You are on page 1of 114

http://chinese.rutgers.edu/content_ct.

htm

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1. Greetings:
! (N ho!) is a popular greeting. In English, it means Hello,
Hi,How are you? and good day! etc. It may be used in the
morning, in the afternoon or in the evening. The answer to it is also
! (N ho!)
2. Adjectives as verbs:
When adjectives form the predicate, that is, when they say what the subject
is or is not, they function as verbs. That's why an adjective is also known
as a STATIVE VERB in Chinese. There is no additional word for to be'. For
instance:

Subject

predicate

T mng.

He is busy.

Wmen ho.

We are fine.

Note that the Chinese verb, be it a stative or an action verb, has no morphol
ogical
changes whatsoever resulting from person, gender, number, time, etc.. Thus:

W ho.
N ho.
T ho.
Wmen mng.

I am fine.
You are fine.
He is good.
We are busy.

3. Negation:
When you negate a Chinese sentence, you simply place the adverb before the pr
edicative
verb. For example:

Subject adv. predicative verb

T b mng.

He is not busy.

Wmen b ho.

We are not OK.

Note that the tone of (bu), not' is fourth, except when the following word is i
the fourth tone, when it change to the second tone.

4. Stative verbs and the adverbs: :


Adverbs such as come immediately before the verb and can only be separated
from it by another adverb.

T hn ho. Wmen y du hn ho.


He is good. We are all very good, too.
When there is an adjectival predicate in a simple affirmative sentence, the a
dverb is
usually put before it. in this case does not carry the meaning of degree very.
For example:
Tmen hn mng. They are busy.

If is absent, the sentence then implies an contrast:

Tmen hn mng, w gge b mng.


They are busy, but my older brother is not.
Also, adverbs cannot be used as a modifier of a noun, thus an English sentenc
e such as:
All of us are busy. is expressed in Chinese as :
Tmen du mng. They are ALL busy.

Some more examples:

Gge, ddi du ho.

Both older and younger brothers are f

Wmen du b mng.

None of us are busy.

When two or more adverbs occur together, their order is governed by the rule
that the
modifier is applied directly before the expression to be modified. Thus a dis
tinction
should be noted about the position of the adverb between BEFORE and AFTER oth
er
adverbs such as . Before the adverbs and , it is a partial negation; and
after those adverbs, it is a total negation. Compare the following examples:

Tmen b du mng.
Tmen du b mng.

Not all of them are busy.


None of them are busy.

Gge b hn ho.
Gge hn b ho.

The older brother is not very good.


The older brother is bad(very not goo

5. Simple questions and answers:

A simple question is formed by adding the interrogative particle to the end


of a declarative sentence:

N mng ma?
T b ho ma?

Are you busy?


Isn't he nice?

The answer to a simple question can be full or short.

(full)

W mng. I'm busy.


/ (short)
W b mang. I'm not busy. /

Mng. Busy.
B mng. Not busy.

6. Particle and Follow-up questions


Particle supplies the means of cutting a question down to a topic. It shows
that the same question as that asked previously is to be raised about a new t
opic.
It somewhat resembles English And--?, What about--?. Following are some
examples:

N ho ma? Ho, n ne? W y hn ho.


Are you OK? Yes. And you? I'm OK, too.

N gge b mng. N ddi ne?
Your older brother is not busy. What about your younger brother?
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:



*







.....

*************************************










**************************************



1. Direction and location words:


Direction word such as ///// ////// are often used in conjunction
ether they form a location word (place word). For example:
/
n.
(at) the top,
/
n.
beneath
/
n.
(on) the left
/
n.
(to) the right
/
n.
(in) the front
/
n.
(in) the back
/
n.
inside, interior
/
n.
outside, exterior

n.
(by) the side,

n.
(on) the opposite side, across from

n.
in the middle

Note that direction words //////// can take both /, while takes on
only with .
2. When a location word is modified by a noun or a pronoun:
A noun or a pronoun such as ,,, can be used to modify a location word.
()
in front of the table
()
in(side) the library
()
next to her
()
across us
Points to note:
When a noun or a pronoun modifies a location word, the grammatical marker is opt
ional.

For

When a noun modifies a location word, which is a combination of one of the dire
ction words ,,,,, or , but never , ,, + suffix, the suffix can be o
. For example:

=

=

Place names such as ,,, never work with direction words , so it is INCORR
* *
*
etc.
English phrases such as in the dictionary, in his letter, and in the Chinese book
n translated into Chinese, more often than not, they become:
In the dictionary
=

In his letter
=

In Chinese book
=

Why? Because letter, dictionary and book are the medium of words. Instead of
se prefer . It's a way for them to show their respect to and worship of words,
which embody knowledge.
When a noun is modified by a location word:
A location word can be used to modify a noun. For example:

the book on the top

the car in the front

the drawing below

the person inside

the bedroom in the middle

the chairs outside


Note that when a location word modifies a noun, the grammatical marker is not op
tional.
The pattern: Someone/something some location:
The pattern: Someone/something some location is equivalent to the English sentence
pattern something/someone is/are in some location. Note is a verb meaning not a
preposition to be in/on/at/by ect'. For example:
Someone/something ?? some location English
Noun/noun phrase verb location word
The phone is in his room.
Mom is not in the kitchen.
Is the car you bought recently outside?
Is your dorm next to the gyms?
Who are in the classroom?
Where is the students' center?
The pattern In some location

something/someone:

The pattern In some location something/someone is equivalent to the English sente


nce pattern:
In some location is/are someone/something. For example:
In some location Something/someone English
location word verb Noun/noun phrase
To his left is his wife.
 Opposite the door is not a window.
In front of you is who?
What building is across from the post-office?
The expression :

This is an idiomatic expression used for asking for direction. For example:

Excuse me, how can I get to the coffee house?
Wang, do you know how to get to New York?
Sorry, I do know how to get there.
The pattern ...:
The pattern ... means far from in English. For instance:

My home is far from the college.


subj. prep. phrase adj. as verb
subj.
adj. prep. phrase

dorm?

Is the dining hall fa

Here is not far from New Yor

Points to note:
In Chinese pattern the prepositional phrase formed with ...comes before the verb.
In Chinese, usually when a sentence has a prepositional phrase, negation falls b
efore the preposition. For example:

prep. phrase
But this is not the case with ...,Negation should go before the verb in this patte
rn.
The pattern ...()...:
The pattern ... ()... carries a subjunctive mood.
It is equivalent to the English pattern: If somebody had known something earlier,
he would (not) have? .
Let's look at some examples:

If ( I ) had known that you don't like watchi


movies, I would not have invited

you to see

a movie.
If ( I ) had known that you went to New York,
I would have gone with you.

*************************************

"...."
""
"
"
"''? ''"
"''''"
"'one out of a hundred'"
""

""
The complement of degree:
( 1 ) Adjective or an adjective phrase as the complement of degree :
An adjective or an adjective phrase which follows the verb to express the degr
ee of the action
is known as THE COMPLEMENT OF DEGREE. For example:

She sings well.


He came really early
They did not eat much.
Do you go to bed early?
Did her sister play happily (did her sister have fun playing)?
How well does she write?

Note that
1. The verb and adjective or an adjective phrase which function as the compleme
nt
of degree must always be joined by the structural particle .
2. The negation is formed by inserting between structural and the adjective
complement.
3. To form a simple question, a question particle such , can be added to the
end of the statement.
4. An affirmative/negative question is formed in the complement section.
5. To question the complement of degree, the question pronoun is used.
Summary:
Subject verb structural negation
English translation
particle


er brother learn?

Adjective

Question

Adj. phrase Ques. Part.

Particle

She thinks to
I did not spe
Did your Mom
How well does

(2) When the verb has both an object and a complement of degree in a sentence, e
ither the verb
should be repeated or the object should be preposed. For example:
1.the verb is repeated:



She swims very fast.


I drive very slow.
Does she eat a lot of rice (does she eat rice a lot)?
How well does your friend speak Chinese?

Summary:
Subject Verb
f Degree

Object Repeated verb

Structural Particle

The complement o

2.The object is preposed:


He answered this question perfectly.
He sees a lot of movies (she sees movies a lot).
We talked about this matter a lot.

Note that the position of the object can be before or after the subject.
Summary:
Object Subject Object Verb

Structural Particle

Complement of degree

2.The pattern ....?


The pattern ....? can be used to expressed emphasis. This pattern is employed when
one feels something is not in keeping with what is believed, and wants to expres
s his doubt.
For example:
Isn't
Isn't
Don't
Won't

he your older
that book on
you recognize
your Mom come

brother?
the bed yours?
her?
tomorrow?

Note that in the examples, the emphasized parts are highlighted, which could a n
oun, a noun phrase,
a verb or a time word, etc.. No matter what it is, must be place right before th
e emphasized
element, and always appears at the end of the sentence.
3. The pattern V.()(O.):
The pattern V.()(object) means do some more (of) something. For example:

Please drink some more mineral water.


Let's watch some more TV.
Eat some more food, OK?
They want to listen to some more music.

() in this pattern can be substituted by + measure word. For example:

Please write a few more words.


Let's buy a few more pieces of paper.

4. The correlative adverb ()......:


The correlative adverb ()......introduces a complex sentence of supposative relatio
n.
The subordinate clause introduced by puts forward an assumption, while the main
clause
signified by states the results or inference drawn for the assumption. The Engli
sh
equivalent of the correlative adverb ()......is if...then. For example:
If
If
If
If

you
she
you
you

want to go, (then) I will go with you.


likes to eat (it), (then) I'd buy (it).
like her, then tell her.
are home-sick, then give Mom and Dad a call.

Note that:
1.In the subordinate clause, the subject can go before or after .
But the subject in the main clause can only appear BEFORE .
2.If the subjects in both clauses are the same, then one of them can be omitted.
3.Sometimes, the correlative adverb in the subordinate clause can be omitted.

5. + O. as prepositional phrase VS.


We are quite familiar with
ain action.
For example:

+ O. verb complements:

+ O.as preposition phrase, which gives setting for m

Subj.

Prep. phr.

V.

O.

Subj.

Prep. phr.

V.

O.

He reads in the library.


Ding writes a report at home.

From the above examples we can see that information as to where an action takes
place is
provided by the prepositional phrase + O.which appears BEFORE the verb. But we
also
came across the following sentences:

Subj.

V.

Complement

My car parks by the river.

Subj.

V.

Complement

He lives in that small bedroom.

In these two examples, + O. phrase is places AFTER the verb as a complement, wh


ich
signifies where someone or something comes to rest as a result of the action. M
ost of
the verbs in Chinese such as ,, , etc. can only take + O.as a
prepositional phrase, for the actions they expressed are not concerned with a te
rminal
point. There are a small number of verbs, such as ,,,,,, etc., can have
+ O.BEFORE or AFTER the verb without any substantial difference in meaning. But

that's not the case with some verbs.


For example:
He writes by the table.
He writes onto the table.


Where (in what place) did you make the recording of Lesson 16?
Where (on which tape) did you record Lesson 16?
************************************************
()





 



""










""

1.Common auxiliary verbs and their usage:
Verbs which assist the main verb in a sentence to express necessity, possibility
and willingness are known as
AUXILLARY VERBS. The six most commonly used auxiliary verbs, their meanings, the
ir negative verbs and examples
of their usage are listed below:
Aux. verb
Neg. form

Meaning

Examples
1.Express the grasp skill through learning
2. Express possibility

 I can (learn how to) speak Chinese.


how to) swim. ------- Can Teacher Wang come? She is busy. (She

1.Express capability
2.Possibility provided b
y circumstances
He can teach you dance.
eat fish.

1.Express a desire to do something


2.Express an actual need
,
I want to attend graduate school.
o do and visit your Mom. You don't need to call me.

1.Express the ability


2.Express permission

Learning Chinese can understand


allowed here.

Ought to

You ought to visit China. He s


To be willing to
He is willing to go to NY with you.

2. vs.
:
Both conjunctions means or in English. But, is mainly used in an alternative quest
ion
or in a subordinate clause following such verbs as , . For example:

Tomorrow will she or you go to see Dad?


Do you want to drink tea or coffee?
I don't know weather she is Chinese or Japanese.

is used in declarative sentences or in questions except alternative questions. Fo


r example:

In the future will you want to work as an


interpreter or a teacher?

Tomorrow Wang or Zhang will come and pick


you up.

3. The pattern .......:


This is a construction for describing progression in one process that is related
to another process.
It's English equivalent is the more...the more.... For example:

The
The
(He
The

more I learn Chinese, the better I like it.


more he walked, the faster he got.
walked faster and faster)
more characters one knows, the better.

Note that after the appearances of , we can use both adjectives : ; a verb and an a
ective: ,
or both verbs where the second verb stands for a feeling or emotion: .
Summary of the pattern:
Subject

-----------------

Verb/adjective
-------------------

Verb/adjective.
---------------

**************************************



1.The Perfect Aspect and the aspectual particle :
In Chinese, the aspectual particle may occur after the predicate verb to indicate
the completion of an action.
The basic patterns are as follows:
Affirmative:
Subject Predicate verb Aspectual particle

Negative:
Subject Negation

()

Interrogative:
Subeject

OJ?

Object

Predicate verb Object

()

Predicate verb

I ate.
He bought three books.
Teacher Che had have that bo

I haven't eaten yet.


He didn't buy three books.
Teacher Che did not drink that bottle

Aspectual Particle
Object Question format

Did you ea
Did he buy
Did Teache

Notes:
(1). The completion of an action has nothing to do with time. A perfect aspect o
f an action can happen in the future.
For example:

Tomorrow you can watch TV after finish the breakfast.

Teacher, Do you have class when the class is over?


(2). A complete action often takes place in the past, but it does not mean all a
ctions that happen in the past should
be in the perfect aspect. For example:

Last year I often went to my Mom's house.

I read at three yesterday afternoon.


(3). In a sentence with verbal constructions in a series, the perfect aspectual
particle is usually suffixed
to the second verb. For example:

I went to the library to look for the information yo

Today I wrote two letter in French.


(4). When the verb is reduplicated, the aspectual particle is placed before the
reduplicted verb. For example:
:"" She took a look at the book, and said: This is not mine.
2. The adverbs ,,and :

The adverbs ,,and can all be translated into English as again. Although they all i
icate the repetition
of an action or a state, they are used differently in a sentence.
indicate that the action is going to recur. For example:
I called her at three. She was not there. I'll
again at six.

The pastry you made are delicious. May I have s

You did not swim well this time. Do it once mor

indicates that the repeated action had already taken place. For example:
She went to the library this morning,
(She) went again this afternoon. So she is not here right now.

I called her yesterday. She was not in. I called her again today. She was still
not in.

He did not eat yesterday, and again he didn't eat today.

is used in both interrogative and declarative sentence to express a repetition


which is NOT YET realized,
but will be realized in the future. For example:

The movie is not bad. Do you want to see again?
I do.

Will you come again tomorrow? I will.

can also be used in an interrogative or declarative sentence with an auxiliary


verb. It is placed before the
auxiliary verb, and optional can be placed after the auxiliary verb. For example
:
()()
Next year do you want to visit China again? I
want to go again.

Can you go again to the library to help me lo


for some materials?

3. The expression ...,../...and ...,......


The expression ...,.../...indicates an inclusion. Its English equivalent is be
For instance:

Besides French, she also speaks Chinese and English.

What else do you like besides playing with computer?



Every week besides going to the gym to exercise, I also go to the hospital to wo
rk as a volunteer.

Contrary to ...,.../... , the expression ...,......indicates exclusio


English counterpart is except for. For instance:

Except for Wang, we'll all go to the get-together party for the Spring Festival.

Everyday he has class, except for the weekend.
Sometimes, in the expression can be omitted. For example:

Besides writing characters, I also read the text last night.

Except for wine, I did drink neither tea nor coffee at yesterday's party.
4.Time word + vs. time word +:
In a sentence, and can be placed after the time word and before the verb to ind

icate the speaker's point of


view as to whether the event expressed by the verb is later or earlier than expe
cted. For example:
(earlier than expected)
(later than expected)

At the age of five I began to learn Chinese.


Only at the age of five did I began to learn
Chinese.

She can leaves as early as tomorrow.


She can't leave until tomorrow.

Note that time word, sometimes can also be an event which take place first. For
example:
()
()

After eating, I will go right away.


I won't go until I eat.

()
()

As soon as he came, he made phone calls.


He did not call until he came.

Note that, there is always a aspectual particle placed after the first verb, whic
h indicates the first event
completes, before the second event takes place.
Summary:
Subject

Time phrase
1995


Adverb /

Verb phrase

English translation
My Mom came hear as early as 19
My younger brother did not come

I will go to class as soon as I


He did not go with me to look f
to the post office

.
****************************************




1.The time-measure complement:


A word or phrase attached to a verb or adjective predicate to complete the meani
ng is known as a complement. A time-measure complement is a time phrase such as
,which follows the verb to indicate the duration of the action. For example:

I will watch for five hours.

He ate for half an hour.


Her older sister watched TV for a day.
I will listen to the news for twenty minutes.

Note that:
(1). An auxiliary verb such as , can be used to express the intent:
(2). Aspectual particle can be used to express the completed aspect:
(3). When the verb has an object,
a)the verb has to be repeated:

b)you can also treat the object and the complement as a unit of quantified objec
t, and structure
the sentence thus:

(4). To question the duration of the action such questions as


be used. For example:

How
How
How
How
How

long
long
long
many
many

will you listen?


has she been thinking?
did his younger brother work on the homework?
weeks will you be in China?
hours' train will you take?

2. Model Particle :

Model particle is also known as sentence particle . Unlike the aspectual , which
mes
after the verb, model particle is always found at the end of the sentence. The m
odel particle can
be used to express various different shade of meaning. In the previous lessons,
we have encountered
... pattern. In this pattern, model particle works with the adverb to indicate
excessiveness. For example:

This book is too expensive.


Chinese characters are too difficult.

In this lesson, we learn to use model particle to indicate that the event expres
sed in the narrative
sentence has already taken place or accomplished. For example:

Where is Zhang? She has gone to the lab.


You have already bought five CD. You want
more (You still want to buy). No.

Note that:
(1) Both aspectual and model can be present in a sentence.
(2) But when comes after the verb and at the end of the sentence as well, it func
tions both as
an aspectual and model particle. For example:

(3) The model particle can be used to indicate that the action or event referred
to is something

which took place in the past, but past happenings do not always take the model p
article.
Compare the below two sentences:
When I went to see him, he was making the call.
When I went to see him, he had made the call.
(4) The negative form of the sentence with model particle indicating accomplishe
d event is
made by putting the adverb ( ) in front of the verb and at the same time droppin
g the .
For example:

She bought books, (but) did not buy the dictionary.


To form a question, you can add
or at the end of the sentence. For example:

Did you see the movie?

Did he go home?
To form an affirmative-negative question, you can juxtapose the affirmative and
negative form.
For example:

Did you eat or not?

Did she go to the concert or not?


Summary:
Subject Negation

Affirmative
Negative
Question
Affirmative- Negative

Verb

Object

Particle

()

3. Sequential actions:
We came across such a sentence pattern in Lesson 27. In this sentence there wer
actions
taking place: action 1 ; action 2 . Action 1 takes place before action 2 ,so it ha
s an aspectual
particle right after the verb to indicate that the action 2 takes place only afte
r action 1 is
accomplished. Let's see some more examples:

()
Summary:
Subject

He watches TV (then) reads books.


You buy that book (first), (then) go to class.

Verb1 + (object)

()

Verb2+ (object)

Note that this pattern can be used to refer to events that either talk about fut
ure plans or habitual
behaviors. If one wants to talk about the events that happened in the past, one
should add model
particle at the end of the sentence.
For example:
Yesterday she saw a movie (then) went home.
This morning after got out of the class I went to the coffee house.
Summary:

Subject

Verb1 + (object)

()

Verb2+ (object)

*************************************




"


"

1.The Impending Aspect:


In Chinese, when indicating an action is going to happen very soon, one can (1)p
ut any of the adverbs
,,, before the main verb or the predicative adjective; and (2)put the particle
end of the sentence. For example:

subj.

v.

The airplane is about to take off.

subj.

v.

The movie is going to begin soon.


subj.

pred. adj.

The dinner is going to be cold soon.

Note:
(1)To form a question, one can add or to the end of the sentence.
For example:
/
Is your Dad getting up soon?
/
Are you about to return to Taiwan?
The affirmative answer to the question is or .The negative answer will be
()or () .
For example:
/

Is the weather getting hot? Yes.


Are you having an exam? Not yet.

(2) If there is a time phrase such as ,,in the sentence to indicate the specific tim
e when
the action is going to take place, ONLY
... can be used.
For example:

My younger brother is having dinner at 5:30.



He said that his mom is coming tomorrow.

They are arriving at Beijing at 11:00.

2.The Imperative Sentence:

We have come across sentences such as:


Eat!
Have tea, please!
Let's go.

Sentences like those are known as IMPERATIVE SENTENCE. An imperative sentence i


s used to express a
suggestion, advice, or to make a command. To form a negative imperative sentence
, one can put
either
or before the main verb or the predicative adjective.
For example:
/
/
/

Don't eat!
Please don't drink tea.
Let's not go.

Note that to soften the tone of an imperative sentence, one can add the particle
to the end of the sentence.
For example:

On borad (the plane)!



Don't talk! The movie is about to start.

3.The expression :
The expression is often used as a rhetorical question. It translates into English
roughly as
Would it be OK? For example:

You won't eat. Would it be OK?


Study Chinese, and won't do the homework. Would it work?

********************************





1. The Preposition
The preposition means "from" . It is used to form a prepositional
structure indicating distance in space or time. The two commonly used
structures are:
(1) A B (A is far away from B)
(2) A B (A is very close to B)
For example:
(1) A

B (A is far away from B)

1.)
Here is far away from Beijing, (it takes) over about 10 hours
(to travel to Beijing).
2.)
China is far away from here, do their parents worry about them?
3.)
Now is far away from winter, why do you want to buy a leather jacket?
(2) A B

(A is very close to B)

1.)
My home is very close to my university, therefore, I don't live on
campus.
2.)
The Mother's Day is very close to my mom's birthday, I would like to
buy a gift for my mom.
2. The Prepositional Phrase

......

The prepositional phrase ...... means "to be like something or


somebody". Often, people add "" before "", to express
the meaning of "to be JUST like something or somebody". Sometimes,
"" is left out of the sentence as the speaker uses a single
character "" to express the meaning of "to resemble something or
somebody".
1.)
Last Thanksgiving, he and Xiaoding's family celebrated the holiday
together, (he) felt just like he was in his own home.
2.)
Xiaoding is my good friend, just like a younger sister to me.
3.)
She looks very pretty; (she) resembles her mom.
3. The Pronoun
The pronoun means "self, one's own". It can be used to describe
things that belong to someone (one's own). It can also be attached to
all personal pronouns and nouns to express the meaning of "self".
For example:
1.) 
My mom said she can drive me to New York, but I like to drive by myself
(to New York).
2.)
Xiaoding and Xueyou felt, Teacher Wang's home is just like their own
home.
4. The Expression
The expression means "not at all". It is used for complete
negation. For example:
1.)

Because Xiaoding's parents are traveling with them this time to China,
Xueyou's parents do not worry about them at all.
2.)
Shihai likes Chinese History very much, he feels that Chinese History is
not boring at all.

***************************









1. Time Measure Words


Time measure words are used to indicate the point of time when
an action takes place, or the duration of time in which an action happens.
The position of time measure words, however, are different in
different situations.
(1.) When time measure words indicate the point of time, they are
placed before the verb, or before the first verb in sentences where there
are series of verbs. The structure should be:
S + point of time + V + (O)
or S + point of time + V1 + O1 + V2 + O2
For example:
1.)
Xiaoding and Xueyou's plane will take off at 10:50am.
2.)
Her boyfriend will come to her dorm and see her at 9:00pm tonight.
(2.) When time measure words indicate the duration of time, they function
as a complement and are placed after the verb.
--For sentences without objects, the structure should be:
S + V + duration of time
For example:
1.)
From New York to Beijing, the plane will fly for over ten hours.
2.)
From the airport to Beijing University, the car drove for one and
a half hours.
--For sentences with an object, the structure should be (note that
the first repetition of the verb is often optional in this pattern):
S + (V) + O + V + duration of time
For example:
1.)
Xiaoding will study Chinese for two years.
2.)
(huo4zhe3: or)
Xiaoding and Xueyou were on the plane for seventeen hours.
Sometimes, the object can also be preposed in this kind of sentence

and there is no need to repeat the verb. The structure should be:
O + S + V + duration of time
For example:
1.)
Chinese, Xiaoding will study for two years.
2.)
The plane, Xiaoding and Xueyou were on for seventeen hours.
--As can be observed in the above examples, verbs in sentences with time
measure words indicating duration can take different aspects.
The following are structures and examples of the use
of time complements (that is, time measure words that indicate
the duration of time)in combination with the perfective aspect used
to refer to the past, the present, and the future aspects of action.
a. The perfective in reference to the past. The structure should be:
S + (V) + O + V + + duration of time
or O + S + V + + duration of time
For example:
1.)
(huo4zhe3: or)
Today Shihai has studied Chinese for one and a half hours.
2.)
Chinese, Shihai has studied for one and a half hours.
b. The perfective in reference to the present. The structure should be:
S + V + O + V + duration of time
or O + S + V + duration of time
For example:
1.)
Every day Shihai studies Chinese for one and a half hours.
2.)
Chinese, Shihai studies for one and a half hours every day.
C. The perfective in reference to the future. The structure should be:
S + / + V + O + V + duration of time
or O + S + / + V + duration of time
1.)/
Tomorrow Shihai will study Chinese for one and a half hours.
2.)/
Chinese, Shihai will study for one and a half hours tomorrow.
(3.) Using the structure to indicate the point of time or the
duration of time in a sentence. This pattern allows the object
to be placed after the verb and time phrase. The structure should be:
S + V + point of time/duration of time + + O
The "point of time/duration of time + " structure can be seen
as a structure that modifies the object of a sentence.
For example:

1.)
Xiaoding and Xueyou took/will take the 10:50am plane.
2.)
Shihai goes to the 3:30pm Chinese class every day.
3.)
Xiaoding and Xueyou had a seventeen hour flight.
4.)
Shihai studies one and a half hours of Chinese every day.
(4.) Asking questions about the point of time or duration of time.
a. When asking questions about the point of time, the question word is
"" or "" which are place where the time word normally goes
in the sentence. For example:
1.)
When is Xiaoding and Xueyou's plane going to take off?
2.)
At what time did they arrive in Beijing University?
3.)
At what time does Shihai have his Chinese class?
b. When asking questions about the duration of time, the question word is
"" or "" which are place where the time complement normally
goes in the sentence. For example:
1.)
From the airport to Beijing University, for how long did the car drive?
2.)
For how long has Xiaoding studied Chinese?
3.)
How long were Xiaoding and Xueyou on the plane?
2. The Approximate Number Indicators--"" and ""
"" and "" are two approximate number indicators in Chinese that
appear with measure words in counting. However, the positions and the
meaning implications of these two characters are different.
(1.)When is used by itself, it refers to an approximate number that
is less than ten. For example:
1.)

A: How many Chines books do you have?


B: I have five Chinese books.
2.)
Tonight I am going to have dinner with some (less than ten) old friends.
When is combined with number words such as , it can
be placed either before the number words, or after the number words. The
approximate number it refers to, however, is different when it is placed
in different positions.
a. When is placed before the number words, for example:
Phrase
Range of number

10-90

100-900

1,000-9,000

10,000-90,000
b. When is placed after the number words, it is placed after "" or

"". It cannot
Phrase

.
.
.

be placed right after "","","". For example:


Range of number
11-19
21-29
31-39
.
.
.
101-109
111-119
121-129

(2.) When is used to ask questions about numbers, the phrase "" is
used to ask about approximate numbers that are expected to be more than
ten. For example:
1.)

A: How many students does you univeristy have?


B: My university has 30,000 students.
2.)

A: How many Chinese books does the East Asian Library in your university
have?
B: (It) has 50,000 Chinese books.
a. can never be placed right before number words such as
.
b. can be placed after number words such as and it is
always followed by measure words.
Phrase
Range of number
()
11-19
()
21-29
()
31-39
.
.
.
.
.
.
()
101-109
()
111-119
()
121-129
()
201-299
()
3001-3999
()
40001-49999
(3.) The use of the approximate number indicators "" and ""
with the four major time units (TU) """""" and "/".
a. When is combined with the four major time units ""
"""" and "/"
number + TU
+ TU
+ number + TU
number() + + TU

*Note: and are measure words, whereas and are nouns taking
as their measure word.
b. When is combined with the four major time units ""

"""" and "/"


number ""
number + TU

numbers no more than 10


number + TU +
/number + measure + + TU

numbers more than 10


(in units of 10)
number + + TU
/number + + measure + TU

3. The Ordinal Number


" + numeral + measure word" is used to form ordinal expressions.
For example:
1.)
This is my first time to return to China.
2.)
Today Teacher Wang taught Lesson 31.
3.)
Mother's day is the second Sunday of May in every year.
4. The Structure ......
The structure ...... means "from...to...". It is used to indicate
a period of time (from one time to another time), or to indicate a distance
(from one place to another place). For example:
(1.) + time + + time
1.)
From 1994 to 1998, he studied in the Computer Science Department of
Beijing University for four years.
2.)
From 8:00pm to 11:00pm, I read Chinese for three hours.
(2.) + place + +place
1.)
From Shanghai to Beijing, the plane flew for a hour.
2.)
From the dorm to the student activity center, Xiaoding walked for ten
minutes.
5. The Structure ...
The structure "..." functions as a time clause. The usage of
this structure is similar to the time clause headed by "when" in English.
However, as the "when" clause can be placed either at the beginning of a
sentence or at the end of a sentence, the structure "..." can
only be placed at the beginning of a sentence. Usually, is left out
and the structure simply becomes "...". For example:
1.)
When Xueyou and Xiaoding walked into the Customs Hall, they were very
surprised.
2.)
When Xueyou and Xiaoding arrived at the school, it was already over
8:00pm.
**************************












1. The Aspect Particle "" Indicating Past Experience
(1.)The aspect particle "" is used to indicate past experience. It
is placed after the verb. In sentences with two verbal constructions in
a series, "" is usually placed after the second verb. The sentence
patterns for the aspect particle "" should be:
S + V + "" + O
or S + V1 + O1 + V2 + "" + O
For examples:
1.) 
I have had a physical exam recently.
2.)
I have had (the experience of eating) Chinese food.
3.)
Last week I went to (or had the experience of going to) see a friend.
4.) 
Xiaoding went to the Beijing University Hospital to have a physical exam
yesterday.
(2.)The negative and interogative forms of the aspect particle ""
a. The negative form of the aspect particle "" is as follows:
S + () + V + "" + O ()
or S + () +V1 + O1 + V2 + "" + O()
For examples:
1.)()()
Xueyou has not yet been to the Beijing University Hospital to have a
physical exam.
2.)()()
Teacher Wang's wife has not yet been to the U.S. to see Teacher Wang.
b. The interogative forms of the aspect particle "" are as follows:
1.)General questions using the question word at the end of an
affirmative sentence.
S + V + "" + O +
or S + V1 + O1 + V2 + "" + O +
For examples:
1.)
Have you had a physical exam in the U.S. recently?
2.)
Has Xiaoding been to the Beijing University Hospital to see a doctor?

2.)Affirmative-negative questions using negation words at the end of


an affirmative sentence.
S + V + "" + O +
or S + V1 + O1 + V2 + "" + O +
For examples:
1.)
Have you had a physical exam in the U.S. recently?
2.)
Has Xiaoding been to the Beijing University Hospital to see a doctor?
(3.) The differences between the aspect particle indicating past
experience and the aspect particle indicating the completion of an
action
a. The aspect particle always indicates an action that took place in
the past, and is often used to emphasize past experience. The aspect
particle indicates the completion of an action, which can happen either
in the past, or in the future.
For examples:
1.)
The nurse has taken the body tempreture for Xiaoding.
(The nurse does not have to take the tempareture again.)
2.)
The nurse took the body tempareture for Xiaoding.
(Simply stating the fact that the nurse took the tempareture.)
3.)
The nurse told Xiaoding: "After you see the doctor, you can go to the
pharmacy and buy medicine."
b. Diffent negation patterns between the aspect particle and the aspect
particle
For the aspect particle , the pattern should be:
S + () + V + "" + O ()
or S + () +V1 + O1 + V2 + "" + O()
( remains in the negation pattern)
For the aspect particle the pattern should be:
S + () + V + O ()
or S + () +V1 + O1 + V2 + O()
( is left out in the negation pattern)
For examples:
1.)()()
Xiaoding has never had the exerience of taking Chinese medicine.
2.)()()
Xiaoding has not yet taken her Chinese medicine.
3.)()()
Xiaoding and Xueyou have not yet had the experience of going to Teacher
Wang's home to visit his wife and his son.
4.)()()
Xiaoding and Xueyou has not yet been to Teacher Wang's home to visit
his wife and his son.
c. When talking about a past experience, if the speaker would like to
indicate that the event referred to has already taken place and is
relevant to the present situation, the modal particle (not the aspect
particle ) can be added at the end of a sentence that contains
the aspect particle .

For examples:
1.)
Xiaoding has had the experience of seeing a Chinese doctor.
2.)
Xiaoding and Xueyou have had the experience of going to the Beijing
Univeristy to study Chinese.
2. The Action Measure Words """"""
When counting the number of times that an action takes place, an
action measure word is used together with numerals. The unit of
numeral + action measure word is usually placed after the verb and
functions as a complement. While both "" and "" mark the number of
times that an action takes place, "" is different from "" in that it
emphasizes the entire process of an action. As to "", it is an
action measure word that indicates the quickness or short duration of an
action. Sometimes, the action measure word "" also indicates the
casual manner of an action.
The aspects of the verb can be past aspect or future aspect. The patterns
are as follows:
a. The past aspect of verb
S + V + Past Aspect Particle (,) + Numeral + Action Measure Word + O
For examples:
1.)
Last year I had a physical exam once.
2.)
The nurse did a complete medical check-up (including tempreture, blood pressure,
weight, height, etc.) for Xiaoding.
3.)
Teacher Liu met Xueyou for a little while yesterday.
b. The future aspect of verb
S + Future Aspect Particle () + V + Numeral + Action Measure Word + O
1.)
Teacher Wang's wife would like to go to the U.S. one time.
2.)
I would like to read through (from the first page to the last page) this
famous Chinese novel.
3.)
Teacher Liu asked Xueyou to go the his office for a little while.
3. The Structure "......"
The Structure "......" means "not...but/rather". It is used when
the speaker would like to explain that situation B is different from
situation Aand situation B is the one that really happens. The basic
pattern is:
+ Situation A, + Situation B
For examples:
1.)
For seeing a doctor in China, (people) do not call the doctor('s office)
to make an appointment, rather, (people) go to the hospital directly.
2.)
After Xiaoding graduated from college, she did not look for a job, rather,
she went to a graduate school.

3.)
This summer, Dawei did not go home and see his mom and dad, rather, he
went on to take classes in school.
******************************

18



1. The Use of the Modal Particle for New or Changed Situations


The modal particle appears frequently at the end of a sentence to
indicate a new or changed situation. The sentence pattern should be:
subject + predicate +
(1.) When a sentence has an adjectival predicate, the modal particle
is used at the end of the sentence to indicate a changed situation.
For example:
1.) ()
Beijing's weather is getting hot. (It was not hot before.)
2.)
()
It is getting late. (It was still early just now.)
3.)()
The leaves in the Fragrant Hill have all turned red. (They were not
red before.)
4.) ()
His daughter is getting pretty. (She was not that pretty before.)
(2.) When a sentence has a nominal predicate, the modal particle is
used at the end of the sentence to indicate a new situation.
For example:
1.),
Today is already July 1st, (we) should pay the rent.
2.), 
It is already 7:30 now, (we) should eat dinner.
3.),
His daughter has turned 30 this year, (she) should get married.
4.),
This little girl has turned 7 this year, (she) should go to
elementary school.
(3.) When a sentence has a verbal predicate, the modal particle is
used at the end of the sentence to indicate either a new or a changed
situation.
For example:
1.) ()

It has started to snow outside. (It was not snowing just a moment ago.)
2.) ()
We should go (now). (It was early before, and we could sit for a while.)
3.) ()
The rain has stopped now. (It was still raining just a moment ago.)
4.) ()
He has started to like drinking Longjing tea. (He didn't like to drink
Longjing tea before.)
5.) ()
I can speak Chinese (now). (I couldn't speak Chinese before.)
2. Subjectless Sentences
(1.) In Chinese, when describing natural phenomena, especially when
describing the weather, people usually use subjectless sentences. The reason w
hy
people use subjectless sentences, as can be observed in the following
examples , is because when describing natural phenomena, the subject can
not be specified into a particular agent. (Note that English supplies
the subject "it", which is not done in Chinese.)
For examples:
1.)
It will snow tomorrow. You should wear more clothes.
2.)
It started to get windy outside. It was very cold.
3.)
It rained yesterday, and it is sunny today. The weather changes a lot.
4.)
It is very foggy today. Be careful when you drive.
(2.) Another commonly used type of subjectless sentences is one that
indicates existence. This type of sentences begin with or
, corresponding to the "there is/are..." or "there is not/are not..."
pattern in English. However, this type of subjectless sentences is
usually only about people, not about matter or things. The pattern of
this type of subjectless sentences is:
+ Verb / + Noun (about people) + Verb
+ Verb /
+ Noun (about people) + Verb
For example:
1.)
Someone is knocking at the door. Probably it is Xueyou.
2.)
Some student called Teacher Lin on the phone.
3.)
one brought an umbrella. Fortunately, it is not raining hard.
4.)
None of the students has seen this movie.
3. Adjectival Comparisons
To compare the degree of an adjective, the degree adverbs (even),
(more) and (most) are used. To express the meaning of something/
somebody is better than something else/somebody else, the pattern
" + n./pron. + () + adj." is used. To express the meaning that
something/somebody is the best, the pattern " + adj." is used.
(1.) + n./pron. + () + adj.
For example:

1.)
The summer in Beijing is hotter that the summer in New York.
2.)
Red leaves in the fall in Beijing are even redder than flowers
in the spring.
3.)
The summer break of American college students is even longer than
the summer break of Chinese college students.
4.)
The winter in Beijing is colder than the winter in Shanghai.
(2.) + adj.
For example:
1.)
The fall is the best season in Beijing.
2.)
The spring in the south of China is the most beautiful (season).
3.)
Teacher Lin is the youngest teacher in the Chinese Department.
4.)
Shanghai is the most modernized city in China.
4. The Structure ...
The structure ...is used when the speaker would like to
express the meaning of "something/somebody (becoming) more and more...".
The basic pattern is:
something/somebody + + adj.
For example:
1.)
In recent years, the summer in Beijing hass become hotter and hotter.
2.)
Xiaoding's Chinese oral speaking is getting better and better.
3.)
In recent years, more and more Chinese students have come to study in
the U.S.
5. The Structure......
The structure......is a commonly used conditional pattern,
meaning "if...then...". is followed by a conditional clause, and
is followed by a result clause.
For example:
1.)
If it rains in the summer, it (the weather) will become much cooler.
2.)
If you go to Beijing in October, you will see the red leaves in the
Frangrant Hill.
3.)
If you have grammar question, (you can) call me.
6. The Structure ......
The structure ......means "both...and", "as well as". It is
used when the speaker would like to talk about two situations that occur
concurrently or two things/features that are of the same importance.
For example:
1.)
The present Beijing is an ancient city as well as a rapidly developing

and modernized city.


2.)
Teacher Lin is Xiaoding and Xueyou's teacher, as well as their friend.
3.)
Beijing University is a famous university, as well as a beautiful
garden.
4.)
The food in this Chinese restaurant is both good to eat and cheap.
**************************


















1. The Continuous Aspect of an Action--the Use of
The aspect particle is placed after the verb in a sentence to
indicate the continuation of an action. The subject of the sentence
can be a person or a place. The sentence pattern is as follows:
S + V + + O
(1.) The pattern is used to describe the continous aspect of an
action by a person/people or the continous aspect of a state about
a person/people.
For example:
1.)
Renmei is waiting for Xueyou in the dorm.
2.)
Xueyou is looking at the new pictures Renmei took in Beijing.
3.)
Teacher Wang is drinking the Longjing tea (he) brought from China.
(2.) The pattern is also used to describe the continous aspect of an
action or the continous aspect of a state effecting a place.
For example:
1.)
Many pictures are placed on Xiaoding's desk.

2.)
Xiaoding's father's name is written down on the envelope.
3.)
Two American students live in this dorm.
(3.) In sentences with series of verbal structures, the aspect particle
is placed after the first verb to describe the state or manner in
which the second action is carried out.
For example:
1.)
Xiaoding asked Teacher Lin while holding a picture: "Is this picture of
you taken in the Beijing University Library?"
2.)(yo4u e2r yua2n, kindergarten)
Kaikai is wearing blue clothes to go to the kindergarten.
3.)
Shihai is carrying a Chinese grammar book to go to Teacher Wang's place
and ask questions.
(4.) When a verb is followed by the aspect particle to indicate the
continuation of an action of a state, the verb does not take complements.
For example:

Xiaoding and Xueyou are sitting there listening to Teacher Wang talk.
It is incorrect to add a complement to the sentence in the following
way:
*
(5.) The differences between the continuous aspect of an action using the
particle and the progressive aspect of an action using the particle
//.
a. The continuous aspect of an action usually implies that the action is
in progress, and therefore, the particles , , or and the word
are often used with the particle .
For example:
1.)
Xueyou's hand is holding a map of Beijing.
2.)
When Xueyou came to see Teacher Lin, it was raining outside.
b. The continuous aspect of an action emphasizes and describes the static
aspect of an action or a state, and the aspect particle is placed
after the verb (or the first verb in sentences with series of verbal
structures). As to the progressive aspect of an action, it emphasizes
the active aspect of an action, and the aspect particles , , or
are placed before the verb.
For example:
1.)
Xueyou is holding a map of China (right this moment).
2.)
Xueyou has been holding a map of China.
(6.) The negative and interrogative forms of the patterns that indicate
the continuous aspect of an action.
a. The negation form of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect

of an action is to add the negative before the verb (or


the first verb in sentences with series of verbal structures) and
take the particle out of the sentence. The patterns should be:
S (people/place) + + V + O
or S + + V1 + O1 + V2 + O2
For example:
1.)
Teacher Wang didn't drink the Longjing tea (he) brought from Beijing.
2.)
Kaikai didn't wear blue clothes to the kingdergarten.
3.)
It didn't rain outside.
b. The interrogative form of the patterns that indicate the continuous
aspect of an action is to add the question word or the negative
at the end of the affirmative sentences. The patterns should be:
S (about people/people) + V + + O + /?
or S + V1 + + O1 + V2 + O2 + /?
For example:
1.)
Do two American students live in this dorm?
2.)
Did Xueyou go to the library holding a Chinese grammar book?
3.)
Is the picture of her mom and dad placed on Xiaoding's desk?
2. The Use of the Structural Particle
(1.) Bisyllabic or polysyllabic adjective are often used together with
the structural particle , as an adverbial modifier, to modify the verb
in a sentence. Sometimes, the structural particle is omitted.
The pattern should be:
S + Bisyllabic/polysyllabic Adj. + + V + O
For example:
1.)(qi1mo4, end of the semester, final) ()

The final exam is soon. I want to review the lesson carefully.


2.)
Xiaoding said gladly:"That is a good idea."
3.)()
In Beijing University, Xiaoding and Xueyou are both studying Chinese with
great effort.
(2.) The differences between adverbial modifier structure using and
the complement of degree structure using .
a. Structurally, for the adverbial modifier structure using , the
adjective + structure is placed before the verb. For the complement
of degree structure using , the + adjective structure is placed
after the verb.
For example:
1.)
Xueyou is looking at Xiaoding's pictures carefully.
2.)
Xueyou is looking at Xiaoding's pictures carefully.

b. Both the complement of degree structure and the adverbial modifier


structure can be used when describing a present action.
For example:
1.)(da4she1ng, loudly)(la3ngdu2, read) =

She reads Chinese very loudly.


2.) =
Shihai eats his lunch very fast.
c. The complement of degree structure is often used when describing an
action that has already taken place or an action occurs frequently or
habitually.
For example:
1.) ()
Yesterday I reviewed Chinese very carefylly.
2.)
I eat fast; my older sister eats slowly.
d. The adverbial modifier structure can be used when describing an action
that has not yet happened.
For example:
1.) ()
Tomorrow I want to review Chinese carefully.
2.) (
)
I hope that my friends will know China more.
e. Generally, the complement of degree structure emphasizes the
result of an accomplished action, whereas the adverbial modifier
structure emphasizes the manner or attitude in which the subject takes
or is going to take an action.
For example:
1.)
Last semester, he didn't study hard, so he did not do well in the exam.
2.)()
This semester, he should study hard.
3. The Structure ......
The pronoun means "some". It is used as an adjective modifier
in the structure " + N ... + N ...". The pronoun may occur
for once, twice or three times in a sentence, depending on the context.
The noun modified by can be left out if the noun has appeared
earlier in the sentence.
For example:
1.)
In the U.S., some people like to eat American food, some like to eat
Chinese food, some like to eat Japanese food.
2.)()
In the library, some students are reading books, some are using
computers.
3.)
There are many foreign students in Beijing Unversity. Some are
Americans, some are Japanese, some are Europeans.

4. The Structure ......


The structure ...... means "some...(still) some others...".
The use of which is very similar to the structure ....... The
only difference is that by using , the structure ......
emphasizes plurality.
For example:
1.)

Xiaoding brought some pictures from the U.S. Some were pictures that
Xiaoding and Xueyou took with Teacher Wang, some others were pictures
of their school.
2.) 

I went to the bookstore and bought many Chinese books yesterday. Some
were Chinese novels, some others were Chinese grammar books and
dictionaries.
3.)
(guo2jia1ji1gua1n, the government agencies)
Xiaoding knew many Chinese friends. Some were students of Beijing
University, some others were young people working in corporations or
government agencies.
5. The Structure /...()
The structure /... means "the same as...". The negative form
of it, the structure /... means "not the same as...". The
structure /...() is used when the speaker wants to talk about
the same characteristic/situation that applies to two different people/
things. The basic pattern is:
S1 + / + S2 + ()
Note: the first subject of a sentence using the structure /...
can be a noun, a simple noun phrase or a complex noun phrase modified by
an attributive clause. The second subject of the sentence can be of the
similar structure as that of the subject; it can also be simply a noun,
or a simple noun phrase.
For example:
1.)

The English spoken by Americans is different from the one spoken by the
British.
2.)
The way Chinese write letters is different from the one the Americans
do.
3.)
My Chinese book is the same as that of my friend's.
****************************
(
)
()
()


GRE

GRE







 







,





,



 





GRE



1. A Summary of the Aspect Particles () (/)...


.

(1.) The progressive aspect of an action using ().


The progressive aspect is used to indicate an action that is in
progress. When used with approriate time words, the aspect particle
() can indicate the past, the present or the future progressive
aspect of an action.
For example:
1.)
This morning when Guohua called Xueyou, Xueyou was reviewing Chinese.
2.)
Teacher Wang is tutoring Xiaoding on her grammar. I will wait for a
while to ask him questions.
3.)
If you go to Teacher Lin's place at 9:00 tomorrow, he will certainly be
correcting homework.
4.) (la2ogo1ngjie2, Labor Day)

Now American college students are having summer break. They will start
school after Labor Day.
(2.) The continuous aspect of action using .
The continuous aspect is used to indicate the continuation of an action
or the result of an action. When used with approriate time words, the
aspect particle can indicate the past, the present or the future
continuous aspect of an action.
For example:
1.)
Yesterday when I went to Xiaoding's place, she was listening to Chinese
folk songs.
2.)
Xiaoding's dorm is very clean. On the wall there hangs her mom and dad's
picture.
3.)(she4ngda4nla3ore2n, Santa
Claus)
In the morning on Christmas Day, children's bedside will be placed with
gifts that Santa Claus gives them.
4.)
Xiaoding's mom, looking at the pictures Xiaoding sent from Beijing,
smiled happily.
(3.) The impending aspect of action using (/)......
The impending aspect is used to indicate that an action is going to
take place soon. The structure (/)...... is used to express
the impending aspect of action.
For example:
1.)
Xiaoding's mom and dad are coming to Beijing to see her (soon).
2.)
The final is coming up. Shihai is reviewing Chinese very carefully.
3.)
It is going to rain. Let's go to the Summer Palace tomorrow.
4.)
The plane is about to arrive in Beijing. Xiaoding and Xueyou are both very
excited.
(4.) The perfect aspect of action using .
The perfect aspect is used to indicate the realization or completion of
an action. When used with approriate time words, the aspect particle

can indicate the past, the present or the future perfect aspect of
an action.
For example:
1.)
Xiaoding and Xueyou went to the Great Wall with Teacher Lin last Sunday.
2.) (ke3nni2di2, Kennedy)
Tomorrow at this time, my mom's plane will have arrived at JFK
Airport.
3.)
Before coming to China, Renmei had taken many Chinese courses.
4.)
Yesterday we sent a letter and pictures to mom and dad.
(5.) The past experience using .
The aspect particle is used to indicate the past experience of an
action. For sentences using the aspect particle , if the speaker
would like to indicate that the event referred to has already taken
place and is relevant to the present situation, the modal particle
(not the aspect particle )can be added at the end of the sentences.
For example:
1.)
Yesterday Xiaoding and Xueyou had taken the exam.
2.)
Xueyou went to the hospital and had a physical exam last week.
3.)
Xiaoding's dad and mom both have been to China.
4.)
Xiaofang has had the experience of working in a foreign invested company.
2. A Summary of the Structural Particles .
(1.) is usually used together with adjectives/pronouns/nouns as an
attributive modifier.
The pattern is:
ADJ/PRON/N + + N
For example:
1.)
Zhang Guohua and Wang Xiaofang are both students of Beijing University.
2.)
Shanghai is a very modernized city.
3.)
Xueyou and Xiaoding like their speaking class' teacher very much.
(2.) is usually used together with adjective as an aderbial modifier.
The pattern is:
ADJ + + V
For example:
1.)
Xiaoding told Teacher Lin happily, this weekend, she and Xueyou would
go to the Temple of Heaven with their Chinese friends.
2.)
In order to understand the American culture better, Guohua would like to
go to the U.S. to study.
3.)
In class, all students listen to the teacher attentively and take
notes carefully.

(3.) is used together with adjective as complements of degree.


The pattern is:
V + + ADJ
For examples:
1.)
Xiaoding speaks Chinese in a standard accent.
2.)
Xueyou drives very fast.
3.)
Dr. Li sees patients very conscientiously.
3. A Summary of the Adverbials .
The meaning for is "again". However, the usage of the three
adverbials are different.
(1.) is used to indicate the repetition of an action that has already
taken place. When used in a negative sentence, is used to indicate
the repetition of the non-occurence of an action.
Sometimes, can also be used to indicate the repetition of an action
that has not yet taken place. In this kind of situation, however, the
action involved is expected to take place according to people's past
experience or natural law.
For example:
1.)
I called my girlfriend this morning. In the afternoon, I called her
again.
2.)
He got the flu. Yesterday, he didn't come to class. Today, he didn't come
again.
3.) (jia1oyo2u, go on an excursion/outing)
Tomorrow will be a fine day again. Let's go on an excursion or an outing
together.
(2.) is used to indicate the repetition of an action that will take
place in the future. When used in a negative sentence, is used to
indicate the repetition of the non-occurence of an action that will not
take place in the future.
is also used to indicate an action that will take place after a
certain point or period of time.
For example:
1.)
The Great Wall is really magnificent. We would like to go there again.
2.)
Yesterday I already called my mom and dad. I am not calling them today.
3.)

This American student studied Chinese in Beijing Language and Culture
University first, then he went to Beijing University to study Chinese
history.
(3.) is used to emphasize the repetition of an action that will take
place in the future. is often used together with optative words such
as etc. in this case.

also means "besides, in addition to" or "still, (is) yet to".


For example:
1.)
This restaurant is great. I want to come again tomorrow.
2.)
The rain has not yet stopped. Please stay/sit for a while.
3.)
Guohua knows many foreign students, there are Japanese, Koreans, French,
as well as Americans.
4. The Structure ()......
The structure ()...... means "if (somebody would like to do
sth.), he/she should (do sth. first). It is a conditional structure in
which the speaker states the goal after (), and indicates the
condition(s) for realizing the goal after . The basic pattern
is:
Subject + ()+ Goal, + Condition(s)
For example:
1.)
If you want to truely understand the language and culture of a country,
you should go to study and live in that country for a period of time.
2.) (jia1oliu2, to communicate with)
If you want to study Chinese well, you should communicate with Chinese
people more often.
3.)
If you want to keep healthy, you should do more exercises.
*****************************
()


,






  






"
"

>>

****************************



()


* 60








 

 




* 2001

******************************
(
)

 332 103
30



 332
()
332
332
332



(332)
332

103

(332)

(103103
)
( )

103



332103

**************************
(
)

 332 103
30



 332
()
332
332
332



(332)
332

103

(332)

(103103
)
( )

103



332103


*****************************
( ...)

Hello




()





(......)





Hello! Hello!







**********************************
(
)









OK DVD


 




9.86

9.720.14
9.8


******************************
(
......)

(<> ......)


7:00


















*******************************
(
)





( )


( )









()







T


0:2

2:2

**********************************
( ......)

(.......)
















***********************************
(

 )

 













********************************


150



""
 
""



 ""




 


""
**********************************
()












(  )











**********************************

30








GRE<<>> 

( )
<>







GRE

 

,






************************************
( 
)













( )

**********************************
(......)










 

()






 







 

***********************************
(
)







email





""

()
...



( )











...
********************************












Sentence Patterns:
 for example

For example, at first he would always be ignored by the salespeople
when he went shopping in stores.
1. 
Xiaoyu get along well with her classmates. For example, they
often go to restaurants together.
2. 
Beijing is kind of similar with New York. For instance, the
residents of the both cities love to go to theater.
+
after doing something

After some time of observation, David noticed that a lot of


Chinese have a special feeling towards their language.
1. 
After two years of study, David has made a great progress
in his Chinese learning.
2. 
After several month of writing, Mr. Li has finished his novel.
in the same manner, similarly

Similarly, Chinese culture is the most historical and brilliant


culture in the world.
1.
The clerks in the stores are very nice to David. Similarly,
the pedestrians on the street are also friendly to him.
2.
Wang Wen likes to speak out his opinions at home. In the
same manner, he likes to express his comments at school
as well.
+
make something (clear, confusing, etc.)

(They can) clearly distinguish the four tones.


1.
After a week of research, Xiao Li finally solved the
problem.
2. 
He spoke foreign languages over the telephone and made
me confused.

at most

(They) only knew the surface (of Chinese culture) at most.


1. 
Xiao Wang is older than David for at most two years.
2.
Mrs. Li does not like to greet people. She would at
most smile a little when running into a friend.

3. 
The new teacher is quite young. He looks at mot
thirty years old.

as

However, as a foreign student, it is far not enough to
have only learned pinyin and vocabulary.
1.
As a teacher of Chinese, Mr. Ma feels responsible
to help his students to master Chinese language.
2.
As the hosts, we should respect the guests' habit.
although

Although he did not make any grammatical mistake,
the Chinese friend on the other end of the telephone
would still feel uncomfortable.
1.
Even though Xiao Zhang studies very hard, his
grade has not been very good.
2.
Although some American students love to study
Chinese, sometimes they are still not used to
some of Chinese rituals and customs.

very, extremely

His pronunciation of Putonghuan is very accurate.


1.
The handwriting of my Chinese teacher is very
beautiful.
2.
This American friend sings very well.

even

He even used a name and address of Chinese style.


1.
He even sold the watch given by his father in
order to purchase this book.
2.
I know nothing about the author of the book.
I don't even know if he is a man or a woman.

as a result (usually negative)

As a result, even though his Chinese is very good,


his Chinese friends gradually became estranged from
him one by one.
1. 
He liked to argue with others. As a result,
all of his classmates did not
talk to him anymore.
2.
Wang Wei always chatted with his friends during
work. As a result, his manager disliked him more
and more.


gradually

David gradually realized that, during the study of


foreign languages and cultures, his own opinions and
concepts will change as well.
1.
After having lived in China for two years, David
gradually became fond of this country.
2. 
After having taken the course for several months,
Li Xin gradually made a progress in his English
composition.

worth of

The sacrifice is worth of making in order to get a
deep understanding of Chinese culture.
1. 
Mrs. Zhang stopped working after getting married.
To her, it is worth of doing so for her family.
2.

David spent a lot of time studying Chinese. He
even didn't have time to find a girlfriend. Many
of his friends thought it was not worthy, but David
didn't think so.
*****************************************













Sentence Patterns:

to deal with someone, to have business with someone



When a foreigner studying Chinese started deal with Chinese people, he would h
ave an invisible exam
on his language proficiency.

1.
In China, David has to learn how to deal with different people.
2.
I've had business with him more than one. However, I still don't understa
nd him very well.

whether or not

Whether or not foreigners can have a further communication with their Chinese
partners depends, to a
great extent, on their "score".
1.
Whether or not you will be a good student depends on the degree of your e
ffort.
2.
I am not sure as well if teacher Wang could answer this question.

not as

(He) did not earn as much as others said.
1.
David's life in China is not as monotonous as other people imagined.
2. 
The song is not as bad as Xiao Wang and others described.

as if to fear that

He spoke very slowly and pronounced extremely clearly, as if that he feared th
at David would
not understand him.
1.
When Xiaoqiu was performing on the stage, Shiqi looked at her nervously,
as if to fear that she
would have a bad performance.
2.
Anna closely followed David, as if she was afraid that David would run aw
ay.

considered to be

David would be considered to have passed the "exam" by the driver.


1.
I have been in this school for five years. So I can be considered to be a
n old brother.
2. 
Surprisingly, Xiao Wang has finished the paper within a week. I should sa
y I am fully convinced.
+
nothing

There is nothing incorrect to do so.


1.
There is nothing bad to praise others, but you'd better not to do it too
far.
2.
There is nothing inconvenient for the job. I will do it well.
will not

However, a common Chinese person will not say it this way.

1.
If I were her, I would not have bought that expensive a dress.
2. 
Generally speaking, Chinese people would not be that impolite in treating
foreigners.

one of, among



Chinese have always regarded modesty one of the highest respected virtues.
1. 
Professor Wu is among the instructors mostly liked by the students.
2. 
China is among the countries that have the longest history in the world.

repeatedly, again and again

Even though the guests repeatedly praised (the food prepared by the host), the
host would only
reply: "The food is not good enough. Please make it do for your self."
1.
The New Year is coming. Xiao Wang invited David to his again and again.
2. 
Anna repeatedly asked her mother to speak a little slowly.
***************************************







*
Sentence Patterns:

after

After having lived in Beijing for some time, David gradually noticed
that "eating"; is extremely important to Chinese people.
1.
After having come to China, David was so excited that he couldn't sleep.
2.
After having met Xiaoqiu, Shiqi never went to movie theater alone.


for, to

"Eating" is extremely important to Chinese people.


1
In Chinese schools, scores are very important to students.
2
He did not give me any good impression.

to follow

Sometimes in the morning David followed the Beijing grandpa in the next door
to walk birds in the park.
1
David often goes shopping together with his Chinese classmates.
2 

Brother's homework got an "excellent". Dad said: "Good job." Mom said fol
lowing
Dad: "I'll make something delicious for you at the dinner."
to mean

There is a idiom in China: "People make food their Heaven." It means that comm
on people
respect food just as they esteem the sacred Heaven.
1.
"Short" means "not tall".
2.
What the teacher has just said was to ask you to study diligently.

to regard, to consider (someone/something) as

The common people have paid great respect to food, regarding it as sacred Heav
en.
1.
The students respect their teachers as they do to their parents.
2.
I am sorry. I thought you were another person.

one can see that

One can see that having food to eat is the important basis of the maintenance
of social stability.
1.
David has already studied Chinese for ten years. We can see that, among Ame
rican,
there are some people who do like China.
2.
The job is not yet finished by the nine people for a year. It is, obvious
ly, very complicated.
+
to have something

to have something to eat is important basis for the maintenance of social stab
ility.
1.
To have something to read is the biggest desire of many children living i
n the countryside.
2. 

I would be satisfied if I have chances to see movies every week.

both.. and

(Guests) finished the meal with both dishes and soup.


1. 
The friends finished the dinner eating and drinking.
2.
The children stepped in the park, singing and laughing.
********************************






,:?


Sentence Patterns:

have to, can't avoid

When you need to ask a favor from someone, you have to bring some gifts to the
host.
1.
Being with Chinese most of the time, an American can't avoid their influe
nce.
2.
You have to spend some money for a gift.

to use, to take

It has always been unavoidable that (the guests) bring some gifts to the host
to
show their sincerity.
1.
David gave his teacher of Chinese a bucket of fresh flowers to express his

thankfulness.
2.
Wang Wen wrote an article to verify his ideas.

indeed, really

There are indeed a great number of particularities with it.


1.
Beijing has really changed a lot these years.
2.
I haven't seen my sister for many years. This time when I came home, I no
ticed that
she has really grown up.

not necessarily

The package of the gift does not have to be too exquisite.


1.
Don't be too courteous to such an impolite person.
2.
Don't worry about the exam. You have been doing excellent in your study.

to regard

You can't eat it after all.


1.
Wang Wen does not speak English, so he has to take the conversation of the
American
girls as if they were singing.
2.
Sorry, I thought you were teacher Li.

despite
,
Despite the politeness, the gift has to be taken in whatever circumstances.
1.
Despite his scolding, the father still loves his son.
2.
It's OK that we are friends, but we must follow the rules to do the job.

otherwise

Otherwise the gift giver would have lost his/her face.


1.
Just accept the gift, otherwise the guest will be unhappy.
2.
David decided to go to China, otherwise he will not have such an opportun
ity.

generally, usually

Generally the gift will not be opened immediately after it has been given to t
he host.
1.
In U. S., if students have an argument with the teacher, the teacher usua
lly will
not get angry.
2.
I usually get up at 8 am and go to classes at 9.

*********************************




Sentence Patterns:

to make someone to have a headache, to make someone feel troubled

To David, what is the most troublesome with having a meal is to pay the bill.
1.
What present to give to them made Wang Wen feel if he was having a headac
he.
2.
What makes me feel bothered is that my friends always come to visit me at
my busiest time.

even

Consequently the Chinese friend even didn't have the money to buy the subway t
icket on his way home.
1. 
David can't even speak English once he gets nervous.
2.
The mother hasn't seen her daughter for a couple of years and can't even
recognize her own daughter.
+
can't afford

(He) couldn't even afford a subway ticket to his home.


1.
The dress is too expensive. I can't afford it.
2.
Many students can't afford the tuition for college.


only, just, merely

Only then David has understood that his friend just wanted to be polite to him
.
1.
I only wanted to let you know that I did it for your own good.
2.
Wang Wen just liked to show his thankfulness by giving the present.
, , , etc.
Repetition of verb

We will sit here for a little while and leave.


1.
Let's watch TV for a while and then study.
2.
I will have a short walk in the park and go to school.

somewhat, to some extent

To some extent, it will bring some trouble to a foreigner who wants to enter C
hinese society.
1.
To move to New York will make (us) live somewhat closer to Chinese consula
te.
2.
It is somewhat inconvenient to drive in China.
********************************











Sentence Patterns:
+ +
whether something is done

The others can ask you very naturally how old you are and if you are married.
1.
I asked him if he has any child.
2.
Hello, Xiao Wang. How are you doing recently? Are you getting better now.
Did you go to work?

not only.. neither..



Chinese people are concerned about others' age and marital status not only bec
ause they're curious,
neither because they are not polite enough as someone thought.
1.
David came to China to study not only because he loves Chinese culture, ne
ither because he wants
to teach English in China.
2.
I like him not only because he is smart, neither because he has a lot of m
oney.

to do something based on/according to

They would adjust their manner of talking according to the age, identity, soci
al status and other
information of the other part.
1.
The teacher will decide which class the students will go to based on their
scores of the exam.
2.
We can see that he is a serious person based on his handwriting.

sometimes.., sometimes (also)..

Sometimes the Chinese people are lovely for their honesty. However, sometimes
they are
frighteningly practical.
1.
This winter is kind of weird. Sometime its quite warm, sometime it's very
cold.
2. 
Sometimes David speaks Chinese fluently, sometimes he also makes mistakes.
******************************








,,




Sentence Patterns:

more than, not limited to

More than once David was asked by other people.


1.
More than one person tried to persuade David to go back to the U.S.
2.
Although she has been here for only two day, she already went to more than
one theater.

long ago, for a long time

The local residents already ignored them long ago as if didn't see them.
1.
I read this book many times. I memorized its story long time ago.
2. 
Although he has never been to that city before, he knew its history long t
ime ago.

for

It's a good exercise for them.
1. 
For many westerners, Chinese is a difficult language.
2. 
David was awarded a scholarship from Beijing University. For him, it's a v
ery good opportunity.

once in a while, occasionally

Occasionally people would laugh at them.


1.
It snows here once in a while.
2.
Occasionally I ride bicycle to school.

no matter, regardless of

Chinese people, no matter what job they have, are all concerned about importan
t government affairs.
1.
No matter who he is, everybody has chance to study.
2.
Regardless of their quality, the goods are sold at the same price here.


to be welcome by

These topics are not welcome by the others.
1.
Foreign students were welcomed by the Chinese students in the school.
2.
Merchandise of low quality is not welcome.

very little, very few, rarely

Only very few people would be willing to share with him their opinions.
1.
I rarely drink coffee.
2.
When he was sick, very few people went to pay him a visit.
************************************










Sentence Patterns:
Sentence Patterns:

used to refer to the highest degree

It couldn't be more appropriate to use the idiom to describe some daily situat
ions
that David ran into.
1.
There would not be more suitable dress for her like this one.
2. 
For me there is no dictionary better than this one.

have no choice but to, cannot but, have to

Oftentimes David's Chinese-American classmate has to interrupt them.

1.
I have no choice but to do certain things.
2. 
When I was sick, I had to take medicine every day.

especially

Westerners, especially Americans, must have got plenty of money.


1.
Beijing's autumn is especially beautiful.
2.
You need to be especially careful when it snows.

get into certain state, become, feel


T
David usually wears a common T-shirt and the jeans that have turned white afte
r
having been washed a lot of times.
1.
It is snowing. He shivers with cold.
2.
He felt nervous when having the exam.

once

Once the owner of the booth knew that David is an American, they would offer h
im
a price that somewhat higher than usual.
1.
Once you have learned how to speak Chinese, you can talk with Chinese peop
le.
2.
Wang Wen find a job once he graduates from college.

have a lot of
(
(Americans) have a lot of dollars in their pockets.
1.
His father is a university professor, so there are a lot of books in his h
ome.
2.
David's Chinese is very good. He has a lot of Chinese friends.
**************************************





Sentence Patterns:

not many.., and few, rarely.., seldom as well

Not many students ask questions, and one can rarely hear opinions different fr
om that
of the instructors as well.
1.
Students rarely come late to this class, and only few of them do not take
the class seriously.
2.
Americans are rarely seen in the small city. English is seldom heard as we
ll.

even, even though

Even he noticed the instructor's mistake, he would not dare to point it out im
mediately.
1.
He will not find any job even after he graduates.
2. 
David makes mistakes once in a while, even thought he speaks Chinese very
well.

quite a few, good many

He didn't get his salary for quite a few months.


1.
I have many good friends in the school.
2.
I didn't go back to China for quite a few years.

furthermore, in addition

Furthermore, his administrative relation is still associated with the work uni
t.
1. 
Anna didn't want to go back to the U.S. In addition, she still wanted to l
earn more Chinese.
2. 
I don't like this job. Furthermore, there are plenty of other opportunitie
s.

as for, as to; go so far as too

As to the foreigners in China, it all right no matter how much they like to be
in the limelight.
1.
If I studied diligently, my grade would not be this awful.
2.
As for this problem, we can have a meeting to discuss it.

******************************


()

,,

,,



Sentence Patterns:

often, frequently, more often than not

An address often reflects the strict hierarchy and the concepts of superiority
and inferiority.
1.
Today's young people often don't want to work as a teacher.
2.
Oftentimes, taxi drivers like to chat with passengers in their cars.

already

He has left his work position for already 5 to 6 years.


1.
Peter has been studying Chinese literature already for several years.
2.
Wang Wen did not have any trip to any place, although he already has been
studying in
America for 4 years.

be used to

Except for titles, one can address others using their profession.
1.
In school, the students greet Mr. Li using the address "teacher".
2.
When they got married, their friends used fresh flowers to congratulate th
em.

one and all, without exception, totally


We can call them "teacher" without exception.
1.
When studying new texts, he did not read all the words that he didn't know
without exception.
2.
In some big stores, merchandise is without exception more expensive than t
hat in other places.

similar to

The address similar to "teacher" is "master".


1.
Wang Wen has a habit similar to that of David.
2.
Beijing is somehow similar to New York.

very likely, most probably

Then it is very likely that he regarded you as one of his own people.
1.
Most probably he isn't coming.
2. 
He didn't say a word all the time. Most probably he already agreed on it.
***********************************





Sentence Patterns:

make .. as the prerequisite, presuppose

The prosperity and flourishing of a society presupposes that its people be wel
l-fed and well-clothed.
1
The prerequisite of mastering a foreign language is to study hard.

2
Good health presupposes being well-fed.

give first place to, give priority to

An important characteristic of Chinese eating customs is to give priority to h


ot and cooked food.
1.
I mostly work during the day.
2.
American food is made primarily of meat.

make, cause

The superb culinary technique make people exclaim.


1. 
Jane speaks very good Chinese. It makes her classmates envy her a lot.
2.
His beautiful Chinese handwriting makes people acclaim.

be called

This way of eating food is called eat-together system.


1.
In Beijing, foreigners are called "laowai".
2.
In our family, the youngest child is called "laoxiao".

be well known for

Sichuan food is well known for being tingling spicy.


1. 
China is well known for its long history.
2.
Americans are well know for their openness of mind.

be good at, be expert in

Guangdong food is good at seafood.


1.
Mr. Li is good at writing nice articles.
2.
Xiao Ma is an expert in cooking.
*************************************








______________________________________________________________________________
19990819

Sentence Patterns:

indicates past actions

(We) look back at the way that China's clothing industry has gone through for
half of a century.
1.
The exams are coming. Mark has found all the books he read during the sem
ester.
2.
She told us about all the movies she saw last year.

be warmly

In the 50's, blue khaki was the favorite of all


r sexes and ages.
1.
In the 70's, teacher as a profession found
2.
The dresses of this style are the favorite

welcome, be someone's favorite


the people, regardless of thei
great favor in young people.
of girls.

regardless of, no matter

Regardless of their sexes, ages, and professions, people all wore the same kin
d of clothes.
1.
Whether or not they speak Chinese, people all come to this instructor's c
lass, no matter
they are students of this school or not.
2.
Regardless how much money we have and how far we live, we all like to eat
out at that restaurant.

cannot.., can only..

Individuality couldn't be developed. It could only be overthrown.


1.
I can't swim and can only watch others swimming.
2. 
He can't speak and can only write for us.


may.., also may..

(They) can spend nearly ten thousand yuan to buy a leather coat, or they can s
pend several thousand
yuan on a suit.
1.
When you go to a park, you may dress up, or you may dress very casually.
2.  
When we do something wrong, we may say "Sorry", we may also say "Excuse m
e".
**********************************














Sentence Patterns:

and so on, etc.



Traditional Chinese festivals primarily include Spring Festival, Lantern Festi
val,
Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and so on.
1.
Some of the major cities in China are Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhuo, etc.
2.
There are sweet dumplings, dumplings in reed leaves, moon cakes, etc. in
the store.

from.. until.., from.. to ..

The traditional celebrations would last from New Year's Eve to the Lantern Fes
tival
on the 15th of lunar January.
1. 

Xiaoyu had been studying from last night till this morning.
2.
He traveled from the east of China all the way to the west of China.

every time, whenever

On every New Year's Eve, people have family reunion to celebrate.
1. 
Wang Wen gets homesick on Mid-Autumn Festival.
2. 
Whenever the new semester begins, my brother is unhappy.

when

When the New Year comes, fire crackers and fireworks upsurge the happiness and
joy
of the festival.
1. 
I did not know what to say when I first met him.
2.
When David arrived in China, people were celebrating the New Year.

relate to ..

This festival has something to do with the great Chinese writer, Qu Yuan.
1. 
What teacher Wang taught today is relevant to the Chinese history.
2.
This problem is relevant to one of your articles.

therefore ..

The 15th of lunar August is the mid-day of the autumn, therefore it is called
Mid-Autumn Festival.
1.
Xiaqiu did not come to school yesterday because she was sick.
2.
Mark hadn't studied Chinese, therefore he cannot understand anything in C
hina.
**********************************









______________________________________________________________________________


Sentence Patterns:

compared to

Compared to the rigid naming system in Europe, the way that Chinese name their
children seems to
be much more flexible.
1.
Compared with where David lives, my home is much closer to the school.
2.
Compared with the American's eating habits, Chinese prefer to eat vegetab
les.

much more

The way Chinese naming their children is much more flexible.


1.
I am feeling much better after having two days of rest.
2.
Mark is much taller than Anna.

do something in a short while



If (we) collect all Chinese names with typical characteristics.
1.
Xiao Wang, please translate this article.
2.
The rice is cold, let me heat it.

begin with ..

Let's start with children's pet names.
1. 
To talk about Chinese history, we'd begin with the ancient times.
2. 
If you want to know David's experience with basketball, we'd better start
with his childhood.

quite, fairly

Among them, Baobao, Beibei, Xiaoguai, Maomao, and so on, are quite popular.
1.
In China, there are a lot of students studying English at school.
2.

This newspaper is quite popular in our neighborhood.


*************************************
















______________________________________________________________________________
13
Sentence Patterns:
Number +
over, and more

One day, (I) saw two teenager newsboys squatting on their heels and playing to
gether at the bus stop.
1.
There are over twenty students in our class.
2. 
His father is over fifty.

no .. not ..

Everybody could not help laughing upon hearing it.


1. 
David was admitted to one of the famous universities in Beijing. All of h
is friends are very happy
on hearing the good news.
2.
Surprisingly he made such a stupid mistake, nobody cannot be angry.

everybody, all

Everybody like to be with Xiangsheng performers and comedians.


1

Xiaoyu is smart and pretty. Everybody wants to be her friend.


2
Everyone wants to read interesting books.

is (are) done by

It is grown at my home.
1.
My sister presented this gift to her professor.
2.
I introduced David to teacher Li.

can only do

I am not a good singer. I can only fool people.


1. 
He is not good at talking. The only thing he can do is writing.
2. 
I can only speak a little Chinese.
********************************










26


Sentence Patterns:

the same as .., as .. as ..

It is as large as Belgium.
1.
I am of the same age as Wang Wen.

2.
David is as tall as Mark.

consist of, form, constitute

There are oceans of people formed by ten millions of people.


1.
Our class consists of more than twenty foreign students.
2.
A tour group, which is composed of over one hundred people, arrived in Be
ijing.

over the last .. years



Over the last three thousand years, Beijing has been one of the most important
cities in Chinese history.
1
China had not been open to outside world for decades.
2
For more than five hundred years, the common people had not been able to
enter the Forbidden City.

some .. others ..

Some (fires) were accidental, while others were set on purpose.


1 
Some visitors are over their sixties, while some others are less than ten
years old.
2 
Among those who came to the party, some are my old friends, some others I
had never met before.

unfortunately

Unfortunately, most of the Hutongs in Beijing have been changed into high buil
dings.
1.
Anna had a great time in China. Unfortunately, she is leaving soon.
2.
Unfortunately I do not have much time to help with your Chinese.
..
reach

There is a corridor in the garden, which is more than seven hundred meters lon
g.
1.
The Great Wall is more than ten thousand li long, therefore it is called
the Great Wall of
ten thousand li.
2.
The population in China is more than twelve billion.
+
never .., absolutely not

Never forget to visit the Temple of Heaven.


1.
Never let teacher Ma know that I was late today.
2. 
Don't say anything impolite while you are visiting others.

******************************











______________________________________________________________________________
199909
Sentence Patterns:

not at all

This new city is not inferior at all compared to other world class cities.
1.
Mark's Chinese is not worse at all than that of his Chinese classmates.
2.
I earn no less than my neighbors do.

upon ..

Upon the 30's of the 20th century, this city was known as Paris of the East.
1.
Upon the 19th century, America began to purchase lands from other Europea
n countries.
2.
At the beginning of the 80's, the goods on the market gradually became ab
undant in China.

at the speed of ..

New private enterprises are born at the speed of 5 companies per hour.
1. 
He finished reading this novel at the speed of 30 pages per day.
2. 
Chinese economy grows 10 percent every year.

from this point

From this point, the formation of the Great Citizen is proportional to the spa
ce where they live.
1.

Wang Wen's mother is from Zhejiang. From this point, Wang Wen can be rega
rded as a half southerner.
2.
The classes taught by Mr. Li have been always interesting. From this poin
t, I think he is
a good teacher.
**************************








Sentence Patterns:

remind

(This) immediately reminds me of the bicycles on the streets in Beijing and ma


ny other cities in
mainland China.
1.
Zhang Hong, who is from Beijing, reminds David of his Chines friends.
2.
Shanghai reminds people of Paris in France.

not to be bothered

Motorcycles can make use of every bit of space, not bothered by traffic.
1.
I am going to stay at home after my graduation so as not to be bothered
by work.
2. 
Shiqi always takes taxi to work so as to avoid riding a bicycle.

based on, according to

According to the Taiwan Government, the income differences in Taiwan are the s
mallest among some
developed regions in Asia.
1. 
According to the president, this university has a long history.
2.
As far as I know, he hasn't finished his homework.

depend on .., use

(Bookstores) use computers for managing the books in stock.


1.
His father is the only person to support his family.
2.
Xiao Wang found a job based on his capability.
**********************************

1996


199611

200




Sentence Patterns:

not easy at all

It was not easy at all for him to find the restroom, but he still needs to pay
a fee.
1 
David got lost in the village. When he found a pedestrian with a lot of e
ffort, the person
turned out not to speak Mandarin at all.

2
We were extremely hungry. After we had spent so much time and finally fou
nd a restaurant, we
still needed to wait in a long line.

no wonder

No wonder it is called Guangzhou.


1
Professor Smith is very good at Chinese culture. No wonder he is titled "
Expert of China".
2 
He probably has not told anybody about this, otherwise I would have been
aware of it.

but .. more ..

Guangzhou is a city that stresses competition, but it pays more attention to r


egulations.
1.
I like Beijing, but I like Shanghai more.
2.
I want to study Chinese in China, but I wish I can learn more about the p
eople in this country.

to some extent

To some extent, Guangzhou is the most ideal city in my mind.
1. 
To some extent, I missed my student life more.
2. 
To some extent, my father is my teacher.

lie in

The advantage of Guangzhou is that it is both well developed and full of freed
om.
1
It is the traffic congestion that causes the inconvenience in Beijing.
2
The advantage of motorcycles lies in their flexibility.

only .. no ..

Here we only have businessmen, no noblemen.


1
There are only Chinese students in this school, no foreign students.
2
There are textbooks in my book bag. There is no dictionary.

Isn't it
?
Isn't it fair competition?
1.
His friend is willing to help him go abroad. Isn't it a good opportunity
for him?
2.
There are a lot of Chinese stores and restaurants in the U.S.. Isn't it q
uite convenient?
******************************

20




?


23


20


1994



Sentence Patterns:

from .. angle

Indeed, sometimes this female employee of a joint venture would criticize vari
ous
services in her hometown from the perspective of someone who lives in Shenzhe
n.
1.
From the perspective of a foreigner, Shiqi realized that a lot of problem
s had not been
solved in China.
2.
The elder sister always criticizes her younger brothers and sisters from
their
parents' perspective.

without exception

The authors are all female writers from small mid-west cities in America.
1.
All the foreign students in this class are from America.
2. 
When the night comes, the people in the park will be all young lovers.


cannot help

I could not help being alert and scared.


1.
The little girl could not help screaming when she saw a worm in the rice.
2.
Lao Li stopped walking when he suddenly heard someone calling his name.

at least

At least I am sure for now, I have found my dream in Shenzhen.


1.
There are at least 100 thousand people living in this city.
2.
Although I am a poor student, I do have some money. At least I can afford
this jeans.
*********************************

mob
















______________________________________________________________________________
1994
Sentence Patterns:

always, all along

1. 
2. 

this is the reason that

1.
2. 

generally speaking, in the main

1.
2.

naturally

1.
2.

if, supposing, in case



1.
2.

only/merely .. then
mob
1.
2.

may not, not necessarily

1.
2.

in most cases, generally speaking


1.
2.

on the contrary

1.
2.

on the contrary, instead

1.
2.

can't say for sure, can't guarantee

1. 
2.

as a matter of fact

1.
2.

even/if though .. (yet) ..

1. 
2.

how could

1.
2. 
****************************



















______________________________________________________________________________
1996
Sentence Patterns:

it seems that, on the surface

1.
2.

out of the ordinary, different from others

1.
2.

even so, but

1.
2.

anyway, anyhow, in any case

1. 
2. 

for instance

1.
2.

within sight but beyond reach

1. 
2.

only, merely

1.
2.

so that .. can (may) ..

1.
2.

especially, extremely

1.
2.

moreover, besides, in addition

1.
2.

only

1.
2.

take/regard .. as ..

1.
2. 

almost, nearly

1.
2.

probably, most likely

1.
2. 

blindly, stubbornly

1.
2.

unexpectedly, exceeding one's expectation



1. 
2.

on the contrary, instead

1. 
2.

that which

1.
2.
***********************







Jimmy





Hello! Doctor



go downtown

Sure! have a look see!

Sure!Plenty of dough
 waste paper friends
salad dish
old-time

hunch
what'd you call O.K.
 fool O yeah sucker
 headache




Make it snappy! 
headache  State

 Tessie
Anita Juanita Nita
 


How
To Gain A Husband And Keep Him





Nita


Miss Prym
piggy wiggy

______________________________________________________________________________
1995
Sentence Patterns:

as usual

1.
2.

must not

1. 
2.

might as well

1. 
2.


also, too, as well

1.
2.

whether or not

1.
2. 

concrete, substantial

1.
2.

have everything that one should have

1.
2.

not yet

1.
2.

short of ready cash

1.
2.

relinquish, give up

1.
2.

passable

1.
2. 

be really not

1.
2.

not yet

1. 
2.

can't help but do something

1. 
2.

be equal to

1. 
2. 


cannot match

1.
2.

consider as

1.
2.

quite, very, considerably

1.
2.

*******************************















































; 
______________________________________________________________________________
1991
Sentence Patterns:

think/consider/believe erroneously

1.
2.

before .. now ..

1.
2.

in the end, finally

1.
2. 


again and again, repeatedly

1.
2.

henceforth, thereupon

1.
2.

just in case, if by any chance

1.
2.

Do you really mean to say that ..



1. 
2. 

unexpectedly

1.
2.

without explanation

1. 
2. 

almost, nearly

1. 
2.

to seek one's agreement

1. 
2. 

simply, really

1. 
2. 

unfortunately, pitifully

1.
2. 
******************************




















TOFEL GRE ETS 
TOFEL














YES! YES!


TA



   TA









B

Imadeit



mute button 




______________________________________________________________________________

Sentence Patterns:

whenever, every time

1. 
2. 

first .. second .. third ..


1.
2. 

have connections/backing

1. 
2.

vie to be first

1.
2.

feel really bad


1. 
2.

have achieved nothing

1.
2.

fortunately, luckily
TA
1. 
2.

how

1.
2.

be determined by

1.
2.
**********************************
?














()



































______________________________________________________________________________
1997

Sentence Patterns:

use .. as measurement

1.
2.

once in a while, sometimes

1.
2.

be afraid, fear

1.
2.

at least

1.
2.

in comparison

1. 
2. 

absolutely (not)

1.
2.

be inconsistent with

1. 
2.

immediately, at once

1. 
2. 

generally speaking

1. 
2. 

generally speaking

1. 
2. 

so-called

1. 
2.

the problem is ..

1.

2. 

in the final analysis, after all



1. 
2.

only, merely

1.
2.
*******************************
????



---------


machtsichtbar










--------















--------

 










































______________________________________________________________________________
http://www.xys.org
Sentence Patterns:

to involve, to touch upon

1. 
2. 

opinions vary

1. 
2. 

to the end, at last, after all



1.
2. 

through

1. 
2. 

usually

1.
2.

merely

1.
2.

how can it be that ..



1.
2. 

rather than

1.
2. 

therefore

1.
2.

not necessarily

1. 
2.

absolutely, definitely

1. 

2. 

just right

1.
2.

must

1.
2. 
**********************************



















______________________________________________________________________________
http://www.xys.org
Sentence Patterns:

from beginning to end

1.
2.

be (in a certain position)

1.
2.

function as

1.
2.

in the respect of problem ..

1.
2.

put oneself in somebody else's

1.
2.


to put it short

1. 
2.

know very little about ..



1.
2.

do one's best, strive for

1.
2.
*********************************



























______________________________________________________________________________

Sentence Patterns:

from beginning to end

1.
2.

1.
2.

1.
2. 


1.
2. 

1.
2.

...
1.
2.

1.
2.

1.
2.



1.
2.


1.
2.