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Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons ratio Honeycomb

Conventional: Morphing:

Speaker: Mr. Ashley Dale, Ph.D. Research Student Industrial Case Award

Prof. Jonathan Cooper, Professor of Aerostructures and Aeroelasticity Mr. Anthony Mosquera, Applied Computing and Engineering Ltd.

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Introduction

What will be talked about: - What are morphing wings?


Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

- Why should we morph wings? - How I intend to morph the camber of a wing using a honeycomb? - What sort of results have been generated? - What is the intended direction of this research?

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Morphing Aircraft: Definition

Adaptive

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

(Kudva, 2004) (Scherer, 1999)

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Passive
Tailoring composite structure of wing to behave in a particular way when loaded:

Funnel, (2007)

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Morphing Aircraft: Advantages

Expanding aircraft flight envelope to better overall capability and performance: Comparison to nature:

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages Example case (Joshi et al, 2004):

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Morphing Aircraft: Advantages

Replacing conventional control surfaces to improve performance: Typical control surfaces configuration on a large transport aircraft: 1.) Winglet 2.) Low Speed Aileron 3.) High Speed Aileron 4.) Flap track fairing 5.) Krger flaps 6.) Slats 7.) Three slotted inner flaps 8.) Three slotted outer flaps 9.) Spoilers 10.) Spoilers Air-brakes

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Discontinuity

Continuity

a.) Conventional flap deflection Flow Separation

b.) Equivalent morphing flap deflection Flow Separation

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Motivation for Research

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Flights (4% growth rate pa): 2012 100% 2020 137% 2030 203% 2040 300% 2050 444%

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work Airport capacity shortfall in 2030, Eurocontrol (2009) Growth rate of no. flights in Europe between 1960 2007, Challenges of Growth, Eurocontrol (2008)

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Motivation for Research

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages Change of energy related CO2 emissions since 1990, IEA (2008)

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) future objectives for the air transport industry in Europe, against a baseline of the year 2000:
2020: 50% reduction in CO2 80% reduction in NOx 20-25% reduction in CO2 emissions through improvements to airframe design, ACARE (2010) (based on doubling the historic rate of improvement)

2050:

75% reduction in CO2 90% reduction in NOx

A significant share of the 94b R&D budget is devoted to this, ACARE (2010). 1% increase in airfoil efficiency = $100000-$140000 annual return on each large transport aircraft with regards to fuel-save

Bolonkin et al (1999), Gilyard et al (1999), ACARE (2010)

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Concept Exploration: Accordion Honeycomb

Accordion Honeycomb Concept: (developed by Olympio & Gandhi, 2010) Conventional:

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Accordion:

This research uses a modification of the accordion honeycomb to allow for extension and compression.

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Concept Exploration: Accordion Honeycomb

Accordion Honeycomb Section (AutoCAD): Top:

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Side:

Extension/Compression (Nastran):

dx = -7% of x

dx = +7% of x

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Concept Exploration: Morphing Concept


Simple 3D wing geometry with accordion honeycomb substituted for ~10% of original wing skin.

Accordion Principle:

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Concept Setup:

WINGBOX

Stepper Motor:

Mass Comparison: Increase in mass of skin section substituted for honeycomb: ~8-10% Therefore, increase in total mass of wing skin: ~0.8-1.0%

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Concept Exploration: Morphing Concept


extension

Demonstration of Concept:

WINGBOX

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

compression Typical static aerodynamic loads distributed over wing geometry with extension and compression loads applied to accordion honeycomb. Fixed at wing root.

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Increase in camber generated without localised shape changes apparent in chiral-core concept.

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Concept Exploration: Accordion Honeycomb

Normal Modes:

Behaviour of honeycomb coupled to sheet of equivalent out-of-plane flexural stiffness:

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages Mode: 7 Freq: 5.97 Hz Mode: 10 Freq: 29.74 Hz Mode: 13 Freq: 52.03 Hz

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Mode: 8 Freq: 8.59 Hz

Mode: 11 Freq: 33.64 Hz

Mode: 14 Freq: 58.22 Hz

Mode: 9 Freq: 29.20 Hz

Mode: 12 Freq: 45.66Hz

Mode: 15 Freq: 79.08 Hz Colouration (eigenvectors, translational)

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Concept Exploration: Airfoil Comparison

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -20 -10 -0.5 0

Results: 2D Aerodynamics
0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 10 20 0.0 -20 -10 0 10 20

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

-1.0
0.2 0.1 0.0 -20 Cm -10 -0.1 -0.2

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

=+50

Cd

Cl

50
40

10

20 Cl/Cd

30
20 10 0 -20 -10 -10 0 10 20

-0.3
-0.4 -0.5

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale 2.5 2.0

Results: 2D Aerodynamics
0.6 0.5 0.4 Cd 0.3

1.5
Cl 1.0 0.5 0.0 -20 -10 -0.5 -1.0 0.2 0.1 0 10 20 -20 -10

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

0.2
0.1 0.0 50 40 0 10 20 Cl/Cd 30 20 10 0 0 10 20

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work
Cm

=+200

0.0
-20 -10 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 -0.5

-20

-10
-10

10

20

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Results: 3D Wing Geometry

Generic large transport aircraft geometry (B707):

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Comparative visualisation of effective flap/aileron deflections:

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Results: 3D Aerodynamics

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Results: 3D Aerodynamics

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Results: 3D Aerodynamics

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Results: 3D Aerodynamics

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Conclusion

1. Morphing Concept -A camber-morphing wing was generated through the use of a zero Poissons Ratio honeycomb. -The honeycomb was used to substitute some of the wing skin. -The honeycomb was structurally optimised to match the out-of-plane properties of the skin. -Actuator-like loads were used to independently change upper and lower chordwise skin length. -This induced a global camber changes rather than localised camber changes. -Airfoils were generated through an FE model.
Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages 2. 2D Aerodynamic Results -Aerodynamic characteristics of a conventional and morphing B707.54 airfoil were studied between effective flap deflections of -200+300, through a range of angles of attack -200+200, at a range of airspeeds 0M0.8. -Overall the aerodynamic efficiency of the morphing airfoil was superior to the conventional airfoil. -The pitching moment produced by the morphing airfoil was significantly lower than the conventional airfoil in all cases. 3. 3D Aerodynamic Results -A simplified B707 wing geometry was generated for 3D aerodynamic study. -The aerodynamic characteristics of the conventional and morphing wing were studied between effective flap deflections of -200+300 at an =00 and M=0.3. -The 3D aerodynamics revealed the morphing wing reduced the production of vortices, and hence vortical drag, significantly. -At lower flap deflections the aerodynamic efficiency of each wing remained comparable. -At higher flap deflections the morphing wing clearly demonstrated better efficiency. -The pitching moment production was marginally less for the morphing wing.

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Adaptive Camber-Morphing Wing using Zero-Poissons Ratio Honeycomb


- Ashley Dale

Future Work

Adaptive Morphing - Accordion Honeycomb: Immediate Work: -Couple cover-skin (elastomer-matrix-composite) to honeycomb and adapt load-point placement to maintain smooth global camber changes in wing. -Couple aeroelastics to aerodynamics in optimisation loop (ModelCenter) to get a better impression of comparative performance. -Optimise wingbox composite skin for gust-load-alleviation (ModelCenter): ply count, ply orientation, stacking sequence. -Account for weight difference between conventional wing and morphing wing such as to better the estimation of comparative aircraft fuel-burn. -Account for manufacturing constraints of honeycomb to narrow the optimisation window. Experimental Work: -Rapid manufacture of accordion honeycomb section manufactured (selective laser sintering, University of Liverpool) for validation of FEM: out-of-plane stiffness properties, stress-strain curve, fatigue properties. -Generate CAD of simple morphing wing geometry to be rapidly manufactured (selective laser sintering, University of Liverpool), and attach cover-skin and stepper-motors manually, for demonstration and windtunnel testing to validate FEM and aerodynamics.

Introduction Morphing Aircraft - Definition - Advantages

Motivation for Research


Concept Exploration -Accordion Honeycomb -Morphing Concept -Normal Modes -Airfoil Comparison Results -2D Aerodynamics -3D Wing Geometry -3D Aerodynamics Conclusion Future Work

Computational Simulation Work: -Attach morphing airfoils to generic large transport aircraft (e.g. B747) in 6DOF flight-simulator (X-Plane) and compare aerodynamic efficiency to conventional aircraft over given flight regimes. -Carry out RANS CFD analysis (k- / Spalart-Allmaras) on 3D wing through higher airspeeds. -Explore the cruise speed capabilities of the morphing wing relative to the conventional.

Questions?