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Cabling a Data Center to TIA-942 Standard

BICSI 2006 Winter Conference Wednesday, January 25th 2006 at 9:15 am

Gary J. Bernstein, RCDD HellermannTyton Corporation

Agenda
Overview of TIA-942 Data Center Standard How is a data center defined? Who is the standard for? How can the standard help you better design your infrastructure? Cabling media options Examples of typical applications

Summary of TIA-942
Purpose is to provide requirements and guidelines for the DESIGN and INSTALLATION of a data center or computer room Will enable design to be involved early in construction process Allow for long term planning of data centers to support growth and future applications

Outline of Standard
Design Cabling System Infrastructure Telecommunications Spaces & Topologies Cabling Systems Cabling Pathways Redundancy Informative Annexes

What is a data center?


A building or portion of a building whose primary function is to house a computer room and its support areas

Types of Data Centers


Private Domain or Enterprise

Public Domain

Data Center Design


Coordination of all aspects of a data center is critical including:
Telecommunications cabling system Equipment floor plan Electrical plans Architectural plan HVAC Security Lighting system

Recommended Design Process


Estimate needs at full capacity for all equipment Anticipate future growth over life of data center Provide all requirements to architects and engineers Create an equipment floor plan Design telecommunications cabling system

Building Site Building Shell


General Office Space TRs & ERs Serving spaces outside DC

Data Center Relationship of spaces in a data center


Support Staff Entrance Room(s)
DC Electrical & Mechanical Rooms

NOC

TR(s) serving DC spaces

Storage Rooms & Loading Docks

Computer Room

Data Center Tiers


Relates to levels of availability of infrastructure Tier Classifications were originally defined by The Uptime Institute Addresses critical systems of data center Critical systems may have different ratings Ratings can be degraded as data center load increases over time

Tier I - Basic
Single path for power and cooling distribution No redundant components May not have a raised floor Susceptible to disruption from planned and unplanned activity 28.8 hours of annual downtime

Tier II Redundant Components


Single path for power and cooling distribution Redundant components Has a raised floor Slightly less susceptible to disruptions than Tier I 22.0 hours of annual downtime

Tier III Concurrently Maintainable


Multiple power and cooling distribution paths
Only one active path

Redundant Components Allows for any planned site infrastructure activity without disrupting computer hardware operation 1.6 hours of annual downtime

Tier IV Fault Tolerant


Multiple active power and cooling distribution paths Redundant components All computer hardware must have dual power inputs Can sustain at least one worst-case, unplanned failure or event with no critical load impact 0.4 hours of annual downtime

TIA-942 Defines Critical Systems


Telecommunications* Architectural and Structural Electrical Mechanical

Tier 1 Telecommunications Requirements


Cabling, racks, cabinets & pathways meet TIA-942 requirements Has 1 entrance pathway from access provider to facility Single pathway for all cabling Recommended labeling per ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-A and Annex B

Tier 2 Telecommunications Requirements


All requirements of Tier 1 Has 2 entrance pathways from access provider to facility Routers & switches to have redundant power supplies and processors Addresses vulnerability of service entering building

Tier 3 Telecommunications Requirements


All requirements of Tier 2 Be served by at least 2 access providers A secondary entrance room Redundant backbone pathways Multiple routers and switches for redundancy Addresses vulnerability of a single access provider

Tier 4 Telecommunications Requirements


All requirements of Tier 3 Redundant backbone cabling Backbone cabling should be in conduit or have interlocking armor Optional secondary distribution area Optional redundant horizontal cabling Address any vulnerability of the cabling infrastructure

Telecommunications Spaces
Entrance Room (ER) Main Distribution Area (MDA) Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA) Zone Distribution Area (ZDA) Equipment Distribution Area (EDA)

Example of basic data center topology from TIA-942

Entrance Room
Access provider demarcation point Termination equipment for access provider cables Interface between data center cabling and interbuilding cabling Pathways for all entrance cables May be located inside or outside computer room

Main Distribution Area


Central point of distribution Includes the main cross-connect (MC) May include horizontal crossconnect (HC) Core routers & switches for LAN/SAN, PBX are located here Located inside computer room Must be at least one MDA

Horizontal Distribution Area


Supports all the cabling to the equipment distribution areas Includes the horizontal crossconnect (HC) Switches for equipment in EDA located here Located inside computer room Minimum of one HDA per floor

Zone Distribution Area


Optional inter-connection point within horizontal cabling Located between HDA and EDA Allows frequent reconfiguration and flexibility Should serve a maximum of 288 connections to avoid cable congestion Shall be no active equipment (except for DC power)

Equipment Distribution Area


Space for end equipment:
Servers Mainframes Tape Drives

Horizontal cabling is terminated here onto patch panels Point-to-point cabling between equipment is allowed

Data Center Cabling System

Recognized Cabling Media


100-Ohm twisted-pair cable 62.5/125 m or 50/125 m multimode fiber Singlemode fiber 75 Ohm coaxial cable Various options for each media
Traditional field terminations Pre-terminated configurations Pre-terminated Traditional

Horizontal Cabling Topology


Horizontal Distribution Area
Horizontal Cabling

Equipment Distribution Area

Horizontal Cabling

Zone Distribution Area


Horizontal Cabling

Equipment Distribution Area

Horizontal Cabling
Cabling from HDA to EDA including
Horizontal cables Horizontal cross-connects Patch Cords Optional consolidation point or zone outlet

100 meter MAX horizontal cable distance


Distance reduced if zone area cable used

48-Port Patch Panels


THE SIEMON COMPANY
SD

Horizontal Cabling

Patch bay

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

Patch Cord into Server Patch Cord into Switch Servers Switch

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

8 FA S TA T N US

P ow er S uppl y 1

P ow er S uppl y 2

Ca ta ly st 6500

SER I ES

Sample Application HDA EDA

48-Port Patch Panels


THE SIEMON COMPANY
SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

Servers Patch Cord into Switch

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

THE SIEMON COMPANY

SD

Switch
FA S TA N T US

Patch Cord into Server Horizontal Cabling

P ow er S uppl y 1

P ow er S uppl y 2

Ca ta ly st 6500

SER I ES

HDA

ZDA

EDA

Backbone Cabling Topology


Entrance Room
Backbone Cabling

TR

Main Distribution Area

Backbone Cabling

Horizontal Distribution Area

Horizontal Distribution Area

Backbone Cabling
Cabling between ER, MDA and HDA including:
Backbone cables Main cross-connects Horizontal cross-connects Patch cords

Shall allow network reconfigurations and future growth

Cabling Pathways
Data Centers shall adhere to ANSI/TIA-569-B specifications with exceptions noted in standard Cabling shall not be routed through public spaces unless enclosed in secure pathways Maintenance holes, pull boxes, splice boxes shall be locked and monitored

Cabling Pathways Separation of Cabling


Proper distances must be maintained between electrical and twisted pair cables Branch electrical circuits should be in watertight flexible metal conduit Feeder electrical circuits to power distribution units should be in solid metal conduit If using cable tray MINIMUM of 12 between trays

Cabling Pathways Separation of Cabling


Access Floors Allocate separate aisles for power and telecommunications cabling If not possible, then provide both horizontal and vertical separation

Cabling Pathways Separation of Cabling


Cable Trays Fiber and copper cabling in trays should be separated:
Improves administration Minimizes damage to smaller diameter cables If possible, fiber should be on top of copper

Cabling Pathways Entrance Room


Should all be underground Each Access Provider should have at least one 4 conduit Shall meet ANSI/TIA-569-B

Cabling Pathways Access Floors


Cabling under floor shall be in ventilated cable trays Trays may be installed in multiple layers Trays shall have a maximum depth of 6 Access floor should use bolted stringer structure Plenum rated cable is typical consult AHJ

Cabling Pathways Overhead Cable Trays


Trays may be installed in multiple layers Trays shall have a maximum depth of 6 In shared-tenant data center common spaces:
Solid bottom tray OR MIN of 9 ft above finished floor

Tray should be supported from ceiling

Redundancy
Reliability of telecommunications infrastructure needs to be increased
Defined by Tier ratings

Very common to have multiple Service Providers Entrance Pathways should be on opposite ends of building If secondary ER required:
Access provider equipment should be able to operate independently 20 meters of separation Separate fire protection zones

Redundancy Main Distribution Area


If secondary distribution required:
Core routers and switches should be distributed Circuits should be split Separate fire protection zones Separate power distribution units Separate air conditioning systems

Infrastructure Redundancy
MDA
(Primary)

EDA

HDA

EDA

SDA
(Redundant)

HDA

ZDA

EDA

Redundancy Backbone Cabling


Protects against outage caused by damage Common to see additional cabling
MDA to HDA HDA to HDA

Cabling should be run along different routes If secondary distribution area


Not required HDA to HDA

Redundancy Horizontal Cabling


Cabling should be run along different routes Still must meet 100 meter maximum cable lengths Critical equipment can be supported by 2 HDAs
Separate fire protection zones

Informative Annex B

Identification of Cabling Infrastructure


Data Centers should adhere to ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-A with exceptions as noted in standard

Identification Scheme for Floor Space


Floor space should track the data center grid Use two letters and two numeric digits to identify each 600mm x 600mm (2ft X 2ft) floor tile AA, AB, ACAZ, BA, BB, BCand so on

Sample Floor Space Identifier


AA 01 02 03 04 AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI

AJ

AK

AL

AM

AN

X Coordinate

05
06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

Y Coordinate

Identification Scheme for Racks and Cabinets


All racks and cabinets should be labeled front and back For rooms with access floors, each rack and cabinet to have a unique identifier based on floor tile coordinates If cabinet rests on more than one tile, the same corner of each cabinet can be used to identify the grid location
Example: Front right corner

X Coordinate
AA 01 02 03 04 AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI

AJ

AK

AL

AM

AN

05
06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

Right Front Corner

Sample Cabinet

Y Coordinate

Sample Cabinet Identifier:

AJO5

Identification Scheme for Racks and Cabinets


In data centers with multiple floors, the floor number should be added as a prefix to the cabinet number EXAMPLE: A cabinet whose right front corner is at tile AJ05 on floor 2, will be named:

2AJO5

Identification Scheme for Patch Panels

Each panel to be labeled with an alpha character starting with A, B, CZ etc. Starting from the top of the rack down Horizontal wire management panels do not count when determining patch panel position

Sample of Panel Identifiers on Rack


AJ05-A to AQ 03-B Ports 01-24

A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4

AJ05-B to AQ 03-C Ports 01-24

B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4

AJ05-C to AQ03-D Ports 01-24

C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4

AJ 05-D to AQ 03-E Ports 01-24

D
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4

AJ05-E to AQ 03-F Ports 01-24

E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4

AJ05-F to AQ03-G Ports 01-24

F
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4

Sample Patch Panel Identifiers


AA AB AC AD AE AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL AM AN AO AP AQ AR AS AT AU AV AW AX AY 01 02 03 04

CAT 6 x 24

X Coordinate

05
06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Right Front Corner

Sample Cabinet

Right Front Corner

Y Coordinate

13

Patch Panel Identifier


Near end cabinet location and panel identifier to be followed by the far end cabinet location and panel identifier + port numbers

AJ05-A to AQ03-B Ports 1-24

Sample of Patch Panel Identifier

Cable and Patch Cord Identifier


Cables and patch cords should be labeled on both ends with the location of both ends of the cable
Example of the near end cable label:

AJ05-A01 / AQ03-B01
Example of the far end cable label:

AQ03-B01 / AJ05-A01

Sample of Patch Cord Identifier

Sample of Cable Identifier

Summary
Builds off of several existing TIA standards Focuses on specific needs and applications of data center environment Recommends best design and cabling practices Recommends different cabling media options Useful tool for design and installation of a data center environment