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**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS for ANSYS 7.0**

**Workshop Supplement DYNAMICS**

Inventory Number: 001810 First Edition ANSYS Release: 7.0 Published Date: March 14, 2003

**Registered Trademarks:**

ANSYS® is a registered trademark of SAS IP Inc. All other product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers.

**Disclaimer Notice:**

This document has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the ANSYS, Inc. Documentation Review and Approval Procedures. “This ANSYS Inc. software product (the Program) and program documentation (Documentation) are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an ANSYS Software License Agreement that contains provisions concerning nondisclosure, copying, length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and remedies, and other provisions. The Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that License Agreement.”

Copyright © 2003 SAS IP, Inc. Proprietary data. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited. All Rights Reserved.

**Table of Contents**

Introductory Workshop Galloping Gertie -------------------------------------------Modal Analysis Workshop Plate with a Hole -------------------------------------------Modal Analysis Workshop Model Airplane Wing -------------------------------------------Harmonic Analysis Workshop Fixed-Fixed Beam -------------------------------------------Transient Analysis Workshop Bouncing Block -------------------------------------------Restarting a Transient Workshop Bouncing Block -------------------------------------------Response Spectrum Workshop Workbench Table -------------------------------------------Random Vibration Workshop Model Airplane Wing -------------------------------------------Pre-stressed Modal Analysis Workshop Pre-Stressed Disc -------------------------------------------Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop Spiral Bevel Gear --------------------------------------------

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**W-5 W-17 W-23 W-27 W-35 W-43 W-49 W-55 W-61 W-67**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-3**

**Galloping Gertie**

**Introductory Workshop**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

Objective •

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**To get an idea of the steps involved in a typical dynamic analysis.**

The Tacoma Narrows bridge, also known as the Galloping Gertie is famous for its spectacular collapse in 1940. In this workshop, we will examine a model of the bridge and calculate its natural frequencies and mode shapes. We will then simulate the wind storm and vortex shedding that caused the bridge‟s collapse by doing a harmonic analysis.

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-6**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

Instructions

1. Enter ANSYS in the working directory specified by your instructor. 2. Start by reading input from the file gallop.inp. Utility Menu: File > Read Input from… choose gallop.inp

– –

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-7

This will create the model and perform a static analysis to prestress the bridge. The next step is to do a modal analysis.

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

3. Enter Solution and change analysis type to Modal:

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis… choose Modal.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**4. Set the following analysis options.**

Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options...

accept the default (Block Lanczos) 10 modes to extract 10 modes to expand Calculate element stresses Include prestress effects… press OK

Accept defaults on the next dialog (Options for Block Lanczos Modal Analysis)

**5. Solve.**

Solution > Solve > Current LS

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-8**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

6. Plot the first few mode shapes.

General Postproc > Read Results > By Pick … General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu ...

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Mode 1 – SX stress**

**Mode 3 – SX stress**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-9**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

7. Enter Solution and choose harmonic analysis. Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis… 8. Set the following analysis options.

Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options... Select the Mode superposition solution method Defaults for all others (including subsequent dialog box)

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**9. Set frequency and substep options:**

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Freq and Substps...

**Harmonic frequency range = 0 to 0.4 Number of substeps = 40**

**Stepped boundary conditions**

10. Set constant damping ratio = 0.01.

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Damping…

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-10**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

11. Apply a load vector for mode superposition with a scale factor of 100.

Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Load Vector > For Mode Super…

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**(close the warning message window)**

12. Solve: Solution > Solve > Current LS 13. Save the ANSYS database for the Variable Viewer in Step 14.

Utility Menu: File > Save as Jobname.db …

14. Enter POST26 (TimeHist Postproc). The Variable Viewer will start automatically. Specify the results file name, i.e. gallop.rfrq, by clicking on File > Open Results)

Select “gallop.rfrq” as the results file, then click [Open] Select “gallop.db” as the ANSYS database, then click [Open]

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-11**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

15. Create a scalar parameter to represent the center node: At command line type in ncen = node(0,0,0) . 16. Define a variable (a vector) using the Variable Viewer that will contain the UZ displacements of the center node:

a. b. Click on the “Add Data” button Double click on “Nodal Solution” and “DOF Solution”, select “ZComponent of displacement” and enter “uz_mid” for the Variable Name, and then click [OK] Enter “ncen” followed by [Enter] in the ANSYS Picker Menu, then [OK]

**c.**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-12**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

16. (cont‟d).

The Variable Viewer should appear as follows:

**Workshop Supplement**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-13**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

17. Graph the UZ-displacement vs frequency:

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**1. Select the line labeled “uz_mid” and then click on the “Graph Data” button**

18. Close the Variable Viewer and then Exit ANSYS or go to step 19 if time March 14, 2003 permits. Inventory #001810

WS-14

**Introductory Workshop**

**… Galloping Gertie**

Optional: Continue with the following steps to review the deformed shape and stresses at 0.07 Hz frequency.

19. Read Input from… gallop_more.inp.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

20. Enter POST1, read results for load step 1 substep 7, and plot the deformed shape and stress contours. Repeat for the imaginary part as well.

21. Exit ANSYS.

**SEQV stress**

**SEQV stress**

**Real Part**

**Imaginary Part**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-15

**Plate with a Hole**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Plate with a Hole**

Description: Determine the first 10 natural frequencies of the plate with a hole shown. Assume the plate to be radially constrained at the hole. The plate is made of aluminum, with the following properties:

– Young‟s modulus = 10 x 106 psi – Density = 2.4 x 10-4 lbf-sec2/in4 – Poisson‟s ratio = 0.27

**Workshop Supplement**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-18**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Plate with a Hole**

Instructions

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

1. Clear the database and read input from plate.inp to create the model geometry and mesh.

Utility Menu: File > Clear & Start New… press OK, then answer Yes Utility Menu: File > Read Input from… choose plate.inp

**2. Define material properties.**

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models… • Double click through – … Structural … Linear … Elastic … Isotropic • EX = 10e6 (Young‟s modulus in psi) • PRXY = 0.27 (Poisson‟s ratio) • [OK] – … Structural … Density • DENS = 2.4e-4 (Density in lbf-sec2/in4) • [OK] • Exit the material GUI

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-19**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Plate with a Hole**

3. Choose modal analysis.

Solution > Analysis Type > New Analysis… choose Modal, then OK

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**4. Specify analysis options.**

Solution > Analysis Type > Analysis Options… Use Block Lanczos method (default) 10 modes to extract 10 modes to expand Yes to calculate element results… press OK Accept defaults on the next dialog box

**5. Radially constrain the hole.**

Utility Menu: Plot > Lines Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines Pick the lines around the hole and press OK in the Picker Menu

**6. Start the solution.**

Solution > Solve > Current LS Check solution information in the /STAT window, then press OK

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-20**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Plate with a Hole**

7. Review results. Start by listing the frequencies.

General Postproc > Results Summary

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**8. Plot the first mode shape.**

General Postproc > Read Results > First Set General Postproc > Plot Results > Deformed Shape Choose “Def + undef edge” and press OK Mode 1

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-21

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Plate with a Hole**

9. Plot and animate the next mode shape.

General Postproc > Read Results > Next Set Utility Menu: Plot > Replot Utility Menu: PlotCtrls > Animate > Mode Shape… 10 frames Time delay = 0.05 (accept all other defaults)

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**10. Repeat above step for subsequent mode shapes.**

**Mode 6**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-22**

**Model Airplane Wing**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

Description:

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

Determine the first five natural frequencies of the model airplane wing shown. Assume the wing to be fully fixed at Z=0. The wing has the following properties:

– – – Young‟s modulus = 38000 psi Poisson‟s ratio = 0.3 Density = 1.033 x 10-3 slugs/in3 = (1.033E-3)/12 lbf-sec2/in4

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-24**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

Instructions

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

1. Clear the database and read input from wing.inp to create the model geometry and mesh. 2. Define material properties. Remember to use British in-lb-sec units. 3. Apply boundary conditions. Hint: Choose Apply Displacements on Areas, pick the Z=0 area, and fix it in all DOF. 4. Extract (and expand) the first four natural frequencies using the Block Lanczos method.

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-25**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

5. Review all the mode shapes.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Mode 1**

**Mode 2**

**Mode 3**

**Mode 4**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-26

**Fixed-Fixed Beam**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

Description: •

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

Determine the harmonic response of a steel beam carrying two rotating machines which exert a maximum force of 70 lb at operating speeds of 300 to 1800 rpm. The beam, 10 feet long, is fully fixed at both ends, and the machines are mounted at its “one-third” points. Assume a damping ratio of 2%.

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-28**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

Instructions

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

1. Clear the database and read input from beam.inp to create the beam model. 2. Specify harmonic analysis (full method) . 3. Fix the two ends of the beam and apply the two in-phase harmonic forces of FY=70 lbs each at the 40-inch and 80-inch points along the beam.

**4. Specify a damping ratio of 0.02 (i.e. 2%).**

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Damping

5. Specify 25 solutions between 5 and 30 Hz (300-1800 rpm). Remember to step apply the loading.

Solution > Load Step Opts > Time/Frequenc > Freq and Substps …

**6. Obtain the harmonic solution.**

Solution > Solve > Current LS

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-29

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

7.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

In Time history post processor plot UY displacements versus frequency for the two nodes at which the forces were applied.

NOTE: Use (Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Style > Graphs ) for changing graph style / settings.

**8. Find the critical frequency and phase angle.**

TimeHist Postpro > List Variables

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-30**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

9. In General Post processor review the deformed shape of the beam at the critical frequency and phase angle.

1. Find the load step and substep for the critical frequency:

General Postproc > Result Summary

**2. Issue the HRCPLX command to read in the results at the critical frequency and phase angle:HRCPLX,1,4,-25.3743**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-31**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

9. (continued).

3. Plot the UY displacement:

General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Nodal Solu

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**plns,u,y**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-32**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**10. If time permits, repeat the analysis with forces that are 180° out of phase.**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-33**

**Harmonic Analysis Workshop**

**… Fixed-Fixed Beam**

10. (continued).

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**HRCPLX,1,21,-98.2155**

plns,u,y

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-34**

**Bouncing Block**

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

Description:

• A 6x6x1-inch block is dropped on a 100inch long beam from a height of 100 inches. Obtain a graph of the motion of the block as it bounces on the beam. Assume a gap stiffness of 2000 lb/in. The beam is fully fixed at both ends, and the only load is gravity, 386 in/sec2. The beam and the block are made of the same material:

– – – Young‟s modulus = 1,000,000 psi Density = 0.001 lbf-sec2/in4 Poisson‟s ratio = 0.3

**Workshop Supplement**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-36**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

Instructions

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

1. Clear the database and read input from bounce.inp to build the model. 2. Define a transient analysis (full method) 3. Fix the two ends of the beam in all directions. 4. Use APDL to calculate the integration time step (ITS):

kgap = 2000

mgap = 6*6*0.001 = 0.036 pi = acos(-1) fgap = sqrt(kgap/mgap)/(2*pi) - gap frequency

**- gap stiffness**

- mass of block

**its = 1/(fgap*30)**

**- integration time step**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-37**

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

5. Solve using two load steps.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Load Step 1 (for non-zero initial acceleration):**

– Fix all nodes of the block in all dofs. – Apply an acceleration of 386 in/sec2 In Solution Control menu, – Set analysis to “large displacement transient”.

**– Set time=0.001.**

– 2 substeps – Request output of all results for all substeps on the results file – Static solution (time integration effects off) with Step applied load. – Set beta damping of .0003183.

**SOLVE**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-38**

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

Load Step 2 ( transient): Go back to solution control menu and

– Time=1.5

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

– Automatic time stepping on, with starting ITS = 0.02, minimum ITS = its (from step 4) and maximum ITS = 0.02 – Transient solution (time integration effects “on”) – Release the block

**– SOLVE**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-39**

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

6. Review results:

– –

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

Plot the UY displacements of the beam mid-point and the block versus time. Plot the FY reaction force at one of the constraints versus time.

Animate results over time. Note: To store all the frames needed for animation, you may need to reduce the size of the graphics window.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-40

**Transient Analysis Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

7. Animate results over time. Note: To store all the frames needed for animation, you may need to reduce the size of the graphics window.

/post1 /focus,,50,50 /dist,,70 /dsca,,1 /eshape,0 inres,nsol set,first pldisp /noerase *do,t,0.001,1.5,3/50 set,near,,,,t pldisp *enddo /erase

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

8. Do not exit ANSYS: – You will continue this workshop with a restart later on.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-41

**Bouncing Block**

**Restarting a Transient Workshop**

**Restarting a Transient Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

Description:

• Continue the bouncing block analysis from the previous exercise. That analysis was stopped at time=1.5. In this exercise we will continue to follow the block‟s motion up to time=3.0. The restart files needed (.r001 /.ldhi /.rdb ) are available from the previous workshop. The results file from the previous transient analysis is also available. ANSYS will append the new results to this RST file as load step 3.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Time = 1.5**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-44**

**Restarting a Transient Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

Instructions: 1. Continue the ANSYS session from the previous workshop.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**2. Solution > Analysis Type > Restart**

This will bring up a lister window showing a summary of the restart files available. Choose the load step and substep number from this summary. 3. In Solution Control menu under the Time Control section: change TIME to 3.0 and select “Time increment”. 4. Solve.

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-45**

**Restarting a Transient Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

•

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**In Time History postprocessor graph the UY displacement of a node on the block and a node on the beam again.**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-46**

**Restarting a Transient Workshop**

**… Bouncing Block**

•

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

In the general postprocessor animate the bouncing of the block again.

– Animate results over time. Note: To store all the frames needed for animation, you may need to reduce the size of the graphics window.

**Time = 1.5 to 3**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-47**

**Workbench Table**

**Response Spectrum Workshop**

**Response Spectrum Workshop**

**… Workbench Table**

Description:

Determine the displacements and stresses in a workbench table due to the acceleration spectrum shown below.

217 217

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Acceleration**

**150.2 79.5**

**20**

**80**

**200**

**300**

**Frequency**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-50

**Response Spectrum Workshop**

**… Workbench Table**

Instructions

1.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Clear the database and read input from table.inp to create the model geometry and mesh.**

2. Obtain a modal solution (15 modes) and view the first few mode shapes. Be sure to request element stress calculations.

**Mode 1**

**Mode 2**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-51

**Response Spectrum Workshop**

**… Workbench Table**

3. Do a spectrum analysis for the given acceleration spectrum applied in the global X direction. Use the SRSS method of mode combination. 4. Review displacements and table top stresses for each load step.

pldisp,2

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**plns,u,x**

**plns,s,1**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-52

**Response Spectrum Workshop**

**… Workbench Table**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**5. If time permits, repeat the analysis with the spectrum applied in the Y direction, then in the Z direction.**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-53**

**Model Airplane Wing**

**Random Vibration (PSD) Workshop**

**Random Vibrations Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

Description:

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

Determine the displacements and stresses of the model airplane wing due to an acceleration PSD applied to the base of the wing in Y direction. Assume the wing to be fully fixed at Z=0.

**Acceleration(G2/Hz)**

**0.1**

**0.1**

**0.075 0.025**

**20**

**100**

**400**

**600**

**Frequency (Hz)**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-56

**Random Vibrations Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

Instructions

1.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Clear the database and read input from wing.inp to create the model geometry and mesh.**

**2. Define material properties. Young‟s modulus = 38000 psi Poisson‟s ratio = 0.3**

**Density = 1.033E-3/12 lbf-sec2/in4**

3. Apply boundary conditions. Hint: Choose Apply Displacements on Areas, pick the Z=0 area, and fix it in all DOF.

4. Extract (and expand) the first 15 natural frequencies using the Block Lanczos method.

5. Review mode shapes.

**Mode 1**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-57**

**Random Vibrations Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

6. Perform a PSD Spectrum analysis using the acceleration PSD shown.

Hint: Be sure to use G2/Hz as the units of the PSD. 7. Specify excitation in the Y direction (by applying unit displacements in the Y direction at the base nodes). 8. Compute Participation factors. 9. Use PSD mode combination method and SOLVE.

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-58**

**Random Vibrations Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

10. In the general postprocessor look at the relative displacements/ stresses ( Load step 3).

– – – Can you directly use stress contours for, say SZ, to compare to yield stress? What is in load step 1? Are equivalent/principal stresses derived from 1 sigma component stresses valid?

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-59**

**Random Vibrations Workshop**

**… Model Airplane Wing**

–

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

11. In Time History Postprocessor create the response PSD for UY at one of the nodes of the wingtip. Plot on log-log scale.

Hint: When you get into time history postprocessor first issue „Store Data‟ and accept the default. This is required for computing Response PSD.

**NODE 182**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-60**

**Pre-Stressed Disc**

**Pre-stressed Modal Workshop**

**Modal Analysis Workshop … Pre-stressed Disc**

Description:

•

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

Determine the first ten natural frequencies and mode shapes of the perforated aluminum disc shown. The disc is constrained at the central hole both in the radial and out-of-plane directions. A pre-stress exists due to a radial pressure load of -20 lbs/inch at the perimeter. Properties of the disc are as follows: – Young‟s modulus = 1.0 x 107 psi – Density = 2.3 x 10-4 lbf-sec2/in4 – Poisson‟s ratio = 0.27

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-62**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Pre-stressed Disc**

Instructions

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

1. Clear the database and read input from disc.inp to create the model geometry and mesh. 2. Apply displacement constraints: UZ=0 and symmetry b.c. (for radial constraints) at the central hole. Hint: You will need to use two menus:

Solution > Define Loads >Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Lines constraint for the UZ

Solution > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > Symmetry B.C. > On Lines for symmetry b.c.

To pick the lines easily, switch to front view and use Circle picking.

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-63

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Pre-stressed Disc**

3. Apply the radial load as pressure on the lines at the perimeter : -20 pounds/inch on the outer edges of the disc.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

Hint: Stay with the front view, use Circle picking to pick the entire disc, then use Circle unpicking to unpick all except the outer edges.

4. Activate pre-stress effects (using the Analysis Options dialog box), obtain a static solution, and review results. plns,s,1

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-64**

**Modal Analysis Workshop**

**… Pre-stressed Disc**

5. Switch to modal analysis, activate pre-stress effects (again), and extract the first 10 modes of the pre-stressed disc using the Block Lanczos method. 6. Review the mode shapes. 7. If time permits, do a second, stress-free modal analysis (with pre-stress effects off) and compare results. Shown to the right is the first mode shape for each case. Can you guess which one is pre-stressed?

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**FREQ = 73.484**

**FREQ = 1.582**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-65**

**Spiral Bevel Gear**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

Description:

• Determine the first two natural frequencies of nodal diameter 2 for the spiral bevel gear shown. Assume a free-free condition (i.e., no displacement constraints). Material properties of the gear are as follows: – Young‟s modulus = 2.9 x 107 psi – Density = 7.324 x 10-4 lbf-sec2/in4

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**– Poisson‟s ratio = 0.32**

**Courtesy: Sikorsky Aircraft**

March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-68

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

Instructions

1. Clear the database and read input from bevel.inp to create the basic sector and define material properties. 2. Issue the CYCLIC command to automatically detect the low and high edge components using “BEVEL” as the Root name for the components ( Preprocessor > Modeling > Cyclic Sector > Cyclic Model > Auto Defined )

**Workshop Supplement**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-69**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

3. Display the current cyclic status: Preprocessor > Modeling > Cyclic Sector > Cyclic Model > Status

**Workshop Supplement**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-70**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

4. Define a modal analysis with the following options: – Block Lanczos method – Extract two modes in the frequency range 100 to 10,000 – Expand 2 modes

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

5. Solve for nodal diameter range 2 to 2: 1. Solution > Solve > Cyclic Options 2. Solution > Solve > Current LS

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-71**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

6. Expand results to all 53 sectors ( General Postproc > Cyclic Analysis > Cyc Expansion ). Then read in the results of the first mode shape (General Postproc > Read Results > First set ). Plot the nodal solution for UZ displacements.

**/gline,1,-1 plns,u,z**

**NOTE: The /CYCEXPAND command actually creates new elements and nodes for all 53 sectors.**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-72**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

7. Plot the vector sum displacement.

**Workshop Supplement**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**

**plns,u,sum**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-73**

**Modal Cyclic Symmetry Workshop**

**… Spiral Bevel Gear**

8. Execute the ANCYC traveling wave animation:

• Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Cyc Traveling Wave

• • • • No. of frames to create = 25 Time delay = 0.1 Animation Mode = Forward-Reset-Forward Nodal Solution Data – – • [OK] DOF solution USUM

**Workshop Supplement**

**March 14, 2003 Inventory #001810 WS-74**

**DYNAMICS 7.0**