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Inventory Number: 001810 First Edition ANSYS Release: 7.0 Published Date: March 14, 2003

Registered Trademarks:

ANSYS is a registered trademark of SAS IP Inc. All other product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers.

Disclaimer Notice:

This document has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the ANSYS, Inc. Documentation Review and Approval Procedures. This ANSYS Inc. software product (the Program) and program documentation (Documentation) are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an ANSYS Software License Agreement that contains provisions concerning nondisclosure, copying, length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and remedies, and other provisions. The Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that License Agreement.

Copyright 2003 SAS IP, Inc. Proprietary data. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited. All Rights Reserved.

Table of Contents

Introductory Workshop Galloping Gertie -------------------------------------------Modal Analysis Workshop Plate with a Hole -------------------------------------------Modal Analysis Workshop Model Airplane Wing -------------------------------------------Harmonic Analysis Workshop Fixed-Fixed Beam -------------------------------------------Transient Analysis Workshop Bouncing Block -------------------------------------------Restarting a Transient Workshop Bouncing Block -------------------------------------------Response Spectrum Workshop Workbench Table -------------------------------------------Random Vibration Workshop Model Airplane Wing -------------------------------------------Pre-stressed Modal Analysis Workshop Pre-Stressed Disc -------------------------------------------Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop Spiral Bevel Gear --------------------------------------------

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

W-5 W-17 W-23 W-27 W-35 W-43 W-49 W-55 W-61 W-67

Galloping Gertie

Introductory Workshop

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

Objective

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

The Tacoma Narrows bridge, also known as the Galloping Gertie is famous for its spectacular collapse in 1940. In this workshop, we will examine a model of the bridge and calculate its natural frequencies and mode shapes. We will then simulate the wind storm and vortex shedding that caused the bridges collapse by doing a harmonic analysis.

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

Instructions

1. Enter ANSYS in the working directory specified by your instructor. 2. Start by reading input from the file gallop.inp. Utility Menu: File > Read Input from choose gallop.inp

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-7

This will create the model and perform a static analysis to prestress the bridge. The next step is to do a modal analysis.

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

3. Enter Solution and change analysis type to Modal:

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis choose Modal.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options...

accept the default (Block Lanczos) 10 modes to extract 10 modes to expand Calculate element stresses Include prestress effects press OK

Accept defaults on the next dialog (Options for Block Lanczos Modal Analysis)

5. Solve.

Solution > Solve > Current LS

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

6. Plot the first few mode shapes.

General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu ...

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Mode 1 SX stress

Mode 3 SX stress

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

7. Enter Solution and choose harmonic analysis. Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis 8. Set the following analysis options.

Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options... Select the Mode superposition solution method Defaults for all others (including subsequent dialog box)

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Freq and Substps...

10. Set constant damping ratio = 0.01.

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Damping

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

11. Apply a load vector for mode superposition with a scale factor of 100.

Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Mode Super

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

12. Solve: Solution > Solve > Current LS 13. Save the ANSYS database for the Variable Viewer in Step 14.

Utility Menu: File > Save as Jobname.db

14. Enter POST26 (TimeHist Postproc). The Variable Viewer will start automatically. Specify the results file name, i.e. gallop.rfrq, by clicking on File > Open Results)

Select gallop.rfrq as the results file, then click [Open] Select gallop.db as the ANSYS database, then click [Open]

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

15. Create a scalar parameter to represent the center node: At command line type in ncen = node(0,0,0) . 16. Define a variable (a vector) using the Variable Viewer that will contain the UZ displacements of the center node:

a. b. Click on the Add Data button Double click on Nodal Solution and DOF Solution, select ZComponent of displacement and enter uz_mid for the Variable Name, and then click [OK] Enter ncen followed by [Enter] in the ANSYS Picker Menu, then [OK]

c.

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

16. (contd).

The Variable Viewer should appear as follows:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

17. Graph the UZ-displacement vs frequency:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

1. Select the line labeled uz_mid and then click on the Graph Data button

18. Close the Variable Viewer and then Exit ANSYS or go to step 19 if time March 14, 2003 permits. Inventory #001810

WS-14

Introductory Workshop

Galloping Gertie

Optional: Continue with the following steps to review the deformed shape and stresses at 0.07 Hz frequency.

19. Read Input from gallop_more.inp.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

20. Enter POST1, read results for load step 1 substep 7, and plot the deformed shape and stress contours. Repeat for the imaginary part as well.

21. Exit ANSYS.

SEQV stress

SEQV stress

Real Part

Imaginary Part

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-15

Description: Determine the first 10 natural frequencies of the plate with a hole shown. Assume the plate to be radially constrained at the hole. The plate is made of aluminum, with the following properties:

Youngs modulus = 10 x 106 psi Density = 2.4 x 10-4 lbf-sec2/in4 Poissons ratio = 0.27

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Instructions

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

1. Clear the database and read input from plate.inp to create the model geometry and mesh.

Utility Menu: File > Clear & Start New press OK, then answer Yes Utility Menu: File > Read Input from choose plate.inp

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models Double click through Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic EX = 10e6 (Youngs modulus in psi) PRXY = 0.27 (Poissons ratio) [OK] Structural Density DENS = 2.4e-4 (Density in lbf-sec2/in4) [OK] Exit the material GUI

3. Choose modal analysis.

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis choose Modal, then OK

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options Use Block Lanczos method (default) 10 modes to extract 10 modes to expand Yes to calculate element results press OK Accept defaults on the next dialog box

Utility Menu: Plot > Lines Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines Pick the lines around the hole and press OK in the Picker Menu

Solution > Solve > Current LS Check solution information in the /STAT window, then press OK

7. Review results. Start by listing the frequencies.

General Postproc > Results Summary

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

General Postproc > Read Results > First Set General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Choose Def + undef edge and press OK Mode 1

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-21

9. Plot and animate the next mode shape.

General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set Utility Menu: Plot > Replot Utility Menu: PlotCtrls > Animate > Mode Shape 10 frames Time delay = 0.05 (accept all other defaults)

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Mode 6

Description:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Determine the first five natural frequencies of the model airplane wing shown. Assume the wing to be fully fixed at Z=0. The wing has the following properties:

Youngs modulus = 38000 psi Poissons ratio = 0.3 Density = 1.033 x 10-3 slugs/in3 = (1.033E-3)/12 lbf-sec2/in4

Instructions

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

1. Clear the database and read input from wing.inp to create the model geometry and mesh. 2. Define material properties. Remember to use British in-lb-sec units. 3. Apply boundary conditions. Hint: Choose Apply Displacements on Areas, pick the Z=0 area, and fix it in all DOF. 4. Extract (and expand) the first four natural frequencies using the Block Lanczos method.

5. Review all the mode shapes.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

Mode 4

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-26

Fixed-Fixed Beam

Fixed-Fixed Beam

Description:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Determine the harmonic response of a steel beam carrying two rotating machines which exert a maximum force of 70 lb at operating speeds of 300 to 1800 rpm. The beam, 10 feet long, is fully fixed at both ends, and the machines are mounted at its one-third points. Assume a damping ratio of 2%.

Fixed-Fixed Beam

Instructions

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

1. Clear the database and read input from beam.inp to create the beam model. 2. Specify harmonic analysis (full method) . 3. Fix the two ends of the beam and apply the two in-phase harmonic forces of FY=70 lbs each at the 40-inch and 80-inch points along the beam.

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Damping

5. Specify 25 solutions between 5 and 30 Hz (300-1800 rpm). Remember to step apply the loading.

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Freq and Substps

Solution > Solve > Current LS

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-29

Fixed-Fixed Beam

7.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

In Time history post processor plot UY displacements versus frequency for the two nodes at which the forces were applied.

NOTE: Use (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs ) for changing graph style / settings.

TimeHist Postpro > List Variables

Fixed-Fixed Beam

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

9. In General Post processor review the deformed shape of the beam at the critical frequency and phase angle.

1. Find the load step and substep for the critical frequency:

General Postproc > Result Summary

2. Issue the HRCPLX command to read in the results at the critical frequency and phase angle:

HRCPLX,1,4,-25.3743

Fixed-Fixed Beam

9. (continued).

3. Plot the UY displacement:

General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

plns,u,y

Fixed-Fixed Beam

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

10. If time permits, repeat the analysis with forces that are 180 out of phase.

Fixed-Fixed Beam

10. (continued).

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

HRCPLX,1,21,-98.2155

plns,u,y

Bouncing Block

Bouncing Block

Description:

A 6x6x1-inch block is dropped on a 100inch long beam from a height of 100 inches. Obtain a graph of the motion of the block as it bounces on the beam. Assume a gap stiffness of 2000 lb/in. The beam is fully fixed at both ends, and the only load is gravity, 386 in/sec2. The beam and the block are made of the same material:

Youngs modulus = 1,000,000 psi Density = 0.001 lbf-sec2/in4 Poissons ratio = 0.3

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Bouncing Block

Instructions

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

1. Clear the database and read input from bounce.inp to build the model. 2. Define a transient analysis (full method) 3. Fix the two ends of the beam in all directions. 4. Use APDL to calculate the integration time step (ITS):

kgap = 2000

mgap = 6*6*0.001 = 0.036 pi = acos(-1) fgap = sqrt(kgap/mgap)/(2*pi) - gap frequency

- gap stiffness

- mass of block

its = 1/(fgap*30)

Bouncing Block

5. Solve using two load steps.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Fix all nodes of the block in all dofs. Apply an acceleration of 386 in/sec2 In Solution Control menu, Set analysis to large displacement transient.

Set time=0.001.

2 substeps Request output of all results for all substeps on the results file Static solution (time integration effects off) with Step applied load. Set beta damping of .0003183.

SOLVE

Bouncing Block

Load Step 2 ( transient): Go back to solution control menu and

Time=1.5

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Automatic time stepping on, with starting ITS = 0.02, minimum ITS = its (from step 4) and maximum ITS = 0.02 Transient solution (time integration effects on) Release the block

SOLVE

Bouncing Block

6. Review results:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Plot the UY displacements of the beam mid-point and the block versus time. Plot the FY reaction force at one of the constraints versus time.

Animate results over time. Note: To store all the frames needed for animation, you may need to reduce the size of the graphics window.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-40

Bouncing Block

7. Animate results over time. Note: To store all the frames needed for animation, you may need to reduce the size of the graphics window.

/post1 /focus,,50,50 /dist,,70 /dsca,,1 /eshape,0 inres,nsol set,first pldisp /noerase *do,t,0.001,1.5,3/50 set,near,,,,t pldisp *enddo /erase

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

8. Do not exit ANSYS: You will continue this workshop with a restart later on.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-41

Bouncing Block

Bouncing Block

Description:

Continue the bouncing block analysis from the previous exercise. That analysis was stopped at time=1.5. In this exercise we will continue to follow the blocks motion up to time=3.0. The restart files needed (.r001 /.ldhi /.rdb ) are available from the previous workshop. The results file from the previous transient analysis is also available. ANSYS will append the new results to this RST file as load step 3.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Time = 1.5

Bouncing Block

Instructions: 1. Continue the ANSYS session from the previous workshop.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

This will bring up a lister window showing a summary of the restart files available. Choose the load step and substep number from this summary. 3. In Solution Control menu under the Time Control section: change TIME to 3.0 and select Time increment. 4. Solve.

Bouncing Block

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

In Time History postprocessor graph the UY displacement of a node on the block and a node on the beam again.

Bouncing Block

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Animate results over time. Note: To store all the frames needed for animation, you may need to reduce the size of the graphics window.

Time = 1.5 to 3

Workbench Table

Workbench Table

Description:

Determine the displacements and stresses in a workbench table due to the acceleration spectrum shown below.

217 217

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Acceleration

150.2 79.5

20

80

200

300

Frequency

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-50

Workbench Table

Instructions

1.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Clear the database and read input from table.inp to create the model geometry and mesh.

2. Obtain a modal solution (15 modes) and view the first few mode shapes. Be sure to request element stress calculations.

Mode 1

Mode 2

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-51

Workbench Table

3. Do a spectrum analysis for the given acceleration spectrum applied in the global X direction. Use the SRSS method of mode combination. 4. Review displacements and table top stresses for each load step.

pldisp,2

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

plns,u,x

plns,s,1

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-52

Workbench Table

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

5. If time permits, repeat the analysis with the spectrum applied in the Y direction, then in the Z direction.

Description:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Determine the displacements and stresses of the model airplane wing due to an acceleration PSD applied to the base of the wing in Y direction. Assume the wing to be fully fixed at Z=0.

Acceleration(G2/Hz)

0.1

0.1

0.075 0.025

20

100

400

600

Frequency (Hz)

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-56

Instructions

1.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Clear the database and read input from wing.inp to create the model geometry and mesh.

2. Define material properties. Youngs modulus = 38000 psi Poissons ratio = 0.3

3. Apply boundary conditions. Hint: Choose Apply Displacements on Areas, pick the Z=0 area, and fix it in all DOF.

4. Extract (and expand) the first 15 natural frequencies using the Block Lanczos method.

5. Review mode shapes.

Mode 1

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Hint: Be sure to use G2/Hz as the units of the PSD. 7. Specify excitation in the Y direction (by applying unit displacements in the Y direction at the base nodes). 8. Compute Participation factors. 9. Use PSD mode combination method and SOLVE.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

10. In the general postprocessor look at the relative displacements/ stresses ( Load step 3).

Can you directly use stress contours for, say SZ, to compare to yield stress? What is in load step 1? Are equivalent/principal stresses derived from 1 sigma component stresses valid?

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

11. In Time History Postprocessor create the response PSD for UY at one of the nodes of the wingtip. Plot on log-log scale.

Hint: When you get into time history postprocessor first issue Store Data and accept the default. This is required for computing Response PSD.

NODE 182

Pre-Stressed Disc

Description:

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Determine the first ten natural frequencies and mode shapes of the perforated aluminum disc shown. The disc is constrained at the central hole both in the radial and out-of-plane directions. A pre-stress exists due to a radial pressure load of -20 lbs/inch at the perimeter. Properties of the disc are as follows: Youngs modulus = 1.0 x 107 psi Density = 2.3 x 10-4 lbf-sec2/in4 Poissons ratio = 0.27

Pre-stressed Disc

Instructions

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

1. Clear the database and read input from disc.inp to create the model geometry and mesh. 2. Apply displacement constraints: UZ=0 and symmetry b.c. (for radial constraints) at the central hole. Hint: You will need to use two menus:

Solution > Define Loads >Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines constraint for the UZ

Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines for symmetry b.c.

To pick the lines easily, switch to front view and use Circle picking.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-63

Pre-stressed Disc

3. Apply the radial load as pressure on the lines at the perimeter : -20 pounds/inch on the outer edges of the disc.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

Hint: Stay with the front view, use Circle picking to pick the entire disc, then use Circle unpicking to unpick all except the outer edges.

4. Activate pre-stress effects (using the Analysis Options dialog box), obtain a static solution, and review results. plns,s,1

Pre-stressed Disc

5. Switch to modal analysis, activate pre-stress effects (again), and extract the first 10 modes of the pre-stressed disc using the Block Lanczos method. 6. Review the mode shapes. 7. If time permits, do a second, stress-free modal analysis (with pre-stress effects off) and compare results. Shown to the right is the first mode shape for each case. Can you guess which one is pre-stressed?

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

FREQ = 73.484

FREQ = 1.582

Description:

Determine the first two natural frequencies of nodal diameter 2 for the spiral bevel gear shown. Assume a free-free condition (i.e., no displacement constraints). Material properties of the gear are as follows: Youngs modulus = 2.9 x 107 psi Density = 7.324 x 10-4 lbf-sec2/in4

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-68

Instructions

1. Clear the database and read input from bevel.inp to create the basic sector and define material properties. 2. Issue the CYCLIC command to automatically detect the low and high edge components using BEVEL as the Root name for the components ( Preprocessor > Modeling > Cyclic Sector > Cyclic Model > Auto Defined )

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

3. Display the current cyclic status: Preprocessor > Modeling > Cyclic Sector > Cyclic Model > Status

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

4. Define a modal analysis with the following options: Block Lanczos method Extract two modes in the frequency range 100 to 10,000 Expand 2 modes

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

5. Solve for nodal diameter range 2 to 2: 1. Solution > Solve > Cyclic Options 2. Solution > Solve > Current LS

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

6. Expand results to all 53 sectors ( General Postproc > Cyclic Analysis > Cyc Expansion ). Then read in the results of the first mode shape (General Postproc > Read Results > First set ). Plot the nodal solution for UZ displacements.

/gline,1,-1 plns,u,z

NOTE: The /CYCEXPAND command actually creates new elements and nodes for all 53 sectors.

7. Plot the vector sum displacement.

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

plns,u,sum

8. Execute the ANCYC traveling wave animation:

Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Cyc Traveling Wave

No. of frames to create = 25 Time delay = 0.1 Animation Mode = Forward-Reset-Forward Nodal Solution Data [OK] DOF solution USUM

Workshop Supplement

DYNAMICS 7.0

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