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Slipperiness Frozen waterfall in southeast New York Ice was originally thought to be slippery due to the pressure.

The pressure of a n object coming into contact with the ice would create heat, thereby melting a t hin layer of the ice and allowing the object to glide across the surface.[citati on needed] For example, the blade of an ice skate, upon exerting pressure on the ice, would melt a thin layer, providing lubrication between the ice and the bla de. This explanation, called "pressure melting", originated in 19th century. It however did not account for skating on ice temperatures lower than -3.5 C, which skaters often skate upon. In the 20th century an alternative explanation, called "friction heating," was proposed, whereby friction of the material was the caus e of the ice layer melting. However, this theory also failed to explain skating at low temperature. Neither sufficiently explained why ice is slippery when stan ding still even at below-zero temperatures.[8] It is now commonly accepted that ice is slippery because ice molecules in contac t with air cannot properly bond with the molecules of the mass of ice beneath (a nd thus are free to move like molecules of liquid water). These molecules remain in a semi-liquid state, providing lubrication regardless of pressure against th e ice exerted by any object.[9] Formation Feather ice on the plateau near Alta, Norway. The crystals form at temperatures below -30 C (i.e. -22 F). Ice that is found at sea may be in the form of sea ice, pack ice, or icebergs. T he term that collectively describes all of the parts of the Earth's surface wher e water is in frozen form is the cryosphere. Ice is an important component of th e global climate, particularly in regard to the water cycle. Glaciers and snowpa cks are an important storage mechanism for fresh water; over time, they may subl imate or melt. Snowmelt is often an important source of seasonal fresh water. Rime is a type of ice formed on cold objects when drops of water crystallize on them. This can be observed in foggy weather, when the temperature drops during t he night. Soft rime contains a high proportion of trapped air, making it appear white rather than transparent, and giving it a density about one quarter of that of pure ice. Hard rime is comparatively denser. Aufeis is layered ice that forms in Arctic and subarctic stream valleys. Ice, fr ozen in the stream bed, blocks normal groundwater discharge, and causes the loca l water table to rise, resulting in water discharge on top of the frozen layer. This water then freezes, causing the water table to rise further and repeat the cycle. The result is a stratified ice deposit, often several meters thick. Ice can also form icicles, similar to stalactites in appearance, or stalagmite-l ike forms as water drips and re-freezes. Clathrate hydrates are forms of ice that contain gas molecules trapped within it s crystal lattice. Pancake ice is a formation of ice generally created in areas with less calm cond itions. Candle ice is a form of rotten ice that develops in columns perpendicular to the surface of a lake. Ice discs are circular formations of ice surrounded by water in a river. The World Meteorological Organization defines several kinds of ice depending on origin, size, shape, influence and so on.[10]