Creating Creative Green Public Spaces in Surabaya

Gunawan Tanuwidjaja
Architecture Program, Petra Christian University Indonesia e-mail: gunte@peter.petra.ac.id, gunteitb@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Creative public spaces were needed to facilitate creative economics activities. The creativity could be enhance with facilitating variety of local economy, improving urban greenery, facilitating sports and recreation activities, facilitating social interaction and bringing communal pride and memory. The Bungkul Park was found as the creative public space because it supported the Local Economy (food hawkers, etc). The park facilitated creative collaboration such as bikers’ communities, art activities. Lastly, the park also provided recreation and sports in the urban context with abundant greeneries as well as the social interaction, pride and memory to the People. All these created livable and vibrant public spaces. Therefore, similar approach needed to be implemented in other cities that would like to create creative public spaces. Keywords: Creative Public Spaces, Sustainable Public Spaces, Bungkul Park

INTRODUCTION
The creative process could be defined as the discovering new ideas or implementing of the existing ideas in different field (Wallas, G., 1926). 1 The creative collaboration could happen when two or more people or organizations work together in an intersection of common goals by sharing knowledge, learning and building consensus.” 2 Romer (1986) explained that, “The creativity is needed in process of producing new solution in achieving economic growth.” Meanwhile, Florida (2002) stated that “Regions with Technology, Talent and Tolerance or ‘3T’ would have an excellent economic development.” 3 Creativity needs a place; therefore creative public spaces were needed to facilitate creative economics activities and other human needs. As Jane Jacobs (1961) stated “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.”

Jane Jacobs (1961) approached cities as living beings and ecosystems that developed over time. The element of the city especially parks and neighbourhoods needed to function in synergy. She promoted the “mixed-use” urban development (the integration of different building types and uses) and the diversity of functions, as well as residents using areas at different times of day, producing community vitality. The cities would be vital because of their “organic, spontaneous, and untidy” situation and it could be achieved with Bottom-Up Community Planning. 4 Furthermore, Evans, G., et.all. (2006), stated that “Built form, public and natural spaces were found important to express and stimulate a city’s creativity. The city could strengthen its creative spaces, and thus its creative energy, by preserving heritage buildings, promoting and financing art for public and natural spaces, and using well-designed built form to showcase its distinctive character.” 5 Creative Collaboration could only take place in the place that conducive for social interaction. This was mentioned by Snyder (1979). The critical environmentbehavior relations in small-group situations were normally named as small-group ecology. It means that interpersonal contacts were affected by proxemic distances for various types of activities, dimensions, shape, and character of space. The studies found what types of spaces are best for seminars, conferences, meetings, informal discussions, and so on? And what types of small-group interaction happen in the corridors, courts, or plazas? Social interaction easily happened in the suitable areas such as seminar rooms that have a central square area and an “escape” area, it allows both intensive discussion and the chance to escape the intensity without leaving the room. 6 Understanding the Social interaction was important for creative public space. Chermayeff and Alexander 7 proposed six realms of individual private space to urban public space. The realms were: 1. Individual private areas, relating to the person - for example, a person’s private space 2. Family or small-group private areas, relating to the primary group-for example, home or dormitory suite. 3. Large-group private areas, relating to a secondary group - for example, management control of privacy on behalf of all residents in an apartment building. 4. Large-group public areas, involving the interaction of the large group with the public-such as semi-controlled public sidewalks or an area of group mailboxes. 5. Urban semi-public areas, that may be government- or institution-controlled with public access if purpose warrants-such as banks, post offices, airports, city halls. 6. Urban public areas, characterized by public ownership and complete public access-including parks, malls, and streets. The most successful urban public spaces incorporate all of these realms in a clear hierarchy that visible for all users. Chermayeff and Alexander actually explained that the entire users’ behaviour must be considered in the community spaces design.

A good urban, semi-public space will incorporate large-group public spaces and each of the smaller scale realms. 8 The vibrant public spaces could only be achieved with the design strategies of creative public spaces: 1. Enhance the Economy • Support the Local Economy • Facilitate Creative Collaboration 2. Enhance the Environment • Improve the Urban Green • Facilitating Sports and Recreation Activities 3. Enhance the Social Aspect • Facilitate Social Interaction • Bringing pride and memory to the People

METHODS
The research was an exploratory research of Bungkul Park. Visual Research Method (Sanoff, H., 1991) 9 was employed to explore the creative use as well as social interaction the users. Later on, historical and spatial analyses were conducted.

DISCUSSION
One successful public spaces created in Surabaya is the Bungkul Park. 10 The Park was developed in 2006. The strategic location of the park was identified as the main reason of its success. The park was originally was a tomb for Mbah Bungkul. He was recognised as the “Sunan” or Moslem Saints that spread Islam in Java Island such as: Syah Abdul Muhyi (Tasikmalaya), Sunan Geseng (Magelang), Sunan Tembayat (Klaten), KI Ageng Gribig (Klaten), Sunan Panggung (Tegal), Sunan Prapen (Gresik), etc. 11 The Bungkul Park was originally planned for Sport, Education, and Entertainment. The Park was equipped with facilities, such as the skateboard & BMX bike track, jogging track, plaza (with open stage for various types of live performance entertainment), wireless internet access, public telephone, greeneries, the fountain, Food Hawker Area (Pujasera) and drinking tap water. The Park was found packed with the Surabaya Residents every Sunday Morning during the car free day event. The event actually drew many residents to come and use the park, including youth, elderly people, and families. Range of bike communities such as racing bikers, folding bikers, BMX, etc gathered every Sunday morning. Not only that on Saturday nights, live music events were held in this park.
12

The Bungkul Park, was regarded as the square of Surabaya, since it is always crowded with visitor. Actually, the original Surabaya Town Square was located in Jalan Pemuda, unfortunately, the park did not attract people. Other parks available in Surabaya, are Taman Prestasi (in the Jalan Ketabang Kali), Taman Apsari (in front of Grahadi Building), Taman Sulawesi (in the Jalan Sulawesi), Taman DR. Soetomo (in the Jalan DR. Soetomo Darmo), Taman Mayangkara (in front of Islamic Hospital/ Rumah Sakit Islam), Taman Ronggo Lawe (in the Jalan Gunung Sari), Taman Buah (in the Jalan Undaan). But still the Bungkul Park attracted more people than the other parks, because of variety of activities and strategic location. Many informal hawkers were facilitated in the Bungkul Park. They sold food, coffee, soft drinks, watches, bracelet, massage veins, drugs. Beside of them, tattoo artists, accessories seller, face painters, magic entertainment, and chess game players could be found in the park. The park also facilitated children to play games such as, a teeter totter, swing, sliding, skate park and so on. Creative public spaces were needed to facilitate creative economics activities. Jane Jacobs (1961) stated that “Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.” 13 Evans, G., et.all. (2006), also stated that “Built form, public and natural spaces were found important to express and stimulate a city’s creativity. The city could strengthen its creative spaces, and thus its creative energy, by promoting and financing art for public and natural spaces.” 14 The vibrant public spaces could only be achieved with the design strategies of creative public spaces: 1. Enhance the Economy • Support the Local Economy • Facilitate Creative Collaboration 2. Enhance the Environment • Improve the Urban Green • Facilitating Sports and Recreation Activities 3. Enhance the Social Aspect • Facilitate Social Interaction • Bringing pride and memory to the People The Bungkul Park was found as the creative public space because it supported the Local Economy (food hawkers, etc). The park also facilitated creative collaboration such as bikers’ communities, art activities. Later on, the park also provided recreation and sports in the urban context with greeneries. The social interaction, pride and memory to the People were also generated by the Park. All these created liveable and vibrant public spaces.

Figure 1. Social Interaction Pattern of Surabaya People
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 2. Social Interaction Pattern of Surabaya People
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 3. Bungkul Park Aerial View
Source: Googlemap 2013

Figure 4. Sport Activities in Bungkul Park Plaza in Sunday Morning
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 5. Social Interaction Pattern in Bungkul Park Plaza in Evening
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 6. Informal Hawker in Bungkul Park Plaza
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 7. Kid Playground
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 8. Studying Activities in Bungkul Park because of availability of WI-FI
Source: field survey, 2011

Figure 9. Recreation Activities in Bungkul Park
Source: field survey, 2011

CONCLUSION
The Bungkul Park was found as the creative public space because it supported the Local Economy (food hawkers, etc). The park also facilitated creative collaboration such as bikers’ communities, art activities. Later on, the park also provided recreation and sports in the urban context with greeneries. The social interaction, pride and memory to the People were also generated by the Park. All these created liveable and vibrant public spaces. The paper was disseminated in the C20Library, Design It Yourself – Session 8 Urban Planning, Saturday, 29th October 2011, Surabaya, http://diy.c2o-library.net/wpcontent/uploads/2012/03/TANUWIDJAJA_Creating-Creative-Public-Spaces-inSurabaya-en.pdf.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We would like to express our gratitude to • Architecture Program Study of Petra Christian University

• •

Agus Dwi Hariyanto, ST., M.Sc. Head of Architecture Program Study. o Ir. Joyce M. Laurens, M.Arch., Lecturer of Architecture Program Study. Mrs Joyce Martha Widjaya, Senior Researcher of Research Institute of Socio-Economic and Environmental, Public Works Department. C20 Library o

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