interrogation consist of the two frame pulses F1. F2 spaced at 20. REPLY CODE IDENTIFICATION On all modes except mode C the transponder manually selects the codes from the 4096 possible codes while in mode C interrogation the transponder automatically replies the pressure – altitude data.The aircraft transponders response to mode 3 interrogation. P3 spaced at 8 micro second . consisting of two interrogation pulses P1. is common for both military and civil use. On interrogation in mode c the transponder responses for automatic pressure altitude – transmission. EMERGENCY REPLY CODES : Code Military emergency condition : 0000 Civil emergency : 7700 Military/civil communication failure : 7600 Hijacking code : 7500 51 . The mode C is employed for altitude data. f) MODE C REPLY The mode C interrogation. The pressure. consisting of P1.

EMER / COMMN FAILURE ALL AIRCRAFT SIGNAL SPECIAL POSITION IDENTIFICATION (SPI) PASSIVE CODE MATCH DISPLAY OF IFF SYMBOLS ON PPI 52 .

The identified data must be decoded and presented in such a way that the PPI operator can interpret it quickly and easily. In modes 1 and 2 the first pair carries the normal reply code while in mode 3 ( common with civil mode A). The IFF decoder processing unit does the decoding of the received signal and generates video pulses to be displayed on the PPI at the request of the operator. or B interrogations. For identification purposes. The first frame pulse pair carries the normal code.35 microseconds apart. the reply code is declared as military emergency. By examining all the code trains received and then 53 . MILITARY / CIVIL COMMUNICATION FAILURE The communication failure reply consists of a normal reply with code 7600 in response to mode 2. Such type of video presentation is known as the passive decoding. SYSTEM OPERATIONS The air surveillance over the thousand of square kilometers surrounding the equipment site must depend on the data obtained from the search radar and the radar identification systems. when two SPI pulses are identified in a reply code train. remaining pairs may or may not contain information pulses. the first frame pulse pair carries code 7700 with rest 3 pairs may or may not carry any code. GARBLE INDICATION Whenever two reply code pulse trains are received in interleaved or overlapped condition the indication for garble detection is provided. CIVIL EMERGENCY Under civil emergency the normal reply code on mode A. 3/A.MILITARY EMERGENCY CONDITION Military emergency reply consists of four frame pulse pairs spaced at 4. The indicator lamp for garble glows. B interrogations carries the code 7700.

i. and see on his PPI the identification for only the air craft replying in that mode and with that particular code. Pulse P2 is radiated through control pattern for achieving interrogation side lobe suppression (ISLS). Passive decoding Active decoding 54 . The intended range of operation of IFF is specified as 90 kilometers when integrated with INDRA PC MK11 RADAR. Separation between P1 and P3 is used for identifying the mode of interrogation and selecting the corresponding replies. The operator can select the mode and code he wants to monitor. the video signals are send to the primary radar system. After matching. The reply consists of two framing pulses (F1 and F2) with 12 possible pulses within the frame. The mode/code combinations of friendly aircraft are preset on the ground equipment and identification is done by matching the received code with the preset code. the passive decoding circuits present the data as slashes or arcs on the PPI. The transponder fitted in aircraft compares pulse P1 and P2 and initiates reply only if P1 is greater than P2 by 9dB corresponding to reception within main beam of directional pattern. Interrogation is done by radiating two RF pulses P1 and P3 with interval depending upon mode of interrogation through a directional pattern. Presence or absence of these pulses determines the reply code to one of the 4096 possible combinations. The slashes are generated by the symbol generation circuitry. ii.decoding only the ones chosen by the PPI operator at a particular scope. BRIEF DESCRIPTION Operating Principle The Interrogator-Decoder system with integrated feed antenna is designed to identify aircraft fitted with MK-X transponders within the intended radius of operation.

While the civil emergency signal is represented by the reply code carrying code 7700. • Special Position Identification This response is controlled in the aircraft and is send back for positive identification of the location of the specific aircraft. • Military/Civil Emergency And Communication failure This response is also controlled in the air craft and is used to indicate an emergency condition or communication failure. The SPI recognition is represented by the three arcs one above the other space apart by 24. The operator sets the mode and code combinations on the thumbwheel switches (code match) provided in the control units and the decoded reply codes are displayed as ‘slashes’ or ‘arcs’ on the PPI. The slash patterns for different situations are as follows: • Normal reply A single slash or arc represents the normal reply also known as the all aircraft signal or AA signal after decoding. This slash appears over the radar reply. An aircraft transponder transmits a SPI pulse.PASSIVE DECODING In passive decoding. The communication failure reply code contains code 7600. In the case of military emergency the received signal consists of 4 pairs of frame pulses with the first pair carrying the reply code and the rest three pairs may or may not carry any reply code. spaced at 24.5 µ secs from the first frame pulse. 55 .65 µ secs behind preceding is over the radar reply. the IFF video-processing unit (decoder unit) along with decoding the reply code generates video pulses to be displayed on the PPI. • Passive Decoding Signal Whenever there is passive code match between the reply received and interrogated mode and code the passive match is represented in the PPI in the form of two arcs over the radar reply.

active enable gate signals are generated and fed to the decoder. In active decoding the operator designates the target on the PPI with a suitable designation unit. There will be two slashed on over the radar reply and a second slash with 5 times the width of first slash and precedes the first arc by 24.By this process the IFF equipment actively decode the code train of an unknown air craft . In addition to passive decoding the Decoder processing unit does the active decoding function .65 µ secs.• Passive height match The display on the passive height match on the PPI consists of a slash with width equal to 5 times the normal slash width.65 microsecond. The mode for active decoding can be 56 . In the control panel a provision exists for variation of slash width to 6. 12. The function of active decoding is to display the incoming code corresponding to a selected target on digital indicators located on the control panel. the actual code of the designated target can be read on control unit by means of active decoding. ACTIVE DECODING With the help of designation pulse generated from primary radar display. There will be two slashed on over the radar reply and the second slash with 5 times the width of the first slash and precedes the first arc by 24. The active decoding operation does not interfere with the passive decoding. 18 or 24 µ secs depending on the requirements. The response is taken as valid when at least five replies from the air craft are identified in a beam width period. The actively decoded signal is displayed by numerical indicators on the control panel located near the PPI. On designation of an air craft. The display of the IFF signal on the PPI is shown. The timing of the active gate input to the decoder from the PPI position defines the range and azimuth of the designated aircraft.

Most missiles to their respective destination by means of a radar mounted on their nose. The code is then displayed on a 4 digit numeric indicator. 57 . Altitude of the target aircraft can also be displayed on control unit when the IFF is operated in mode ‘C’. radar may be employed for other purposes as well. OTHER USES OF RADAR Apart from the above mentioned uses. Radars using continuous wave transmission rather than pulses are fitted in devices such as the proximity fuse which causes the missile or shell to explode when closed to the target.selected with the help of thumbwheel switches (as in passive decoding) provided in the control units. The fifth digit displays the validity of the incoming code. They now play an important role in weather forecasting and are also found on board spacecraft. Radars are also fitted on board of some aircraft to warn the pilot of air turbulence and thunderstorms.

DECODER TX – 400W 0-6 db TX POWER MONITOR TO RX CAVITY DIPLEXER P1.P2.A C RF SU +12 V GATED XTAL OSCILLATOR 1090 MHz STEP ATTN.P3 240V.BLOCK DIAGRAM OF INTERROGATOR . MODE PULSES 10db CRYSTAL DETECTOR P1.P3 P2 3 dB 40 dB TRANSMITER DETECTED RF PULSE RECEIVER 0– 20db MIC RECEIVER TX PROCESSER PCB TEST PULSE +12V GATED XTAL OSCILLATOR 1030 MHz RF PRY TRIGGER PRE TRIGGER PRE TRIGGER +MODE PLUSES BITE MODE GENERATOR SIMULATOR PRE TRIGGER SIMULATED VIDEO PIN DIODE ATTENUATOR GENERAL DECODER R A W V I D E O SELECTIVE DECODER IFF VIDEO PPI +12V MOD DRIVER -12V TRIGGER RX PROCESSOR PCB RAW VIDEO VIDEO MONITO R CONTROL PANNEL PROCESSOR AZIMUTH PROCESSOR RDP 58 .

P3 DETECTOR MONITOR P1.P2.RX 59 .P3 P1.RXP MONITOR BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TX .P3 TX POWER MONITOR TX – 400 W VARIABLE ATTENUATOR DIPLEXER RF TO/FROM RF SWITCH (RX + PROCESSOR) TEST MODULE TX MODULE RX MODULE 1090 MHZ OSCILLATOR VARIABLE ATTENUATOR RECEIVER IF SIGNAL MONITOR LOCAL OSCILLATOR Rx STATUS TO CONTROL PANNEL MODULE RAW VIDEO TO PROCESSOR ( IFF) RAW VIDEO PCB ASSY .P2.TX MODULATION FAIL INDICATION P1.PRE – TRIGGER MODE PULSE DETECTED RF TX STATUS TO CONTROL PANNEL PRE TRIGGER + MODE PULSE TEST PULSES PCB ASSY .P2.

REGULATED DC VOLTAGES UNREGULATED VOLTAGES REGULATOR PCB +5V / +12 V / -12 V / +24 V / +28 V DC FOR MONITORING ON FRONT PANEL LED INDICATION ON FRONT PANEL REGULATED POWER SUPPLY MODULE PS III REGULATED INCORPORATES 5 REGULATED PCB’S FOR VOLTAGES REGULATION CURRENT LIMITING OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION . REGULATED DC VOLTAGES UNREGULATED VOLTAGES REGULATOR PCB +5V / +12 V / -12 V / +24 V / +28 V DC FOR MONITORING ON FRONT PANEL LED INDICATION ON FRONT PANEL 60 .REGULATED POWER SUPPLY MODULE PS III REGULATED INCORPORATES 5 REGULATED PCB’S FOR VOLTAGES REGULATION CURRENT LIMITING OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION .

POWER SUPPLY 50 V + 50 V TO Tx FOR Tx 400 W MAINS AC TRANSFORMER REGULATED PCB 50 V + 50 V MONITOR ON FP AND CONTROL PANEL INPUT – 240 V OUTPUT – 51 V PERFORMS RECTIFICATION VOLTAGE REGULATION CURRENT LIMITING OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION CURRENT – 350 mA OVERVOLTAGE – 54 V 61 .

EXT. TRIGGER MODE PULSES TO TX TPA400W RAW VIDEO TEST VIDEO DECODER (PCB ASSY – A 010) DEFRUITER (PCB ASSY – A 011) MODE GENERATOR (PCB ASSY.PRY.BLOCK DIAGRAM OF IFF PROCESSOR PRY. TRIGGER PULSE MONITOR AA (MONITOR) SELECTIVE DECODER PCB ASSY – SD 1×2 PCB ASSY – SD 2 PCB ASSY – SD 3 PRY TRIGGER SIMULATOR PCB ASSY A012 PASSIVE CHANNEL SELECTION IFF VEDIO ACTIVE CODE HT & RANGE AZIMUTH DECODER PCB ASSY – AD 1 PCB ASSY – AD 2 DEFRUITER STATUS DECODER STATUS MONITORING AND CONTROL INTERFACE (PCB ASSY – MC1) TEST VIDEO MONITOR G Y R INTERROGATOR FAIL LED DECODER FAIL DEFRUITER FAIL LED LED IFF FAIL SIGNAL TO CONTROL PANNEL METER INTERROGATOR STATUS SAMPLE OF DC VOLTAGES 62 . – MG1) INT. PRE. TRIGGER MODE. TRIGGER STATUS PRY.

SWITCH SETTINGS x 1 µSEC S1& S2 : Set to align IFF video position wrt primary video S3 S4 : In ON position ( P2 will not be generated in OFF position) : In DELAY mode. ( Generation of IFF pre-Trig. wrt Primary Trigger) S1 x 10 µSEC S2 S3 S4 OFF P2 ON ADVANCE DELAY PCB ASSY MG 1 MODE GENERATOR 63 .

SWITCH SETTINGS SW1 :In OFF position ( Local challenge ON / OFF switch) SW1 ON PCB ASSY MC 1 MONITORING & CONTROL 64 .

P3 IFFBITE RAW VIDEO TX.SHELTER INT TX-Rx & RFSU Interrogate pulse P1.P3 RF OUT Control pulse P2 CONTROL CH. STATUS P2 P1. Rx.P3 INTERROGATE CH HYBIRD COUPLER DIPOLE MOUNTED ON BACK SIDE OF REFLECTOR DIPOLES MOUNTED ON HORN ASSY INTEGRATED IFF RADIATION NET WORK HYBIRD COUPLER 65 .P2.BLOCK DIAGRAM OF GRL 600 (SERIES) SSR IFF FOR INDRA-II PC RADAR RF OUT/IN DISPLAY SHELTER IFF DECODER & CONTROL PANEL P30+PI. ANTENNA VEHICLE TX.

UNREGULATED POWER SUPPLY PS – III UNREGULATED MODULE 33 V RECTIFIER UNREGULATED VOLTAGES 240 V AC MAINS 17.3 V RECTIFIER MAINS ‘ON’ INDICATION AND MAINS FUSE ON FRONT PANEL.18 V RECTIFIER REGULATED VOLTAGESSUPPLY MODULE 11.18 V RECTIFIER TO TRANSFORMER 17. FUSES FOR EACH OF THE FIVE VOLTAGES ON FRONT PANEL 66 .

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