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The radio station provides programming to attract listeners, and profits by selling advertising. Young people are targeted by advertisers because their product preferences can be changed more easily. The programming usually cycles from the least attractive item, to most attractive, followed by commercials. The purpose of this plan is to build listener interest during the programming. Dead air does not attract listeners, the station tries to fill its broadcast day with sound. Audiences will only tolerate a certain number of commercials before tuning away. In some regions, government regulators specify how many commercials can be played in a given hour. Music is the main program item.
Jingels are brief, bright pieces of choral music that promote the station’s call letters, frequency and sometimes disc-jockey or program segment, produced for radio stations by commercial specialty services. Jingles are often replaced by recorded voice-overs (called ―stingers‖). News, time-checks, real-time travel advice and weather reports are often valuable to listeners. Time, traffic and weather are given just after. Call-in telephone line for promotions and gags, or to take record requests Promotions are the on-air equivalent of lotteries for listeners PROGRAMMING BY TIME MUSIC FORMATS Top 40 The original formulaic radio format. Disc-jockeys would select one of a set of the forty bestselling singles (usually in a rack) as rated by Billboard magazine. Todd Storz and Gordon McLendon and invented Top 40 Freeform and progressive rock A later development was freeform radio, later commercially developed as progressive rock radio Disc jockeys freedom to play significant music and make significant social commentary and humor.
Full-service stations will often mix the oldies. have developed as the audiences that grew up with that music grew older and nostalgic for the sounds of their youth. with some current material mixed in. Classical. occasionally with music found in formats a limited amount of local talk programming is heard on most full-service stations. most ―mix‖ stations have rotations consisting largely of pop and rock music from the 1980s and 1990s (and often the 1970s). dance all have small but very loyal audiences in the largest markets Classical music radio is just as it sounds—radio designed to appeal to the listener of classical music . standards. full service The full service format is a more freeform variant of this type of format.Progressive rock radio (not to be confused with the progressive rock music genre) was freeform in style but constrained so that some kind of rock music was what was always or almost always played. Oldies. During the mid-to-late-1990s. While the format has no particular standard identity. but as the audience becomes older the station becomes less attractive to advertisers. have a strong niche market. classic hits. the ―Mix‖ format—a loosely defined mixture of Top-40 and classic rock with something of an emphasis on adult contemporary music—began to appear across the country. easy-listening. Freeform radio is particularly popular as a college radio format AOR (album-oriented rock) A program director or music consultant would select some set of music ―standards‖ and require the playlist to be followed. and adult standards music. classic rock. pop. and classic rock Classic rock or oldies formats have been described as having the weakness of not playing new artists. jazz. perhaps in an order selected by the jock. Significant AOR offshoots include classic rock and adult album alternative.
punk rock. . metal. and so-called ―rhythmic pop‖ stations have had a fierce but not always commercially sustainable following.Easy listening and Adult Contemporary are related formats that play largely down-tempo pop music of various styles Easy Listening is mostly older music done in the style of standards from the early 20th century Jazz stations generally play either traditional jazz forms or smooth jazz stereotyped as having a small listenership and a somewhat overly highbrow on-air personality Blues programming is generally limited to niche programs on stations that primarily broadcast other formats. it is effectively the country music analog to oldies. or the various post-punk and pop-influenced sounds known collectively as ―modern rock‖ Narrow-interest rock stations are particularly common on the Internet and satellite radio scenes. but virtually all of them died out during the disco backlash Alternative and modern rock grew out of the grunge scene of the late 1980s and early 1990s and is particularly by college radio and adult album alternative stations. Dance music is a niche. broken down into genres such as punk. There was a wide spectrum of disco-format radio stations during the late 1970s. classic rock. indie music. there is a strong focus on songwriters and bands with an outsider sound or a more sophisticated sound than the ―three chord wonder‖ cliché other stations focus on heavy metal. both of which share much of the same Anglo-Saxon and Celtic roots as the United States). and the like Country Country music format is common and popular throughout the United States and in some other countries (particularly Canada and Australia. radiothe format was indeed originally a predominantly rural phenomenon. Decades worth of efforts at mainstreaming the format eventually paid off when country radio became widely popular among a large number of FM radio stations that signed on in the suburban Classic country is a variant of the country music format. especially on AM radio.
house. Netherlands and some other countries. but their programming blocks are longer and not distinguished much by the time of day Music radio and culture . which is as often as not the province of Oldies stations). drum and bass England. as do many internet radio stations.generally preserved in the rural AM stations that country music aired on before its mainstream expansion. Urban (hip-hop/R&B) The explosive rise in popularity during the 1980s of rap music has led to a large number of radio stations specializing in rap/hip-hop and R&B music (with the exception of classic R&B such as Motown. Community radio often relies heavily on the music format because it is relatively cheap and generally makes for easy listening. The Jack FM format eliminates DJs entirely. An alternative country format is Americana. Dance music radio focuses on live DJ sets and hit singles from genres of techno. which eschews the mainstream pop country songs in of classic-era. several radio formats built around local musical genres are popular Cost of programming Stations usually adopt a music format to gain the greatest number of listeners for the least expense Internet radio stations exist that follow all of these plans The DJ’s function is generally reduced to introducing and playing songs. This format is popular among all ethnic groups and social classes. Germany. electro. The music is simply played Satellite radio usually uses DJs. Programming is different for non-traditional broadcasting. but less so in the United States Regional differences Outside of English-speaking world. alt country and cult musicians.
has often acted as both a barometer and an arbiter of musical taste. and was nearly shut down by onerous licensing demands made by the recording industry satellite radio services as a major competitor have brought many of the advantages of Internet radio to an increasingly mobile listening public. In fact. including lack of censorship. Internet radio from a small experimenter’s toy in the mid-1990s to a huge phenomenon allowing both small do-it-yourselfers and large commercial stations to make their offerings available worldwide was seen as a threat to over-the-air music broadcasting. a more eclectic approach to format programming. and radio airplay is one of the defining measures of success in the mainstream musical world. particularly top 40.Music radio. . as the diversity of musical tastes among the listening public have created a proliferation of radio formats in what some might call a form of narrowcasting. the rise of rock music to popularity is intimately tied to the history of music radio. greater choice. and static-free digital sound quality Narroecasting – one-size-fits-all programming is no longer seen as tenable by some.
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